WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal superstructures independent

  1. Nanoparticle assemblies and superstructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotov, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    ... building blocks of larger and more complex systems. Therefore, the present challenge of nanoscale science is to shift from making certain building blocks to organizing them in one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures. Such assemblies and superstructures are the next logical step in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this re...

  2. Legal distinction between employee and independent contractor as applied to collective bargaining activities in timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; William C. Siegal

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining attempts by timber harvesting labor groups is often complicated by lack of a clear legal distinction between "employees" and "independent contractors." the primary criterion to make the distinction - the "right-to-control" test of common law - has now been amplified by a number of secondary tests, including: 1) the...

  3. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  4. Efficiency of the institution of independent anti-corruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan O. Dolotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the factors affecting the efficiency of civil society representatives accredited by the Russian Ministry of Justice as independent experts authorized to conduct anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts as well as the main problems faced by independent experts in conducting the anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts by the example of Saratov oblast. Methods general scientific methods of theoretical cognition and sociological method of empirical data collection indepth interviews. Results the main problems are revealed associated with low efficiency of the institution of independent anticorruption expertise comprehensive proposals are developed for improving its effectiveness in particular it is proposed to establish administrative responsibility for failure to give ignoring a reasoned answer to the conclusions submitted by independent experts to stipulate additional requirements for applicants natural persons for obtaining the status of an independent expert other than those currently stipulated higher professional education and work experience in the specialty not less than 5 years when developing the next National plan for corruption counteraction in Russia to include instructions to the Russian Ministry of Justice on the organization of monitoring of the accredited independent experts efficiency as well as on preparing and periodically publishing the eBulletin dedicated to independent anticorruption examination it is necessary to stipulