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Sample records for leghorn chickens gallus

  1. The role of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular response to chronic and acute hypoxia in White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus).

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    Iversen, N K; Wang, T; Baatrup, E; Crossley, D A

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal hypoxia due to placental insufficiency results in deleterious phenotypes and compensatory mechanisms including increased sympathetic tone. Utilizing the embryonic chicken model, we investigated (i) changes in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated tone in response to chronic hypoxic development and (ii) the in vivo role of NO-mediated tone during acute hypoxic exposure, which has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that NO tone on the cardiovascular system would be unaffected by chronic hypoxic incubation in White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos. We measured arterial pressure, heart rate and femoral blood flow (via a Doppler flow probe) in response to acute hypoxia (10% O2 ) and pharmacological manipulations in normoxic- and hypoxic (15% O2 )-incubated embryos. This was performed at 70 and 90% of total incubation time (21 days). At 70% of incubation (day 15), blood volume and chorioallantoic membrane development are maximal; 90% of incubation (day 19) is 1 day prior to lung ventilation. Acute hypoxic exposure decreased femoral flow in both 90% groups, but increased femoral artery resistance in the hypoxic group. NO tone increased during development, but was not affected by hypoxic incubation. Inhibition of NO production by L-NAME (100 mg kg(-1) ) revealed that NO plays a significant role in the flow response to hypoxia. Chronic hypoxic incubation has no effect on cardiovascular NO tone during White Leghorn chicken development. In the intact animal, NO function during acute hypoxic stress is suppressed by hypoxic incubation, indicating that chronic hypoxic stress dampens the NO contribution. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Experimental neosporosis in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) with oocysts and tachyzoites of two recent isolates of Neospora caninum reveals resistance to infection

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    The importance of birds in the biological cycle of Neospora caninum is not clear. Here, we report unsuccessful Neospora infection in Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) using two isolates of N. caninum. In experiment #1 conducted in Brazil, 30 White Leghorn chickens were orally inoculated with viabl...

  3. Gastrointestinal Helminths of Domestic Chickens ( Gallus gallus ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intensified to reduce the infestations rates. Frequent sanitary inspection of abattoirs and butchers is necessary to prevent the contamination of meat with helminths eggs. Keywords: Host metabolism, poor feed utilization, gastrointestinal helminths, Gallus gallus, and domestic chickens. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, Vol.

  4. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  5. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Abebe Hassen (1992) reported that local birds in eastern Ethiopia attain 71.5% of weight of leghorns at 6 months of age. Burley (1957), and Teketel. Fersido (1986) found increased production performance of local chicken with improvement in feeding, but not to economically acceptable level. Feed efficiency of local hens ...

  7. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  8. Fearfulness in red junglefowl and domesticated White Leghorn chickens.

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    Campler, Magnus; Jöngren, Markus; Jensen, Per

    2009-05-01

    It may be hypothesised that reduced fearfulness has been a major target of selection during domestication. We tested 20 domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens and their ancestors, red junglefowl (RJF), in four different fear tests (Open Field, Novel Object, Aerial Predator, and Fear for Humans). The tests were designed to measure reactions to different types of potentially fearful stimuli. The correlations between durations of the same four variables from each of the tests (Stand/sit alert, Locomotion, Fly/jump, and Vocalisation) were analysed with principal components analysis (PCA). In the PCA, 33.5% of the variation in responses was explained by a single factor, interpreted as a general fear factor. Higher scores on this were related to stronger fear reactions. Red junglefowl scored significantly higher than White Leghorns on this factor, and also had a longer latency to feed in the Fear of Humans-test, used as an independent measure of fear in the same tests. The results suggest that selection for low fearfulness has been an important element of domestication.

  9. Acoustic Signals in Domestic Chicken ( Gallus gallus ): A Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local chicken have had a good sense of hearing to these sounds as observed from postural, visual and auditory displays. It was found that baby ... apparatus. The results showed the usefulness of the chicken model in teaching acoustic communication, animal behavior and the importance of imprinting in language learning.

  10. Acoustic Signals in Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus): A Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study chicken were able to express about 30 sounds (Words/ syllables) of which 19 were distinctly identified as : warning , alarm , contact, territorial, laying, nesting, mating, threat, submissive, distress, fear , contentment, food, dust bathing, perching, battle cries, privacy, dominance and time calls. And short sentences ...

  11. ANG II and baroreflex control of heart rate in embryonic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Mueller, Casey A; Burggren, Warren W; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-10-15

    ANG II alters the short-term blood pressure buffering capacity of the baroreflex in many adult animals. In embryonic chickens, high plasma ANG II levels contribute to baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP, kPa) without changing heart rate (ƒH, beats/min). We hypothesized, on the basis of these features, that an ANG II-induced reduction in baroreflex sensitivity is present in embryonic chickens as in adults. We examined baroreflex function in day 19 embryonic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) after chronic depletion of endogenous ANG II via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril (5 mg/kg) from days 5-18 of incubation. The correlation between MAP and ƒH was assessed using increasing doses of sodium nitroprusside, a vasodilator, and phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor. We used two analytical methods to evaluate baroreflex function: a conventional "static" method, in which maximal MAP and ƒH responses were examined, and a "dynamic" method that assessed beat-to-beat changes during the response to pharmacological manipulation. Captopril-treated embryos were hypotensive by 19% with baroreflex slopes ∼40% steeper and normalized gains ∼50% higher than controls, and differences across treatments were similar using either analytical method. Furthermore, reintroduction of ANG II via infusion raised MAP back to control levels and decreased the baroreflex gain in captopril-treated embryos. Therefore, during typical chicken development, ANG II dampens the baroreflex regulatory capacity and chicken embryos can be used as a natural model of elevated ANG II for studying developmental cardiovascular function. This study is the first to demonstrate that reduction of embryonic ANG II alters normal baroreflex function.

  12. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (6.9%), then the wing louse, Lipeurus caponis .... direction of alignment so as to expose them. Ticks were removed with the aid of a forceps. Lice and fleas were collected from hosts by ...

  13. Effect of microgravity on primordial germ cells (PGCs) in silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

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    Zhou, Zhenming; Li, Zandong

    2011-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of germline cells, display a variety of antigens during their migration to target gonads. Here, we used silk chicken offspring ( Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos subjected to space microgravity to investigate the influence of microgravity on PGCs. The ShenZhou-3 unmanned spaceship carried nine fertilized silk chicken eggs, named the flight group, returned to Earth after 7 days space flight. And the control group has the same clan with the flight group. PGCs from flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos were examined during migration by using two antibodies (2C9 and anti-SSEA-1), in combination with the horseradish peroxidase detection system, and using periodic acid-Schiff's solution (PAS) reaction. After incubation for about 30 h, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in the germinal crescent of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 2-2.5 days, SSEA-1 and 2C9 positive cells were detected in embryonic blood vessels of flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. After incubation of eggs for 5.5 days, PGCs in the dorsal mesentery and gonad could also be identified in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos by using SSEA-1 and 2C9 antibodies. Based on location and PAS staining, these cells were identified as PGCs. Meanwhile, at the stage of PGCs migration and then becoming established in the germinal ridges, no difference in SSEA-1 or 2C9 staining was detected between female and male PGCs in flight and control group silk chicken offspring embryos. Although there were differences in the profiles of PGC concentration between male and female embryos during the special circulating stage, changing profile of PGCs concentration was similar in same sex between flight and control group offspring embryos. We concluded that there is little effect on PGCs in offspring embryos of microgravity-treated chicken and that PGC development appears

  14. Dexamethasone-induced hepatic lipogenesis is insulin dependent in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Cai, Yuanli; Song, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2011-05-01

    Hepatic lipogenesis-induced de novo by glucocorticoids (GCs) is associated with the development of obesity and diabetes mellitus. The interaction of GCs and insulin in the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis remains unclear. The effect of exogenous GC administration on hepatic lipogenesis and fat deposition was studied in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), and the role of insulin in the effect of GCs on hepatic lipogenesis was evaluated. Dexamethasone (DEX, 2 mg/kg body mass (BM)) administration for 3-d resulted in BM loss and increased liver and cervical adipose tissue mass compared to control and pair-fed counterparts. DEX treatment significantly (P malic enzyme (1.72-fold). By contrast, the expression of sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) was significantly upregulated by insulin (1.67-fold) regardless of DEX. In abdominal adipose tissue, DEX treatment had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the activities and transcription of FAS. The expressions of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by DEX treatment in either the fasting or fed state. The results indicate that DEX increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis via the increased activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes. Insulin-activated gene expression for SREBP-1 is suggested to be involved in stress-augmented hepatic lipogenesis.

  15. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

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    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  16. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

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    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identifying Genetic Differences Between Dongxiang Blue-Shelled and White Leghorn Chickens Using Sequencing Data

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    Qing-bo Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken is one of the most valuable Chinese indigenous poultry breeds. However, compared to the Italian native White Leghorn, although this Chinese breed possesses numerous favorable characteristics, it also exhibits lower growth performance and fertility. Here, we utilized genotyping sequencing data obtained via genome reduction on a sequencing platform to detect 100,114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and perform further biological analysis and functional annotation. We employed cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity, eigenvector decomposition combined with genome-wide association studies (EigenGWAS, and efficient mixed-model association expedited methods to detect areas of the genome that are potential selected regions (PSR in both chicken breeds, and performed gene ontology (GO enrichment and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses annotating using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The results of this study revealed a total of 2424 outlier loci (p-value <0.01, of which 2144 occur in the White Leghorn breed and 280 occur in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken. These correspond to 327 and 94 PSRs containing 297 and 54 genes, respectively. The most significantly selected genes in Blue-shelled chicken are TMEM141 and CLIC3, while the SLCO1B3 gene, related to eggshell color, was identified via EigenGWAS. We show that the White Leghorn genes JARID2, RBMS3, GPC3, TRIB2, ROBO1, SAMSN1, OSBP2, and IGFALS are involved in immunity, reproduction, and growth, and thus might represent footprints of the selection process. In contrast, we identified six significantly enriched pathways in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken that are related to amino acid and lipid metabolism as well as signal transduction. Our results also reveal the presence of a GO term associated with cell metabolism that occurs mainly in the White Leghorn breed, while the most significant QTL regions mapped to the Chicken QTL Database (GG_4

  18. Increased de novo lipogenesis in liver contributes to the augmented fat deposition in dexamethasone exposed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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    Cai, Yuanli; Song, Zhigang; Zhang, Xinghao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2009-08-01

    Effect of dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid) on lipid metabolism in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated. Male Arbor Acres chickens (1 wk old, n=30) were injected with DEX or saline for 1 wk, and a pair-fed group was included. DEX administration resulted in enhanced lipid deposition in adipose tissues. Plasma insulin increased about 3.3 fold in DEX injected chickens as against the control and hepatic triglyceride was higher as compared with the pair-fed chickens. In DEX injected chickens, the hepatic activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were significantly increased, while the mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), ME, and FAS were significantly up-regulated, compared with the control. Although the mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) genes in adipose tissue were not affected by DEX injection, ME activity and mRNA levels in abdominal fat pad of chickens treated with DEX are higher than those of control chickens. The results indicated that the increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and in turn, the increased circulating lipid flux contributes to the augmented fat deposition in adipose tissues and liver in DEX-challenged chickens. The results suggest that glucocorticoids together with the induced hyperinsulinemia should be responsible for the up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis.

  19. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    suggested that there is no economic justification for keeping local chicken under intensive management ... Poultry meat and eggs provide proteins of high biological value. Poultry production is a relatively simpler means of generating family income and employment ... In both cases, clean water was made available at.

  20. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

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    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  1. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

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    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  2. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens

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    Nishita Toshiho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb, decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb. The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. Conclusion We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p

  3. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III) and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Tomita, Yuichiro; Yorifuji, Daisuke; Orito, Kensuke; Ochiai, Hideharu; Arishima, Kazuyosi

    2011-11-26

    The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks) and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks) were determined by ELISA. The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old) was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb), decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb). The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old) was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL) and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL). The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL) chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p < 0.01).

  4. Identification of a chicken (Gallus gallus) endogenous reference gene (Actb) and its application in meat adulteration.

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    Xiang, Wenjin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qin; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-11-01

    The genes commonly used to determine meat species are mainly mitochondrial, but the copy numbers of such genes are high, meaning they cannot be accurately quantified. In this paper, for the first time, the chromosomal gene Actb was selected as an endogenous reference gene for chicken species. It was assayed in four different chicken varieties and 16 other species using both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification of the Actb gene was found in species other than chicken and no allelic variations were detected in chicken. Southern blot and digital-PCR confirmed the Actb gene was present as a single copy in the chicken genome. The quantitative detection limit was 10pg of DNA, which is equivalent to eight copies. All experiments indicated that the Actb gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for chicken, and provides a convenient and accurate approach for detection of chicken in feed and food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

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    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L X N; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Thirty-three proteins (50 protein spots) involved in nutrient metabolism, immunity and the antioxidant system were shown to be differentially expressed in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium than from birds not fed the probiotic. The biological processes of sulphur amino acids, vitamin and cellular hormone metabolism, sulphur compound biosynthesis and protein tetramerization were enhanced in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium. However, proteins involved in calcium ion flux, cell redox homeostasis and platelet activation related to hepatic immune responses were down-regulated in broilers fed E. faecium. These results indicate that the supplementation of poultry feed with E. faecium may alter the partitioning of nutrients and promote optimal nutrient utilization. This study assists in unraveling the molecular effects of the dietary probiotic, E. faecium, in the liver of broiler chickens. It shows that the probiotic improves the metabolism of nutrients and decreases inflammatory responses. Our findings extend previous knowledge of the mechanism of dietary probiotic action and provide new findings for research and future probiotic development.

  6. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus)

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    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  7. Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002 Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus

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    Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002 parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel’s diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel’s diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.

  8. Genome-wide association study reveals novel variants for growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, R; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Q; Yang, C; Pan, Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the genetic basis of growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and White Leghorn chickens. In this study, we employed a reduced representation sequencing approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing to detect genome-wide SNPs in 252 Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and 252 White Leghorn chickens. The Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken breed has many specific traits and is characterized by blue-shelled eggs, black plumage, black skin, black bone and black organs. The White Leghorn chicken is an egg-type breed with high productivity. As multibreed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can improve precision due to less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, a multibreed GWAS was performed with 156 575 SNPs to identify the associated variants underlying growth and egg traits within the two chicken breeds. The analysis revealed 32 SNPs exhibiting a significant genome-wide association with growth and egg traits. Some of the significant SNPs are located in genes that are known to impact growth and egg traits, but nearly half of the significant SNPs are located in genes with unclear functions in chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first multibreed genome-wide report for the genetics of growth and egg traits in the Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Morphometric traits in arbor-acres broiler chicken ( Gallus gallus )fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty sixth day morphometric and body weight measurements were taken on one hundred and forty eight Arbor Acres broiler chickens reared under the Deep Litter system in the guinea savana Zone of Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the effects of substituting treated and untreated Cocoa Bean Shell (CBS) at 50 and ...

  10. Incubation relative humidity induces renal morphological and physiological remodeling in the embryo of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Greta; Dubansky, Benjamin; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-02-01

    The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption. Low and especially high RH elevated mortality, which was reflected in a 10-20% lower embryo mass on D18. Low RH altered several glomerular characteristics by day 18, including increased numbers of glomeruli per kidney, increased glomerular perfusion, and increased total glomerular volume, all indicating potentially increased functional kidney capacity. Hematological variables and plasma and amniotic fluid osmolalities remained within normal physiological values. However, the allantoic, amniotic and cloacal fluids had a significant increase in osmolality at most developmental points sampled. Embryonic oxygen consumption increased relative to control at both low and high relative humidities on Day 18, reflecting the increased metabolic costs of osmotic stress. Major differences in both renal structure and performance associated with changes in incubation humidity occurred after establishment of the metanephric kidney and persisted into late development, and likely into the postnatal period. These data indicate that the avian embryo deserves to be further investigated as a promising model for fetal programming of osmoregulatory function, and renal remodeling during osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2 in Chickens (Gallus gallus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Cai

    Full Text Available Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2 in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89 and cCART1(49-89, which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98% with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91 with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s, were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes.

  12. Hypoxic level and duration differentially affect embryonic organ system development of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Burggren, W W

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia inhibits avian embryonic development, as well as increases embryonic mortality. However, the key organ systems affected by hypoxia, and their critical windows for development, are poorly understood. Consequently, chicken embryos were continuously exposed to 3 levels of oxygen (21, 15, or 13% O(2)) throughout d 0 to 10, d 11 to 18, or d 0 to 18 of incubation, followed by morphometric and blood physiological measurements. Hypoxia occurring early during incubation (d 0 to 10) had larger effects on embryonic mortality and organ growth than hypoxia occurring at later stages (d 10 to 18). Growth of the heart and chorioallantoic membrane was stimulated by chronic hypoxia, whereas the lung, brain, eye, liver, stomach, beak, and toes showed no disruption. Sustained hypoxia from the beginning of incubation decreased blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell concentration of embryos at d 10, but the values among hypoxic and normoxic groups were not significantly different at d 18. Blood partial pressure of O(2) and partial pressure of CO(2) were dependent upon incubation O(2) level at a given day of development. These results indicated that either modest hypoxia (15% O(2)) throughout development, or hypoxia at any level during the late stages (d 11 to 18), increased the heart and chorioallantoic membrane weight, which partly compensated for the detrimental effects of hypoxia on embryonic development. We conclude that the first half of embryonic development contained the critical windows for the detrimental effects of hypoxia, and the second half contained the critical windows for the compensatory response of hypoxia in key organs.

  13. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  14. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  15. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (DE-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A; Rattner, Barnett A; Hale, Robert C; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2009-05-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 microg/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 microg/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 microg/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 microg total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  16. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  17. Low number of mitochondrial pseudogenes in the chicken (Gallus gallus nuclear genome: implications for molecular inference of population history and phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Allan J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts. Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts, some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragments and thus may have been inadvertently included in population genetic and phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial DNA. Birds have smaller genomes relative to mammals, and the genome-wide frequency and distribution of Numts is still unknown. The release of a preliminary version of the chicken (Gallus gallus genome by the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, St. Louis provided an opportunity to search this first avian genome for the frequency and characteristics of Numts relative to those in human and plants. Results We detected at least 13 Numts in the chicken nuclear genome. Identities between Numts and mitochondrial sequences varied from 58.6 to 88.8%. Fragments ranged from 131 to 1,733 nucleotides, collectively representing only 0.00078% of the nuclear genome. Because fewer Numts were detected in the chicken nuclear genome, they do not represent all regions of the mitochondrial genome and are not widespread in all chromosomes. Nuclear integrations in chicken seem to occur by a DNA intermediate and in regions of low gene density, especially in macrochromosomes. Conclusion The number of Numts in chicken is low compared to those in human and plant genomes, and is within the range found for most sequenced eukaryotic genomes. For chicken, PCR amplifications of fragments of about 1.5 kilobases are highly likely to represent true mitochondrial amplification. Sequencing of these fragments should expose the presence of unusual features typical of pseudogenes, unless the nuclear integration is very recent and has not yet been mutated. Metabolic selection for compact genomes with reduced repetitive DNA and gene-poor regions where Numts occur may explain their low incidence in birds.

  18. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  19. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    OpenAIRE

    Minozzi, Giulietta; Parmentier, Henk K; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Nieuwland, Mike GB; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Minvielle, Francis; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three different general immune criteria; high antibody response to Newcastle disease virus 3 weeks after vaccination (ND3), high cell-mediated immune response, using the wing web response to phytohemglu...

  20. Fungi predatory activity on embryonated Toxocara canis eggs inoculated in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and destruction of second stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiura, Emy; Del Carmen Garcia Lopes, Aline; da Paz, Jeanne Saraiva; Gava, Maylla Garschagen; Flecher, Mayra Cunha; Colares, Manuela; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; da Fonseca, Leandro Abreu; Lacerda, Tracy; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs after interacting with isolated nematophagous fungi of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4), and test the predatory activity of the isolated AC001 on T. canis second stage larvae after 7 days of interaction. In assay A, 5000 embryonated T. canis eggs previously in contact with the AC001 and VC4 isolated for 10 days were inoculated into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), and then these animals were necropsied to collect material (digested liver, intestine, muscles and lungs) at 3-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals after inoculation. In assay A, the results demonstrated that the prior interaction of the eggs with isolated AC001 and VC4 decreases the amount of larvae found in the collected organs. Difference (p canis eggs with the tested fungal isolates were efficient in reducing the development and migration of this parasite, in addition to the first report of proven predatory activity on L2.

  1. Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Produces More-Severe Disease and Lesions in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) Leghorns Than in SPF Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Rissi, Daniel R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performance. Previous vvIBDV studies using conventional broilers reported resistance to lethal effects and decreased performance as compared to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layers, but the potential contribution of the conventional vs. SPF status to resistance has not been examined. In this study we compared differences in the acute pathologic effects of infection by the California rA strain of vvIBDV for SPF white leghorn egg-laying chickens and SPF white Plymouth Rock broiler chickens over a 7-day experimental period. Based on the clinical signs and mortality observed, as well as on the more-severe pathologic changes in lymphoid tissues and kidneys, white leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of vvIBDV infection than were white Plymouth Rocks. This study provides important information on the impact of chicken breed on susceptibility to vvIBDV and the absence of impact from conventional vs. SPF status on the outcome.

  2. Enteropathogenicity of Dutch and German avian reoviruses in SPF white leghorn chickens and broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Songserm, T.; Roozelaar, van D.; Kant-Eenbergen, H.C.M.; Pol, J.; Pijpers, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The enteropathogenicity of avian reoviruses (ARVs), isolated from chickens affected with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) from The Netherlands and Germany was studied. In the first trial seven different ARVs isolated from MAS cases were inoculated in 1-day-old specific pathogenic free (SPF) white

  3. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, Joyce E.; Gaworecki, K.M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P.G.; Scott, T.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J.S.; McGuinn, W.D.; DeWitt, J.C.; Keil, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of

  4. Ectoparasites of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) and local domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) in southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaeme, A N

    1988-01-01

    The ectoparasites of poultry in a southern guinea savanna zone were investigated by the examination of guinea fowl and local domestic chickens in the range and guinea fowl under intensive management. The prevalent ectoparasites of range guinea fowl and local chickens include seven species of lice Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Numidilipeurus tropicalis, Damalinia bovis; three mites Bdellonyssus bursa, Megninia cubitalis, Dermanyssus gallinae; two fleas Echidnophaga gallinacea, Ctenocephalides felis and two ticks Argas persicus and Ambylomma variegatum. Under intensive management, infestation by G. gigas, L. caponis and M. gallinae led to clinical signs, feather damage, reduced food intake and death.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizotto, La?s S.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Cardoso, Tereza C.; Sim?o, Raphael M.; Caserta, Leonardo C.; Benassi, Julia C.; Keid, Lara B.; Oliveira, Tr?cia M. F. de S.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Arns, Clarice W.; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A.

  6. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  7. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Hester, P Y; Hou, J-F

    2013-08-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of the need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine the effects of perches on bone remodeling in caged hens. Anti-chicken OC polyclonal antibody was produced by immunization of rabbits with a recombinant OC from Escherichia coli. Chicken OC extracted from bone was used as a coated protein, and purified chicken OC was used for calibration. The limit of detection of the developed OC ELISA was 0.13 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay CV were hens housed in conventional cages with or without perches. Serum samples were collected from 71-wk-old White Leghorn hens subjected to 4 treatments. Treatment 1 was control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches only during the egg-laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Correlation between the 2 assays was 0.62 (P hens with perch access had higher concentrations of serum OC than hens without perches during egg laying (P = 0.04). Pullet access to perches did not affect serum OC levels in 71-wk-old hens (P = 0.15). In conclusion, a chicken OC ELISA has been validated that is sensitive and accurate with adequate discriminatory power for measuring bone remodeling in chickens.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizotto, Laís S; Scagion, Guilherme P; Cardoso, Tereza C; Simão, Raphael M; Caserta, Leonardo C; Benassi, Julia C; Keid, Lara B; Oliveira, Trícia M F de S; Soares, Rodrigo M; Arns, Clarice W; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L

    2017-07-20

    We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A. Copyright © 2017 Rizotto et al.

  9. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

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    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, através da macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia, fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate. Cem fígados de frango foram coletados na linha de inspeção. Noventa deles tinham sido condenados por apresentarem alterações macroscópicas. Dez fígados não apresentavam alterações macroscópicas. As coletas foram feitas em dois abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. No laboratório, fez-se detalhada descrição das alterações macroscópicas dos fígados condenados e exames histopatológicos e bacteriológicos complementares. Para a descrição macroscópica, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: forma, coloração, tamanho, consistência, odor e presença de lesões visíveis. Foram observados fígados com alterações na cor, forma, tamanho e/ou consistência em 47/90 amostras; fígados marrom-pálidos e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas perfizeram 19/90 amostras; 5/90 fígados estavam amarelos ou amarelados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas; 19/90 fígados estavam verdes ou esverdeados e com outras alterações macroscópicas associadas. Os principais diagnósticos histopatológicos foram de colângio-hepatite heterofílica multifocal, degeneração e/ou necrose hepatocelular centrolobular e em ponte, hepatite necrosante aleatória, pericolangite heterofílica multifocal e peri-hepatite fibrinosa subaguda difusa acentuada. A bacteriologia foi direcionada para pesquisa de Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. e Staphylococcus sp. Utilizando-se cultivo direto das amostras de fígado em meios de cultura seletivos, isolou-se E. coli em 26/100 amostras e Staphylococcus sp. em 24/100 amostras. Para pesquisa de salmonelas, utilizou-se a metodologia convencional preconizada para esta bactéria, entretanto não houve isolamento de nenhuma espécie deste gênero. Através das avaliações realizadas pode-se confirmar o predomínio de lesões sugestivas de

  11. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

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    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  12. Pharmacokinetics and egg residues after oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

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    Souza, Marcy J; Bergman, Joan B; White, Molly S; Gordon, Kristen I; Gerhardt, Lillian E; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in domestic hens and duration and quantity of drug residues in their eggs following PO administration of a single dose (1 mg of meloxicam/kg). ANIMALS 8 healthy adult White Leghorn hens. PROCEDURES Hens were administered 1 mg of meloxicam/kg PO once. A blood sample was collected immediately before and at intervals up to 48 hours after drug administration. The hens' eggs were collected for 3 weeks after drug administration. Samples of the hens' plasma, egg whites (albumen), and egg yolks were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS The half-life, maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration of meloxicam in plasma samples were 2.8 hours, 7.21 μg/mL, and 2 hours, respectively. Following meloxicam administration, the drug was not detected after 4 days in egg whites and after 8 days in egg yolks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that meloxicam administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg PO in chickens appears to maintain plasma concentrations equivalent to those reported to be therapeutic for humans for 12 hours. The egg residue data may be used to aid establishment of appropriate drug withdrawal time recommendations.

  13. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the Americas

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    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N.caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the presen...

  14. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  15. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

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    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  16. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

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    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  17. Bone-remodeling transcript levels are independent of perching in end-of-lay white leghorn chickens.

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    Dale, Maurice D; Mortimer, Erin M; Kolli, Santharam; Achramowicz, Erik; Borchert, Glenn; Juliano, Steven A; Halkyard, Scott; Sietz, Nick; Gatto, Craig; Hester, Patricia Y; Rubin, David A

    2015-01-23

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks) with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1), RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), OPG (osteoprotegerin), PTHLH (PTH-like hormone), PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor), PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor), and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box)) in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange). Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model.

  18. Bone-Remodeling Transcript Levels Are Independent of Perching in End-of-Lay White Leghorn Chickens

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    Maurice D. Dale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a bone disease that commonly results in a 30% incidence of fracture in hens used to produce eggs for human consumption. One of the causes of osteoporosis is the lack of mechanical strain placed on weight-bearing bones. In conventionally-caged hens, there is inadequate space for chickens to exercise and induce mechanical strain on their bones. One approach is to encourage mechanical stress on bones by the addition of perches to conventional cages. Our study focuses on the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling in end-of-lay hens (71 weeks with access to perches. We examined bone-specific transcripts that are actively involved during development and remodeling. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined seven transcripts (COL2A1 (collagen, type II, alpha 1, RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, OPG (osteoprotegerin, PTHLH (PTH-like hormone, PTH1R (PTH/PTHLH type-1 receptor, PTH3R (PTH/PTHLH type-3 receptor, and SOX9 (Sry-related high mobility group box in phalange, tibia and femur. Our results indicate that the only significant effect was a difference among bones for COL2A1 (femur > phalange. Therefore, we conclude that access to a perch did not alter transcript expression. Furthermore, because hens have been used as a model for human bone metabolism and osteoporosis, the results indicate that bone remodeling due to mechanical loading in chickens may be a product of different pathways than those involved in the mammalian model.

  19. Aluminum and acid effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in young growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

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    Capdevielle, M C; Hart, L E; Goff, J; Scanes, C G

    1998-07-01

    Acidification is associated with increased mortality, reduced growth, and bone abnormalities in birds. Associated with acid deposition is an increase in aluminum availability due to solubilization from soil and other sources. (Conversely, experimental diets containing aluminum sulfate have much reduced pHs.) The present studies compare the effects of two levels of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) (0.122 and 0.56 mol H+ per kg feed; 0.056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) and dietary aluminum (aluminum sulfate at 0.1 and 0.5%; sulfate at 0. 056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) on bone growth, mineralization, and phosphorous/calcium homeostasis in growing birds (chickens and mallard ducks). Growth was reduced by the high acid (chicken) and aluminum (ducks and chickens) diets. A reduction in bone mineralization was observed in birds receiving aluminum-containing diets [low aluminum diet: decreased tibia ash, calcium, and phosphorus (chickens); high aluminum diet: decreased tibia dry weight, % of ash and mg; ash, calcium (chickens, ducks as % of ash), and phosphorus (chickens mg/duck, % of ash)]. Moreover, plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate were reduced in chicks on the high aluminum diet. There were also marked decreases in bone growth and mineralization [tibia weight, ash (mg), calcium (mg), phosphorus (mg)] and plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in chicks on the high acid diet compared to those on a control diet. These changes were probably due to reduced feed intake; changes in bone indices being of a greater or similar magnitude in pairfed control. There was little change in bone indices, growth rate or feed consumption in ducklings receiving either the low or high acid diets. It is concluded that aluminum directly adversely affected bone mineralization whereas acid effects are mediated in part by changes in feed consumption.

  20. Integrated maps in quail (Coturnix japonica confirm the high degree of synteny conservation with chicken (Gallus gallus despite 35 million years of divergence

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    Vignoles Matthieu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By comparing the quail genome with that of chicken, chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in these two galliform species over 35 million years of evolution can be detected. From a more practical point of view, the definition of conserved syntenies helps to predict the position of genes in quail, based on information taken from the chicken sequence, thus enhancing the utility of this species in biological studies through a better knowledge of its genome structure. A microsatellite and an Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP genetic map were previously published for quail, as well as comparative cytogenetic data with chicken for macrochromosomes. Quail genomics will benefit from the extension and the integration of these maps. Results The integrated linkage map presented here is based on segregation analysis of both anonymous markers and functional gene loci in 1,050 quail from three independent F2 populations. Ninety-two loci are resolved into 14 autosomal linkage groups and a Z chromosome-specific linkage group, aligned with the quail AFLP map. The size of linkage groups ranges from 7.8 cM to 274.8 cM. The total map distance covers 904.3 cM with an average spacing of 9.7 cM between loci. The coverage is not complete, as macrochromosome CJA08, the gonosome CJAW and 23 microchromosomes have no marker assigned yet. Significant sequence identities of quail markers with chicken enabled the alignment of the quail linkage groups on the chicken genome sequence assembly. This, together with interspecific Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH, revealed very high similarities in marker order between the two species for the eight macrochromosomes and the 14 microchromosomes studied. Conclusion Integrating the two microsatellite and the AFLP quail genetic maps greatly enhances the quality of the resulting information and will thus facilitate the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL. The alignment with the

  1. Determination of Metabolizable Eenergy, Protein Quality and Chemical Composition of Blood Meal for Broiler Chickens and Adult Leghorn Rosters

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    M Ghafoorian Rad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to study metabolizable energy, protein quality and chemical composition of four blood meal (BM samples from local animal rendering plant during 20 days sampling. All experiments were designed in a completely randomized design. The result of first experiment showed that chemical composition averages of BM samples were: DM, 88.43; CP, 77.03; EE, 1.12; Ash, 5.01; Ca, 0.46; P, 0.37 percent. CP and DM percentage of BM samples were significantly different from NRC, 1994. Mean gross energy of the samples was 4193 Kcal/kg. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and Net protein ratio (NPR were assessed using an experiment including 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 7 Ross male broiler chickens in each replicate. PER and NPR varied between 1.21 to 1.38, and 2.18 to 2.41 among BM samples, respectively. PER and NPR values were significantly lower than that of corresponding values in fish meal. In second experiment, the BM samples were substituted at 5 and 10 percent of corn-based diet and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn was evaluated in adult roosters with total excreta collection assay. AMEn values did not show significant difference among BM samples at tow substitution levels, 5 and 10 % of corn based diet. AMEn values varied from 2504 to 2573 kcal/kg. In third experiment, nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn was determined by Sibbald’s precision-fed assay. This experiment included 5 treatments and 6 replicates in each replicate. Means of TMEn was 2895 kcal/kg in the BM samples that there was not significant difference among BM samples.

  2. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

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    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  3. Genomic organization and molecular phylogenies of the beta (β keratin multigene family in the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata: implications for feather evolution

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    Sawyer Roger H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (β keratins. The molecular phylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes of the chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their β-keratins, but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. Results The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' order on microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. Molecular phylogenies show that the monophyletic scale genes are the basal group within birds and that the monophyletic avian claw genes form the basal group to all feather and feather-like genes. Both species have a number of feather clades on microchromosome 27 that form monophyletic groups. An additional monophyletic cluster of feather genes exist on macrochromosome 2 for each species. Expression sequence tag analysis for the chicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions Similarity in the overall genomic organization of β-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggests similar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as the paravian Anchiornis huxleyi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendages in the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral β-keratin gene cluster. As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the β-keratin multigene family expanded, novel β-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers.

  4. Reproductive characteristics differed in a series of B-congenic lines of white leghorns evidently indicating significant influence of major histocompatibility complex in chickens

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    Reproductive characteristics were compared between a series of seven B-congenic lines of White Leghorns retrospectively using eight year’s reproduction records.The records encompass a total of 33,010 fertile eggs set to hatch under controlled conditions, which were collected accumulatively from 2,1...

  5. Effect of gama irradiation (Co60 in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken (Gallus gallus heart

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    Marta Maria Braga Batista Soares Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the irradiation process in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken heart samples acquired in an industry located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using irradiation doses of 1.5 kGy, 3, 0 kGy and 4.5 kGy. These microorganisms are related to fecal contamination, and are indicators of the sanitary processing conditions of the foodstuffs. The bacteriological analyses were conducted applying the methodologies and standards recommended by Brazilian norms resolution no. 12 (BRASIL, 2001 and instruction no. 62 (BRASIL, 2003 Regarding Escherichia coli, no statistically significant difference among the four groups (control, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy was observed (p> 0.05. The Most Probable Number (MPN for Enterococci spp. was not proven in the investigated samples. Thus, the Co60 gamma irradiation process was effective in eliminating Escherichia coli, and the lowest dose, of 1.5 kGy, was enough to abolish this enteropathogen from the evaluated samples.

  6. Protection of White Leghorn chickens by U.S. emergency H5 vaccination against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

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    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Lee, Dong-Hun; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    During December 2014-June 2015, the U.S. experienced a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak caused by clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses with devastating consequences for the poultry industry. Three vaccines, developed based on updating existing registered vaccines or currently licensed technologies, were evaluated for possible use: an inactivated reverse genetics H5N1 vaccine (rgH5N1) and an RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), both containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.4.4 strain, and a recombinant herpesvirus turkey vectored vaccine (rHVT-H5) containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.2 strain. The efficacy of the three vaccines, alone or in combination, was assessed in White Leghorn chickens against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 HPAI virus challenge. In Study 1, single (rHVT-H5) and prime-boost (rHVT-H5+rgH5N1 or rHVT-H5+RP-H5) vaccination strategies protected chickens with high levels of protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 2, single vaccination with either rgH5N1 or RP-H5 vaccines provided clinical protection in adult chickens and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 3, double rgH5N1 vaccination protected adult chickens from clinical signs and mortality when challenged 20weeks post-boost, with high levels of long-lasting protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. These studies support the use of genetically related vaccines, possibly in combination with a broad protective priming vaccine, for emergency vaccination programs against clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx HPAI virus in young and adult layer chickens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Using electroretinograms to assess flicker fusion frequency in domestic hens Gallus gallus domesticus.

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    Lisney, Thomas J; Ekesten, Björn; Tauson, Ragnar; Håstad, Olle; Odeen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    The assessment of flicker fusion frequency (FFF), the stimulus frequency at which a flickering light stimulus can no longer be resolved and appears continuous, and critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF; the highest frequency at any light intensity that an observer can resolve flicker) are useful methods for comparing temporal resolution capabilities between animals. Behavioural experiments have found that average CFFs in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are in the range of ca. 75-87 Hz, measured in response to full spectrum (i.e. white light plus UV) stimuli. In order to examine whether the chicken retina is able to detect flicker at higher frequencies, we used electroretinograms (ERGs) to assess FFF/CFF in adult hens from two commercial genotypes, Lohmann Selected Leghorns (LSLs) and Lohmann Browns (LBs). ERGs were recorded in response to flickering light at ten full spectrum light intensities ranging from 0.7 to 2740 cd m(-2). Two methods were used to determine FFF/CFF from the ERG recordings and these methods yielded very similar results, with average FFF ranging from ca. 20Hz at 0.7 cd m(-2) to an average CFF of ca. 105 Hz at 2740 cd m(-2). In some individuals, CFFs of 118-119 Hz were recorded. The Intensity/FFF (I/FFF) curves are double-branched with a break point representing the rod-cone transition occurring between 2.5 and 5.9 cd m(-2). No significant differences in the I/FFF curves were found between the two genotypes. At stimulus light intensities >250 cd m(-2), the ERG-derived FFF and CFF values are all higher than those from behavioural studies using the same stimuli. Although hens do not appear to be able to consciously perceive flicker above approximately 90 Hz, the finding that the ERG responses are able to remain in phase with light flickering at frequencies >100 Hz means that the retinae of domestic poultry housed in artificial light conditions may be able to resolve flicker from fluorescent lamps. As range of detrimental effects have

  8. Arsenic affects inflammatory cytokine expression in Gallus gallus brain tissues.

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    Sun, Xiao; He, Ying; Guo, Ying; Li, Siwen; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jingyu; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-06-05

    The heavy metal arsenic is widely distributed in nature and posses a serious threat to organism's health. However, little is known about the arsenic-induced inflammatory response in the brain tissues of birds and the relationship and mechanism of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of dietary arsenic on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the brains of Gallus gallus. Seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were divided into a control group, a low arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 )-treated (7.5 mg/kg) group, a middle As 2 O 3 -treated (15 mg/kg) group, and a high As 2 O 3 -treated (30 mg/kg) group. Arsenic exposure caused obvious ultrastructural changes. The mRNA levels of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), in chicken brain tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon) on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively, were measured by real-time PCR. The protein expression of iNOS was detected by western blot. The results showed that after being treated with As 2 O 3, the levels of inflammatory-related factor NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain tissues increased (P Arsenic exposure in the chickens triggered host defence and induced an inflammatory response by regulating the expression of inflammatory-related genes in the cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem and myelencephalon. These data form a foundation for further research on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in Gallus gallus.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis between Indian red jungle fowl and domestic chicken using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Mathew, Jose; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity, population structure, and relatedness in Indian red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus murgi) from northern India and three domestic chicken populations (gallus gallus domesticus), maintained at the institute farms, namely White Leghorn (WL), Aseel (AS) and Red Cornish (RC) using 25 microsatellite markers. All the markers were polymorphic, the number of alleles at each locus ranged from five (MCW0111) to forty-three (LEI0212) with an average number of 19 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the mean expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were 0.883 and 0.872, respectively. Population-specific alleles were found in each population. A UPGMA dendrogram based on shared allele distances clearly revealed two major clusters among the four populations; cluster I had genotypes from RJF and WL whereas cluster II had AS and RC genotypes. Furthermore, the estimation of population structure was performed to understand how genetic variation is partitioned within and among populations. The maximum ▵K value was observed for K = 4 with four identified clusters. Furthermore, factorial analysis clearly showed four clustering; each cluster represented the four types of population used in the study. These results clearly, demonstrate the potential of microsatellite markers in elucidating the genetic diversity, relationships, and population structure analysis in RJF and domestic chicken populations.

  10. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The

  11. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  12. Review of the oldest evidence of domestic fowl Gallus gallus f. domestica from the Czech Republic in its European context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    53A, 1-2 (2010), s. 9-34 ISSN 1895-3123 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Gallus gallus domesticus * domestic fowl * chicken * Bronze Age * history * archaeology * animal bones * archaeozoology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.isez.pan.krakow.pl/journals/azc_v/pdf/53A%281-2%29/53A%281-2%29_03.pdf

  13. Proteomic analysis of the Gallus gallus embryo at stage-29 of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, David; Agudo Garcillán, David; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Martínez-Arribas, Fernando; Delcán, José; Schneider, José; Palomar, María Angustias; Linares, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the primary models for embryological and developmental studies. In order to begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the normal and abnormal development of the chicken, we used 2-DE to construct a whole-embryo proteome map. Proteins were separated by IEF on IPG strips, and by 11% SDS-PAGE) gels. Protein identification was performed by means of PMF with MALDI-TOF-MS. In all, 105 protein spots were identified, 35 of them implicated in embryo development, 10 related with some diseases, and 16, finally, being proteins that have never been identified, purified or characterized in the chicken before. This map will be updated continuously and will serve as a reference database for investigators, studying changes at the protein level under different physiological conditions.

  14. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in free-range chicken(Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, revealed widespread and dominance of clonal type III parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to estimate the prevalence and to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with ...

  15. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  16. The patatin-like lipase family in Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimpf Johannes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In oviparous species, genes encoding proteins with functions in lipid remodeling, such as specialized lipases, may have evolved to facilitate the assembly and utilization of yolk lipids by the embryo. The mammalian gene family of patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs has received significant attention, but studies in other vertebrates are lacking; thus, we have begun investigations of PNPLA genes in the chicken (Gallus gallus. Results We scanned the draft chicken genome using human PNPLA sequences, and performed PCR to amplify and sequence orthologous cDNAs. Full-length cDNA sequences of galline PNPLA2/ATGL, PNPLA4, -7, -8, -9, and the activator protein CGI-58, as well as partial cDNA sequences of avian PNPLA1, -3, and -6 were obtained. The high degree of sequence identities (~50 to 80% between the avian and human orthologs suggests conservation of important enzymatic functions. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcript levels of PNPLAs and CGI-58 in 21 tissues indicates that expression patterns and levels diverge greatly between species. A particularly interesting tissue in which certain PNPLAs may contribute to physiological specialization is the extraembryonic yolk sac. Conclusion Knowledge about the exact in-vivo functions of PNPLAs in any system is still sparse. Thus, studies about the temporal expression patterns and functions of the enzymes identified here, and of other already known extracellular lipases and co-factors, in the yolk sac and embryonic tissues during embryogenesis are called for. Based on the information obtained, further studies are anticipated to provide important insights of the roles of PNPLAs in the yolk sac and embryo development.

  17. First report of typical Brazilian Toxoplasma gondii genotypes from isolates of free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) circulating in the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; de Almeida-Neto, João Leite; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Alves, Bruna Farias; Nakashima, Fabiana; Gennari, Solange Maria; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated, for the first time, the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Tissue samples from 33 chickens from properties in five municipalities of Paraíba (Esperança, Olho d'Água, Malta, Monteiro, and Patos) were bioassayed in mice. The brains of mice infected with T. gondii cysts were used for DNA extraction and genotyping. Genotyping was performed using 11 PCR-RFLP markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. Complete genotyping results were obtained for 29 isolates, with nine genotypes detected by RFLP and 15 genotypes identified by MS. Three genotypes (#273, #274, and #277) have only been recently identified from pigs in the region. Brazilian clonal types BrII and BrIII were identified from one isolate each. Clonal types I, II, and III were not detected by RFLP. Genotype #13 (Caribbean 1), detected in 48.3% (14/29) of isolates from four of the five municipalities investigated, was the most prevalent genotype in the state of Paraíba. However, the MS analysis showed that of these 14 isolates, only four were unique genotypes, and considering the distance between the municipalities from where they were collected, it is possible that only seven are independent isolates while the others are clones. The other genotypes were restricted to different microregions. The results indicate that the Caribbean 1 lineage of T. gondii is circulating widely in Northeast Brazil. The genotypic diversity of T. gondii in the state of Paraíba is high, and microsatellite analysis revealed this diversity with higher resolution than PCR-RFLP.

  18. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  19. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saborni; Nag, Tapas C; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and visual perceptual learning and synaptic plasticity, as evident by synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, were done at posthatch days (PH) 1, 2 and 3. The number of responders was significantly higher in the music stimulated group as compared to controls at PH1 in both auditory and visual preference tests. The stimulated chicks took significantly lesser time to enter and spent more time in the maternal area in both preference tests. A significantly higher expression of synaptophysin and PSD-95 was observed in the stimulated group in comparison to control at PH1-3 both in the auditory cortex and visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest facilitation of postnatal perceptual behaviour and synaptic plasticity in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal stimulation with complex rhythmic music.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  1. Avaliação morfológica do oviduto e desempenho zootécnico de poedeiras comerciais (Gallus gallus) da linhagem Lohmann Selected Legorn submetidas e não submetidas a muda forçada.

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Barbosa de Carvalho Borba

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia do oviduto (regiões do magno, istmo e glândula da casca) e desempenho zootécnico de poedeiras comerciais (Gallus gallus) submetidas e não submetidas a muda forçada. Para tanto foram utilizadas 4.000 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL), com 65 semanas de idade alojadas em gaiolas de plástico e ferro, em uma granja comercial na cidade de Glória do Goitá, estado de Pernambuco. As poedeiras foram divididas em dois grupos, a...

  2. Abattoir-sourced isolated ileum from Gallus gallus domesticus as an experimental tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Sharma, Satya S; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2010-10-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the longevity of active muscarinic receptors on abattoir-sourced isolated ileum preparations from Gallus gallus domesticus, with a view to using the tissue as an experimental tool for functional response assays in laboratory experiments. A concentration-response curve for acetylcholine (1-256 μM) was plotted, in the presence and absence of 1, 3 and 6 nM atropine. In a second experiment, unknown concentrations of acetylcholine samples were determined by using an interpolation method. In this experiment, four sample concentrations were used and the calculated values were found to be almost equal to the actual values. Finally, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effects of post-sacrifice time on the contractile response of the tissue. The results showed that the tissue maintained considerable contractile response at the 6-hour post-sacrifice time-point. Competitive antagonistic activity was observed between acetylcholine and atropine on the chicken ileum, and the pA2 value was calculated to be 9.21 by using an Arunlakshana-Schild plot. The results suggest that isolated ileum preparations of Gallus gallus domesticus, obtained from a meat abattoir, can be used as a basic experimental tool for bioassays in routine laboratory experiments. However, its potential as a research tool still needs to be confirmed. © 2010 FRAME.

  3. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  4. Optics of cone photoreceptors in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, David; Toomey, Matthew B; Olsson, Peter; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Oulton, Ruth; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-10-06

    Vision is the primary sensory modality of birds, and its importance is evident in the sophistication of their visual systems. Coloured oil droplets in the cone photoreceptors represent an adaptation in the avian retina, acting as long-pass colour filters. However, we currently lack understanding of how the optical properties and morphology of component structures (e.g. oil droplet, mitochondrial ellipsoid and outer segment) of the cone photoreceptor influence the transmission of light into the outer segment and the ultimate effect they have on receptor sensitivity. In this study, we use data from microspectrophotometry, digital holographic microscopy and electron microscopy to inform electromagnetic models of avian cone photoreceptors to quantitatively investigate the integrated optical function of the cell. We find that pigmented oil droplets primarily function as spectral filters, not light collection devices, although the mitochondrial ellipsoid improves optical coupling between the inner segment and oil droplet. In contrast, unpigmented droplets found in violet-sensitive cones double sensitivity at its peak relative to other cone types. Oil droplets and ellipsoids both narrow the angular sensitivity of single cone photoreceptors, but not as strongly as those in human cones. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  6. Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of seasonal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroko; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Mizutani, Makoto; Namikawa, Takao; Iigo, Masayuki; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Photoperiodism is an adaptation mechanism that enables animals to predict seasonal changes in the environment. Japanese quail is the best model organism for studying photoperiodism. Although the recent availability of chicken genome sequences has permitted the expansion from single gene to genome-wide transcriptional analysis in this organism, the photoperiodic response of the domestic chicken is less robust than that of the quail. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the photoperiodic response of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), a predecessor of the domestic chicken, to test whether this animal could be developed as an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. When red jungle fowls were transferred from short-day- to long-day conditions, gonadal development and an increase in plasma LH concentration were observed. Furthermore, rapid induction of thyrotropin beta subunit, a master regulator of photoperiodism, was observed at 16 h after dawn on the first long day. In addition, the long-day condition induced the expression of type 2 deiodinase, the key output gene of photoperiodism. These results were consistent with the results obtained in quail and suggest that the red jungle fowl could be an ideal model animal for the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of photoperiodism.

  7. Genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Phuc, Hoa; Fulton, Janet E; Berres, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multi-family gene cluster that encodes proteins with immuno-responsive function. While studies of MHC in domesticated poultry are relatively common, very little is known about this highly polymorphic locus in wild Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the natural progenitor of domestic chickens. We investigated the diversity of MHC within and among four wild Red Junglefowl populations across diversified natural habitats in South Central Vietnam. Based on a SNP panel of 84 sites spanning 210 Kb of the MHC-B locus, we identified 310 unique haplotypes in 398 chromosomes. None of these haplotypes have been described before and we did not observe any of the wild Red Junglefowl haplotypes in domesticated chickens. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 94.51% of observed haplotype variation was accounted for at the within individual level. Little genetic variance was apportioned within and among populations, the latter accounting only for 0.83%. We also found evidence of increased recombination, including numerous hotspots, and limited linkage disequilibrium among the 84 SNP sites. Compared to an average haplotype diversity of 3.55% among seventeen lines of domestic chickens, our results suggest extraordinarily high haplotype diversity remains in wild Red Junglefowl and is consistent with a pattern of balancing selection. Wild Red Junglefowl in Vietnam, therefore, represent a rich resource of natural genomic variation independent from artificial selection. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Type B triorchidism in an adult indigenous fowl ( Gallus gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type B triorchidism in an adult indigenous fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Sokoto, Nigeria- Case report. JE Onu. Abstract. This paper presents a possible first case of triorchidism in an indigenous fowl in Sokoto, northwest Nigeria. Triorchidism is an exceptionally rare congenital abnormality which has been observed in ...

  9. (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Sokoto, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    reported case of triorchidism in domestic chicken in this part of the country. In this report, the third testis was firm in consistency, had normal cream color and active seminiferous epithelium as the normal right and left testes. Triorchidism in birds was first reported by McFarland (1965), who examined 2,000 male Japanese ...

  10. Lung Transcriptome of Newcastle Disease Virus Infected Chickens--Different Immune Response in Two Types of Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Males and females from resistant Fayoumi and susceptible Leghorn chicken lines were either challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle Disease virus or given a...

  11. Effects of luminal nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, and intravenous parenteral alimentation on the recovery responses of duodenal villus morphology following feed withdrawal in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachai, P; Yamauchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify which of the following three factors induces villus morphological recovery best: enteral nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, or intravenous parenteral alimentation. At 142 d, male White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were divided into eight groups of five birds each as follows: 1) access given ad libitum to a commercial layer mash diet (CP, 17.5%; ME, 2,830 kcal/kg) (control), 2) 5-d feed withdrawal (feed withdrawal), 3) 3-d feed withdrawal (3-FW), followed by refeeding the same diet as the control for 2 d (refeeding), 4) 3-FW followed by force-feeding enteral hyperalimentation (enteral), 5) 3-FW followed by force-feeding an indigestible (nonabsorbable) substance (kaolin), 6) 3-FW followed by force-feeding water for 2 d (force-fed control), 7) 3-FW followed by parenteral hyperalimentation (parenteral), and 8) 3-FW followed by no alimentation (sham control) for 2 d. In the refeeding and enteral groups, BW significantly recovered (P alimentation, but by enteral nutrient absorption.

  12. Selection for the compactness of highly expressed genes in Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Ming

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding sequence (CDS length, gene size, and intron length vary within a genome and among genomes. Previous studies in diverse organisms, including human, D. Melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana, indicated that there are negative relationships between expression level and gene size, CDS length as well as intron length. Different models such as selection for economy model, genomic design model, and mutational bias hypotheses have been proposed to explain such observation. The debate of which model is a superior one to explain the observation has not been settled down. The chicken (Gallus gallus is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates. As D. Melanogaster, chicken has a larger effective population size, selection for chicken genome is expected to be more effective in increasing protein synthesis efficiency. Therefore, in this study the chicken was used as a model organism to elucidate the interaction between gene features and expression pattern upon selection pressure. Results Based on different technologies, we gathered expression data for nuclear protein coding, single-splicing genes from Gallus gallus genome and compared them with gene parameters. We found that gene size, CDS length, first intron length, average intron length, and total intron length are negatively correlated with expression level and expression breadth significantly. The tissue specificity is positively correlated with the first intron length but negatively correlated with the average intron length, and not correlated with the CDS length and protein domain numbers. Comparison analyses showed that ubiquitously expressed genes and narrowly expressed genes with the similar expression levels do not differ in compactness. Our data provided evidence that the genomic design model can not, at least in part, explain our observations. We grouped all somatic-tissue-specific genes

  13. Chicken Domestication and Indigenous Chicken Breeds of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The chicken was domesticated in South Asia in 2000 BC and then spread around the world .The red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus was the ancestor of the chicken. In consequence of long years of domestication and breeding activities, chickens were scattered over various countries, continents and regions. As a result, today there are many chicken breeds in the world. Native breeds are thought to be crossbreds of various breeds brought to Turkey in different time periods. It is difficult to predict when and how the hybridization has been taken shape, because Anatolia has been a passage for a variety of tribes since ancient times. Indigenous chicken breeds in Turkey are Gerze, Sultan and the most well-known Denizli.

  14. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  16. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two

  17. A simple two step procedure for purification of the catalytic domain of chicken tryptophan hydroxylase 1 in a form suitable for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte R.; Munch, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1 in Escheri......Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1...

  18. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que

  19. en gallinas white leghorn L33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del peso corporal sobre indicadoresbioproductivos en gallinas White Leghorn L33. Se estudiaron 192 gallinas ponedorascon 39 semanas de edad durante un período de seis semanas y con tres observacionessemanales. Se diseñaron dos grupos según peso vivo, con 96 gallinas cada uno (tres réplicasde 32 aves, teniendo el grupo 1 entre 1500-1600 g y el grupo 2 entre 1735-1820 g; esteúltimo correspondió al rango establecido para este híbrido con esa edad. Además de laviabilidad y mortalidad se determinaron las variables bioproductivas (producción, peso,tamaño, forma y grosor de la cáscara de los huevos, así como la proporción de sucios,manchados y cascados. En la última semana del estudio, se analizó la calidad internadel huevo (dimensión y color de clara y yema y se calcularon los índices de yema, claray Unidades Haugh. Se realizó una estadística descriptiva y se utilizaron las pruebas Tde Student y Fisher (P < 0,05 para comparar las medias entre grupos. Se evidenciarondiferencias estadísticas significativas entre producción, peso y tamaño de los huevos parael grupo de mayor peso corporal. Asimismo, se comprobó mayor calidad interna delhuevo (altura de clara y yema en este segundo grupo. Sin embargo, no se evidenciarondiferencias significativas en la calidad externa de los huevos (sucios, manchados, cascados,pero sí en el grosor de la cáscara. Se concluye que el peso corporal influye directay positivamente sobre los indicadores bioproductivos en gallinas White Leghorn L33.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  1. Kuantitas dan kualitas telur ayam arab (Gallus turcicus silver dan gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Yumna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine egg quantity and quality of Silver and Gold Arabic chicken (Gallus turcicus. The materials used in this study were 30 Silver and 30 Gold Arabic chicken aged 8-9 months which had mean of initial body weight were 1,93±0,13 and 2,00±0,15 kg respectively. The method was experiment on two groups of Arabic chicken based on feather color (Silver and Gold. Data was analyzed by unpaired t test. The study shows that egg weight of Gold Arabic chicken (46.81±2.41 g was significantly heavier (P<0.01 than that of Silver Arabic chicken (42.75±2.22 g. However, there were no significant difference on egg number, egg index, yolk color eggs, yolk protein content, yolk fat content, and Haugh units among these two chickens. It could be concluded that Gold Arabic chicken could produce heavier egg weight than the Silver one although there were no differences on egg number, egg index, yolk color eggs, yolk protein content, yolk fat content, and Haugh units. The study suggests breeding Gold Arabic chickens due to its egg weight production. Keywords: Arabic chicken, feather color, quantity and quality eggs

  2. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Helminthiasis of the domestic-fowl ( Gallus gallus domestics ) and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminthiasis of the domestic-fowl ( Gallus gallus domestics ) and its adverse effects on sustainable poultry-meat production in Nigeria. ... This study is a reflection of the case across Nigeria and perhaps the tropical world, where the losses maybe higher because helminthiasis has been reported to be ubitiquous by earlier ...

  5. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  6. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep

  7. Over het effect van hyperthyreoidiseering bij witte leghorns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.B.

    1938-01-01

    Oral feeding of White Leghorn hens on a thyroid preparation generally had only a very small toxic effect when given in one dose. A higher death rate occurred when given in small doses on consecutive days.

    The hens fell into a moult, varying from slight to complete, 7 or 8 days after thyroid

  8. white leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    white leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Xinxin Qin, Lei Rui, Wenting Zhang, Zhuyu Qiu and Zandong Li*. State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Biological Science,. China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

  9. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  11. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  12. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Haematological changes in Isa-brown laying chickens ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leukogram showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in leukocytosis on days 3 & 6 PI followed by significant (P < 0.05) leukopenia on days 10, 15 & 21 PI in UI group. However, significant leukocytosis on day 10 PI followed by leukopenia on day 15 PI were recorded in VI group. These findings suggest that leukocytosis ...

  14. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  15. Toxicity of cadmium and lead in Gallus gallus domesticus assessment of body weight and metal content in tissues after metal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljaleel, Salwa A; Shuhaimi-Othman, M

    2013-11-15

    The influence of dietary cadmium on the accumulation and effects of dietary lead, examined in chicken. This experiment was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of dietary Cd and Pb on chick's body weight and organ, content of the tissues of these two metals was also detected. One day age chicks of Gallus gallus domesticus fed diet supplemented with 25, 50, 100 ppm of Cd, second group exposure to 300, 500, 1000 ppm of Pb in feed daily during 4 weeks. The control groups were fed without supplementation of metals. The concentrations of Cd and Pb resulted in increased of Cd and Pb content in liver, gizzard and muscle. While Cd 100 ppm and Pb 1000 ppm were increased metals content in feather. Body weight of chicks was not influenced by Cd treatment. In contrary Pb treatment was significantly (p body weight of chicks after dietary treatment. On the other hand, Liver weigh in chicks was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after Cd and Pb treatments.

  16. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information......Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...

  17. Chicken embryo as an experimental model for the study of gastroschisis O embrião de galinha como modelo experimental para o estudo da gastrosquise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Tarrio Gandara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To reproduce the experimental model of gastroschisis in chicken embryos and to prove that the histopathological changes that occur in this model can be compared to those in human gastroschisis. METHODS: A total of 278 Leghorn hen (Gallus domesticus eggs were used. The embryos were divided into three groups: the gastroschisis group, in which the umbilical cord was opened through an orifice made in the eggshell, and the intestinal loops were exposed to a mixture of amniotic liquid and allantoid; the mixture group, in which the amniotic fluid and allantoid were simply mixed without manipulating the umbilical stump and without exposing intestinal loops; and the control group which consisted of normal embryos in which no procedure was performed. The procedures were performed on the 13th day of embryo development and the study ended on the 19th day, when the intestinal loops of the embryos were removed and sent for conventional histological study and digital morphometric analysis. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, 23 live embryos were obtained in the gastroschisis group (11.1% survival, and 18 of these presented exposed intestinal loops (8.7% success. The embryos of the gastroschisis group weighed less than those of the other two groups. The gastroschisis group also developed intestinal changes consisting of the thickening of the intestinal wall, inflammatory infiltration of the serosa and mucosa, ischemic changes in the intestinal wall and formation of a fibrin layer over the loops. These findings are characteristic of human gastroschisis and were not observed in the two other groups studied. CONCLUSION: The experimental model in chicken embryos proved able to reproduce the intestinal changes of human gastroschisis.OBJETIVO: Reproduzir o modelo experimental da gastrosquise em embriões de galinha. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 278 ovos de galinha da raça Leghorn (Gallus domesticus. Os embriões foram divididos em três grupos: grupo

  18. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  19. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  20. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L. developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model and in vivo (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tako Elad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron (Fe deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L. lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High. Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate. Chicks (Gallus gallus were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P  Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency.

  2. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L.) developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model) and in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L.) lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High). Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w) maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate). Chicks (Gallus gallus) were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME) and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable Fe maize to reduce Fe deficiency. PMID:23286295

  3. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Acquisition of resistance after continuous infection with Ascaridia galli in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    Acquired resistance against Ascaridia galli infection was studied in seventy-two 18-week-old white Leghorn chickens allocated to six groups (G1–G6). In order to understand the population dynamics following trickle-infection (100 eggs per chicken twice weekly), chickens of subgroups of G1 were...... with 500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum...... reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection....

  5. Clinicopathological Studies on Gentamicin Toxicity in White Leghorn Commercial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam Ul Islam, M. Zargham Khan1, M. Kashif Saleemi*1, Ahrar Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti1, Muhammad Yousaf2 and Zahoor-ul-Hassan3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is an effective and economical drug used to control infectious diseases in poultry but is highly toxic and had slow clearance from the body. This study aimed to report three cases of gentamicin toxicity in three White Leghorn (WLH layer flocks in different poultry producing areas of Pakistan. In first case, gentamicin was injected in a 9000 WLH layer flock @ 10 mg/kg body weight (BW for seven times during 9-15 weeks for age. In second case, gentamicin was injected in a flock of 7500 WLH layers @ 25 mg/kg BW for four times during 17-18 weeks of age. In third case, gentamicin was injected in flock of 16000 WLH layers @ 22.22 mg/kg BW three times in 20-21 weeks of age. Flock wise mortality was 8.69, 82.63 and 71.86%, respectively. Birds were dehydrated, emaciated and had prominent keel bone. Clinical signs included dehydration, decreased body weight leading to emaciation, decreased feed intake, increased water intake and watery diarrhea. Necropsy revealed prominent keal bone, shrunken muscles swollen kidneys bulging out from bony sockets. Petechial and echymotic hemorrhages were present on heart and skeletal muscles. Liver was enlarged with hemorrhagic streaks on its surface. Microscopically, hemorrhages and acute tubular necrosis was recorded in kidneys. Liver had hemorrhages, cellular infiltration and vacuolar (fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. From the results, it could be concluded that overdosing and repeated administration of gentamicin was highly toxic to birds.

  6. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (Pegg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.

  7. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  8. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alcalase hydrolysate prepared from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Lai, I-Chun; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Two types of proteins including blood plasma protein and blood cell protein were isolated from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood and hydrolyzed using alcalase for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. The blood plasma protein hydrolysate (BPH) and blood cell protein hydrolysate (BCH) were analyzed for pH value, peptide content and antioxidative properties. The significantly higher peptide contents were observed in BPH than that of BCH, which showed that blood plasma protein was more suitable to hydrolysis by alcalase than blood cell protein. Both BPH and BCH showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+) chelating ability. BPH at 4 h of hydrolysis (BPH4) demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant capacity than those treated by alcalase in most of the assays. The BPH4 was separated using ultra-filtration and assessment of the fractions and indicated that low molecular weight of peptides (< 3 kDa) possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating ability and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation. These results show that BPH has the potential to be ingredients in the food industry as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. The effect of dietary L-carnitine on semen traits of White Leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Neuman, S L; Latour, M A; Hester, P Y

    2007-10-01

    A previous study conducted in our laboratory showed that feeding 500 ppm of dietary L-carnitine to young and aging White Leghorns for 5 wk improved sperm concentration and reduced sperm lipid peroxidation during the last half of supplementation. The current study examined the effect of feeding dosimetric as well as lower levels of L-carnitine for longer durations on semen traits of White Leghorns. In experiments 1 and 2, White Leghorns consumed diets supplemented with 0, 125, 250, or 500 mg of L-carnitine/kg of feed. For experiment 1, an 8-wk trial was conducted with 48 White Leghorns from 46 to 54 wk of age. For experiment 2, a 17-wk trial was conducted with 96 White Leghorn roosters from 46 to 63 wk of age. For experiment 3, 84 roosters were provided for ad libitum consumption a diet formulated to contain 0 or 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch until 37 wk of age. Long-term consumption of 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch was the only dietary treatment that sustained a persistent increase in sperm concentration. These results suggest that L-carnitine's antioxidant influence on sperm production begins before the onset of sexual maturity.

  12. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV. PMID:27078641

  13. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  14. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  15. Broilers (Gallus gallus) are less stressed if they can smell a mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iltud MADEC

    Abstract. Performance, physiological and behavioural parameters of two groups of domestic chickens were compared. Chickens were raised in classical commercial conditions in buildings housing 12000 birds. One group acted as a control, while the environment of the other was perfused with MHUSA (Mother Hens'.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on haematology of chick (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Rana, K.

    1988-01-01

    White leghorn chicks at 1 and 7 days post-hatching were subjected to acute (2.25 Gy and 6.75 Gy) and fractionated (2.25 Gy x 3) whole-body gamma radiation exposures at the dose rate of 0.75 Gy/sec, to study the nature of hematological changes induced in the animals which were maintained for a maximum period of 28 days postirradiation. The investigated parameters included red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. The results showed that the hemopoietic damage proved irreversible and lethal with whole-body 6.75 Gy exposure while the system was able to recover from the effects of radiation insult after 2.25 Gy whole-body acute and fractionated doses. The 7 day old birds exhibited better capability for recovery than the younger group. (author)

  17. Xylazine, diazepam and midazolam premedicated ketamine anaesthesia in White Leghorn cockerels for typhlectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Maiti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thee different combinations of ketamine hydrochloride were used to induce general anaesthesia for surgical operations (typhlectomy in 30 adult, single-comb White Leghorn cockerels. They were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising 10 birds. Birds in Group I received xylazine-ketamine combinations at the dose rate of 2 mg xylazine and 10 mg ketamine per kg i.v., whereas birds of Group II received diazepam (2.5 mg / kg i.v. and 5 min later ketamine (75 mg / kg i.m.. In the Group III, midazolam (2 mg / kg i.m. and 5 min later ketamine (50 mg / kg i.v. was administered. The onset of sedation / anaesthesia was shortest (1.60 + 0.27 min in Group I, followed by Group II (8.40 + 0.83 min and Group III (17.10 + 1.71 min. Recovery period was shortest in the Group I (65-75 min followed by Group II (80-85 min and Group III (92-105 min. Sedation, muscle relaxation and surgical anaesthesia was optimal and excellent in Group I compared with the other two groups. Torticollis, salivation and dyspnoea were observed in Group III. Short-term limb contractions were present in all birds in Groups II and III, up to 20 min of observation. Recovery from anaesthesia was smooth in all three groups. A Surgical procedure (typhlectomy was performed on all birds. Hypothermia was observed in Group II, whereas heart and respiratory depression was recorded in Group I. Blood sugar level did not vary significantly in any anaesthetic regime. The reduction of haemoglobin was maximum in Group II compared with Groups I and III. Hypoxaemia and hypercapnaea were elevated in all birds in Groups II and III. Blood electrolytes did not vary significantly from the baseline values among the three groups of birds during the period of observation (120 min. The xylazine-ketamine combination was found to be the best anaesthesia for surgical intervention in chickens.

  18. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  19. Molecular characterization of full-length MLV-related endogenous retrovirus ChiRV1 from the chicken, Gallus gallus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borysenko, L.; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Rynditch, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 376, č. 1 (2008), s. 199-204 ISSN 0042-6822 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : endogenous retrovirus * chi cken * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.539, year: 2008

  20. Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which

  1. The translocation of white phosphorus from hen (Gallus domesticus) to egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, S.I.; MacMillan, D.L.; Roebuck, B.D. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Thousands of waterfowl deaths occurring at Eagle River Flats (ERF), Anchorage, Alaska, have been attributed to the ingestion of white phosphorus (P{sub 4}) particles. White phosphorus has been found in the egg of one herring gull (Larus argentatus) and in the yolks of some shorebirds at ERF. The presence of P{sub 4} in eggs suggests potential toxic consequences for avian reproduction. This study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and potential importance of P{sub 4} translocation from the hen to the egg. Egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were gavaged with a single dose of 1, 3, or 5 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight or dosed with 1 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight for 5 consecutive d. Eggs of dosed hens were collected daily. White phosphorus was extracted from the yolk and the white, individually, with isooctane and analyzed by gas chromatography. White phosphorus had no significant effect on chicken weight, egg weight, or shell thickness. However, laying frequency was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in chickens receiving 1 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight for 5 d. For all treatments, P{sub 4} was detected in the yolk and not in the white. It was first detected in the yolk approx. 1 to 2 d after P{sub 4} exposure and became nondetectable 6 to 10 d after P{sub 4} exposure. The total P{sub 4} recovered from eggs of chickens treated with P{sub 4} was less than 0.01% of the administered dose.

  2. TERHADAP BERAT TESTES, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS TESTES, DAN KUALITAS SEMEN AYAM HUTAN MERAH (GALLUS GALLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Piraksa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penyuntikan ekstrakhipofisis terhadap berat testes, gambaran mikroskopis testes, dan kualitas semenayam hutan merah (Gallus gallus. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan AcakLengkap dengan 4 kelompok perlakuan masing masing kelompok menggunakan 4ekor ayam hutan merah sebagai ulangan : Kelompok I (T0 : sebagai kontrol disuntikdengan 0,25 ml NaCl 0,9% secara intramuscular. Kelompok II (T1 : disuntik dengan0,25 ml ekstrak hipofisis dengan konsentrasi 25% secara intra muskuler. Kelompok III (T2 : disuntik dengan 0,25 ml ekstrak hipofisis dengan konsentrasi 50% intramuskuler. Kelompok IV (T3 : disuntik dengan 0,25 ml ekstrak hipofisis dengankonsentrasi 75% intra muskuler. Penyuntikan dilakukan sebanyak 8 kali, dilakukansetiap 12 jam selama 4 hari. 12 jam setelah penyuntikan yang terakhir hewan cobadiambil semennya dan dievaluasi, lalu dibunuh untuk diamati berat testes dangambaran mikroskopisnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa : penyuntikan ekstrak hipofisisberpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 meningkatkan berat testes, meningkatkan aktifitasspermatogenesis yang ditandai dengan semakin padatnya lumen tubuliseminiferi,semakin menebalnya lapisan spermatogenik, dan semakin tebalnya lapisan interstitial, dan juga meningkatkan kualitas semen ayam hutan merah dengan meningkatnyakonsentrasi spermatozoa secara sangat nyata (P<0,01. The objective of this study was to find out the effect of exstract hypophysis injection on testes weigh, picture of microscopis testes, and semen quality of red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus. The exsperimental design used in this study was a completely randomised design. Twenty red jungle fowl were divided randomly into four group. Group I (T0: was injection with NaCl 0,9% intramuscular. Group II (T1: was injection with 25% hypophysis

  3. Influence of chicken serum mannose-binding lectin levels on the immune response towards Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T; Friggens, N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) on infections with Escherichia coli in chickens. Initially, the basic levels of MBL in 4 different lines of layer chickens, namely ISA Brown, Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Braun, and Hellevad, were investigated....... This investigation revealed a 2-to 3-fold difference in the basic levels of MBL in serum between some of these commercial lines. Furthermore, the ontogeny of the basic level of MBL in serum of an experimental chicken line was investigated. The level of MBL was very stabile for long periods, with an elevation at 5...... to 7 wk of age. Another elevation in MBL level started around 18 to 19 wk of age and stayed elevated at least until 38 wk of age. In this study, it was hypothesized that chickens with high levels of MBL (H-type) may be less prone to disease caused by E. coli infection than chickens with low levels...

  4. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  5. The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection. To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers. This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1. This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the

  6. Biomarkers and weight changes in broiler chicks ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute and sublethal toxicity studies of two organophosphate pesticides were carried out against the broiler chicks, Gallus domesticus. On the basis of the computed toxicity factor, phostoxin with a 14 day LC50 values of 0.022 mg/kg was found to be 2 times more toxic than actellic (14 day LC50 of 0.048 mg/kg).

  7. Genome-wide analysis reveals the extent of EAV-HP integration in domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, David; Mason, Andrew S; Yu, Le; Kuo, Richard; Lawal, Raman A; Desta, Takele Taye; Mwacharo, Joram M; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kemp, Steve; Burt, David W; Hanotte, Olivier

    2015-10-14

    EAV-HP is an ancient retrovirus pre-dating Gallus speciation, which continues to circulate in modern chicken populations, and led to the emergence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J causing significant economic losses to the poultry industry. We mapped EAV-HP integration sites in Ethiopian village chickens, a Silkie, Taiwan Country chicken, red junglefowl Gallus gallus and several inbred experimental lines using whole-genome sequence data. An average of 75.22 ± 9.52 integration sites per bird were identified, which collectively group into 279 intervals of which 5 % are common to 90 % of the genomes analysed and are suggestive of pre-domestication integration events. More than a third of intervals are specific to individual genomes, supporting active circulation of EAV-HP in modern chickens. Interval density is correlated with chromosome length (P < 2.31(-6)), and 27 % of intervals are located within 5 kb of a transcript. Functional annotation clustering of genes reveals enrichment for immune-related functions (P < 0.05). Our results illustrate a non-random distribution of EAV-HP in the genome, emphasising the importance it may have played in the adaptation of the species, and provide a platform from which to extend investigations on the co-evolutionary significance of endogenous retroviral genera with their hosts.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  9. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Pitel, Frédérique; Feve, Katia; Leroux, Sophie; Legros, Hélène; Thomas, Aurélie; Gourichon, David; Repérant, Jean-Michel; Rault, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. Results The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion) on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Conclusion Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several candidate genes and relevant

  10. Chicken Picadillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low-sodium chicken broth 1/3 cup fresh lemon juice 1/3 cup water 1/4 teaspoon ground cumin 2 bay leaves ... cooked through. Add the tomato sauce, chicken broth, lemon juice, cumin, bay leaves, water, and raisins to the vegetables and chicken. Cover ...

  11. The investigation of genetic diversity and evolution of Daweishan Mini chicken based on the complete mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop region sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Xu; Tang, Xiu-Jun; Lu, Jun-Xian; Fan, Yan-Feng; Chen, Da-Wei; Tang, Meng-Jun; Gu, Rong; Gao, Yu-Shi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the genetic diversity and origin of Daweishan Mini chickens using mtDNA sequence polymorphism. Blood samples from 30 Daweishan Mini chickens were collected. The complete D-loop was PCR amplified, sequenced and compared with the DNA data of five Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) subspecies. Eighteen variable sites that defined six haplotypes were observed. The six haplotypes were clustered into four clades (A, B, D and E), of which clade A and B were dominant. Clades Aand B were clustered with G.g. spadiceus, indicating these two clades may have originated from this subspecies. These results show there is diversity in the middle of the mtDNA D-loop, and indicate there are multiple maternal origins for Daweishan Mini chickens. It appears that G.g. spadiceus contributed more to the evolution of the Daweishan Mini chickens breed than the other four subspecies tested here.

  12. Observaçoes sobre o parasitismo de Gallilichus hiregoudari D'souza & Jagannath (Acari: Syringobiidae em Gallus gallus (L. em infestações naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Horacio Faccini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of Gallilichus hiregoudari D'Souza e Jagannath in Gallus gallus (L. is widespread in Brazil. All life stages of the mite can be found within the quills of primaries and secondaries of the flight feathers. Nymphal heteromorphism, imbalanced sex ratio toward females and thanatochresis are common features. Damage of the pulp caps and raquis are common pathological findings.

  13. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  14. Survival analysis of white Leghorn laying hens in the early and late production period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamuno, Doreen; Mészáros, Gábor; Ellen, Esther D.; Sölkner, Johann

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out survival analysis to evaluate fixed effects and to estimate genetic parameters on survival of laying hens. The data set contained 16,694 records of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines coded W1, WB and WF. At 17 weeks old after rearing, hens were transported

  15. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and ...

  16. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and ...

  18. Cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen with polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Bushra Allah; Ansari, Muhammad Sajjad; Akhter, Shamim; Zafar, Zartasha; Hussain, Iftikhar; Santiago-Moreno, Julian; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2017-10-01

    The Indian red jungle fowl is a sub-species of the genus Gallus native to South Asia; facing high risk of extinction in its native habitat. During cryopreservation, permeable cryoprotectants like glycerol are usually employed and we previously showed encouraging results with 20% glycerol. Because bird spermatozoa contain very little intracellular water, the possibility of replacing an internal cryoprotectant by an external one is opened. In the present study, we tested the replacement of internal cryoprotectant glycerol by the external cryoprotectant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). PVP is a non-permeable cryoprotectant and keeps the sperm in glassy state both in cooling and warming stages without making ice crystallization within the sperm cell. We evaluated the effect of various levels of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on Indian red jungle fowl semen quality and fertility outcomes. The qualifying semen ejaculates collected from eight mature cocks were pooled, divided into five aliquots, diluted (37 °C) with red fowl semen extender having PVP [0% (control) 4% (w/v), 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v) and 10% (w/v)]. Diluted semen was cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen. The whole experiment was repeated/replicated for five times independently. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity were recorded highest (P jungle fowl spermatozoa than glycerol and can be used in routine practice avoiding the contraceptive effects of glycerol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens.

  20. Transferência vertical de minicírculos de kDNA de Trypanosoma cruzi no modelo Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Ester Cardoso Paes

    2014-01-01

    A transferência de minicírculos de kDNA de Trypanosoma cruzi para o genoma do hospedeiro tem repercussão na biologia evolutiva e na medicina. A este respeito, a integração de minicírculos de kDNA em vários loci do genoma de aves e mamíferos implica em modificações genotípicas que estariam associadas com a patogênese da doença de Chagas. Nesse estudo, tal associação foi comprovada no modelo Gallus gallus, refratário ao T. cruzi. A inoculação de formas tripomastigotas do T. cruzi via orifício s...

  1. Temporal Effects of High Dietary Zinc on the Histological Changes Produced in White Leghorn Cocks

    OpenAIRE

    Eltohamy, Magda Mohammed; Takahara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masao; 高原, 斉; 岡本, 正夫

    1980-01-01

    Effects of high dietary Zn on histological changes of the endocrine glands were investigated in White Leghorn cocks. Cocks received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed normal testicular development. In the groups received 3000 and 4000 ppm dietary Zn, the inhibitory effects in the testes suggested impaired production and/or release of adenohypophysial gonadotrophic hormone. Adenohypophysis of the group received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed an increase in PAS-positive materials of the basophils, while ad...

  2. La vaccination contre la maladie de Newcastle chez le poulet (Gallus gallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against Newcastle disease in chickens. Newcastle Disease (ND, also termed fowl pest, is a highly contagious and devastating disease in poultry. It is induced by an avian paramyxoviruses serotype 1, named ND virus (NDV. NDV has been shown to be able to infect over 200 different species of birds but the virulence of this virus and clinical signs of ND vary largely with both host and strain of virus. Virulent strains require to be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE and outbreaks result in strict embargoes for the trade of avian products among countries. Control of ND primarily consists of vaccination of flocks and culling of infected or likely infected birds. At the present time, vaccination programs for NDV include the use of either inactivated (killed or attenuated (live vaccines to induce protective immunity while producing minimal adverse reactions in birds. Live viruses of low virulence (apathogenic, lentogenic or of moderate virulence (mesogenic are used depending on the disease situation and the regulations. Nevertheless, vaccination schedules might vary among poultry breeds. Generally, post-vaccination serology is used to confirm successful application of vaccine and an adequate immune response by the bird. However, it is well recognized that many chickens with low or no antibody titer are protected in challenge experiments and that present vaccination schedules do not protect well against viral re-excretion. One of the most important considerations affecting vaccination programs is the level of maternal immunity in young chickens, which may vary considerably from farm to farm and among individual chickens. Additionally, vaccine strains are phylogenetically different from circulating virulent strains. Then, new vaccines candidates are investigated in laboratory to improve the efficacy of conventional commercial vaccines while new tools of immunity measure are developed to increase the understanding of the

  3. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  4. Identification of chicken lysozyme g2 and its expression in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, C J; Townes, C L; Michailidis, G; Hirst, B H; Hall, J

    2004-11-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the innate immune system, protecting the gastrointestinal tract from infection. The aim of the present study was to determine if lysozyme is expressed in the chicken ( Gallus gallus) intestine and to characterise the molecular forms expressed. Immunohistochemical staining localised lysozyme to epithelial cells of the villous epithelium along the length of the small intestine. There was no evidence for lysozyme expression in crypt epithelium and no evidence for Paneth cells. Immunoblots of chicken intestinal protein revealed three proteins: a 14-kDa band consistent with lysozyme c, and two additional bands of approximately 21 and 23 kDa, the latter consistent with lysozyme g. RT-PCR analyses confirmed that lysozyme c mRNA is expressed in 4-day, but not older chicken intestine and lysozyme g in 4- to 35-day chicken intestine. A novel chicken lysozyme g2 gene was identified by in silico analyses and mRNA for this lysozyme g2 was identified in the intestine from chickens of all ages. Chicken lysozyme g2 shows similarity with fish lysozyme g, including the absence of a signal peptide and cysteines involved in disulphide bond formation of the mammalian and bird lysozyme g proteins. Analyses using SecretomeP predict that chicken lysozyme g2 may be secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. We conclude that lysozyme is expressed in the chicken small intestine by villous enterocytes. Lysozyme c, lysozyme g and g2 may fulfil complimentary roles in protecting the intestine.

  5. Expression of lipogenic enzymes in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrough, R W; Russell, B A; Poch, S M; Richards, M P

    2007-05-01

    Hubbard x Hubbard chickens (Gallus gallus) growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed 12 or 30% protein diets and then switched to the diets containing the opposite level of protein. Birds were killed on days 28, 29, 30 and 31. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis (IVL), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activities and the expression of the genes for ME, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Gene expression was determined with a combined RT-PCR using SYBR green as a fluorescent probe monitored in a real time mode. IVL and ME activity were inversely related to dietary protein levels (12 to 30%) and to acute changes in either level. In contrast, both ICD and AAT activities were increased by any increase in dietary protein. Lipogenic gene expression was inversely related to protein level, whether fed on an acute or chronic basis. It appears that real time RT-PCR is an acceptable method of estimating gene expression in birds. In addition, further work will focus on primer sizes that might further optimize RT-PCR as an instrument for studying the regulation of avian lipid metabolism. Results of the present study demonstrate a continued role for protein in the regulation of broiler metabolism. However, it should be pointed out that metabolic regulation at the gene level only occurs when feeding very high levels of dietary protein.

  6. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  7. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  8. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  9. Molecular Genotype Identification of Different Chickens: Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.

  10. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  11. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos...... the eggs were incubated for 7, 13 and 19 days. Since fat oxidation was the main energy fuel the content of fat in the eggs decreased by 2.0 (RO) and 1.6 g (LA), while protein content was fairly constant in each line. It is remarkable that the differences in heat production between chickens from fast...... and slow growing lines were already manifested during their embryonic development....

  12. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Schilling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2 and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13 sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  13. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Megan A; Katani, Robab; Memari, Sahar; Cavanaugh, Meredith; Buza, Joram; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Mpenda, Fulgence N; Deist, Melissa S; Lamont, Susan J; Kapur, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  14. Development of otoconia in the embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    In the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo, otoconium formation started first over the macula sacculi around the 4th day of incubation, and a day later over the macula utriculi. It was determined that each otoconium formed as a result of the segmentation of the immature otolithic membrane, and that the calcium responsible for otoconium calcification was incorporated into the organic matrix of each otoconium in the form of small electron-dense granules (20-150 nm in. diameter). The presence of calcium in these granules was confirmed by histochemical staining with osmic-potassium pyroantimonate, by EDTA chelation, and by X-ray micronanalysis under the electron microscope.

  15. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  16. Short term changes in the expression of lipogenic genes in broilers (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrough, Robert W; Russell, Beverly A; Richards, Mark P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships between certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed graded levels of dietary crude protein. Male, broiler chickens growing from 7 to 28 days of age were fed diets containing 12 or 30% protein ad libitum. Both groups were then switched on day 28 to the diets containing the opposite level of protein. Birds were killed on day 28 (basal values prior to the switch) and at 12, 18 and 24 h post switch. Measurements taken included in vitro lipogenesis, malic enzyme activity the expression of the genes for malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase. In vitro lipogenesis and malic enzyme activity were inversely related to dietary protein levels (12 to 30%) and to acute changes from 12 to 30%. Malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase genes were constant over a dietary protein range of 12 to 21% as in previous experiments, but decreased by feeding a 30% protein diet in the present experiments (acute or chronic feeding). Results of the present study demonstrate a continued role for protein in the regulation of broiler metabolism. Metabolic regulation at the gene level only occurs when feeding very high levels of dietary protein.

  17. Dynamic changes in parameters of redox balance after mild heat stress in aged laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; De Vos, D; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the metabolic responses of laying hens induced by high temperature at later laying stage, nine 60-wk-old laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were employed in the present study. The hens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 21 d and blood samples were obtained before and at 1, 7, 14 and 21 d of heat exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in blood during heat exposure were estimated by the ex vivo spin-trapping method. Body temperature and plasma concentrations of glucose, urate, creatine kinase (CK), triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), corticosterone (CORT), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), ferric/reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Plasma levels of glucose, CK and CORT were not significantly influenced by heat exposure at any time point. The circulating concentrations of T(3) were decreased while plasma T(4) levels changed in the opposite way. The formation of ROS was significantly augmented by heat exposure in laying hens though the body temperature was not significantly altered. The enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems acted in concert to alleviate the heat stress evoked oxidative damage.

  18. RNA-seq analysis revealed novel genes and signaling pathway associated with disease resistance to avian influenza virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M; Lamont, S J; Zhou, H

    2014-02-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a type A virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Avian influenza virus infection can cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, and raises a great public health threat due to potential host jump from animals to humans. To develop more effective intervention strategies to prevent and control AIV infection in poultry, it is essential to elucidate molecular mechanisms of host response to AIV infection in chickens. The objective of this study was to identify genes and signal pathways associated with resistance to AIV infection in 2 genetically distinct highly inbred chicken lines (Fayoumi, relatively resistant to AIV infection, and Leghorn, susceptible to AIV infection). Three-week-old chickens were inoculated with 10(7) EID50 of low pathogenic H5N3 AIV, and lungs and trachea were harvested 4 d postinoculation. Four cDNA libraries (1 library each for infected and noninfected Leghorn, and infected and noninfected Fayoumi) were prepared from the lung samples and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer II, which yielded a total of 116 million, 75-bp single-end reads. Gene expression levels of all annotated chicken genes were analyzed using CLC Genomics Workbench. DESeq was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts between infected and noninfected birds and between genetic lines (false discovery rate change > 2). Of the expressed transcripts in a total of 17,108 annotated chicken genes in Ensembl database, 82.44 and 81.40% were identified in Leghorn and Fayoumi birds, respectively. The bioinformatics analysis suggests that the hemoglobin family genes, the functional involvements for oxygen transportation and circulation, and cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway play significant roles in disease resistance to AIV infection in chickens. Further investigation of the roles of these candidate genes and signaling pathways in the regulation of host-AIV interaction can lead new directions for the development of antiviral

  19. Evidence of balanced diversity at the chicken interleukin 4 receptor alpha chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podisi Baitsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative analysis of genome sequences emerging for several avian species with the fully sequenced chicken genome enables the genome-wide investigation of selective processes in functionally important chicken genes. In particular, because of pathogenic challenges it is expected that genes involved in the chicken immune system are subject to particularly strong adaptive pressure. Signatures of selection detected by inter-species comparison may then be investigated at the population level in global chicken populations to highlight potentially relevant functional polymorphisms. Results Comparative evolutionary analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genes identified interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain (IL-4Rα, a key cytokine receptor as a candidate with a significant excess of substitutions at nonsynonymous sites, suggestive of adaptive evolution. Resequencing and detailed population genetic analysis of this gene in diverse village chickens from Asia and Africa, commercial broilers, and in outgroup species red jungle fowl (JF, grey JF, Ceylon JF, green JF, grey francolin and bamboo partridge, suggested elevated and balanced diversity across all populations at this gene, acting to preserve different high-frequency alleles at two nonsynonymous sites. Conclusion Haplotype networks indicate that red JF is the primary contributor of diversity at chicken IL-4Rα: the signature of variation observed here may be due to the effects of domestication, admixture and introgression, which produce high diversity. However, this gene is a key cytokine-binding receptor in the immune system, so balancing selection related to the host response to pathogens cannot be excluded.

  20. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  1. The Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection among Free-Ranging Chickens in Southern Iran Using IFA and Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Hatam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens (Gallus gallus domesti­cus in Shiraz, southern Iran. "nMethods: Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster ran­dom sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The re­sults were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically sig­nificant. "nResults: Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 (1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver (27 out of 29 and the lowest was the heart (16 out of 29 (α=0.05, P=0.002. None of the seronegative chick­ens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 (as cut off point were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. "nConclusion: Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be impor­tant sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations.

  2. Behavioural consequences of visual deprivation occurring at hatch or in the early life of chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hocking, Paul M.; Haldane, Kirsty-Anne; Davidson, Emma M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of behaviour in a line of chickens that are born sighted (rdd) but turn blind after hatching was compared with a line that is blind at hatch (beg) and with sighted White Leghorn controls (WL) to test the hypothesis that birds that become blind later in their life will show....... At 9 weeks beg and rdd birds showed decreased behavioural synchrony compared with WL, whereas group aggregation in rdd and WL was similar and higher than in beg. WL adults showed increased environmental pecking and higher rates of behavioural synchrony and group aggregation than both beg and rdd. Under...

  3. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  4. Lysine requirement of White Leghorn pullets from 8 to 21 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L R

    1976-01-01

    White Leghorn pullets were fed rations in which the protein supplementary to that provided by the grain portion of the ration was derived from soybean meal, meat and bone meal, anchovy fish meal or cottonseed meal from 8 to 21 weeks of age. Protein levels were varied so that each protein supplement was tested in a feeding program in which pullets received 16% protein diets from 8 to 14 weeks and 14% protein from 14 to 21 weeks and in another feeding program in which 14% protein was fed from 8 to 14 weeks and 12% protein from 14 to 21 weeks. Each of the developing rations contained sufficient nutrient to enable pullets to develop and attain high rate of laying performance. The 14% and 12% protein cottonseed meal diets contained only 0.50% and 0.45% lysine respectively. Thus the lysine requirement of White Leghorn pullets from 8 to 14 weeks and from 14 to 21 weeks is not over 0.50% and 0.45% respectively.

  5. Social interactions and antibody titres in young male chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H S; Latimer, J W

    1975-05-01

    The influence of social interactions on established antibody titres to a Salmonella pullorum antigen was determined in several Athens Randombred families. In two experiments, a large-bodied, aggresive family and a small-bodied, relatively non-aggressive family were placed in three social environments: (1) Four-bird control groups with no changes in membership once formed; (2) three-bird resident groups to which a new fourth bird was introduced daily; (3) the single bird that had been moved to a new group each day. The normal rate of decline in antibody titres was significantly accelerated in birds that were introduced as new members daily (group 3), but only in members of the small non-aggressive family. In a third experiment, using families relatively close in size and aggressiveness, the effects of social grouping on antibody titres were not significant.

  6. Involvement of circadian clock in crowing of red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shuichi; Hori, Shuho; Hirose, Makiko; Iwahara, Mari; Yatsushiro, Azusa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okamoto, Chinobu; Yayou, Ken-Ichi; Shimmura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    The rhythmic locomotor behavior of flies and mice provides a phenotype for the identification of clock genes, and the underlying molecular mechanism is well studied. However, interestingly, when examining locomotor rhythm in the wild, several key laboratory-based assumptions on circadian behavior are not supported in natural conditions. The rooster crowing 'cock-a-doodle-doo' is a symbol of the break of dawn in many countries. Previously, we used domestic inbred roosters and showed that the timing of roosters' crowing is regulated by the circadian clock under laboratory conditions. However, it is still unknown whether the regulation of crowing by circadian clock is observed under natural conditions. Therefore, here we used red jungle fowls and first confirmed that similar crowing rhythms with domesticated chickens are observed in red jungle fowls under the laboratory conditions. Red jungle fowls show predawn crowing before light onset under 12:12 light : dim light conditions and the free-running rhythm of crowing under total dim light conditions. We next examined the crowing rhythms under semi-wild conditions. Although the crowing of red jungle fowls changed seasonally under semi-wild conditions, predawn crowing was observed before sunrise in all seasons. This evidence suggests that seasonally changed crowing of red jungle fowls is under the control of a circadian clock. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Cryptosporidium sp. em intestinos, bursa de Fabricius e traquéia de frangos (Gallus gallus sp Cryptosporidium sp. in intestines, bursa of Fabricius and poultry trachea (Gallus gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Jacobsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitas do gênero Cryptosporidium infectam várias espécies de animais, e a enfermidade resultante é a criptosporidiose, importante zoonose de distribuição mundial. Em aves, a infecção tem sido reportada em várias espécies. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a presença do parasita em 208 amostras de bursa de Fabricius, 208 amostras de intestino e 208 de traquéia, coletadas de frangos (Gallus gallus sp de diferentes idades, abatidos em três propriedades rurais do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram feitas três impressões de cada amostra em lâminas para microscopia, coradas pelas técnicas de Ziehl Neelsen modificada com Dimetil Sulfóxido (DMSO, Ziehl Neelsen modificada por Henriksen e Pohlens (HP, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN e Kinyoun (K, perfazendo 1872 impressões analisadas em microscopia óptica (1000 x. Neste total, nas diferentes colorações empregadas, oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados em 18 impressões de traquéia, 42 de bursa de Fabricius e 29 de intestino, resultando positivas, portanto, 89 impressões. Destas, 44 foram identificadas pela técnica de DMSO, 32 por HP, três por ZN e 10 por K. Pode-se concluir que os oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados com maior freqüência nas impressões de bursa de Fabricius, e que o método de coloração, dentre os utilizados, que proporcionou a maior visualização dos oocistos foi o DMSO.Parasites of the gennus Cryptosporidium infect several animal species.The disease resultant is the criptosporidiosis, an important zoonosis spreaded worldwide. In poultry, the infection has been reported in several species. This study goal was to identify the parasite presence in 208 bursa of Fabricius samples, 208 intestine and 208 of trachea, collected at chicks (Gallus gallus sp of different ages, killed at three farms in Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three printings of each sample were done,on glass slides colored through the

  8. Alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos de Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Alterations in hematological parameters of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Borrelia anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel S. Lisbôa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Borreliose aviária é uma doença septicêmica aguda, cosmopolita, que acomete diferentes espécies aviárias, sendo causada por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em Gallus gallus domesticus experimentalmente infectados por B. anserina via vetor Argas (Persicargas miniatus. Um total de 27 aves da espécie G. g. domesticus com 67 dias de vida, foram divididas em três grupos inteiramente casualizados contendo nove animais cada. Um grupo foi exposto a carrapatos infectados por B. anserina (Grupo 1; outro a carrapatos livres deste agente (Grupo 2; além de um grupo não exposto aos carrapatos (Grupo 3. Realizaram-se esfregaços sangüíneos diariamente, a partir do primeiro dia de exposição ao vetor, até o 25º dia pós-exposição (DPE. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas 3 dias antes da exposição aos carrapatos, e 3, 8 e 18 dias pós-exposição (DPE, para a realização dos hemogramas. O exame dos esfregaços das aves do Grupo 1 revelou grande número de espiroquetas. Os esfregaços sangüíneos dos Grupos 2 e 3 mantiveram-se negativos durante todo o período experimental. De acordo com os resultados das avaliações hematológicas, as aves do Grupo 1 apresentaram um quadro de anemia normocítica normocrômica em oito DPE, além de leucocitose com heterofilia e monocitose que cursaram paralelamente ao período de espiroquetemia. Concluiu-se que a infecção por B. anserina determinou nas aves do Grupo 1 alterações hematológicas compatíveis com uma infecção bacteriana de moderada gravidade, evoluindo para auto-cura, nas condições experimentais estabelecidas neste trabalho.Avian spirochaetosis is a cosmopolite acute septicemic disease of many avian species, caused by Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891. The present study assesses the estimate of the hematological alterations of Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with B. anserina by vector Argas

  9. Genomic variability in Mexican chicken population using Copy Number Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Gorla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNVs are polymorphisms which influence phenotypic variation and are an important source of genetic variability [1]. In Mexico the backyard poultry population is a unique widespread Creole chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus population, an undefined cross among different breeds brought to Mexico from Europe and under natural selection for almost 500 years [2-3]. The aim of this study was to investigate genomic variation in the Mexican chicken population using CNVs. A total of 256 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array were used in the analyses. The individual CNV calling, based on log-R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was performed using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM of PennCNV software on the autosomes [4-5]. CNVs were summarized to CNV regions (CNVRs at a population level (i.e. overlapping CNVs, using BEDTools. The HMM detected a total of 1924 CNVs in the genome of 256 samples resulting, at population level, in 1216 CNV regions, of which 959 gains, 226 losses and 31 complex CNVRs (i.e. containing both losses and gains, covering a total of 47 Mb of sequence length corresponding to 5,12 % of the chicken galGal4 assembly autosome. A comparison among this study and 7 previous reports about CNVs in chicken was performed, finding that the 1,216 CNVRs detected in this study overlap with 617 regions (51% mapped by others studies.   This study allowed a deep insight into the structural variation in the genome of unselected Mexican chicken population, which up to now has not been never genetically characterized with SNP markers. Based on a cluster analysis (pvclust – R package on CNV markers the population, even if presenting extreme morphological variation, does not resulted divided in differentiated genetic subpopulations. Finally this study provides a CNV map based on the 600K SNP chip array jointly with a genome-wide gene copy number estimates in Mexican chicken population.

  10. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  11. Analyzing the effects of co-expression of chick (Gallus gallus) melanocortin receptors with either chick MRAP1 or MRAP2 in CHO cells on sensitivity to ACTH(1-24) or ACTH(1-13)NH2: Implications for the avian HPA axis and avian melanocortin circuits in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexa L; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Kawashima, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Davis, Perry; Dores, Robert M

    2018-01-15

    In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver. Mrap1 mRNA could be detected in adrenal tissue, but not in any of the other tissues, and mrap2 mRNA was also detected in the adrenal gland. Finally, all five melanocortin receptors mRNAs could be detected in the adrenal gland; mc2r and mc5r mRNAs were the most abundant. To evaluate any potential interactions between MRAP1 and the MCRs that may occur in adrenal cells, individual chick mcr cDNA constructs were transiently expressed in CHO cells either in the presence or absence of a chick mrap1 cDNA, and the transfected cells were stimulated with hACTH(1-24) at concentrations ranging from 10 -13 M to 10 -6 M. As expected, MC2R required co-expression with MRAP1 for functional expression; whereas, co-expression of cMC3R with cMRAP1 had no statistically significant effect on sensitivity to hACTH(1-24). However, co-expression of MC4R and MC5R with MRAP1, increased sensitivity for ACTH(1-24) by approximately 35 fold and 365 fold, respectively. However, co-expressing of cMRAP2 with these melanocortin receptors had no effect on sensitivity to hACTH(1-24). Since the real-time PCR analysis detected mrap2 mRNA and mc4r mRNA in the hypothalamus, the interaction between cMC4R and cMRAP2 with respect to sensitivity to ACTH(1-13)NH 2 stimulation was also evaluated. However, no effect, either positive or negative, was observed. Finally, the highest levels of mc5r mRNA were detected in liver cells. This observation raises the possibility that in one-day old chicks, activation of the HPA axis may also involve a physiological response from liver cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

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    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  13. Effect of season and age on Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen characteristics: A 4-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Blesbois, E

    2017-09-01

    The reproductive potential of the adult males is expected to vary with age/season and largely differ not only in closely related avian species but even in subspecies, breeds and/or strains of the same species. Thus, it is pre-requisite to have knowledge of seminal parameters to achieve maximum production potential of at-risk species for ex situ in vitro conservation programs. A 4-year study was designed to evaluate the effect of age and season (spring, summer, autumn and winter) on semen characteristics of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) in a retrospective manner. Semen ejaculates (n = 1148) were regularly collected from eight adult cocks 6 to 54 months of age. Quantitative and qualitative semen parameters viz; volume (μL), concentration (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), total sperm number per ejaculate (1 × 10 9  mL -1 ), motility (%), viability (%), plasma membrane integrity (%), acrosome integrity (%) and semen quality factor were recorded. A chronological increasing trend with age of most sperm quantitative and qualitative traits (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number per ejaculate, plasma membrane integrity, viability, acrosomal integrity and semen quality factor) was observed. The highest values were observed at four years of age (P jungle fowl exhibits an evolution of sperm production that greatly differs in many points from other fowl sub-species. It is suggested that semen ejaculates of highest quality achieved for semen banking at the age of four year in the spring season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  15. Potency of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chicken and Japanese quail embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Aleksieva, Angelika; Boulanger, Emily; Brandenburg, Jonas; Johnston, Theresa; Malinova, Asya; Head, Jessica A

    2018-01-19

    Birds are receptors of concern for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and yet limited data describing the relative potency of PAH congeners are available for avian species. Here, we determine embryonic LD50 values for 5 PAH congeners in chicken (Gallus gallus) and one PAH congener in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Graded concentrations of each test compound were injected into the air cell of chicken or quail eggs before incubation. Embryos were monitored through development (quail) or hatching (chicken). All PAHs tested caused dose-dependent increases in embryo mortality but few other effects (e.g. weight changes, deformities) were observed. In chicken, windows of developmental sensitivity were identified between embryonic days 4-9 and 20-22. The rank order potency of benzo[k]fluoranthene (76 µg/kg) ≈ dibenz[ah]anthracene (83 µg/kg) > indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (325 µg/kg) > benzo[a]pyrene (461 µg/kg) > benz[a]anthracene (529 µg/kg) corresponded well with previous in vitro estimates in birds. Previously published ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) EC 50 values from cultured chicken embryo hepatocytes were highly predictive of our LD 50 values (p Japanese quail eggs were injected with the most potent PAH - benzo[k]fluoranthene. We found that chicken and quail were nearly equally sensitive to BkF. These results contribute to our developing understanding of variability in responses to PAHs among congeners and species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  17. The Combined Application of the Caco-2 Cell Bioassay Coupled with In Vivo (Gallus gallus Feeding Trial Represents an Effective Approach to Predicting Fe Bioavailability in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Tako

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent poultry (Gallus gallus feeding trials coupled with in vitro analyses of Fe-biofortified crops will be compared to the parallel human efficacy studies which used the same varieties and harvests of the Fe-biofortified crops. Similar to the human studies, these trials were aimed to assess the potential effects of regular consumption of these enhanced staple crops on maintenance or improvement of iron status. The results demonstrate a strong agreement between the in vitro/in vivo screening approach and the parallel human studies. These observations therefore indicate that the in vitro/Caco-2 cell and Gallus gallus models can be integral tools to develop varieties of staple food crops and predict their effect on iron status in humans. The cost-effectiveness of this approach also means that it can be used to monitor the nutritional stability of the Fe-biofortified crop once a variety has released and integrated into the food system. These screening tools therefore represent a significant advancement to the field for crop development and can be applied to ensure the sustainability of the biofortification approach.

  18. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a novel parvovirus isolated from chickens in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Huang, Li; Fan, Qin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Leyi

    2016-11-01

    A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), is now endemic among chickens in China. To explore the genetic diversity of ChPV strains, we determined the first complete genome sequence of a novel ChPV isolate (GX-CH-PV-7) identified in chickens in Guang Xi, China, and showed moderate genome sequence similarity to reference strains. Analysis showed that the viral genome sequence is 86.4 %-93.9 % identical to those of other ChPVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly emergent GX-CH-PV-7 is closely related to Gallus gallus enteric parvovirus isolate ChPV 798 from the USA, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. The complete DNA sequence is 4612 bp long with an A+T content of 56.66 %. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a previously unidentified ChPV strain to elucidate its origin and evolutionary status.

  19. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

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    Thomson Pippa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC, eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken.

  20. Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scanavini Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available IBDV Gm 11 (Simbios eleven-molecular group has been detected since 1997 in many farms of commercial broilers and layers causing high mortality (2 to 15% and severe macro and microscopic damage in cloacal bursae, spleen, thymus, kidney and liver. Five serial passages of 2050/97-Gm 11 IBDV sample by CAM route in SPF chicken's embryonated eggs did not elicit increased embryo mortality. High mortality (100% of 21 day-old SPF leghorn chickens and severe bursal and splenic lesions were seen from 24 up to 48 hours after eye-drop inoculation of 2050/97 strain (50 mL of 10-2 dilution of 10% bursae homogenate. Mortality was not detected when vaccinated SPF and broiler chickens were inoculated. One dead bird was found among ten challenged unvaccinated broilers. Variations in the intensity of cloacal bursae injury and spleen response were found between unvaccinated and vaccinated broiler chickens. IBDV antibodies were detected by ELISA test in almost all vaccinated SPF chickens before challenge while low number of commercial vaccinated and unvaccinated broilers were serologically positive (0 to 3 birds in 18. Increasing IBDV antibody titers were detected after challenge with 2050/97 strain and highest GMTs were found in broilers. It was concluded that 2050/97 strain is a highly virulent IBDV and SPF leghorn chickens immunized with BV8 intermediate vaccine strain were resistant to the challenge. Increasing susceptibility was found from experimental groups of unvaccinated broilers to vaccinated broilers and to unvaccinated SPF birds. It is discussed that passive immunity was involved in the rate of protection of challenged unvaccinated broiler and in the immune response impairment after vaccination of broilers chicks. The use of a constant virus suspension with known potency to challenge the experimental birds was suitable to evaluate vaccination efficacy. Evaluation of bursal and splenic responses at early and delayed time after challenge were useful to

  1. QTL detection for coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) resistance in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F₂ cross, using a medium-density SNP panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, Nicola; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Filangi, Olivier; Romé, Hélène; Gourichon, David; Répérant, Jean-Michel; Le Roy, Pascale; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Demeure, Olivier

    2014-02-19

    Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied. Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL. The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between different models and marker densities.

  2. QTL detection for coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) resistance in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross, using a medium-density SNP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied. Results Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL. Conclusions The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between

  3. ESTs and putative line-specific (broiler and layer SNPs identified in genes expressed in Gallus gallus pituitary and hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Sanches da Silva Cassoli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian poultry industry has reached a high level of development in both meat and egg production as a result of constant technological modernization. Further improvements can be achieved through genomics, but before this can be accomplished, a better understanding of gene expression profiles and nucleotide polymorphisms is necessary. Since animal physiology is directly or indirectly controlled by the pituitary and hypothalamus, the aim of the present work was to identify and analyze genes expressed in these tissues in chicken lines with different growth potential. Two pituitary and hypothalamus cDNA libraries from 21 day broiler (TT and layer (CC chickens lines were constructed and allowed identification of 3,074 unique sequences and 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and SNPs identified in this study represents an important resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes responsible for growth in chicken.

  4. Histology of the Ovary of the Laying Hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, K Denise; Bird, Karyn E; Cherian, Gita; Löhr, Christiane V

    2017-12-11

    The laying hen ( Gallus domesticus ) is a robust animal model for epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of animal models is critical in identifying early disease markers and developing and testing chemotherapies. We describe the microscopic characteristics of the normally functioning laying hen ovary and proximal oviduct to establish baselines from which lesions associated with ovarian cancer can be more readily identified. Ovaries and oviducts were collected from 18-month-old laying hens ( n = 18) and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections were examined by light microscopy. Both post-ovulatory follicular regression and atresia of small follicles produce remnant clusters of vacuolated cells with no histological evidence that scar tissue persists. Infiltrates of heterophils are associated with atresia of small follicles, a relationship not previously documented in laying hen ovaries. Because these tissues can be mistaken for cancerous lesions, we present a detailed histological description of remnant Wolffian tissues in the laying hen ovary. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin produced a positive response in ovarian surface epithelium and staining for vimentin produced a positive response in granulosa cells of follicles. Epithelial cells lining glands of the remnant epoöphoron had a positive response to both pancytokeratin and vimentin, a result also observed in women.

  5. Breed and Sex Differences in the Gross Anatomy, Digesta pH and Histomorphology of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Gallus Gallus Domesticus

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    M Mabelebele

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A study was conducted to investigate the influence of breed and sex in the gross anatomy, digesta and histology of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. Chickens were slaughtered at 90 days of age and the pH of the digestive organs was measured immediately after slaughter. The digestive organ weights and lengths of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens were measured. Tissue samples of the duodenum, ileum and jejunal from each treatment group were collected and histologically examined. Higher (p<0.05 gizzard pH values were observed in male and female of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. The jejunal and ileal pH values were lower (p<0.05 for Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens. The absolute weights of the gastrointestinal tract, crop, proventriculus and gizzard were lighter (p<0.05 in Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens. The relative organ weights of the GIT, proventriculus, gizzard and caeca were higher (p<0.05 in Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens aged 90 days. Male chickens had higher (p<0.05 relative organ weights than female chickens. Interactions between breed and sex influenced (p<0.05 the absolute weights of the crop, proventriculus, caeca and large intestine. Ileum villus heights of female Venda chickens were higher (p<0.05 than those of female and male Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. The male and female Ross 308 broiler chickens had higher (p<0.05 ileum and duodenum crypt depths than male and female Venda chickens. The duodenum and ileum villus height/crypt depth ratios were higher (p<0.05 in male and female Venda chickens than Ross 308 broiler chickens. In overall, male broiler chicken performed better.

  6. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

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    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  7. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii...... from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed infection in intermediate hosts such as chickens may facilitate genetic exchange between different parasite lineages...... died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci...

  8. Características do desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, em temperaturas e períodos diferentes de incubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Dias

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, foram incubados ovos nas temperaturas de 34,0ºC, 37,5ºC e 40,0ºC, nos períodos de 48, 72 e 96 horas. Avaliaram-se em 81 embriões o comprimento cefalocaudal, o peso total e 6 características morfológicas, utilizando-se um protocolo referindo o desenvolvimento como padrão, acelerado ou defasado. Os dados relativos ao nível de diferenciação das estruturas embrionárias demonstram que os fatores temperatura e tempo de incubação interagem nos processos de morfogênese.

  9. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  10. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%.

  11. Genetic evidence from Indian red jungle fowl corroborates multiple domestication of modern day chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakati RD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication of chicken is believed to have occurred in Southeast Asia, especially in Indus valley. However, non-inclusion of Indian red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus murghi in previous studies has left a big gap in understanding the relationship of this major group of birds. In the present study, we addressed this issue by analyzing 76 Indian birds that included 56 G. g. murghi (RJF, 16 G. g. domesticus (domestic chicken and 4 G. sonneratii (Grey JF using both microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D-loop sequences. We also compared the D-loop sequences of Indian birds with those of 779 birds obtained from GenBank. Results Microsatellite marker analyses of Indian birds indicated an average FST of 0.126 within G. g. murghi, and 0.154 within G. g. domesticus while it was more than 0.2 between the two groups. The microsatellite-based phylogenetic trees showed a clear separation of G. g. domesticus from G. g. murghi, and G. sonneratii. Mitochondrial DNA based mismatch distribution analyses showed a lower Harpending's raggedness index in both G. g. murghi (0.001515 and in Indian G. g. domesticus (0.0149 birds indicating population expansion. When meta analysis of global populations of 855 birds was carried out using median joining haplotype network, 43 Indian birds of G. g. domesticus (19 haplotypes were distributed throughout the network sharing haplotypes with the RJFs of different origins. Conclusion Our results suggest that the domestication of chicken has occurred independently in different locations of Asia including India. We found evidence for domestication of Indian birds from G. g. spadiceus and G. g. gallus as well as from G. g. murghi, corroborating multiple domestication of Indian and other domestic chicken. In contrast to the commonly held view that RJF and domestic birds hybridize in nature, the present study shows that G. g. murghi is relatively pure. Further, the study also suggested that the chicken

  12. BDNF mediated activity dependent maturation of visual Wulst following prenatal repetitive auditory stimulation at a critical developmental period in domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saborni; Sharma, Hanuman Prasad; Nag, Tapas C; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2014-10-01

    The developing visual circuitry attains its mature adult pattern through the process of activity-dependent refinement in which photic stimulation plays the major role. However, auditory stimulation can also facilitate the developing visual Wulst synaptic plasticity and postnatal perceptual behavior, though the underlying mechanism is unclear. We exposed the fertilized eggs of white Leghorn chickens during incubation to either species-specific calls or no sound for varying time periods depending on the functional development of the auditory and/or visual systems. The visual evoked potential (VEP) from the Wulst was recorded at embryonic days (E) 19, 20 and posthatch days (PH) 1-3, to assess functional maturation. A significant attenuation in latencies and higher amplitudes at PH1-3 in the stimulated groups that received exposure during visual system maturation, suggest beneficial effect of auditory inputs only during critical periods. Concomitant with this, there was a significant increase in the expression of BDNF and levels of neurotransmitters GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin from E18 only in both hemispheres of the visual Wulst. A significant inter-hemispheric difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results suggest the role of BDNF in activity driven structural and functional maturation of the visual system following prenatal repetitive auditory stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  14. The Ihh signal is essential for regulating proliferation and hypertrophy of cultured chicken chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R S; Zhou, Z L; Luo, J W; Zhang, H; Hou, J F

    2013-10-01

    The Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signal plays a vital role in regulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. To investigate its function in postnatal chicken (Gallus gallus) chondrocytes, cyclopamine was used to inhibit Ihh signaling. The MTT and ALP assays revealed the downgrade-proliferation and upgrade-differentiation of chondrocytes. To further elucidate the mechanism, the mRNA expression levels of Ihh, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), Gli-2, Bcl-2, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP-6), type X collagen (Col X) and type II collagen (Col II) were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, and the protein expressions of Ihh, Col X, and Col II were determined using Western blot analysis. After the Ihh signal was blocked, chondrocytes demonstrated high expression levels of PTHrP and Col X and low levels of Gli-2, BMP-6, Bcl-2 and Col II although Ihh expression was increased. Based on these results, the Ihh signal is essential for balancing chicken chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy, and the regulatory function of PTHrP acts in an Ihh-dependent manner. Furthermore, BMP-6 and Bcl-2 played roles in maintaining the development of chondrocytes and may be downstream regulatory factors of Ihh signaling. © 2013.

  15. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  16. Reproductive performance assessment of two White Leghorn lines free of endogenous viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the chicken lines that USDA-ARS Avian Disease & Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) have developed and maintained are line 0 and line 0.TVB*S1 (also known as rapid feathering susceptible or RFS). Line 0 was developed in the 1980s (Bacon et al., 2000), and RFS was developed in 2007 (Zhang et al., 2008)...

  17. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...... in detecting S. enterica as the 60 faecal samples. In broiler flocks, 5 pairs of socks were used both in the routine samples taken at about 3 weeks of age for the establishment of infection of the flock, and as one of the follow-up samples taken shortly before slaughter age, which means that the only notable...

  18. Genetic parameters for egg and related characteristics of white Leghorn hens in a subtropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Sabri

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of heritability and phenotypic and genetic correlations between egg number, weight, specific gravity, mass, and estimated shell weight were obtained, along with phenotypic and genetic correlations of specific gravity and weight with body weight, weight change, metabolizable energy intake, residual feed consumption, and weight and age at sexual maturity. Data were from 350 White Leghorn hens by 50 sires and 175 dams. Heritabilities of the egg traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.55, increasing with age of bird from 26 to 54 weeks of age. Their standard errors ranged from 0.07 (all data to 0.17 (26 to 29 weeks. Phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.80 to -0.13, and genetic correlations from 0.91 to -0.27, depending on egg trait. The highest phenotypic and genetic correlations were between egg number and mass. Genetic correlations for specific gravity and estimated shell weight were, with body weight, -0.02 and 0.56; weight change, 0.29 and 0.44; daily metabolizable energy intake, -0.10 and 0.33; residual consumption, -0.16 and 0.11; age at sexual maturity, -0.61 and -0.46, and weight at sexual maturity, 0.02 and 0.63. Results should contribute to the design of efficient selection programs for economically important traits in hens.Estimativas de herdabilidade e correlações fenotípicas e genéticas entre o número de ovos, peso, gravidade específica, massa e peso estimado da casca foram obtidas, assim como correlações fenotípicas e genéticas de gravidade específica e peso com peso corporal, alterações ponderais, ingestão de energia metabolizável, consumo alimentar residual e peso e idade ao atingir a maturidade sexual. Os dados foram obtidos de 350 galinhas da raça Leghorn Branca obtidas de 50 pais e 175 mães. A herdabilidade dos caracteres dos ovos variou de 0,20 a 0,55, aumentando com a idade da ave de 26 a 54 semanas. O desvio padrão variou de 0,07 (todos os dados a 0,17 (26 a 29 semanas. As correlações fenotípicas variaram

  19. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  20. Alteration of Hepatic Gene Expression along with the Inherited Phenotype of Acquired Fatty Liver in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver is a widespread disease in chickens that causes a decrease in egg production and even death. The characteristics of the inherited phenotype of acquired fatty liver and the molecular mechanisms underlying it, however, are largely unknown. In the current study, fatty liver was induced in 3 breeds by a high-fat (HF diet and a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet. The results showed that the dwarf Jingxing-Huang (JXH chicken was more susceptible to fatty liver compared with the layer White Leghorns (WL and local Beijing-You (BJY breeds. In addition, it was found that the paternal fatty livers induced by HF diet in JXH chickens were inherited. Compared to birds without fatty liver in the control group, both offsprings and their sires with fatty livers in the paternal group exhibited altered hepatic gene expression profiles, including upregulation of several key genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism (ACACA, FASN, SCD, ACSL5, FADS2, FABP1, APOA4 and ME1. This study uniquely revealed that acquired fatty liver in cocks can be inherited. The hepatic gene expression profiles were altered in chickens with the inherited phenotype of acquired paternal fatty liver and several genes could be candidate biomarkers.

  1. Negative selection of self-reactive chicken B cells requires B cell receptor signaling and is independent of the bursal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davani, Dariush; Pancer, Zeev; Cheroutre, Hilde; Ratcliffe, Michael J H

    2014-04-01

    Although the negative selection of self-reactive B cells in the bone marrow of mammals has been clearly demonstrated, it remains unclear in models of gut-associated B cell lymphopoiesis, such as that of the chicken (Gallus gallus). We have generated chicken surface IgM-related receptors in which the diversity region of the lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) has been fused to the C region of chicken surface IgM (Tμ). Expression of a VLR:Tμ receptor with specificity for PE supported normal development of B cells, whereas a VLR:Tμ receptor specific to hen egg lysozyme (a self-antigen with respect to chicken B cells) induced, in vivo, complete deletion of VLR(HEL)Tμ-expressing B cells. In ovo i.v. injection of PE resulted in deletion of VLR(PE)Tμ-expressing Β cells in the embryo spleen, demonstrating that negative selection was independent of the bursal microenvironment. Although chickens transduced with a murine CD8α:chicken Igα fusion protein contained B cells expressing mCD8α:chIgα, cotransfection of the mCD8α:chIgα construct, together with thymus leukemia Ag (a natural ligand for mCD8α), resulted in reduced levels of mCD8α:chIgα-expressing B cells in inverse proportion to the levels of thymus leukemia Ag-expressing cells. Deletion of mCD8α:chIgα-expressing cells was specific for B cells and required active signaling downstream of the mCD8α:chIgα receptor. Ag-mediated negative selection of developing chicken B cells can therefore occur independently of the bursal microenvironment and is dependent on signaling downstream of the BCR.

  2. NF-κB-mediated inflammation correlates with calcium overload under arsenic trioxide-induced myocardial damage in Gallus gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwen; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongjing; He, Ying; Li, Jinglun; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic is a known environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health. Due to the biological accumulation, arsenic produces a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. Here, our objective was to evaluate myocardial damage and determine the potential mechanism under arsenic exposure in chickens. Arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) (1.25 mg/kg BW, corresponding 15 mg/kg feed) was administered as basal diet to male Hy-line chickens (one-day-old) for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The results showed that As 2 O 3 -induced histological and ultrastructural damage in heart accompanied with significantly Ca 2+ overload and increased the activities of myocardial enzymes. Moreover, As 2 O 3 exposure significantly increased (P CACNA1S and interleukin-10 were decreased (P < 0.05) by As 2 O 3 exposure at 4, 8 and 12 weeks as compared with the corresponding control group. Western blot results showed that As 2 O 3 exposure decreased the expression of SERCA and SLC8A1 protein, while the expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, iNOS and PMCA1 increased compared with the corresponding control group. Additionally, correlation analysis and protein-protein interaction prediction shown that NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response have a function correlation with calcium (Ca) regulation-related genes. In conclusion, this study indicated that As 2 O 3 -induced inflammatory response might dependent on Ca overload in myocardial damage of chickens. Our work has implications for the development of potential therapeutic approaches by resisting Ca overload for arsenic-induced myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression patterns of chicken neuregulin 3 in association with copy number variation and frameshift deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Aoya, Daiki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-07-21

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) plays a key role in central nervous system development and is a strong candidate for human mental disorders. Thus, genetic variation in NRG3 may have some impact on a variety of phenotypes in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recently, genome-wide screening for short insertions and deletions in chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes has provided useful information about structural variation in functionally important genes. NRG3 is one such gene that has a putative frameshift deletion in exon 2, resulting in premature termination of translation. Our aims were to characterize the structure of chicken NRG3 and to compare expression patterns between NRG3 isoforms. Depending on the presence or absence of the 2-bp deletion in chicken NRG3, 3 breeds (red junglefowl [RJF], Boris Brown [BB], and Hinai-jidori [HJ]) were genotyped using flanking primers. In the commercial breeds (BB and HJ), approximately 45% of individuals had at least one exon 2 allele with the 2-bp deletion, whereas there was no deletion allele in RJF. The lack of a homozygous mutant indicated the existence of duplicated NRG3 segments in the chicken genome. Indeed, highly conserved elements consisting of exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, and part of intron 2 were found in the reference RJF genome, and quantitative PCR detected copy number variation (CNV) between breeds as well as between individuals. The copy number of conserved elements was significantly higher in chicks harboring the 2-bp deletion in exon 2. We identified 7 novel transcript variants using total mRNA isolated from the amygdala. Novel isoforms were found to lack the exon 2 cassette, which probably harbored the premature termination codon. The relative transcription levels of the newly identified isoforms were almost the same between chick groups with and without the 2-bp deletion, while chicks with the deletion showed significant suppression of the expression of previously reported isoforms. A putative frameshift deletion and CNV in chicken

  4. Effect of pentoxifylline on histopathological changes in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head: experimental study in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, H Yener; Ofluoglu, Onder; Aktas, Mustafa; Topal, Cumhur; Yildiz, Muzaffer

    2012-07-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a derivative of methylxanthine and is used in peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular diseases for its effect on the regulation of blood circulation. We investigated whether PTX could be beneficial for femoral head osteonecrosis associated with steroid through these effects. Sixty mature Leghorn type chickens were chosen and divided into three groups. The 25 chickens in group A were given a weekly dose of 3 mg/kg/week methylprednisolone acetate intramuscularly. Four chickens in group B died after the first drug injection and were excluded from the study. Therefore, the remaining 21 chickens in group B were additionally given 25 mg/kg/day pentoxifylline intramuscularly, along with the steroid medication as given in group A. The ten chickens in group C were not given any injections, as they were accepted as the control group. After the sacrifice of the animals at week 14, both femoral heads were taken from each animal. The animals which died along the course of the study also underwent pathological examination but were not a part of the statistical analysis. In this study, steroid induced femoral head osteonecrosis has been experimentally observed in chickens after high doses of corticosteroid therapy. The chickens were given pentoxifylline in order to prevent the effects of steroid on bones and bone marrow. The results showed that chickens are suitable osteonecrosis models, and that steroid causes adipogenesis and necrosis in the bone marrow and the death of the subchondral bone. The results of this study hint at the assumption that PTX may have a positive benefit on ONFH. PTX seems to minimise the effects of the steroid and reduce the incidence of ONFH.

  5. Cooled perch effects on performance and well-being traits in caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J Y; Hester, P Y; Makagon, M M; Vezzoli, G; Gates, R S; Xiong, Y J; Cheng, H W

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effects of chilled water cooling perches on hen performance and physiological and behavioral parameters under "natural" high temperatures during the 2013 summer with a 4-hour acute heating episode. White Leghorns at 16 wk of age (N = 162) were randomly assigned to 18 cages (n = 9) arranged into 3 units. Each unit was assigned to one of the 3 treatments through 32 wk of age: 1) cooled perches, 2) air perches, and 3) no perches. Chilled water (10°C) was circulated through the cooled perches when cage ambient temperature exceeded 25°C. At the age of 27.6 wk, hens were subjected to a 4-hour acute heating episode of 33.3°C and plasma corticosterone was determined within 2 hours. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake and egg and shell quality were measured at 5-week intervals. Feather condition, foot health, adrenal and liver weights, plasma corticosterone, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA were determined at the end of the study at 32 wk of age. The proportion of hens per cage perching, feeding, drinking, panting, and wing spreading was evaluated over one d every 5 wks and on the d of acute heat stress. There were no treatment effects on the measured physiological and production traits except for nail length. Nails were shorter for cooled perch hens than control (P = 0.002) but not air perch hens. Panting and wing spread were observed only on the day of acute heat stress. The onset of both behaviors was delayed for cooled perch hens, and they perched more than air perch hens following acute heat stress (P = 0.001) and at the age 21.4 wk (P = 0.023). Cooled perch hens drank less than control (P = 0.019) but not air perch hens at the age 21.4 wk. These results indicate that thermally cooled perches reduced thermoregulatory behaviors during acute heat stress, but did not affect their performance and physiological parameters under the ambient temperature imposed during this study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  6. The ability of White Leghorn hens with trimmed comb and wattles to thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Hester, P Y

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that each year over 19 million pullets in the United States have their combs partially trimmed at a young age to improve egg production and feed efficiency. A possible disadvantage of trimming is that the comb and wattles may be essential for thermoregulation during hot weather allowing for conductive cooling of the blood through vasodilation of superficial vessels in these integumentary tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial comb and wattle removal, performed at 21 d of age, on the ability of White Leghorns to thermoregulate before, during, and after an imposed heating episode that averaged 34.6°C for 50.5 h. An increase in mortality at 20 h and body temperature at 48 h post initiation of the heating episode demonstrated that hens with trimmed comb and wattles were not able to cope with heat stress as effectively as controls. The increase in wattle temperature in controls as compared to trimmed hens during the heating episode and following heat stress provides supportive evidence that blood pools to the peripheral surface for conductive heat loss. During high temperatures typical of summer, trimmed hens attempted to compensate for their lack of ability to transfer heat from their comb and wattles to the environment through increased proportion of panting and wing spreading. Under less extreme conditions with lowered ambient temperatures, the trimming of the comb and wattles did not impair the ability of hens to thermoregulate, as body temperatures and behavior were similar to controls with no mortality. Egg weight was the only production parameter adversely affected by the trimming of the comb and wattles as compared to controls. The implication is that hens need their combs and wattles to thermoregulate effectively during periods of high environmental temperature. Pullets should not be subjected to a comb and wattle trim if they are housed in laying facilities that are not appropriately cooled during the

  7. Keratinase from newly isolated strain of thermophilic Bacillus for chicken feed modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, Ditya; Tsurayya, Nur; Koentjoro, Maharani Pertiwi; Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho

    2017-06-01

    Keratinase producing bacteria were isolated from Dieng crater and Mojokerto chicken farm. The screening was done by clear zone method. The strains were selected as they produced clear zones suggesting the presence of keratinolytic activity. The clear zone on FM media depended on both the source and activity of keratinase produced by keratinolytic bacteria. Based on keratinase production and activity, Bacillus sp. SLII-1 was selected for further studies. Keratinase produced by Bacillus sp. SLII-1 capable of producing crude keratinase with 2.08 (mg/second)/ml enzyme activity which able to increase digestibility of feather meal until 22.06% based on soluble protein level. Broiler chicken (Gallus domesticus) that consumed feed containing 5% feather meal indicated production performance of 1194.8 gram/head of feed consumption, 567 gram/head of addition of weight, and 2.1 of feed conversion ratio. An enzymatic engineered chicken feathers waste showed the performance of broiler chicken that is better than soybean meal as conventional sources of protein but could not yet substitute the use of conventional protein sources of fishmeal.

  8. Genetic parameters and genome-wide association study of hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum (HVP) has recently garnered much attention in the poultry industry because of the possible risk to the health of affected animals and the damage it causes to the appearance of commercial chicken carcasses. However, the heritable characters of HVP remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic parameters of HVP by genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results HVP was found to be influenced by genetic factors, with a heritability score of 0.33. HVP had positive genetic correlations with growth and carcass traits, such as leg muscle weight (rg = 0.34), but had negative genetic correlations with immune traits, such as the antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (rg = −0.42). The GWAS for HVP using 39,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated the genetic factors associated with HVP displayed an additive effect rather than a dominance effect. In addition, we determined that three genomic regions, involving the 50.5–54.0 Mb region of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 (GGA1), the 58.5–60.5 Mb region of GGA1, and the 10.5–12.0 Mb region of GGA20, were strongly associated (P 50% of additive genetic variance for HVP. This study also confirmed that expression of BMP7, which codes for a bone morphogenetic protein and is located in one of the candidate regions, was significantly higher in the visceral peritoneum of Huiyang Beard chickens with HVP than in that of chickens without pigmentation (P < 0.05). Conclusions HVP is a quantitative trait with moderate heritability. Genomic variants resulting in HVP were identified on GGA1 and GGA20, and expression of the BMP7 gene appears to be upregulated in HVP-affected chickens. Findings from this study should be used as a basis for further functional validation of candidate genes involved in HVP. PMID:23679099

  9. Correlation in chicken between the marker LEI0258 alleles and Major Histocompatibility Complex sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazara, Olympe; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Chang, Chi-Seng

    Background The LEI0258 marker is located within the B region of the chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and is surprisingly well associated with serology. Therefore, the correlation between the LEI0258 alleles and the MHC class I and the class II alleles at the level of sequences...... is worth investigating in chickens. Here we describe to which extent the LEI0258 alleles are associated with alleles of classical class I genes and non-classical class II genes, in reference animals as well as local breeds with unknown MHC haplotypes. Methods For the class I region, in an exploratory...... project, we studied 10 animals from 3 breeds: Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and Fayoumi chickens, by cloning and sequencing B-F1 and B-F2 cDNA from exon 1 to 3’UTR. For the class II region, we reconstructed haplotypes of the 8.8 kb genomic region encompassing three non-classical class II genes: B-DMA, B...

  10. Transcriptional profiling of chicken immunity-related genes during infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Charlotte E; Theron, Chrispian W; Jansen, Arina C; Bragg, Robert R

    2014-04-15

    Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of Infectious Coryza (IC), which is an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens. The occurrence of outbreaks has emphasized the significance of the disease globally in the chicken industry. Studies have demonstrated that early immune responses are critical in defining the severity and physiological outcome of an infection. This prompted the need to investigate the regulation of immune functions by the number of genes that are expressed during the chickens' response to A. paragallinarum serovar C3 insult. This study consisted of 15 male leghorn birds that were scored into groups (score 1, 2, 3) according to severity of symptoms after they were challenged. Expression patterns of immunity-related genes were followed as symptoms progressed from a disease score of 1 to 3. The data proposed that initial pathogen recognition was either through Toll-like receptors 2 or 4. Unique expression patterns were observed such as the up-regulation of TLR7 which recognizes viral-like particles. This substantiated the presence of prophages reported in the genome of A. paragallinarum. Significant down-regulation of metabolic pathways was observed, which led us to hypothesize that the host may rely on an oxidative stress response as initial immune response. The data sheds light onto the mechanisms that govern the immune system towards infection and/or towards the initial response to infections with highly virulent A. paragallinarum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Immune Resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Chicken Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A P; Hauck, R; Zhou, H; Gallardo, R A

    2017-09-01

    Genetic resistance or susceptibility to infectious diseases has been largely associated with the avian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Our goal was to determine resistance and susceptibility of MHC B haplotype in congenic and inbred chicken lines in order to establish a resistant-susceptible model. Eight congenic lines (253/B18, 254/B15, 330/B21, 312/B24, 331/B2, 335/B19, 336/B21, and 342/BO), two inbred lines (003/B17 and 077/B19), and three commercial lines (white leghorn, brown layers, and broilers) were used in two experiments. We analyzed and compared immunologic responses and the effect of challenge by measuring viral load, IgG and IgA humoral responses, histopathology and histomorphometry, clinical signs, and immune cell populations in the different MHC B haplotype lines. We found that respiratory signs, tracheal deciliation and inflammation, airsacculitis, viral shedding in tears, and local humoral responses were good parameters to determine resistance or susceptibility. Based on these results, we identified 331/B2 as the most resistant and 335/B19 as the most susceptible congenic chicken lines. These two lines will be used as an animal model in subsequent experiments to understand the mechanisms by which the immune system in chickens generates resistance to infectious bronchitis virus.

  12. Repetitive auditory stimulation at a critical prenatal period modulates the postnatal functional development of the auditory as well as visual system in chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saborni; Nag, Tapas C; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Mathur, Rashmi; Jain, Suman

    2013-09-01

    The extrinsic sensory stimulation plays a crucial role in the formation and integration of sensory modalities during development. Postnatal behavior is thereby influenced by the type and timing of presentation of prenatal sensory stimuli. In this study, fertilized eggs of white Leghorn chickens during incubation were exposed to either species-specific calls or no sound. To find the prenatal critical period when auditory stimulation can modulate visual system development, the former group was divided into three subgroups: in subgroup A (SGA), the stimulus was provided during embryonic day (E)10 to E16, in SGB E17- hatching, and in SGC E10-hatching. The auditory and visual perceptual learning was recorded at posthatch day (PH) 1-3, whereas synaptic plasticity (evident from synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression), was observed at E19, E20, and PH 1-3. An increased number of responders were observed in both auditory and visual preference tests at PH 1 following stimulation. Although a decrease in latency of entry and an increase in total time spent were observed in all stimulated groups, it was most significant in SGC in auditory preference and in SGB and SGC in visual preference test. The auditory cortex of SGC and visual Wulst of SGB and SGC revealed higher expression of synaptic proteins, compared to control and SGA. A significant inter-hemispheric and gender-based difference in expression was also found in all groups. These results indicate facilitation of postnatal behaviour and synaptogenesis in both auditory and visual systems following prenatal repetitive auditory stimulation, only when given during prenatal critical period of development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Avaliação morfológica do oviduto e qualidade de ovos de poedeiras comerciais (Gallus gallus) em diferentes fases de produção.

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima Naomi Takata

    2006-01-01

    As linhagens de poedeiras comerciais existentes atualmente no mercado foram melhoradas geneticamente para produzir o máximo de ovos a um custo mínimo. Um fato importante para a continuidade desta evolução, é o conhecimento celular do oviduto ("fabrica do ovo"). Na galinha (Gallus gallus) o oviduto é descrito como sendo um tubo muscular tortuoso, cujo comprimento é estimado entre 14 e 19 cm na fase de não postura e de 42 a 86 cm durante a fase de postura. Abre-se próximo ao ovário e termina na...

  14. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

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    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  15. Endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 is responsible for the tyrosinase-independent recessive white (mo(w and mottled (mo plumage phenotypes in the chicken.

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    Keiji Kinoshita

    Full Text Available A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo, which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mo(w for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mo(w /mo(w chicken and the panda (s/s mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2 gene, showed a mo(w/mo(w chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2 in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3-EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration.

  16. Endothelin Receptor B2 (EDNRB2) Is Responsible for the Tyrosinase-Independent Recessive White (mow) and Mottled (mo) Plumage Phenotypes in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keiji; Akiyama, Toyoko; Mizutani, Makoto; Shinomiya, Ai; Ishikawa, Akira; Younis, Hassan Hassan; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    A mutation that confers white plumage with black eyes was identified in the Minohiki breed of Japanese native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The white plumage, with a few partially pigmented feathers, was not associated with the tyrosinase gene, and displayed an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance against the pigmented phenotype. All F1 offspring derived from crosses with mottled chickens (mo/mo), which show characteristic pigmented feathers with white tips, had plumage with a mottled-like pattern. This result indicates that the white plumage mutation is a novel allele at the mo locus; we propose the gene symbol mow for this mutant allele. Furthermore, the F1 hybrid between the mow/mow chicken and the panda (s/s) mutant of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), whose causative gene is the endothelin receptor B2 (EDNRB2) gene, showed a mow/mow chicken-like plumage, suggesting the possibility that the mutations in parental species are alleles of the same gene, EDNRB2. Nucleotide sequencing of the entire coding region of EDNRB2 revealed a non-synonymous G1008T substitution, which causes Cys244Phe amino acid substitution in exon 5 (which is part of the extracellular loop between the putative fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of EDNRB2) in the mutant chicken. This Cys244Phe mutation was also present in individuals of four Japanese breeds with white plumage. We also identified a non-synonymous substitution leading to Arg332His substitution that was responsible for the mottled (mo/mo) plumage phenotype. These results suggest that the EDN3 (endothelin 3)–EDNRB2 signaling is essential for normal pigmentation in birds, and that the mutations of EDNRB2 may cause defective binding of the protein with endothelins, which interferes with melanocyte differentiation, proliferation, and migration. PMID:24466053

  17. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity on macro- and microchromosomes in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muir William M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken (Gallus gallus, like most avian species, has a very distinct karyotype consisting of many micro- and a few macrochromosomes. While it is known that recombination frequencies are much higher for micro- as compared to macrochromosomes, there is limited information on differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype diversity between these two classes of chromosomes. In this study, LD and haplotype diversity were systematically characterized in 371 birds from eight chicken populations (commercial lines, fancy breeds, and red jungle fowl across macro- and microchromosomes. To this end we sampled four regions of ~1 cM each on macrochromosomes (GGA1 and GGA2, and four 1.5 -2 cM regions on microchromosomes (GGA26 and GGA27 at a high density of 1 SNP every 2 kb (total of 889 SNPs. Results At a similar physical distance, LD, haplotype homozygosity, haploblock structure, and haplotype sharing were all lower for the micro- as compared to the macrochromosomes. These differences were consistent across populations. Heterozygosity, genetic differentiation, and derived allele frequencies were also higher for the microchromosomes. Differences in LD, haplotype variation, and haplotype sharing between populations were largely in line with known demographic history of the commercial chicken. Despite very low levels of LD, as measured by r2 for most populations, some haploblock structure was observed, particularly in the macrochromosomes, but the haploblock sizes were typically less than 10 kb. Conclusion Differences in LD between micro- and macrochromosomes were almost completely explained by differences in recombination rate. Differences in haplotype diversity and haplotype sharing between micro- and macrochromosomes were explained by differences in recombination rate and genotype variation. Haploblock structure was consistent with demography of the chicken populations, and differences in recombination rates between micro

  18. THE STRUCTURE AND FINE STRUCTURE OF TELENCEPHALIC WHITE MATTER IN GALLUS DOMESTICUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA DANIELA URDEŞ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In Gallus domesticus species, the cerebral emispheres are constituted by the grey and white matter. The white matter is located into emispheres’ center, integrating in its mass a number of nervous nuclei, while the grey matter, placed to the periphery and into the center of telencephalon, composes the cerebral cortex and telencephalic nervous nuclei. Histologically, the white matter is constituted by nervous mielinic prolongations (projection, association and commisural fibres, glial cells and blood vessels (including muscular arteriols originated from the leptomeningeal space. This data, based on our experiment, are illustrated by the most suggestive aspects, chosen to be presented in this paper work.

  19. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

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    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  20. Elevation of corticosteroid-binding globulin in Obese strain (OS) chickens: possible implications for the disturbed immunoregulation and the development of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, R.; Schauenstein, K.; Kroemer, G.; Schwarz, S.; Wick, G.

    1986-01-01

    Basal plasma levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) have been investigated in Obese strain (OS) chickens afflicted with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT). Corticosterone was determined radioimmunologically, and CBG by using a highly sensitive radioligand saturation assay. OS chickens displayed total corticosterone levels not different from healthy normal White Leghorn (NWL) chickens. CBG, however, was found to be twice as high in OS chickens as compared with their healthy counterparts, irrespective of sex or age. This quantitative difference in the CBG level is not compensated for by either altered affinity or specificity of the molecule. Furthermore, no differences were found in the response of OS and NWL lymphocytes to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. It was therefore assumed that OS animals are deficient in free, hormonally active corticosterone. An additional indication for such a diminished glucocorticoid tonus was that in vivo treatment of OS chickens with glucocorticoid hormones, thus increasing the free and active hormone fraction, normalizes the T cell hyperreactivity and significantly reduces thyroid infiltration. Possible pathophysiological implications of a diminished glucocorticoid tonus for spontaneous autoimmunity, as well as possible explanations for the beneficial effects of glucocorticoid treatment on the development of SAT, are discussed

  1. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

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    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  2. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  3. Estudo comparativo entre sevofluorano, halotano e isofluorano em Gallus domesticus Comparite evaluation with sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dambrosio Guimarães

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 30 frangos com 20 semanas de idade, pesando em média 2,90 ± 0,65kg divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. A indução da anestesia foi realizada com máscara facial artesanal conectada ao sistema de Maggil Modificado, utilizando entre 3,0 e 3,5 vezes a dose anestésica mínima (DAM de cada agente e fluxo diluente de O2 de 2l/min, sendo que posteriormente os animais foram intubados e mantidos com valores de aproximadamente 1,7DAM durante 65 minutos. O isofluorano causou maior depressão respiratória e hipotensão; o halotano proporcionou maiores valores de pressão arterial e temperatura corporal e o sevofluorano, menor depressão respiratória e hipotensão em relação ao grupo do isofluorano, sendo considerado o agente mais indicado para a utilização em aves. A indução e recuperação foram mais rápidas com o sevofluorano, embora sem diferença significativa estatisticamente.For the comparison 30 twenty-week-old chicken were used. They weigh na averdage of 2.90 ± 0.65kg aleatorily divided into 3 groups. The anesthetic induction was accomplished with a home-made facial mask connected with the modified circuit of Maggil using values between 3.0 e 3.5 a minimal anesthetic dose (MAD for each agent. Posteriorly, the animals were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with values approximately 1.7DAM during 65 minutes. Isoflurane caused further respiratory depression and hypotension when it is compared to the other two anesthetic agents. The group of halothane presented higher values of blood pressure and body temperature and the group of sevoflurane, lower respiratory depression and hypotension in relation to the group of isoflurane. The induction and recuperation were faster with the sevoflurane, although without expressive diference statistically. The sevoflurane is the most indicated anesthetic agent.

  4. Genetic diversity of native chicken based on analysis of D-Loop mtDNA marker

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    Tike Sartika

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Production was carried out using control region/D-loop mtDNA marker. The base population of native chicken was selected from subpopulation at Cianjur, Jatiwangi, Depok, Bogor I, and Bogor 2. Samples from each population was 10 heads and 2 samples Green Jungle Fowl (Gallus various from East Java as out Group samples. Two primers binding conserved tRNA Phenylalanine gene and tRNA Glutamine gene were DNA Heavy stranded HI255 (5'-CATCTTGGCATCTTCAGTGCC-3' and DNA Light stranded Ll6750 (5'-AGGACTACGGCTTGAAAAGC-3' was used to amplify D-Ioop mtDNA chicken. PCR-RFLP methods with 6 restriction enzymes 4 cutter such as, Alul (AG↓CT, Hpall (C↓CGG, Mbol (↓GATC, Rsal (GT↓AC, NlaIII (CATG↓ and HaeIII (GG↓CC were used to detect polymorphism within and between subpopulation. Result of experiment show that mtDNA which was amplified by PCR was 1320 bp, consist of 1227 bp control region/D-loop, 45 bp tRNA Glutamine gene and 48 bp tRNA Phenylalananine gene. PCR product which were digested from 6 endonucleases enzyme show that native chicken within and between population was monomorphic and if its compare with Green Jungle Fowl was polymorphic.

  5. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

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    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  6. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in chicken tissues at 2 days after in-feed administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2017-03-18

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of liver, kidney and skin at a 2-day withdrawal period in ten male and ten female White Leghorn chickens fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 93.0% to 102.7% and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤7.82 ng/g for the skin and ≤0.64 ng/g for the kidney, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results revealed that the analytical method is developed for residue ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate.

  7. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  8. The genomic architecture of resistance to Campylobacter jejuni intestinal colonisation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psifidi, A; Fife, M; Howell, J; Matika, O; van Diemen, P M; Kuo, R; Smith, J; Hocking, P M; Salmon, N; Jones, M A; Hume, D A; Banos, G; Stevens, M P; Kaiser, P

    2016-04-18

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans and is mostly acquired from consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat. In the absence of effective licensed vaccines and inhibitors, selection for chickens with increased resistance to Campylobacter could potentially reduce its subsequent entry into the food chain. Campylobacter intestinal colonisation levels are influenced by the host genetics of the chicken. In the present study, two chicken populations were used to investigate the genetic architecture of avian resistance to colonisation: (i) a back-cross of two White Leghorn derived inbred lines [(61 x N) x N] known to differ in resistance to Campylobacter colonisation and (ii) a 9(th) generation advanced intercross (61 x N) line. The level of colonisation with Campylobacter jejuni following experimental infection was found to be a quantitative trait. A back-cross experiment using 1,243 fully informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 7, 11 and 14. In the advanced intercross line study, the location of the QTL on chromosome 14 was confirmed and refined and two new QTLs were identified located on chromosomes 4 and 16. Pathway and re-sequencing data analysis of the genes located in the QTL candidate regions identified potential pathways, networks and candidate resistance genes. Finally, gene expression analyses were performed for some of the candidate resistance genes to support the results. Campylobacter resistance in chickens is a complex trait, possibly involving the Major Histocompatibility Complex, innate and adaptive immune responses, cadherins and other factors. Two of the QTLs for Campylobacter resistance are co-located with Salmonella resistance loci, indicating that it may be possible to breed simultaneously for enhanced resistance to both zoonoses.

  9. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance. PMID:24949637

  10. Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Leo W.Y.; Guruge, Keerthi S.; Yamanaka, Noriko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5 mg/mL), PFOS (0.02 or 0.1 mg/mL), or a saline vehicle control (0.9% NaCl in Milli-Q water) via subcutaneous implantation of a 2 mL osmotic pump for 4 weeks or for 4 weeks with a further 4 weeks of depuration. Over 240 and 480 genes were significantly affected by PFOS after 4 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration, respectively and over 290 and 320 genes were significantly affected by PFOA, correspondingly. For PFOS, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were mainly related to the transport of electrons and oxygen, and the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were mainly related to the transport of electrons and ions, and protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis. For PFOA, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were related to the transport of ions, lipids, and electrons and cytochromes; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were related to protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis, the transport of ions, and the metabolism of fatty acids and lipids. The results also showed that the gene expression patterns between chickens that were treated with PFOS and those that were treated with PFOA were different, which points to the importance of the separate evaluation of the toxicities of PFOS and PFOA. Specifically, the gene expressions of CYP8B and NOV were studied

  11. Embryonic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in chickens: effects of dose and embryonic stage on hatchability and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, V; Swennen, Q; De Ketelaere, B; Onagbesan, O; Tona, K; Decuypere, E

    2003-09-01

    Chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) were injected with 0, 8, 20 or 50 ng tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) per egg at embryonic day (ED) 4, 8 or 12 to investigate the effects of differential periods of sensitivity to TCDD exposure. At hatch, all chicks were weighed, sexed and examined macroscopically to identify possible malformations. Liver, bursa, heart and spleen masses were recorded from a number of chicks. The remaining chicks were raised until 6 weeks of age and body and organ masses, plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones, triglycerides and glucose were measured. Dose and stage during embryonic development at which injection was performed affected hatchability. Fifty nanogram of TCDD was highly toxic for 4-day-old chicken embryos. TCDD was less toxic for chicken embryos of 8- and especially 12-days old. One-day-old chick and organ weights were not different between TCDD doses at all injection days. However, injection performed at ED4 or ED8 with 20 and 50 ng, respectively, significantly depressed post-hatch body mass gain. Moreover, body mass gain in males was more depressed than in females. The delayed growth in TCDD treated chickens was accompanied by changes in T(3)/T(4) ratio that at some ages were significantly higher compared to control animals. No pronounced changes in plasma triglycerides or glucose concentrations during postnatal life were observed. Absolute and relative organ masses of 6-week-old chickens showed no remarkable changes.

  12. Acute heat stress impairs performance parameters and induces mild intestinal enteritis in broiler chickens: role of acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Rodrigues, M V; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2012-06-01

    Studies on the environmental consequences of stress are relevant for economic and animal welfare reasons. We recently reported that long-term heat stressors (31 ± 1°C and 36 ± 1°C for 10 h/d) applied to broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from d 35 to 42 of life increased serum corticosterone concentrations, decreased performance variables and the macrophage oxidative burst, and produced mild, multifocal acute enteritis. Being cognizant of the relevance of acute heat stress on tropical and subtropical poultry production, we designed the current experiment to analyze, from a neuroimmune perspective, the effects of an acute heat stress (31 ± 1°C for 10 h on d 35 of life) on serum corticosterone, performance variables, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity in chickens. We demonstrated that the acute heat stress increased serum corticosterone concentrations and mortality and decreased food intake, BW gain, and feed conversion (P 0.05). Increases in the basal and the Staphylococcus aureus-induced macrophage oxidative bursts and a decrease in the percentage of macrophages performing phagocytosis were also observed. Finally, mild, multifocal acute enteritis, characterized by the increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the lamina propria of the jejunum, was also observed. We found that the stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was responsible for the negative effects observed on chicken performance and immune function as well as for the changes in the intestinal mucosa. The data presented here corroborate with those presented in other studies in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  13. Differential gene expression from genome-wide microarray analyses distinguishes Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown layers.

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    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB layer lines have been selected for high egg production since more than 50 years and belong to the worldwide leading commercial layer lines. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the molecular processes that are different among these two layer lines using whole genome RNA expression profiles. The hens were kept in the newly developed small group housing system Eurovent German with two different group sizes. Differential expression was observed for 6,276 microarray probes (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05 among the two layer lines LSL and LB. A 2-fold or greater change in gene expression was identified on 151 probe sets. In LSL, 72 of the 151 probe sets were up- and 79 of them were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis accounting for biological processes evinced 18 GO-terms for the 72 probe sets with higher expression in LSL, especially those taking part in immune system processes and membrane organization. A total of 32 enriched GO-terms were determined among the 79 down-regulated probe sets of LSL. Particularly, these terms included phosphorus metabolic processes and signaling pathways. In conclusion, the phenotypic differences among the two layer lines LSL and LB are clearly reflected in their gene expression profiles of the cerebrum. These novel findings provide clues for genes involved in economically important line characteristics of commercial laying hens.

  14. Effect of distraction frequency on bone formation during bone lengthening: a study in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eiichi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kudo, Satoshi; Takagi, Katsumasa

    2003-12-01

    We compared the effects of two distraction frequencies on bone formation during tibial lengthening by evaluating radiographs, bone mineral density, and histological findings. In 15 mature White Leghorn chickens, both tibiae were distracted at a rate of 0.75 mm/day for 10 days. The distraction frequency was 2 steps (0.375 mm/12 hour) by hand on the right side and 120 steps (0.00625 mm/12 min) by autodistractor on the left. Serial radiographs showed faster bone formation on the 120-step side than on the 2-step side. Bone mineral density on the 120-step side was also higher than that on the 2-step side at all times. On the 2-step side, endochondral ossification was marked in the early stage of distraction; then intramembranous ossification became the main mechanism of bone formation. On the 120-step side, however, intramembranous bone formation predominated throughout the study. Our findings support the contention that, at least in skeletally mature chickens, an increase in the distraction frequency improves osteogenesis during bone lengthening.

  15. Efficacy of avian influenza oil-emulsion vaccines in chickens of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D

    1987-01-01

    An experimental avian influenza (AI) oil-emulsion vaccine was formulated with 1 part inactivated A/turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) AI virus emulsified in 4 parts oil. Broilers were vaccinated subcutaneously (SC) either at 1 or 3 days old or at 4 or 5 wks old. Commercial white leghorn (WL) layers were vaccinated SC at 12 and 20 wks old or at only 20 wks old. Maximum geometric mean hemagglutination-inhibition titers postvaccination (PV) were 1:86-1:320 for broilers, 1:597 for twice-vaccinated layers, and 1:422 for once-vaccinated layers. Ninety to 100% of vaccinated broilers were protected against death and morbidity when challenged with highly pathogenic A/chicken/Penn/83 (H5N2) AI virus 4 weeks PV, and all were protected when challenged 8 wks PV. All controls and most vaccinates were infected by challenge virus, and 90-100% of controls died or exhibited clinical signs. Vaccinated commercial pullets were protected against morbidity, death, and egg-production decline at either peak of lay (25 wks old) or at 55 wks old. All unvaccinated controls became morbid or died, and egg production ceased 72 hours after challenge. The 0.5-ml vaccine dose was determined to contain 251 and 528 mean protective doses (PD50S) in 4-wk-old and 1-year-old SPF WL chickens, respectively, challenged 4 wks PV.

  16. Avian metapneumovirus excretion in vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen free laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Mudzamiri, R; Heincz, U

    2004-02-01

    Vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen-free White Leghorn laying chickens were challenged at peak of lay by the intravenous or oculonasal route with a virulent avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B chicken strain. Severe clinical signs and a drop in egg production were induced in the non-vaccinated intravenously challenged birds whereas the vaccinates were not affected. Live virus excretion was demonstrated in the faeces and respiratory tract of non-vaccinated hens for up to 7 days post intravenous challenge. After oculonasal challenge, virus excretion could only be demonstrated in the respiratory tract for up to 5 days. No live virus excretion was found in either the faeces or the respiratory tract of vaccinated birds. Concurrent with live virus isolation, the presence of viral RNA was demonstrated by single reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nested RT-PCR was more sensitive and viral RNA could be detected in non-vaccinated birds up to 28 days post either intravenous or oculonasal challenge, at which time the experiment was terminated. Viral RNA was detected for up to 12 days in vaccinated birds. This is the first study investigating excretion of aMPV and viral RNA in vaccinated and non-vaccinated laying hens challenged under experimental conditions. The results are of importance with regard to the persistence of aMPV and the appropriate diagnostic detection method in laying birds.

  17. Developmentally Regulated Production of meso-Zeaxanthin in Chicken Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Choroid and Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Subhani, Yumna K; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    meso-Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is rarely encountered in nature outside of the vertebrate eye. It is not a constituent of a normal human diet, yet this carotenoid comprises one-third of the primate macular pigment. In the current study, we undertook a systematic approach to biochemically characterize the production of meso-zeaxanthin in the vertebrate eye. Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs were analyzed for the presence of carotenoids during development. Yolk, liver, brain, serum, retina, and RPE/choroid were isolated, and carotenoids were extracted. The samples were analyzed on C-30 or chiral HPLC columns to determine the carotenoid composition. Lutein and zeaxanthin were found in all studied nonocular tissues, but no meso-zeaxanthin was ever detected. Among the ocular tissues, the presence of meso-zeaxanthin was consistently observed starting at embryonic day 17 (E17) in the RPE/choroid, several days before its consistent detection in the retina. If RPE/choroid of an embryo was devoid of meso-zeaxanthin, the corresponding retina was always negative as well. This is the first report of developmentally regulated synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin in a vertebrate system. Our observations suggest that the RPE/choroid is the primary site of meso-zeaxanthin synthesis. Identification of meso-zeaxanthin isomerase enzyme in the developing chicken embryo will facilitate our ability to determine the biochemical mechanisms responsible for production of this unique carotenoid in other higher vertebrates, such as humans.

  18. A deletion within glycoprotein L of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates correlates with a decrease in bivalent MDV vaccine efficacy in contact-exposed chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; Kumar, Pankaj M; Amortegui, Juliana Rojas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Parcells, Mark S

    2009-06-01

    We examined the functional role of a naturally occurring deletion within the glycoprotein L (gL) gene of Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates. We previously showed that this mutation incrementally increased the virulence of an MDV in contact-exposed SPF leghorn chickens, when chickens shedding this virus were co-infected with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). In our present study, we examined this mutation using two stocks of the very virulent plus (vv+)MDV strain TK, one of which harbored this deletion (TK1a) while the other did not (TK2a). We report that TK1a replicating in vaccinated chickens overcame bivalent (HVT/SB1) vaccine protection in contact-exposed chickens. Treatment groups exposed to vaccinated chickens inoculated with a 1:1 mix of TK1a and TK2a showed decreased bivalent vaccine efficacy, and this decrease correlated with the prevalence of the gL deletion indicative of TK1a. These results were also found using quadruplicate treatment groups and bivalently vaccinated chickens obtained from a commercial hatchery. As this deletion was found in 25 out of 25 recent field isolates from Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, we concluded that there is a strong selection for this mutation, which appears to have evolved in HVT or bivalently vaccinated chickens. This is the first report of a mutation in a vv+MDV field strain for which a putative biological phenotype has been discerned. Moreover, this mutation in gL has apparently been selected in MDV field isolates through Marek's disease vaccination.

  19. Polyphenol extracts from Punica granatum and Terminalia chebula are anti-inflammatory and increase the survival rate of chickens challenged with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xinlu; Shi, Yaran; Chen, Jiajia; Xu, Jianqing; Wang, Lei; Beier, Ross C; Hou, Xiaolin; Liu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes inflammation in multiple organs of chickens called avian colibacillosis, and results in serious economic loss to the chicken industry. Polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases. In this study, the curative effect and mechanism of action of the polyphenolic extracts from Punica granatum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz. in chickens challenged with APEC were studied. Specific-pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens (males, 21-d old) were challenged with APEC and then given oral administration of extracts of P. granatum and T. chebula. The extracts decreased the morbidity and inflammation induced by APEC. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the extracts of P. granatum and T. chebula polyphenols (GCP) reversed the over-expression genes of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, and 5, down-regulated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B signal transduction pathways, and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Naturally occurring GCP may be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention or treatment of avian colibacillosis.

  20. Extra-pituitary prolactin (PRL) and prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) in chickens and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Guixian; Liang, Xiaomeng; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-09-01

    It is generally believed that in vertebrates, prolactin (PRL) is predominantly synthesized and released by pituitary lactotrophs and plays important roles in many physiological processes via activation of PRL receptor (PRLR), including water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, immuno-modulation, and behavior. However, there is increasing evidence showing that PRL and the newly identified 'prolactin-like protein (PRL-L)', a novel ligand of PRL receptor, are also expressed in a variety of extra-pituitary tissues, such as the brain, skin, ovary, and testes in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this brief review, we summarize the recent research progress on the structure, biological activities, and extra-pituitary expression of PRL and PRL-L in chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from our and other laboratories and briefly discuss their potential paracrine/autocrine roles in non-mammalian vertebrates, which may promote us to rethink the broad spectrum of PRL actions previously attributed to pituitary PRL only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  2. The Dominant white, Dun and Smoky Color Variants in Chicken Are Associated With Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in the PMEL17 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerje, Susanne; Sharma, Preety; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Kim, Hyun; Bagchi, Sonchita; Fredriksson, Robert; Schütz, Karin; Jensen, Per; von Heijne, Gunnar; Okimoto, Ron; Andersson, Leif

    2004-01-01

    Dominant white, Dun, and Smoky are alleles at the Dominant white locus, which is one of the major loci affecting plumage color in the domestic chicken. Both Dominant white and Dun inhibit the expression of black eumelanin. Smoky arose in a White Leghorn homozygous for Dominant white and partially restores pigmentation. PMEL17 encodes a melanocyte-specific protein and was identified as a positional candidate gene due to its role in the development of eumelanosomes. Linkage analysis of PMEL17 and Dominant white using a red jungle fowl/White Leghorn intercross revealed no recombination between these loci. Sequence analysis showed that the Dominant white allele was exclusively associated with a 9-bp insertion in exon 10, leading to an insertion of three amino acids in the PMEL17 transmembrane region. Similarly, a deletion of five amino acids in the transmembrane region occurs in the protein encoded by Dun. The Smoky allele shared the 9-bp insertion in exon 10 with Dominant white, as expected from its origin, but also had a deletion of 12 nucleotides in exon 6, eliminating four amino acids from the mature protein. These mutations are, together with the recessive silver mutation in the mouse, the only PMEL17 mutations with phenotypic effects that have been described so far in any species. PMID:15579702

  3. Activity concentrations of 137Cs in meat of broiler chicken after single and continuous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously we examined the transfer, distribution and half-live of radiocaesium in broiler chicken after the application of artificially contaminated feed mixture or wheat wheat contaminated from the Chernobyl accident. Our results pointed to a different dynamics of radiocaesium in breast meat compared to leg meat in the chicken after short-time application (3 oral applications in 1 day). The aim of the present study was to find if the results are similar also after single and repeated (long-time) applications of an artificially contaminated feed mixture. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). In experiment 1, one artificially contaminated oral dose of 5160 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 1664 Bq/g) was administered to 18-day-old chickens. In experiment 2, artificially contaminated oral doses of 500 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 161.3 Bq/g) were administered to 14-day-old chickens twice a day (at 8:00 and 20:00 h.) for 10 days. In either experiment, four chickens were slaughtered for activity determination in meat (breast and leg muscles) 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and 2, 4, 8, 10 days, respectively, after the first application of 137 Cs. The uptake of the single oral 137 Cs was rapid and the maximum 137 Cs activity concentrations were found in breast meat (0.783 Bq/g) 24 hours and in leg meat (1.005 Bq/g) 6 hours after 137 Cs application. From the 24th hour of the experiment, radiocaesium activity concentrations in breast and leg meat decreased with the biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of 84 and 66 hours, respectively. During a 10-day application of continuous doses of 137 Cs, the Cs activity concentrations increased and were 3.988 Bq/g in breast meat and 5.610 Bq/g in leg meat on day 2, and 7.427 Bq/g and 7.698 Bq/g, respectively, on day 10. Immediately after the administration of radiocaesium was stopped, the 137 Cs activity concentrations decreased rapidly with T 1/2b = 4.5 and 3.8 days in

  4. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuzu-Aweh, E N; Bijma, P; Kinghorn, B P; Vereijken, A; Visscher, J; van Arendonk, J Am; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heterosis has a long history with mixed success, partly due to low numbers of genetic markers and/or small data sets. We investigated the prediction of heterosis for egg number, egg weight and survival days in domestic white Leghorns, using ∼400 000 individuals from 47 crosses and allele frequencies on ∼53 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). When heterosis is due to dominance, and dominance effects are independent of allele frequencies, heterosis is proportional to the squared difference in allele frequency (SDAF) between parental pure lines (not necessarily homozygous). Under these assumptions, a linear model including regression on SDAF partitions crossbred phenotypes into pure-line values and heterosis, even without pure-line phenotypes. We therefore used models where phenotypes of crossbreds were regressed on the SDAF between parental lines. Accuracy of prediction was determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. SDAF predicted heterosis for egg number and weight with an accuracy of ∼0.5, but did not predict heterosis for survival days. Heterosis predictions allowed preselection of pure lines before field-testing, saving ∼50% of field-testing cost with only 4% loss in heterosis. Accuracies from cross-validation were lower than from the model-fit, suggesting that accuracies previously reported in literature are overestimated. Cross-validation also indicated that dominance cannot fully explain heterosis. Nevertheless, the dominance model had considerable accuracy, clearly greater than that of a general/specific combining ability model. This work also showed that heterosis can be modelled even when pure-line phenotypes are unavailable. We concluded that SDAF is a useful predictor of heterosis in commercial layer breeding.

  5. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  7. Effects of feeding the herb Borreria latifolia on the meat quality of village chickens in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbood, Ali A; Kassim, Azhar Bin; Jawad, Hasan S A; Manap, Yazid Abdul; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to estimate the meat quality characteristics of village chickens (Gallus gallus) fed diets supplemented with dry leaves of Borreria latifolia (BL) used as a potential antioxidant source in chicken feed. In this study, 252 sexed 9-week-old village chickens with mean live body weight of 1,525.4 g for males and 1,254.1 g for females were divided into 7 groups (each group 18 birds) for each sex represented in 2 experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BL and the effect on meat quality through a comparison with Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); hence, 3 groups were conducted and included: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1% of BL; T3, basal diet with 1% of RO. T2 and T3 significantly affect pH value, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, and overall acceptability compared to T1, while no significant difference was observed between the dietary groups in respect of drip loss, color, tenderness, fatty acid profile, and meat composition. Furthermore, a significant effect of sex on lipid oxidation, pH, yellowness, and fatty acid profile was observed. There was no significant effect of sex on WHC, tenderness, lightness, redness, and sensory evaluation. A significant influence of postmortem aging period was detected on lipid oxidation, pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and redness. The obtained result in this study revealed a significance in the interaction of herb by sex in pH parameter and between herb and sex, herb by aging period, sex by aging period, and the herb by sex by aging period interactions with regard to lipid oxidation test. The second experiment was to estimate the effect of 3 different levels of BL on meat quality. Four groups were provided and involved: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1.5% of BL; T3, basal diet with 2% of BL; and T4, basal diet with 2.5% of BL. The result of this study showed a significant effect (P aging period on

  8. Dexamethasone Regulates Macrophage and Cd4+Cd25+ Cell Numbers in the Chicken Spleen

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    AS Calefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is a corticoid hormone that is experimentally used to mimic the effects of increased levels of endogenous corticosterone observed during the stress response. Currently, stress is considered one of the major predisposing factors for diseases in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DEX and/or of a 20-fold coccidial vaccine dose on leukocyte phenotypes in the spleen and cecal tonsils of chickens. Twenty specific-pathogen-free (SPF Leghorn chickens were divided into four groups: a non-treated group (NT, a DEX-treated group (Dex, a vaccinated group (V and a DEX-treated+vaccinated group (Dex+V. On experimental day (ED 42, each bird in the vaccinated groups received a anti-coccidial vaccine. DEX was injected in the birds of the Dex and Dex+V groups (0.9 mg/kg onED42 and ED45. The immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry analysis of splenocytes and cecal tonsils cells onED48. DEX treatment per se was unable to change CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ populations with TCRgd or CD28 in the spleen, or macrophages and T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils. V group birds presented higher numbers of splenic macrophages compared with those measured in the Dex+V group. The number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the spleen of birds of the V group was higher than those measured in the other experimental groups. Our data suggest that CD4+CD25+ cells and macrophages might be influenced by DEX treatment in spleen, but not in the cecal tonsils of chickens inoculated with Eimeria.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of lncRNA and mRNA Expression During Differentiation of Abdominal Preadipocytes in the Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs regulate adipogenesis and other processes associated with metabolic tissue development and function. However, little is known about the function and profile of lncRNAs during preadipocyte differentiation in the chicken (Gallus gallus. Herein, lncRNA and mRNA expression in preadipocytes at different stages of differentiation were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A total of 1,300,074,528 clean reads and 27,023 novel lncRNAs were obtained from 12 samples. The number of genes (1336 lncRNAs and 1759 mRNAs; 3095 in total differentially expressed across various stages declined as differentiation progressed. Differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in several pathways related to preadipocyte differentiation that have been extensively studied, including glycerolipid metabolism, and the mammalian target of rapamycin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. To our knowledge, some pathways are being reported for the first time, including the propanoate metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Furthermore, 3095 differentially expressed genes were clustered into eight clusters, and their expression patterns were determined through K-means clustering. Genes involved in the K2 cluster likely play important roles in preadipocyte differentiation. Six stage-specific modules related to A0 (day 0, A2 (day 2, and A6 (day 6 stages were identified, using weighted coexpression network analysis. Nine central, highly connected .genes in stage-specific modules were subsequently identified, including XLOC_068731, XLOC_022661, XLOC_045161, XLOC_070302, CHD6, LLGL1, NEURL1B, KLHL38, and ACTR6. This study provides a valuable resource for further study of chicken lncRNA and facilitates a better understanding of preadipocyte differentiation in the chicken

  10. Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Keeling, L; Schütz, K; Andersson, L; Mormède, P; Brändström, H; Forkman, B; Kerje, S; Fredriksson, R; Ohlsson, C; Larsson, S; Mallmin, H; Kindmark, A

    2005-09-15

    Feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behaviour in chickens, which is performed by only some individuals in a flock. FP was studied in 54 red junglefowl (ancestor of domestic chickens), 36 White Leghorn laying hens, and 762 birds from an F(2)-intercross between these two lines. From all F(2)-birds, growth and feed consumption were measured. Age at sexual maturity and egg production in females, and corticosterone levels in males were also measured. From 333 F(2)-birds of both sexes, and 20 parental birds, body composition with respect to bone mineral content, muscle and fat was obtained by post-mortem examinations using Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). In femurs of the same birds, the bone density and structure were analysed using DXA and Peripheral Quantitative Computerized Tomography (pQCT), and a biomechanical analysis of bone strength was performed. Furthermore, plumage condition was determined in all birds as a measure of being exposed to feather pecking. Using 105 DNA-markers in all F(2)-birds, a genome-wide scan for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), associated with the behaviour in the F(2)-generation was performed. FP was at least as frequent in the red junglefowl as in the White Leghorn strain studied here, and significantly more common among females both in the parental strains and in the F(2)-generation. In the F(2)-birds, FP was phenotypically linked to early sexual maturation, fast growth, weak bones, and, in males, also high fat accumulation, indicating that feather peckers have a different resource allocation pattern. Behaviourally, F(2) feather peckers were more active in an open field test, in a novel food/novel object test, and in a restraint test, indicating that feather pecking might be genetically linked to a proactive coping strategy. Only one suggestive QTL with a low explanatory value was found on chromosome 3, showing that many genes, each with a small effect, are probably involved in the causation of feather pecking. There were significant

  11. A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*] were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49 on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus. At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16. Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2, the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT. Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25. The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65. However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC.

  12. Gel-Bead Delivery of Eimeria oocysts protects chickens against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Klopp, Spangler; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.

  13. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  14. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

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    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  15. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months.

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    Rebecca A Strong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1 thermally cooled perches, 2 perches with ambient air, and 3 cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures.

  16. Internal hirudiniasis in a hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus-The first report in literature

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The leech is a blood sucking worm belonging to the class Hirudinea of the phylum Annelida. Leeches are commonly found in the waterland of temperate and tropical countries. Hirudiniasis, a rare condition with unusual symptoms, is caused by accidental introduction of leeches through natural orifices. In August 2011, a 1-year-old hen (Gallus gallusdomesticus referred to private veterinary clinic in Iran with symptoms of severe respiratory distress, restless and inappetite. According to owner statement, the hen had a history of using spring water. After physical examination, black object was found attached to the internal mucous membrane of floor of mouth. The diagnosis was leech infection. The leech was removed by forceps without administration of drugsand detection, the hirudiniasis was caused by immature larvae of Limnatis nilotica (L. nilotica. According to author’s knowledge, there is no report of Hirudiniasisin birds and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis due to L. niloticain hen in literature.

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiweis Melissa A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27 contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength.

  18. Cinética das alterações vasculares e celulares na peritonite induzida pela Carragenina em gallus gallus. Efeito de drogas antiinflamatórias esteroidais e não esteroidais

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    Cristina Miyuki Hara

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigou-se a cinética das alterações vasculares e celulares na peritonite induzida pela carragenina (500 mcg em Gallus gallus e o efeito do pré-tratamento com dexametasona (0,5; 1,0 ou 2,0 mg/kg, indometacina (2,0; 4,0 ou 8,0 mg/kg, ou piroxicam (20,0; 40,0 ou 80,0 mg/kg, administrados por via oral, 30 minutos antes do estímulo lesivo. Observou-se que os máximos aumento de permeabilidade vascular e acúmulo de leucócitos ocorreram 150 min. e 4 h, após a aplicação do irritante, respectivamente. Os leucócitos polimorfonucleares foram o tipo celular predominante no exsudato após 2 e 4 h, equilibraram-se com as mononucleares após 24 h, predominando o último tipo celular após 48 h. O maior acúmulo de células polimorfo e mononucleares ocorreu após 4 h e 24 h, respectivamente. O pré-tratamento com indometacina ou piroxicam inibiu significativamente (p<0,05 o aumento de permeabilidade vascular mas não o acúmulo de leucócitos, 150 min. e 4 h após o estímulo lesivo, respectivamente. A dexametasona foi efetiva em reduzir significativamente (p<0,05 ambos os componentes. Os resultados sugerem que os eicosanóides participem ativamente dos fenômenos vasculares mas são de pouca relevância na quimiotaxia de leucócitos no processo inflamatório agudo induzido pela carragenina cm Gallus gallus. Os achados indicam que quando o efeito de drogas antiinflamatórias é considerado, como no presente trabalho, o aumento de permeabilidade vascular e a migração celular são fenômenos independentes.

  19. Characterization of antibiotic-resistant and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli from soil fertilized with litter of broiler chickens fed antimicrobial-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Laura E; Rempel, Heidi; Forge, Tom; Kannangara, Tissa; Bittman, Shabtai; Delaquis, Pascal; Topp, Edward; Ziebell, Kim A; Diarra, Moussa S

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants of Escherichia coli from soil amended with litter from 36-day-old broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus ) fed with diets supplemented with a variety of antimicrobial agents. Soil samples were collected from plots before and periodically after litter application in August to measure E. coli numbers. A total of 295 E. coli were isolated from fertilized soil samples between August and March. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Sensititre, and polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of resistance and virulence genes. The results confirmed that E. coli survived and could be quantified by direct plate count for at least 7 months in soil following litter application in August. The effects of feed supplementation were observed on E. coli numbers in November and January. Among the 295 E. coli, the highest antibiotic resistance level was observed against tetracycline and β-lactams associated mainly with the resistance genes tetB and bla(CMY-2), respectively. Significant treatment effects were observed for phylogenetic groups, antibiotic resistance profiles, and virulence gene frequencies. Serotyping, phylogenetic grouping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that multiple-antibiotic-resistant and potentially pathogenic E. coli can survive in soil fertilized with litter for several months regardless of antimicrobials used in the feed.

  20. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  1. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  2. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  3. New pathogenetic characters of reticuloendotheliosis virus isolated from Chinese partridge in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Yue; Yu, Linlin; Jiang, Yanping; Liu, Jianzhu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2012-08-01

    Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection can induce a runting syndrome, immunosuppression, acute reticulum cell neoplasia and lymphomas in a variety of domestic and wild birds. To evaluate the pathogenicity and oncogenicity of REV-JX0927 that isolated from Chinese partridge, experimental inoculated day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens were examined at regular intervals. The examination procedures included hematology, serology and histopathology; also including immunohistochemistry and apoptosis assay. Body weight, relative immune organs weight and apoptosis assay results revealed that the immunosuppression of infected birds is associated with apoptosis of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues, especially in thymus induced by REV-JX0927. Hematology and apoptosis assay results showed that the 7th week of post-infection is a critical time point for lymphocytes to be transformed into tumor cells. Histopathology evidences demonstrated that REV-JX0927 induced reticuloendotheliosis at early stage (1 week), and lymphosarcomas at middle stage (after 7 weeks). In addition, squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and aneurysm were found in infected birds. Arteritis was associated with concentration of serum protein and fat. REV antigen expression was observed in infected birds through the experimental period. REV has high tropism for proventriculus, kidney, liver, lymphoid tissues, pancreas, lymphosarcoma cells and blood vessels. Data from this study showed that several new pathogenitic characters caused by REV-JX0927 were observed. It indicated that REV-JX0927 is a multipotential oncogenic retrovirus. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations among fluctuating asymmetry, tonic immobility duration, and flight distance or ease of capture in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Dávila, S G; Prieto, M T; Gil, M G

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the associations among fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, and flight performance or ease of capture in chickens. Cocks (n = 220; 36 wk old) from 10 Spanish breeds and a White Leghorn population were used. The quantitative/qualitative relationship among fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, and landing accuracy (good or bad) or landing distance (long or short), and the quantitative/quantitative relationship among fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, and time of capture or number of attempts of capture were studied. Relative fluctuating asymmetry of toe length, wing length, and the combined relative asymmetry of toe length, leg length, wing length, and leg width was significantly greater (P distance and smaller in cocks with long landing distance. There was a significant difference for the duration of tonic immobility between groups of cocks with short or long landing distance (P distance being longer. There was no significant correlation among relative fluctuating asymmetry, duration of tonic immobility, and time of capture or attempts of capture. Associations between morphological values of toe, leg, and wing and flight performance or ease of capture were not significant. Thus, birds with less asymmetry and fear level have better flight performance than more asymmetric and fearful birds, whereas the ease of capture is not associated with fearfulness and asymmetry.

  5. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  6. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  7. The evolutionary characteristics and structural biology of Gallus toll-like receptor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongping; Wang, Hai; Jiang, Wuqi; Lian, Zhengxing

    2017-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important part of the innate immune system, acting as a first line of defense against many invading pathogens. The ligand known to bind Gallus toll-like receptor 21 (gTLR21) is the unmethylated cytosine phosphate guanine dideoxy nucleotide motif; however, the evolutionary characteristics and structural biology of gTLR21 are poorly elaborated. Our results suggest that gTLR21 is phylogenetically and evolutionarily related to the TLR11 family and is perhaps a close ortholog of the Mus TLR13. Structural biology of homology modeling of the gTLR21 ectodomain structure suggests that it has no Z-loop like that seen in Mus TLR9. The cytosolic toll-IL-1 receptor region of gTLR21 contains a central 4-stranded parallel β-sheet (βA-βD) surrounded by 5 α-helices (αA-αE) on both sides, a highly conserved structure also seen in other TLRs. Molecular docking analysis reveals that the gTLR21 ectodomain has the potential to distinguish between different ligands. Homodimer analysis results also suggest that Phe842 and Pro844 of the BB loop and Cys876 of the αC helix in gTLR21 are conserved in other cytosolic toll-IL-1 receptor domains of other TLRs and may contribute to the docking of homodimers. Our study on the evolutionary characteristics and structural biology of gTLR21 reveals that the molecule may have a broader role to play in innate immune system; however, further experimental validation is required to confirm our findings. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Molecular Recognition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  9. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  10. The chicken as a natural model for extraintestinal infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antão, Esther-Maria; Glodde, Susanne; Li, Ganwu; Sharifi, Reza; Homeier, Timo; Laturnus, Claudia; Diehl, Ines; Bethe, Astrid; Philipp, Hans-C; Preisinger, Rudolf; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2008-01-01

    E. coli infections in avian species have become an economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Several factors have been associated with the virulence of E. coli in avian hosts, but no specific virulence gene has been identified as being entirely responsible for the pathogenicity of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Needless to say, the chicken would serve as the best model organism for unravelling the pathogenic mechanisms of APEC, an extraintestinal pathogen. Five-week-old white leghorn SPF chickens were infected intra-tracheally with a well characterized APEC field strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5) using different doses corresponding to the respective models of infection established, that is, the lung colonization model allowing re-isolation of bacteria only from the lung but not from other internal organs, and the systemic infection model. These two models represent the crucial steps in the pathogenesis of APEC infections, including the colonization of the lung epithelium and the spread of bacteria throughout the bloodstream. The read-out system includes a clinical score, pathomorphological changes and bacterial load determination. The lung colonization model has been established and described for the first time in this study, in addition to a comprehensive account of a systemic infection model which enables the study of severe extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections. These in vivo models enable the application of various molecular approaches to study host-pathogen interactions more closely. The most important application of such genetic manipulation techniques is the identification of genes required for extraintestinal virulence, as well as host genes involved in immunity in vivo. The knowledge obtained from these studies serves the dual purpose of shedding light on the nature of virulence itself, as well as providing a route for rational attenuation of the pathogen for vaccine construction, a measure by which extraintestinal infections, including

  11. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  12. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  13. Prevalence of mites and their impact on laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) farm facilities in Egypt, with an analysis of deltamethrin residues in eggs and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Hamed, Hamed R; El-Shafei, Reham A

    2018-04-01

    This study was carried out on six laying hen farms, three mite-infested and three mite-free at Dakahlia and Damietta governorates in Egypt to demonstrate: (i) prevalence of different species of mites on laying hen farms; (ii) effects of mite infestation on chicken health and production; (iii) efficacy of deltamethrin (DMT) on treatment of mite infestation and (iv) residues of DMT in eggs and meat. The results showed that 12 mite species were detected in the mite-infested farms, this is the first record in Egypt, and that Dermanyssus gallinae was the highest identified species from 295 (40.9%) of 720 samples. There was a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) of mites on the mortality %, feed consumption, egg production % and the tested haematological parameters. DMT had no impact on production performance, while transient respiratory signs post-spraying were recorded. The mites induced severe skin lesions. Egg samples showed the highest residue levels of DMT, followed by muscle and skin at P ≤ 0.05. It can be concluded that the mite species, as a first record, had a deleterious impact on the performance of the Egyptian laying hen farm facilities. Moreover, that DMT (Butox ® 50 EC, Intervet Co., France) spraying was ineffective by one-time application, every 1 or 2 months in mite-infested laying hen farms, particularly when heavily infested. Furthermore, DMT residues in laying hen eggs and tissue should be considered to avoid the potential risk for humans.

  14. Alterações bioquímicas, anatômicas e histopatológicas em fígado de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentalmente infectados por Borrelia anserina Sakharoff, 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. Cepeda

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espiroquetose aviária é uma enfermidade septicêmica de curso agudo, cosmopolita, que acomete diversas espécies aviárias, causada por Borrelia anserina e transmitida pelo carrapato Argas miniatus. O experimento teve como objetivos avaliar as alterações bioquímicas e anátomo-histopatológicas no fígado de Gallus gallus, causadas pela infecção experimental por B. anserina. Quarenta aves da espécie G. gallus foram divididas em quatro grupos inteiramente casualizados com 10 animais cada: G1 - inoculado com soro infectado com B. anserina; G2 - inoculado com soro fisiológico a 0,9%; G3 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus infectados por B. anserina; G4 - exposto a ninfas de terceiro ínstar de A. miniatus livres de B. anserina. As aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 manifestaram no 3º e 6º dias pós-inoculação (DPI respectivamente, sintomatologia característica da doença como inapetência, perda de peso, sonolência, diarreia esverdeada, mucosas hipocoradas, penas arrepiadas e hipertermia. Os níveis de ALT do Grupo 1 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevados apenas no 12ºDPI e 24ºDPI em relação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 2 e no Grupo 3 esses níveis se mantiveram elevados até o 20º DPI em comparação ao seu grupo controle (Grupo 4. Os níveis da enzima AST pouco oscilaram nos grupos experimentais, embora tenham sido encontradas elevações no 12ºDPI nos Grupos 1 e 3. Os fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3 apresentaram à necropsia, moderada hepatomegalia, congestão, superfície irregular e coloração vermelha a cianótica; constataram-se ainda pequenos pontos esbranquiçados na superfície. A histopatologia do fígado revelou congestão, infiltrados inflamatórios mononucleares, focos de necrose fibrinoide, dilatação dos sinusoides e vacuolização de hepatócitos. A coloração de Warthin-Starry revelou, nos fígados das aves dos Grupos 1 e 3, a presença de espiroquetas compatíveis com B. anserina

  15. Structural and histological characterization of oviductal magnum and lectin-binding patterns in Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gwonhwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken oviduct is a useful model and target tissue for reproductive biology and transgenesis, little is known because of the highly specific hormonal regulation and the lack of fundamental researches, including lectin-binding activities and glycobiology. Because lectin is attached to secreted glycoproteins, we hypothesized that lectin could be bound to secretory egg-white proteins, and played a crucial role in the generation of egg-white protein in the oviduct. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the structural, histological and lectin-binding characteristics of the chicken oviductal magnum from juvenile and adult hens. Methods The oviductal magnums from juvenile and adult hens were prepared for ultrastructural analysis, qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry of anti-ovalbumin, anti-ESR1 and anti-PGR, and mRNA expression of egg-white genes and steroid hormone receptor genes were evaluated. Lectin histochemical staining was also conducted in juvenile and adult oviductal magnum tissues. Results The ultrastructural analysis showed that ciliated cells were rarely developed on luminal surface in juvenile magnum, but not tubular gland cells. In adult magnum, two types of epithelium and three types of tubular gland cells were observed. qRT-PCR analysis showed that egg-white genes were highly expressed in adult oviduct compared with the juvenile. However, mRNA expressions of ESR1 and PGR were considerably higher in juvenile oviduct than adult (P Conclusions The observation of ultrastructural analysis, mRNA expression, immunohistochemistry and lectin staining showed structural and physiological characterization of juvenile and adult oviductal magnum. Consequently, oviduct study could be helped to in vitro culture of chicken oviductal cells, to develop epithelial or tubular gland cell-specific markers, and to understand female reproductive biology and endocrinology.

  16. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  17. Herniation of duodenum into the right ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity with groove formation at the ventral hepatic surface in a 2-week-old chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2013-10-01

    Internal hernia in avian species is very rare. A necropsy of a 2-week-old SPF White Leghorn chicken revealed that a loop of the duodenum and part of the pancreas (4 × 2 × 1 cm) was protruding through the abnormal foramen (2.5 cm in diameter) in the right posthepatic septum into the right ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity. The herniated loop was located underneath the ventral hepatic surface, leaving a groove on the right hepatic lobe (2 × 1.5 × 0.4 cm). The part of the pancreas involved in the hernia was grossly enlarged. Microscopically, a zone of pressure atrophy of hepatic tissue was characterized by crowdedness of hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and faint eosinophilic cytoplasm and indistinct narrow sinusoids. The pancreas revealed hypertrophy of the acinar cells with an increase in the secretory granules and basophilic cytoplasm. This is the first report of duodenum herniation into the right ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity resulting in groove formation on the ventral hepatic surface in a 2-week-old chicken.

  18. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  19. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  20. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  1. Smallholder local Chicken Production and Available Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The poultry industry in Uganda is mainly based on free-range (scavenging) indigenous chickens, kept at the subsistence level. Chicken population rose from 23.5 million in 2005 to 37.4 million in 2008; and most of these chicken (over 80%) were indigenous to the country. A survey was conducted in Central Uganda to ...

  2. Pemberian Teh Kombucha Pada Air Minum Terhadap Nilai Ldl Kolesterol Dan Hdl Kolesterol Darah Ayam Broiler (Gallus SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar; Tana, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The risk of consuming large quantities of food containing cholesterol has been widely known. By knowing the cholesterol content of food products, people could restrict their consumption of high cholesterol food. This study was to knew LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol of blood broiler chickens after treated with kombucha tea. This research used the CP 707 broiler strains chickens aged 1 week, treated with kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days at a temperature of 25oC. 20 broiler ...

  3. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  4. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  6. Asymmetries in Chickens from Lines Selected and Relaxed for High or Low Antibody Titers to Sheep Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Tu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wattle length, width, and area were measured to classify bilateral asymmetries in four lines of chickens. The lines were the S26 generation of White Leghorns selected for high (HAS or low (LAS response to sheep red blood cells and sublines in which selection had been relaxed for three generations (high antibody relaxed [HAR] and low antibody relaxed [LAR]. Antibody titers (AB were greater for HAS than for HAR with both greater than for LAS and LAR which while different for males did not differ for females. The low antibody lines were heavier and reached sexual maturity at younger age than the high antibody lines. In general, wattle length, width, and area were greater in the low than high antibody lines. In 24 comparisons for bilaterality 18 exhibited fluctuating asymmetry and 6 exhibited directional asymmetry with 5 of the 6 being for wattle length. There was not a clear pattern for changes in degree of asymmetry when selection was relaxed for 3 generations. For females, the relative asymmetry (RA of wattle area was larger (p≤0.05 for HAR than for LAR and not different from the selected lines and relaxed lines. There were no differences among lines for RA of wattle length and width of females and wattle length, width, and area of males.

  7. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  8. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  9. Outbreak of type C botulism in chickens in Pancas city, Espírito Santo state, BrazilSurto de botulismo tipo C em frangos na cidade de Pancas, Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to describe an outbreak of botulism in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus, in Pancas City, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The birds were derived from a subsistence property with approximately 150 domestic fowls. The owner reported finding some birds lying on the floor and others exhibiting limited mobility. Ten animals in agony were euthanized, necropsied and had their blood serum collected. About 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs, 144 (96% animals of the creation had already died. No postmortem changes were found at necropsies. Clostridium botulinum type C toxins were detected in the sera of euthanized chickens by mice neutralization tests. The observation of clinical signs, absence of post-mortem lesions and the result of mouse neutralization tests confirmed the diagnosis of botulism caused by C. botulinum type C. Unfortunately, the source of toxins was not found. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever um surto de botulismo em aves domésticas (Gallus gallus domesticus, ocorrido na cidade de Pancas, estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As aves eram oriundas de uma propriedade de subsistência com aproximadamente 150 frangos domésticos. O proprietário relatou encontrar algumas aves caídas no chão e outras apresentando dificuldade de locomoção. Dez animais em estado agônico foram eutanasiados, submetidos à necropsia e coleta de soro sanguíneo. Em 72 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos, 144 (96% animais da criação já haviam vindo a óbito. Nenhuma alteração post-mortem foi encontrada durante a necropsia. Foi possível detectar a toxina botulínica tipo C por soroneutralização em camundongos no soro dos animais eutanasiados. A observação da sintomatologia clínica, ausência de lesões à necropsia e o resultado da soroneutralização permitem confirmar o diagnóstico de botulismo por Clostridium botulinum tipo C.

  10. Genetic relations between natural antibodies binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin and production traits in a purebred layer chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klein, S A S; Berghof, T V L; Arts, J A J; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J; Bovenhuis, H

    2015-05-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are an important component of the first line of immune defense. Selective breeding for enhanced NAb levels in chickens may improve general disease resistance. It is unknown what the consequences of selection for NAb will be on the productive performance of laying hens. In this paper we describe the genetic relations between NAb titers binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 19 wk age and production traits in a white purebred leghorn chicken line observed in several time periods. A linear animal model was used to estimate (co)variance components, heritabilities, and correlations. Negative genetic correlations were found between egg weight and NAb titers, and between egg breaking strength and NAb titers. Positive genetic correlations were found between the feed conversion ratio (consumed feed/egg mass produced) and NAb titers, and egg production and NAb titers. Negative phenotypic correlations were found between body weight and NAb titers, between egg weight and NAb titers, and between egg breaking strength and NAb titers. Positive phenotypic correlations were found between egg production and NAb titers, and feed conversion ratio and NAb titers. In general, phenotypic correlations were more often significant, but less pronounced than genetic correlations. Other production traits were not found to be significant related to NAb titers. These findings suggest that there is a genetic tradeoff between levels of immunity and some production traits, although the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) unclear. The results suggest possible consequences for production efficiency as a result of selective breeding for improved general disease resistance by natural antibodies. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Vices Among Commercial Chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (75%) out of the total flocks exhibited various kinds of vices ranging from cannibalism, vent pecking, feather pulling, toe pecking, head pecking and egg eating. Out of these thirty flocks, ISA brown flocks recorded the highest incidence of vices with 40%, followed by white Leghorn with 30%, Black Harco with 27% and ...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci for body temperature, body weight, breast yield, and digestibility in an advanced intercross line of chickens under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goor, Angelica; Bolek, Kevin J; Ashwell, Chris M; Persia, Mike E; Rothschild, Max F; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2015-12-17

    Losses in poultry production due to heat stress have considerable negative economic consequences. Previous studies in poultry have elucidated a genetic influence on response to heat. Using a unique chicken genetic resource, we identified genomic regions associated with body temperature (BT), body weight (BW), breast yield, and digestibility measured during heat stress. Identifying genes associated with a favorable response during high ambient temperature can facilitate genetic selection of heat-resilient chickens. Generations F18 and F19 of a broiler (heat-susceptible) × Fayoumi (heat-resistant) advanced intercross line (AIL) were used to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Six hundred and thirty-one birds were exposed to daily heat cycles from 22 to 28 days of age, and phenotypes were measured before heat treatment, on the 1st day and after 1 week of heat treatment. BT was measured at these three phases and BW at pre-heat treatment and after 1 week of heat treatment. Breast muscle yield was calculated as the percentage of BW at day 28. Ileal feed digestibility was assayed from digesta collected from the ileum at day 28. Four hundred and sixty-eight AIL were genotyped using the 600 K Affymetrix chicken SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array. Trait heritabilities were estimated using an animal model. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these traits and changes in BT and BW was conducted using Bayesian analyses. Candidate genes were identified within 200-kb regions around SNPs with significant association signals. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.03 to 0.35). We identified QTL for BT on Gallus gallus chromosome (GGA)14, 15, 26, and 27; BW on GGA1 to 8, 10, 14, and 21; dry matter digestibility on GGA19, 20 and 21; and QTL of very large effect for breast muscle yield on GGA1, 15, and 22 with a single 1-Mb window on GGA1 explaining more than 15% of the genetic variation. This is the first study to estimate heritabilities and perform GWAS using this

  13. Relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl 126 treatment and cytochrome P4501A activity in chickens, as measured by in vivo caffeine and ex vivo ethoxyresorufin metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Lambert, G.H.

    1999-09-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons (PHDHs) and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-CBT) has been developed to measure in vivo avian CYPIA activity. Research goals were to develop stable isotope methods ({sup 13}C-CBT), determine dose-response relationships between caffeine N-demethylation (CNDM) and PHDH exposure, and assess the relative utility of the CBT and ex vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. The {sup 13}C-CBT methods were developed with 20 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Chickens received three intraperitoneal injections of 0, 1, 5, or 50 {micro}g 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)/kg body weight, and CNDM was quantified by measurement of {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in expired breath. The {sup 13}C-CBT was not as sensitive or specific as the EROD assay as an indicator of PHDH exposure and effect in birds. Constitutive CNDM of great interindividual variability was observed, and the magnitude of induction was greater for EROD activity than for CNDM (approximately 1,000- and 2-fold, respectively). Variability associated with baseline {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} ratios in expired breath reduced the sensitivity of the {sup 13}C-CBT method.

  14. Effect of caponization and testosterone implantation on hepatic lipids and lipogenic enzymes in male chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K L; Chi, W T; Chu, C; Chen, R S; Chiou, P W S

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role and effects of testosterone in lipogenesis by measuring and analyzing the lipid composition and lipogenic enzyme activity of livers from capons treated with various doses of exogenous testosterone implant. Healthy and uniform male Single Comb White Leghorn chickens were caponized at 12 wk of age. Sixteen-week-old capons were randomly selected for a 10-wk experiment. Fifteen intact males and 15 capons were used for trial 1. In trial 2, 10 sham-operated males and 40 capons were used. The capons were randomly divided into 4 independent treatments with sialistic implants of cholesterol (1.62 mm i.d., 3.6 mm o.d., 9.24 +/- 0.36 mg; CHOL), low testosterone (1 mm i.d., 3 mm o.d., 5.88 +/- 0.23 mg), medium testosterone (1.62 mm i.d., 3.16 mm o.d., 9.81 +/- 0.17 mg), or high testosterone (2 mm i.d., 4 mm o.d., 16.7 +/- 0.24 mg). In trial 1, the results showed that caponization increased total hepatic lipid and triacylglycerol contents and decreased the nonesterified fatty acid content (P malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and MDH mRNA content (P = 0.09) simultaneously. In trial 2, comparing treatments with the various implantation doses of testosterone, the liver triacylglycerol content of capons the medium-dose implantation was decreased as compared with those receiving CHOL (P 0.05). With an increased implantation dose, MDH activity of capons receiving the medium dose or higher was not different from those receiving the CHOL and sham treatments (P > 0.05). The increase in MDH activity at the transcriptional and translational levels suggests that caponization may positively regulate hepatic lipogenesis. In contract, implantation of testosterone up to the threshold concentration depressed hepatic lipogensis and lipid accumulation.

  15. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  16. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  17. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  18. Effect of Dietary Protein and Energy Level on Proximate Composition of Breast and Thigh Meat in White Leghorn Layers at Molt and Post Molt Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javaid*, M. I. Anjum1 and M. Akram2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of varying protein and energy levels in molt diets on meat composition of White Leghorn layers. One hundred and fifty four, 70 weeks old, layers were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 8 hens each in addition to 10 birds that were slaughtered at pre molt and post fast stages. After 10 days of fasting during molting, 6 experimental diets having 3 levels of crude protein (CP i.e. 14, 16 and 18% and 2 levels of metabolizable energy (ME i.e. 2700 and 2900 kcal/kg were given to the birds at the rate of 45 g/bird for 25 day. There after the birds were offered ad-libitum layer ration during production phase. Two birds per replicate at post molt, at 50% egg production and at the end of experiment were slaughtered and then breast and thigh meat samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Moisture (71.7 and 70.0% content was significantly (P<0.05 higher while, ether extract (2.13 and 3.49% was significantly (P<0.05 lower in both breast and thigh meat, respectively, with 18% CP diet as compared to 14 and 16% CP diets. Medium Protein-High Energy (MPHE molt diet having 16% CP with 2900 kcal/kg ME produced more dry matter and protein content in meat at the expense of ether extract. Results regarding proximate composition of layer meat determined at different stages of molting and post molt production revealed that moisture and protein contents of both breast and thigh meat were significantly increased where as, ether extract and ash contents were significantly decreased at post fast stage with respect to other stages.

  19. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  20. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  1. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  2. Chicken pox in pregnancy : An obstetric concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  3. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  4. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  5. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  6. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  7. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  8. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  9. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  10. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  11. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  12. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  13. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  14. Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic Evidence of Antigenically and Genetically Distinct Chicken Astroviruses in Nigerian ... This knowledge will engender research into the prevalence, distribution, pathogenicity and economic losses caused by these diseases, and ultimately lead to the design ...

  15. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident.

  16. The magnetic compass of domestic chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Denzau, Susanne; Nießner, Christine; Rogers, Lesley J; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that domestic chickens can be trained to search for a social stimulus in specific magnetic directions. Chickens can hardly fly and have only small home ranges, hence their having a functional magnetic compass may seem rather surprising. Yet considering the natural habitat of their ancestors and their lifestyle until recently, the advantages of a magnetic compass become evident.

  17. Genetic characterization of native southern African chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the first results on the evaluation and selection of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the genetic characterization of native chicken populations in southern Africa. Blood samples for DNA extraction were obtained from five chicken lines from South Africa (Koekoek, New Hampshire, Naked-Neck, ...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  19. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  20. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  1. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  2. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  3. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  4. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ...] Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03 AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Chicken Ranch Liquor... consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch Rancheria. The land is trust land and...

  5. 15N-enrichments of ammonia and glutamine in blood after infusion of 15N-ammonia in chickens fed low or high protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Yutaka; Koh, Katsuki

    1985-01-01

    In this experment, the blood ammonia and glutamine amide came from infused ammonia were determined when N-15 labeled ammonium acetate was intraportally infused into the chickens fed 5 or 20 % protein diet. The data obtained indicated that the infused ammonia was taken into blood glutamine amide, and also accumulated in blood as it is, in both dietary groups. 10 to 12 months old White Leghorn male birds were used. The experimental diet was fed once a day for 5 days to the birds weighting about 1.2 kg by 35 g per kg body weight. The experimental diet was consumed within 40 min in all cases. Cardiac and portal catheterization were performed for blood collection and ammonia infusion, respectively. After finishing the infusion, blood samples were taken to analyze the ammonia and glutamine contents and their N-15 enrichment. Statistical difference was not observed in the appearance of N-15 in ammonia and glutamine amide between two dietary groups. The N-15 enrichment in blood ammonia and the amide of plasma glutamine, and the calculated exogenous nitrogen in the ammonia and glutamine amide tended to be more in the 5 % protein diet group than the other. (Kako, I.)

  6. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  7. Genetic polymorphism of exon 9-11 of the leptin gene receptor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    primer3_www.cgi). These primers were designed based on the chicken sequence leptin gene receptor (GenBank –. NC006095.2) Gallus gallus chromosome 8, reference assembly. (based on Gallus_gallus-2.1). The primers were ...

  8. Campylobacter jejuni seroepidemiology in native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosis in humans with gastroenteritis. Healthy chickens can carry Campylobacter spp. in the intestinal tract. Efforts to reduce exposure to Campylobacteriosis by humans may be enhanced by knowledge of its prevalence in poultry. This study aimed to identify factors associated with seropositive response to C. jejuni in native chickens in Mataram. Detection of C. jejuni was accomplished using an immunochromatographic serological method. Association between Campylobacter jejuni seropositive response as the dependent variable with various independent variables was analyzed using χ² (Chi square and Odds Ratio (OR. A total of 216 chicken samples were examined and 44 chicken owners were interviewed and their farms examined. Results showed the prevalence of serological response to C. jejuni in chicken samples to be as high as 35.6% and that as many as 70.5% of farms had affected chickens. Age of the chicken was the variable most closely associated with incidence of seropositive response, birds older than 3 months more likely to be affected. Variables at the farm level associated with variation in seropositive response were cage type, cage floor material, and origin of drinking water, surface water sources being less desirable.

  9. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  10. The type VI secretion system encoded in SPI-6 plays a role in gastrointestinal colonization and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pezoa

    Full Text Available The role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs in pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the chicken is poorly studied, while many studies have been completed in murine models. The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS is a recently described protein secretion system in Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella contains five phylogenetically distinct T6SS encoded in differentially distributed genomic islands. S. Typhimurium harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6, which contributes to the ability of Salmonella to colonize mice. On the other hand, serotype Gallinarum harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19 that is required for colonization of chicks. In this work, we investigated the role of T6SSSPI-6 in infection of chicks by S. Typhimurium. Oral infection of White Leghorn chicks showed that a ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant had reduced colonization of the gut and internal organs, compared with the wild-type strain. Transfer of the intact T6SSSPI-6 gene cluster into the T6SS mutant restored bacterial colonization. In addition, our results showed that transfer of T6SSSPI-19 from S. Gallinarum to the ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant of S. Typhimurium not only complemented the colonization defect but also resulted in a transient increase in the colonization of the cecum and ileum of chicks at days 1 and 3 post-infection. Our data indicates that T6SSSPI-6 contributes to chicken colonization and suggests that both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 perform similar functions in vivo despite belonging to different phylogenetic families.

  11. Evaluating adhesion reduction efficacy of type I/III collagen membrane and collagen-GAG resorbable matrix in primary flexor tendon repair in a chicken model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John B; Corazzini, Rubina L; Butler, Timothy J; Garlick, David S; Rinker, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Reduction of peritendinous adhesions after injury and repair has been the subject of extensive prior investigation. The application of a circumferential barrier at the repair site may limit the quantity of peritendinous adhesions while preserving the tendon's innate ability to heal. The authors compare the effectiveness of a type I/III collagen membrane and a collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) resorbable matrix in reducing tendon adhesions in an experimental chicken model of a "zone II" tendon laceration and repair. In Leghorn chickens, flexor tendons were sharply divided using a scalpel and underwent repair in a standard fashion (54 total repairs). The sites were treated with a type I/III collagen membrane, collagen-GAG resorbable matrix, or saline in a randomized fashion. After 3 weeks, qualitative and semiquantitative histological analysis was performed to evaluate the "extent of peritendinous adhesions" and "nature of tendon healing." The data was evaluated with chi-square analysis and unpaired Student's t test. For both collagen materials, there was a statistically significant improvement in the degree of both extent of peritendinous adhesions and nature of tendon healing relative to the control group. There was no significant difference seen between the two materials. There was one tendon rupture observed in each treatment group. Surgical handling characteristics were subjectively favored for type I/III collagen membrane over the collagen-GAG resorbable matrix. The ideal method of reducing clinically significant tendon adhesions after injury remains elusive. Both materials in this study demonstrate promise in reducing tendon adhesions after flexor tendon repair without impeding tendon healing in this model.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter Jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyidi, A; Budhiharta, S; Asmara, W; Yudhabuntara, D

    2010-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  14. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  15. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  16. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  17. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  18. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  19. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  20. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  2. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  3. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  4. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  6. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  7. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  8. Analisis D-loop DNA Mitokondria untuk Memposisikan Ayam Hutan Merah dalam Domestikasi Ayam di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The current poultry is a domesticated chickens used for both meat and egg production. Pedigree investigation is an important part to understand the process of chicken domestication in Indonesia. Molecular DNA approach using D-loop Mitochondrial DNA marker (hypervariable 1 segment was used in this analysis. The objective of the study was to construct the pedigree analysis of Indonesian chicken. Four hundreds and eighty four (434 samples belonging to 15 breeds of Indonesian local chicken (Cemani, Kedu, Kedu Putih, Pelung, Sentul, Wareng, Merawang, Kapas, Kate, Arab Silver, Arab Gold, Gaok, Nunukan, Kalosi and Tolaki and 9 samples of Red jungle fowls (Gallus gallus gallus were extracted, PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. Four sequence references from GeneBank, Gallus gallus (NCBI, accession number AB0986688. G. gallus (GenBank accession number AB098668, G. gallus spadiceus (GenBank accession number AB007721, and G. gallus bankiva (GenBank accession number AB007718 were included in this analysis. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. The results show that 72 haplotypes were identified from 56 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Indonesian chicken have a close relationship with 2 subspecies of Gallus gallus (G. gallus gallus and G. gallus spadiceus. Our results suggest that D-loop region is highly variable in Indonesian chicken with large number of haplotypes.

  9. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  10. MedlinePlus: Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  11. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  12. Are Chicken Eggs Good or Bad for My Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good or bad for my cholesterol? Are chicken eggs good or bad for my cholesterol? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. Chicken eggs are high in cholesterol, but the effect of egg consumption on blood ...

  13. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  14. Structural failures of the blood–gas barrier and the epithelial–epithelial cell connections in the different vascular regions of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus, at rest and during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N.; Jimoh, Sikiru A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Structural failure of blood–gas barrier (BGB) and epithelial–epithelial cell connections (EECCs) in different vascular regions of the exchange tissue of the lung was studied in rested and exercised chickens. The number of red blood cells (nRBCs) was counted and protein concentration (PC) measured after lavaging the respiratory system, and blood was sampled to determine the blood lactate levels (BLLs). The numbers of complete BGB breaks (nBGBBs) and those of the EECCs (nEECCBs) were counted in the different vascular territories of the lung. The nRBCs and the PCs increased with increasing exercise intensities but the rate of increase decreased at higher workloads. From rest to the fastest experimental treadmill speed of 2.95 m.sec−1, BLLs increased 4-fold. In all cases, the nEECCBs exceeded those of the BGB, showing that structurally the BGB is relatively weaker than the EECC. The increase in the number of breaks with increasing exercise can be attributed to increase in the pulmonary capillary blood pressure (PCBP) from faster heart rates and higher cardiac outputs, while the leveling out of the measurements made at higher workloads may have arisen from hemodynamic changes that initially ensued from exudation of blood plasma and then flow of blood into the air capillaries on failure of the BGB. The relative differences in the nBGBBs and the nEECCBs in the different vascular regions of the lung were ascribed to diameters of the branches and their points of origin and angles of bifurcation from the pulmonary artery. Presence of RBCs in the air capillaries of the lungs of rested chickens showed that failure of the BGB commonly occurs even in healthy and unstressed birds. Rapid repair and/or defense responses, which were observed, may explain how birds cope with mechanical injuries of the BGB. PMID:23519074

  15. Structural failures of the blood-gas barrier and the epithelial-epithelial cell connections in the different vascular regions of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus, at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N; Jimoh, Sikiru A

    2013-03-15

    Structural failure of blood-gas barrier (BGB) and epithelial-epithelial cell connections (EECCs) in different vascular regions of the exchange tissue of the lung was studied in rested and exercised chickens. The number of red blood cells (nRBCs) was counted and protein concentration (PC) measured after lavaging the respiratory system, and blood was sampled to determine the blood lactate levels (BLLs). The numbers of complete BGB breaks (nBGBBs) and those of the EECCs (nEECCBs) were counted in the different vascular territories of the lung. The nRBCs and the PCs increased with increasing exercise intensities but the rate of increase decreased at higher workloads. From rest to the fastest experimental treadmill speed of 2.95 m.sec(-1), BLLs increased 4-fold. In all cases, the nEECCBs exceeded those of the BGB, showing that structurally the BGB is relatively weaker than the EECC. The increase in the number of breaks with increasing exercise can be attributed to increase in the pulmonary capillary blood pressure (PCBP) from faster heart rates and higher cardiac outputs, while the leveling out of the measurements made at higher workloads may have arisen from hemodynamic changes that initially ensued from exudation of blood plasma and then flow of blood into the air capillaries on failure of the BGB. The relative differences in the nBGBBs and the nEECCBs in the different vascular regions of the lung were ascribed to diameters of the branches and their points of origin and angles of bifurcation from the pulmonary artery. Presence of RBCs in the air capillaries of the lungs of rested chickens showed that failure of the BGB commonly occurs even in healthy and unstressed birds. Rapid repair and/or defense responses, which were observed, may explain how birds cope with mechanical injuries of the BGB.

  16. Structural failures of the blood–gas barrier and the epithelial–epithelial cell connections in the different vascular regions of the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus, at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Maina

    2013-01-01

    Structural failure of blood–gas barrier (BGB and epithelial–epithelial cell connections (EECCs in different vascular regions of the exchange tissue of the lung was studied in rested and exercised chickens. The number of red blood cells (nRBCs was counted and protein concentration (PC measured after lavaging the respiratory system, and blood was sampled to determine the blood lactate levels (BLLs. The numbers of complete BGB breaks (nBGBBs and those of the EECCs (nEECCBs were counted in the different vascular territories of the lung. The nRBCs and the PCs increased with increasing exercise intensities but the rate of increase decreased at higher workloads. From rest to the fastest experimental treadmill speed of 2.95 m.sec−1, BLLs increased 4-fold. In all cases, the nEECCBs exceeded those of the BGB, showing that structurally the BGB is relatively weaker than the EECC. The increase in the number of breaks with increasing exercise can be attributed to increase in the pulmonary capillary blood pressure (PCBP from faster heart rates and higher cardiac outputs, while the leveling out of the measurements made at higher workloads may have arisen from hemodynamic changes that initially ensued from exudation of blood plasma and then flow of blood into the air capillaries on failure of the BGB. The relative differences in the nBGBBs and the nEECCBs in the different vascular regions of the lung were ascribed to diameters of the branches and their points of origin and angles of bifurcation from the pulmonary artery. Presence of RBCs in the air capillaries of the lungs of rested chickens showed that failure of the BGB commonly occurs even in healthy and unstressed birds. Rapid repair and/or defense responses, which were observed, may explain how birds cope with mechanical injuries of the BGB.

  17. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  18. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  19. Prevalence of Eimeria species in local breed chickens in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eimeria species are protozoan parasites causing coccidiosis in exotic and local breeds of chickens. Coccidiosis is the most important protozoan disease to the world poultry industry and domestic chickens are considered susceptible to seven ... Most of the chickens reared under this system, scavenge for most of their food.

  20. Smallholder local chicken production and available feed resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poultry industry in Uganda is mainly based on free-range (scavenging) indigenous chickens, kept at the subsistence level. Chicken population rose from 23.5 million in 2005 to 37.4 million in 2008; and most of these chicken (over 80%) were indigenous to the country. A survey was conducted in Central Uganda to ...

  1. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA study in domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA has the characteristic of quick evolution, matrilineal inheritance, and simple molecular structure, and it serves as the most used marker for molecular study. As an important role of genomics, studying it can help understand the origins, history, and adaptation of domestication. Because of its wide spread popularity, chicken is one of the important domestic animals, which provides humans with a stable source of protein, including both meat and eggs. This article reviews recent studies of chicken mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial D-loop and mitochondrial genomics pinpoint the geographic origins of the domestic chicken which was multiple origins; moreover, the mitochondria gene mutation has an association with high-altitude adaptation and the mitochondria-associated diseases' study in poultry is not performed.

  3. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  4. PUFA loses after cookingg of chicken meat.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ferrer, S.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect ofsupplying with fish or linseed oils on the performance, quality parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of the meat of broiler chickens. Besides, it aimed to test the relative stability of the FA composition after cooking of the chicken meat. A diet with 4% of tallow plus 4% linseed oil (Tl ) or 4% fish oil (T2) was fed to the birds throughout the 5 wk growth period. After slaughtering of the animals, the FA profile of the raw samples was ...

  5. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  6. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  7. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Investigation some characteristics of chicken feather’s rachis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.

  9. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  10. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  13. Feeding value of triticale for broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edi Widodo

    2015-03-16

    Mar 16, 2015 ... Keywords: Cultivars, Bogong, Canobolas, Jackie, Tobruk and Endeavour, gross response, energy utilization. #. Corresponding .... Efficiency of ME use for protein retention (KREP) = REp/MEI ... Table 2 Gross responses of broiler chicken given diets based on triticale cultivars up to 7, 14 and 21 days old1.

  14. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  15. Indigenous chicken genetic resources in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Hilton-Taylor, 2000; Pimm & Raven, 2000). The loss of native chicken species may represent a social or economic loss for human populations, especially in developing countries. For long-term conservation and development purposes, it is therefore necessary to assess the genetic diversity of South African conserved.

  16. Chicken pox associated thrombocytopenia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadir; Anwar, Masood; Majeed, Irfan; Tariq, Waheed Uz Zaman

    2006-04-01

    To determine the frequency and magnitude of thrombocytopenia associated with chicken pox in adults. Observational descriptive study. Combined Military Hospital, Attock, from July 2003 to June 2004. All patients of age 15 years and above with history of fever, followed by appearance of the typical vesicular chicken pox rash, were inducted after informed consent. Two milliliters of whole blood was collected on day 1 of admission, and blood counts were performed. Patients were admitted and given 800 mg oral acyclovir, 5 times/day, for 7 days, in addition to symptomatic treatment. Patients were followed till 8 weeks. A total of 410 patients of chicken pox were received, out of which 270 were included. Age of patients ranged between 15 and 40 years with median age of 21 years. Platelet count on the day of admission ranged between 29 x 10(9)/L to 513 x 10(9)/L, mean platelet count 178 x 10(9)/L. Platelet count chicken pox is a common entity. Platelet count remains above 25 x 10(9) /L, which is usually not associated with bleeding manifestations. None of the patients in this series developed purpura. No specific pattern of total leukocyte counts was predictive of the progression or regression in platelet count.

  17. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  18. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  19. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  20. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  1. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  2. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at. 30, 40 ...

  3. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  4. Colonic chicken skin mucosa: association with juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, M J; Subramony, C; Bishop, P R; Parker, P H

    2001-03-01

    Chicken skin mucosa is a newly described endoscopic finding associated with colonic neoplasms in adults. Chicken skin mucosa was sought in children with juvenile polyps to determine the prevalence, endoscopic features, and location. An alternative theory is proposed for the pathogenic mechanism of this finding. Children having colonoscopy and polypectomy were prospectively evaluated for the presence of chicken skin mucosa. The location of the polyps was determined at colonoscopy; the size of removed polyps was measured during processing of samples in pathology. Biopsies from colonic chicken skin mucosa were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and mucicarmine. Over a 1-yr period, 27 juvenile polyps were removed from 15 children at colonoscopy. Eleven of 15 children (73%) were found to have polyps with chicken skin mucosa; overall, 43% of the polyps had associated chicken skin mucosa. Chicken skin mucosa-positive polyps were larger than chicken skin mucosa-negative polyps and were only found in the rectosigmoid colon. Lipid-laden macrophages were found in all samples of chicken skin mucosa tested. Chicken skin mucosa is a common finding in children with juvenile polyps. It probably is the result of local mucosal trauma, rather than a preneoplastic lesion.

  5. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J.; O’Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Our attitudes to animals are linked to our beliefs about their cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and capacity to experience emotional states. In this study, undergraduate students were surveyed on their attitudes to chickens pre- and post- a practical class in which they learnt to clicker train chickens. Students were more likely to agree that chickens are intelligent and easy to teach tricks to, and that chickens feel emotions such as boredom, frustration and happiness, following the practical class. Similar workshops may be an effective method to improve animal training skills, and promote more positive attitudes to specific animal species. Abstract A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals. PMID

  6. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter establishments. The new performance standards were... Salmonella and new Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect with...

  7. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  8. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  9. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the colonizing ability and the invasive capacity of selected Campylobacter jejuni strains of importance for the epidemiology of C jejuni in Danish broiler chickens. Four C jejuni strains were selected for experimental colonization Studies in day-old and 14-day...... to be invasive in orally challenged chickens as well as in three different human epithelial cell lines.......-old chickens hatched from specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs. Of the four C jejuni strains tested, three were Penner heat-stable serotype 2,flaA type 1/1, the most common type found among broilers and human cases in Denmark. The fourth strain was Penner heat-stable serotype 19, which has been shown...... to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  10. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  11. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Al-Saffar; E. D. Al-Mawla

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old), from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village), for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken) 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 %) and four types of chewing lice were classifi...

  12. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  13. [Psoas abscess as a chicken pox complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcamon, Jorge E; Juanco, Gabriela; Alvarez, Lionel A; Pebe, Florián V

    2010-06-01

    Chicken pox is the most frequent exantematic illness; usually its course is self-limited and benign. Several bacterial complications are described due to the disruption of the skin as a defensive barrier because of the characteristics of the injuries and the associated inmunodepression. Psoas abscess is a rare illness and it's difficult to diagnose, with a general unspecified clinical presentation. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl, on her fifth day of chicken pox, who consults about a febrile convulsion, from which she recovers without any neurological symptoms, referring to functional impotence of her inferior left limb and pain in the lumbar and gluteal zone, which irradiates to the homolateral hip, making deambulation impossible. The definitive diagnosis was made with a CAT at hospital admission. The germ isolated was community-acquired methricillin-resistant Staphilococcus aureus. Treatment consisted in surgical drainage and endovenous antibiotics.

  14. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    -toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with L-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND) and L-glutamine (Gln) on expression of growth and differentiation...... factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...... and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells....

  15. BIOAPATITE MADE FROM CHICKEN FEMUR BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano-bioapatite (BAP powder was successfully acquired from chicken femur bones via chemical treatment followed by calcination. The isolation of nano-bioapatite powder from chicken bone has not been published so far. The bioapatite powder was chemically and structurally characterized by elemental analysis (AAS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques. The nano BAP powder showed needleshaped morphology. The crystallite size distribution and specific surface area proved the nanostructured character of the sample. Chemical analysis together with FTIR spectrometry have demonstrated that the BAP powder was Ca-deficient with Na, Mg and carbonate substitutions that make the BAP suitable for application as a filler in biocomposites.

  16. Spirulina as a functional ingredient in broiler chicken diets | Bonos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid after spirulina supplementation. Therefore, spirulina could be a promising functional ingredient in broiler chicken nutrition. Keywords: Poultry, microalgae, performance, meat ...

  17. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  18. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98% of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80% chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

  19. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... updating parameters of the model to better describe processes observed in slaughterhouses. We propose Bayesian updating as a suitable technique to update expert judgment with microbiological data. Berrang and Dickens’s data are used to demonstrate performance of this method in updating parameters...... of the chicken processing line model....

  20. Microbial Phytase and Phosphorus Utilization by Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kliment

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the mathematical and statistical assesment of the micorbial 6-phytase efficacy on phosphorus utilization at broiler chickens Cobb 500. Broiler chickens fed commercial feed mixtures based on soyabean-maize meal. Each feed mixture was fed ad libitum to chickens in boxes in commercial poultry farm. The trial consited of three groups of broiler chickens, one control group (CG and two trial groups, in which were broiler chickens fed by feed mixtures with decreased phosphorus content (TG1 and with microbial 6-phytase (TG2. A body weight of chickens at the end of the trial (42 day was 1900.0 g compared with 1883,0 g (TG1 and 1827.0 g (CG with not statistically significant differences (P≥0.05. Phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in blood serum of broiler chickens in every group was not staticstically significant (P≥0.05. Phosphorus content in broiler chickens excreta was most higher in in control group (4.2556 g/kg in comparison with trial group (2.0911 g/kg were was microbial 6-phytase added and in trial group (3.1851 g/kg were was phosphorus content in feed mixtures decreased. In addition we concluded that microbial 6-phytase. Phytase addition into feed mixtures has not negative effect on broiler chickens growth ability and health, and helped to better utilization of phytate phosphorus from feed mixtures in relation to excreted phosphorus.

  1. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  2. Gentamicin Pharmacokinetics in the Chicken Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Bunting, Eric C.; Park, Debra L.; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single system...

  3. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hen was 13.3 eggs/hen/clutch (95% CI=12.81 – 13.85) and the mean annual egg production was 50.8 eggs per year with an average clutching frequency of 3.8 clutches (95% CI = 3.69 – 3.92). The average clutch length was 26 days (95% CI = 24.92 – 27.08). While the age at first lay of village chickens was 6.53 months ...

  4. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination......-induced tumors associated with some B complex haplotypes. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Sep...

  5. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  6. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J M; Guarddon, M; Mondragon, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2007-04-01

    The mean counts of Enterococcus spp. were determined for 30 samples each of organic chicken meat, conventional chicken meat, and turkey meat, and differences for Enterococcus contamination in meat were determined. Two enterococci strains from each sample were isolated to obtain a total of 180 strains, and resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and vancomycin was determined by a disk diffusion method. Average counts obtained showed that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat (3.18 log CFU/g) were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat (2.06 log CFU/g) or conventional turkey meat (1.23 log CFU/g). However, the resistance data obtained showed that isolates from organic chicken meat were less resistant than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin (P = 0.0067), chloramphenicol (P = 0.0154), doxycycline (P = 0.0277), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0024), erythromycin (P = 0.0028), and vancomycin (P = 0.0241). In addition, isolates from organic chicken were less resistant than conventional turkey meat isolates to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001) and erythromycin (P = 0.0137). Multidrug-resistant isolates were found in every group tested, but rates of multidrug-resistant strains were significantly higher in conventional chicken and turkey than those obtained from organic chicken meat. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated from organic chicken (36.67%), whereas Enterococcus durans was the most common species isolated from conventional chicken (58.33%) and turkey (56.67%). The rates obtained for antimicrobial resistance suggest that although organic chicken meat may have higher numbers of Enterococcus, these bacteria present a lower level of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. The chicken type III GnRH receptor homologue is predominantly expressed in the pituitary, and exhibits similar ligand selectivity to the type I receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nerine T; Morgan, Kevin; Sellar, Robin; McBride, Derek; Millar, Robert P; Dunn, Ian C

    2009-01-01

    Two GnRH isoforms (cGnRH-I and GnRH-II) and two GnRH receptor subtypes (cGnRH-R-I and cGnRH-R-III) occur in chickens. Differential roles for these molecules in regulating gonadotrophin secretion or other functions are unclear. To investigate this we cloned cGnRH-R-III from a broiler chicken and compared its structure, expression and pharmacological properties with cGnRH-R-I. The broiler cGnRH-R-III cDNA was 100% identical to the sequence reported in the red jungle fowl and white leghorn breed. Pituitary cGnRH-R-III mRNA was ∼1400-fold more abundant than cGnRH-R-I mRNA. Northern analysis indicated a single cGnRH-R-III transcript. A pronounced sex and age difference existed, with higher pituitary transcript levels in sexually mature females versus juvenile females. In contrast, higher expression levels occurred in juvenile males versus sexually mature males. Functional studies in COS-7 cells indicated that cGnRH-R-III has a higher binding affinity for GnRH-II than cGnRH-I (Kd: 0·57 vs 19·8 nM) with more potent stimulation of inositol phosphate production (ED50: 0·8 vs 4·38 nM). Similar results were found for cGnRH-R-I, (Kd: 0·51 vs 10·8 nM) and (ED50: 0·7 vs 2·8 nM). The initial rate of internalisation was faster for cGnRH-R-III than cGnRH-R-I (26 vs 15·8%/min). Effects of GnRH antagonists were compared at the two receptors. Antagonist #27 distinguished between cGnRH-R-I and cGnRH-R-III (IC50: 2·3 vs 351 nM). These results suggest that cGnRH-R-III is probably the major mediator of pituitary gonadotroph function, that antagonist #27 may allow delineation of receptor subtype function in vitro and in vivo and that tissue-specific recruitment of cGnRH-R isoforms has occurred during evolution. PMID:19380456

  9. Different immune responses to three different vaccines following H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge in Taiwanese local chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Sheng; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Chazara, Olympe; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chang, Poa-Chun; Chen, Jan-Wei; Bed'hom, Bertrand

    2011-06-03

    H6N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) are frequently isolated in Taiwan and lead to significant economic losses, either directly or indirectly through association with other infectious diseases. This study investigates immune responses to three different vaccines following a H6N1 challenge in different local breeds. Experimental animals were sampled from six local chicken breeds maintained at the National Chung-Hsing University, namely Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Hua-Tung (Taiwan), Quemoy (Quemoy Island), Shek-Ki (China), Nagoya (Japan) and a specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn line. A total number of 338 chickens have been distributed between a control and a challenge group, H6N1 challenge was performed at 7 weeks of age; vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was performed at 11 weeks. The anti-H6N1 LPAIV antibody titers were measured by ELISA at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after challenge, and the anti-ND, anti-IBD and anti-IB antibody titers were measured by inhibition of hemagglutination test and ELISA at days 0, 14, 28 after vaccination. There was no effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge at 7 weeks of age on the subsequent responses to ND and IBD vaccine at 11 weeks of age, but, surprisingly, the H6N1 LPAIV challenge significantly affected antibody levels to IB vaccine in some breeds, since IB0 and IB14 antibody titers were lower in the challenge groups. However, there was no significant difference in IB28 antibody titers among the experimental groups. Local breeds have different immune response to H6N1 LPAIV challenge and subsequent vaccines. Differences dealt mainly with kinetics of response and with peak values. Quemoy exhibited higher antibody levels to H6N1, ND and IBD. The negative effect of the H6N1 LPAIV challenge on IB vaccine response may be related to the fact that both viruses target the lung tissues, and the type of local immune response induced by LPAIV challenge may not be

  10. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum infection between naked neck chickens and a commercial chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Teresa; Ledesma, Nestor; Téllez, Guillermo; Molinari, José Luis; Tato, Patricia

    2003-04-01

    The immune responses of indigenous naked neck (NaNa and Nana) and normally feathered (nana) chickens against a Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) infection were evaluated and compared with those of a commercial line (B-380). Groups of 28-day-old chickens (NaNa, Nana, nana, and B-380) were immunized orally and subcutaneously with 50 microg of SG antigens. Control non-immunized animals were inoculated with sterile saline solution. All chickens were challenged with 1 LD(50) of SG and mortality was recorded daily for 20 days. Antibodies to SG were measured in sera before immunization, before the challenge, 10 days after the challenge, and at sacrifice. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using concanavalin A and SG antigens. Results showed that non-immunized Nana chickens exhibited the best natural resistance to Salmonella infection, since only 30% of them died. In contrast, all control B-380 chickens died by the 13th day. Immunization with SG induced immunity in chickens of all genotypes. Indigenous naked neck and normally feathered chickens showed a higher survival rate when compared with B-380 chickens. Immunized Nana chickens showed the highest antibody titres (Pchickens are the most resistant to SG infection and the best responders to vaccination with SG antigens.

  12. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  13. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  14. A monoclonal blocking ELISA to detect chicken anaemia virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocking ELISA depends on the selective inhibition of the binding of MAb 2A9 to solid-phase antigen by CAV-specific antibodies present in convalescent chicken serum. Performance evaluation of the MBE using 417 sera from Nigerian and Northern Ireland commercial chicken flocks revealed a 99.3 % agreement ...

  15. Rapid identification of chicken anemia virus in Nigerian backyard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... endonuclease (RE) analysis was used for the detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus. (CAV) in backyard chickens ... Diagnosis of CAV infections can be made by detecting infectious virus, virus antigen, .... water); Lane 15: product obtained by amplification of NGR-5. DNA; Lane 18: phage λ ...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Chickens in Cameroon | Fotsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Chickens in Cameroon. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Over time, the adaptation to harsh environmental conditions by the indigenous chickens resulted in a huge genetic potential that goes beyond the mere short-term objectives of sources of income, food protein, and ...

  17. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  18. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  19. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Chicken Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 450 serum samples were collected from commercial chicken of 25 farms in different areas in Khartoum State (210 layers and 240 broilers) in 2012. the samples were analysed for chicken anaemia virus antibodies using indirect enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay The overall prevalence rate of CAV antibodies ...

  1. Diurnal Fluctuations in Rectal Temperature of Local Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on 10 local Chickens with the aim of determining their diurnal temperature fluctuations during the hot dry season (April) in Maiduguri, Borno State. The rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded with a standard clinical thermometer every hour from 06.00 to 19.00 hours. The RT of the chickens rose ...

  2. Genetic aspects of auto-immune profiles of healthy chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, Henk K.; Vaart, van der Priscilla S.; Nieuwland, Mike G.B.; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Auto-antibody profiles binding liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to SRBC, and were affected by ageing suggesting both genetic and environmental effects. Presence and levels of IgM and IgG antibodies binding chicken liver cell lysate

  3. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine

  4. A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Bumstead, N.; Benkel, B.; Briles, E.; Burt, D.W.; Burke, T.; Dodgson, J.; Hillel, J.; Lamont, S.; Ponce, de F.A.; Soller, M.

    2000-01-01

    A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal

  5. Marketing functions and determinants of profit among frozen chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to estimate the cost of performing some functions in frozen chicken marketing and determined the major factors affecting the profit level of the marketers. Using data collected from 10 wholesalers and 29 retailers in Ibadan metropolis, the transportation costs per kilogram of frozen chicken were N1.20 ...

  6. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  7. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  8. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  9. Detecting gallbladders in chicken livers using spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengt...

  10. Cross Reactivities of Rabbit Anti-Chicken Horse Radish Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    (BSA) was used as blocking agent. Sera of other avian species and mammals did not react with the conjugate. It is concluded that rabbit anti chicken Horse radish peroxidase could be used to detect antibodies in chickens as well as Turkey and that BSA and NRS could be used as blocking agent without loss of reactivities.

  11. ABO blood groups and chicken pox in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravartti, M R; Chakravartti, R

    1977-01-01

    ABO blood groups have been examined in a sample of 400 chicken-pox patients and their 383 unaffected siblings from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects of blood group A (and possibly AB) would appear to have a somewhat higher risk than persons with group B and O to develop chicken pox.

  12. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... conservation of genetic resources of indigenous chicken breeds in Jordan. For more general view, Siegel et al. (1992) studied the genetic diversity among wild jungle fowl and commercial chickens, using RAPD fingerprinting technique, and provided information to assess the gene- tic variation and propose ...

  13. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using six marker combinations were applied to detect genetic variation and phylo genetic relationships among 12 indigenous Chinese chicken breeds and a Recessive White chicken breed introduced from France. The DNA was pooled for each group. Polymorphic bands ...

  14. Prevalence of Eimeria species in local breed chickens in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eimeria species are protozoan parasites causing coccidiosis in exotic and local breeds of chickens. Coccidiosis is the most important protozoan disease to the world poultry industry and domestic chickens are considered susceptible to seven species of Eimeria. A survey was carried out between March and May 2010 in ...

  15. On-farm Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Chicken and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The red, Gebsima and white plumage color were dominated in the study area. The local chickens possessed yellow shanks, white skin, single combs and white and red earlobe. The mean body weight of indigenous male and female chickens was 1.42±0.02 kg and 1.18±0.01 kg, respectively. The effective population size ...

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... most of the chickens by 2 weeks post-infection, highest group mean optical density values of 2.177 and. 0.984 were observed at 5 weeks for 108 and 104 cfu Salmonella Enteritidis infected groups, respectively. Chickens exposed to few Salmonella colonies during infection do not produce high IgG antibody ...

  17. Immunomodulatory activity of chicken NK-lysin peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken NK-lysin (cNK-lysin), the chicken homologue of human granulysin, is a cationic amphiphilic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. We have previously demonstrated that cNK-lysin and cNK-2, which is a synthetic peptide incorporating core alpha-helic...

  18. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are in accordance with the origin and marketing systems of these native chickens, which indicates that the microsatellite markers used in this study were suitable for the measurement of the genetic biodiversity and relationship of Ethiopian chicken populations. These results can therefore serve as an initial step to plan the ...

  19. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  20. Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds was evaluated with 25 microsatellite markers. Polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity with the estimator of genetic differentiation FST and Nei's genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these four protected local chicken ...

  1. Cross reactivities of rabbit anti-chicken horse radish peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...

  2. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households. Both purposive and random sampling methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic status of the farmers involved in rearing of indigenous chicken, systems of management of indigenous chicken, their ...

  3. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  4. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...

  5. Changes of host DNA methylation in domestic chickens infected with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FEI WANG

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... to analyse the genomewide DNA methylation changes in domestic chickens after infected with Salmonella. The level of DNA methylation was .... At day 12, the chickens were divided ran- domly into two groups. One group was .... ing strand during DNA replication (Chilkova et al. 2007). In this study, it was ...

  6. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  7. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  8. Supplier-retailer relational satisfaction in the chicken industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that influence the relational satisfaction between chicken retailers and chicken suppliers in Terengganu. In this study, relational satisfaction as the dependent variable and six independent variables, namely trust, commitment, service quality, personal, organization and the ...

  9. (ACTH) on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidants in vitamin C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in chickens stressed by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Sixty Leghorn chickens (20 weeks old) were randomly allotted to ...

  10. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in chicken and soil of chicken farms in Nanjing region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Chao; He, Yu; Han, Deng-Ge; Zhang, Zhen-Chao; Li, Ke; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Li-Xin; Yan, Ruo-Feng; Li, Xiang-Rui

    2017-05-09

    Soil is increasingly recognized as an important source in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. gondii in the soil and to grasp the relationships between the contamination of soil and chicken infections. PCR method based on T. gondii-conserved gene internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) as target gene and ELISA method (sGRA8-ELISA) using the recombinant protein of shortened GRA8 gene of T. gondii as antigen were developed and applied. From April 2013 to March 2014, a total of 700 soil samples were collected at various sites located in thirty farms categorized as free range farm and scale farm in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, in different seasons. Additionally, a total of 350 sera of chickens were collected from free range farms to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii using sGRA8-ELISA. The serological results showed that, antibodies were found in 194 of 250 (67.14%) samples from farms with T. gondii positive in soil and 41 of 100 samples from farms with T. gondii negative in soil (41.00%) (P chickens in the farm with soil contamination was higher than that with no soil contamination. The soil contamination might be an effective indicator of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  12. Comparative metabolism of warfarin in rats and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengtienchai, A; Ikenaka, Y; Watanabe, K; Ishida, T; Ishizuka, M

    2011-12-01

    Warfarin, a coumarin rodenticide, is commonly used worldwide for rodent control, and is often reported as the cause for poisoning accidents in nontarget animals, in particular bird species. However, the metabolism of warfarin in birds is still unclear. In a previous study, we found an unknown warfarin metabolite in chicken cytosolic fractions. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the cytosolic warfarin metabolites in chickens compared with those in rats. The cytosol fractions of both chicken and rat livers showed the metabolic activity of 2 diastereomers and 2 enantiomers of warfarin alcohol. In chicken cytosol, we found that the production level of (S)-warfarin-(S)-alcohol was markedly higher (32-fold) than that in rat cytosol. From the results of the inhibition assay, we finally suggest that aldehyde oxidase may mainly contribute to the warfarin alcohol products in chicken cytosol.

  13. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    antibody and by the ability to recombine with the chicken MHC class I heavy chain. The purity was estimated by SDS-PAGE and IEF. The pI was between 5.1 and 5.3 for chicken beta 2-m and 4.7 and 4.8 for turkey beta 2-m, which fact is reflected in their different electrophoretic mobilities in agarose gel...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m...

  14. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...

  16. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological quality of japanese chicken meat and microflora change of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, Phage Types, and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Meat in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalender, H.; Sen, S.; Hasman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed...

  19. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...

  20. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  1. GENETIC SEX DETERMINATION IN HEAVY BREED CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENCSIK ALENA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a non-invasive method to predetermine the sex of chicken embryosthat relies on the bio electromagnetic field generated by the embryonic cells. Tovalidate this method in poultry, on the basis of sexual dimorphism, the genetic sex of120 chicken eggs of heavy breed. One group consisted of 60 eggs with determinedgenetic sex ZZ (cock, abbr. M. The other group consisted of 60 eggs withdetermined genetic sex ZY (hen, abbr. F. After hatching, the chicks were identifiedand the genetic sex was checked repeatedly using the pendulum. The phenoypic sexof the birds was assessed after 60 days at the time the sexual dimorphism wasvisible. From the 60 eggs sexed and incubated for each group, a hatching rate of90%, for the group M and 91,66% for the group F was obtained. The genetic sex ofindividuals determined at the age of one day showed that all individuals of the groupM were cocks (ZZ and all individuals of the group F were hens (ZW. Thephenotypic sex determination performed 60 days later showed that of 54 individualsof the group M, 41 were cocks (77,36%. In the group F from 55 individuals 42 werehens (77,78%. The prediction rate for the group M (77,36% was relativlycomparable with that for the group F (77,78%. This method is non-invasive,relatively rapid, simple and inexpensive with application in effective breedingregimes of poultry production.

  2. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  3. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV.

  4. Effects of PDGF-BB delivery from heparinized collagen sutures on the healing of lacerated chicken flexor tendon in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Mousa; Knapik, Derrick M; Cumsky, Jameson; Donmez, Baris Ozgur; He, Ping; Islam, Anowarul; Learn, Greg; McClellan, Philip; Bohl, Michael; Gillespie, Robert J; Akkus, Ozan

    2017-11-01

    Flexor tendon lacerations are traditionally repaired by using non-absorbable monofilament sutures. Recent investigations have explored to improve the healing process by growth factor delivery from the sutures. However, it is difficult to conjugate growth factors to nylon or other synthetic sutures. This study explores the performance of a novel electrochemically aligned collagen suture in a flexor tendon repair model with and without platelet derived growth factor following complete tendon laceration in vivo. Collagen suture was fabricated via electrochemical alignment process. Heparin was covalently bound to electrochemically aligned collagen sutures (ELAS) to facilitate affinity bound delivery of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Complete laceration of the flexor digitorum profundus in the third digit of the foot was performed in 36 skeletally mature White Leghorn chickens. The left foot was used as the positive control. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: control specimens treated with standard nylon suture (n=12), specimens repaired with heparinated ELAS suture without PDGF-BB (n=12) and specimens repaired with heparinated ELAS suture with affinity bound PDGF-BB (n=12). Specimens were harvested at either 4weeks or 12weeks following tendon repair. Differences between groups were evaluated by the degree of gross tendon excursion, failure load/stress, stiffness/modulus, absorbed energy at failure, elongation/strain at failure. Quantitative histological scoring was performed to assess cellularity and vascularity. Closed flexion angle measurements demonstrated no significant differences in tendon excursion between the study groups at 4 or 12weeks. Biomechanical testing showed that the group treated with PDGF-BB bound heparinated ELAS suture had significantly higher stiffness and failure load (pBB bound suture had significantly higher ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus (pBB improved biomechanics and vascularity during tendon healing

  5. Chicken Coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit; da Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production.

  6. Chicken Coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia: A Recent Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit

    2018-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production. PMID:29593858

  7. Risk of Salmonellosis from Chicken Parts Prepared from Whole Chickens Sold in Flow Pack Wrappers and Subjected to Temperature Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2017-09-01

    The flow pack wrapper is a popular packaging choice for retail sale of whole chickens. However, it may provide a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package, leading to an outbreak of salmonellosis. To investigate this possibility, a process risk model was developed that predicted the risk of salmonellosis from chicken parts prepared from whole chickens sold in flow pack wrappers and subjected to proper storage (6 h at 4°C) or improper storage (72 h at 15°C) before preparation. The model had four unit operations (pathogen events): (i) preparation (contamination), (ii) cooking (death), (iii) serving (cross-contamination), and (iv) consumption (dose-response). Data for prevalence, number, and serotype of Salmonella on chicken parts were obtained by whole sample enrichment, real-time PCR. Improper storage increased (P chicken parts from 10.6% (17 of 160) to 41.2% (66 of 160) and incidence of cross-contamination of cooked chicken from 10% (4 of 40) to 52.2% (24 of 46). Improper storage also increased (P chicken part and from 0.048 ± 0.089 to 3.08 ± 1.50 log per cooked chicken part. The predominant serotypes isolated (n = 111) were Typhimurium (34.2%), Typhimurium var 5- (20.7%), Kentucky (12.6%), Enteritidis (11.7%), and Heidelberg (8.1%). When chicken was properly stored before preparation, the model predicted that risk of salmonellosis was low and sporadic with only six cases per 100 simulations of 10 5 chicken parts. However, when 0.1 to 1% of chickens were improperly stored before preparation, the model predicted that salmonellosis would increase (P chicken parts. These results indicated that the flow pack wrapper provided a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package and that even when only a small percentage of packages were subjected to improper storage before preparation, the risk and size of an outbreak of salmonellosis from chicken parts increased significantly.

  8. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  9. Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups.

  10. Transmissibility of adenovirus-induced adiposity in a chicken model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Israel, B A; Kolesar, J M; Mayhew, G; Cook, M E; Atkinson, R L

    2001-07-01

    We previously reported that human adenovirus Ad-36 induces adiposity and paradoxically lower levels of serum cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) in animals. To evaluate the transmissibility of Ad-36 and Ad-36 induced adiposity using a chicken model. Experiment 1--four chickens were housed (two per cage) and one from each cage was inoculated with Ad-36. Duration of presence of Ad-36 DNA in the blood of all chickens was monitored. Experiment 2--two groups of chickens were intranasally inoculated with Ad-36 (infected donors, I-D) or media (control donors, C-D). Blood drawn 36 h later from I-D and C-D groups was inoculated into wing veins of recipient chickens (infected receivers, I-R, and control receivers, C-R, respectively). On sacrifice, 5 weeks post-inoculation, blood was drawn, body weight noted and visceral fat was separated and weighed. Experiment 1--Ad-36 DNA appeared in the blood of the inoculated chickens and that of uninoculated chickens (cage mates) within 12 h of inoculation and the viral DNA persisted up to 25 days in the blood. Experiment 2--compared with C-D, visceral and total body fat were significantly greater and CHOL significantly lower for the I-D and I-R. TG were significantly lower for the I-D. Ad-36 was isolated from 12 out of 16 blood samples of the I-D that were used for inoculating I-R chickens. Ad-36 DNA was present in the blood and the adipose tissue of the I-D and I-R but not in the skeletal muscles of animals selected randomly for testing. As seen in experiment 1, Ad-36 infection can be transmitted horizontally from an infected chicken to another chicken sharing the cage. Additionally, experiment 2 demonstrated blood-borne transmission of Ad-36-induced adiposity in chickens. Transmissibility of Ad-36-induced adiposity in chicken model raises serious concerns about such a possibility in humans that needs further investigation.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

    OpenAIRE

    P. Hashim; M. S. Mohd Ridzwan; J. Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two disti...

  12. Structure and expression of the chicken calmodulin I gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    1997-01-01

    to that of the chicken CaMII and the CaMI and CaMIII genes of rat and human. Expression of the CaMI gene was detected in all chicken tissues examined, although at varying levels. The gene is transcribed into four mRNAs of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7 and 4.4 kb as determined by Northern blot analysis. Our results demonstrate...... that the "multigene-one-protein" principle of CaM synthesis is not only applicable to mammals whose CaM is encoded by three different genes, but also to chickens....

  13. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  14. Estudo da divergência genética entre seis linhas de aves Legorne utilizando técnicas de análise multivariada Genetic divergence study among six Leghorn lines by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pires

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A divergência genética entre seis linhas de aves Legorne (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, desenvolvidas pela UFV, foi avaliada utilizando análise de variáveis canônicas e o método de agrupamento de Tocher. Foram incluídas no estudo oito características: peso corporal na 40ª semana (PC40, na 48ª semana (PC48, na 56ª semana (PC56; peso do ovo na 40ª semana (PO40, na 44ª semana (PO44, na 52ª semana (PO52, na 60ª semana (PO60 e taxa de postura da 40ª a 62ª semana (TP. Foi observada diferença entre as linhas quanto às características estudadas. A linha L4 mostrou-se divergente das demais, apresentando a menor média canônica, e foi alocada em grupo distinto das outras pelo teste de Tocher. O desempenho das diferentes linhas foi também avaliado por meio da análise de variância multivariada, usando o teste do maior autovalor de Roy, e por meio do teste de Roy para comparações múltiplas. Verificou-se divergência genética entre as linhas da UFV, sendo PC40 a característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência.Genetic divergence among six Leghorn lines (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, developed by Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, was evaluated using canonical variate analysis and grouping method of Tocher. Eight traits were used: body weight at 40 weeks, at 48 weeks, at 56 weeks; egg weight at 40 weeks, at 44 weeks, at 52 weeks, at 60 weeks and laying ratio from 40 to 62 weeks of age. Significant differences were observed among lines for the studied traits. The line L4 was divergent in comparison with the other ones, showed the smallest canonical mean and was allocated in a different group. The performance of different genetic groups was also evaluated by multivariate analysis of variance, using Roy test of the largest eigenvalue and the Roy principle for multiple comparisons. Genetic divergence among UFV's lines was observed and body weight at 40 weeks was the trait that more contributed for this divergence.

  15. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Uniparental chicken offsprings derived from oogenesis of chicken primordial germ cells (ZZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhai; Chang, Il-Kuk; Khazanehdari, Kamal A; Thomas, Shruti; Varghese, Preetha; Baskar, Vijaya; Alkhatib, Razan; Li, Wenhai; Kinne, Jörg; McGrew, Michael J; Wernery, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer) in avian species has proven unachievable due to the physical structure of the avian oocyte. Here, the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells with genetic sex ZZ (ZZ PGCs) was investigated in female germline chimeric chicken hosts with the aim to produce uniparental offspring. ZZ PGCs were expanded in culture and transplanted into the same and opposite sex chicken embryos which were partially sterilized using irradiation. All tested chimeric roosters (ZZ/ZZ) showed germline transmission with transmission rates of 3.2%-91.4%. Unexpectedly, functional oogenesis of chicken ZZ PGCs was found in three chimeric hens, resulting in a transmission rate of 2.3%-27.8%. Matings were conducted between the germline chimeras (ZZ/ZZ and ZZ/ZW) which derived from the same ZZ PGCs line. Paternal uniparental chicken offspring were obtained with a transmission rate up to 28.4% and as expected, all uniparental offspring were phenotypic male (ZZ). Genotype analysis of uniparental offsprings was performed using 13 microsatellite markers. The genotype profile showed that uniparental offspring were 100% genetically identical to the donor ZZ PGC line, shared 69.2%-88.5% identity with the donor bird. Homozygosity of the tested birds varied from 61.5% to 84.6%, which was higher than the donor bird (38.5%). These results demonstrate that male avian ZZ PGCs can differentiate into functional ova in an ovary, and uniparental avian clones are possible. This technology suggests novel approaches for generating genetically similar flocks of birds and for the conservation of avian genetic resources. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  19. Candidate Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Antibody Response Kinetics in Chicken: Intergeron-g, Interleukin-2, and Immunoglobulin Light chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, H.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Wiegend, S.; Lamont, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    An F2 population was produced from mating G0 highly inbred (>99€males of two MHC-congenic Fayoumi lines with G-B1 Leghorn hens. The F2 population was essentially a full-sibship with the F1 sire line reflecting MHC effect. Adult F2 hens (n = 158) were injected twice with SRBC and whole fixed

  20. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the ...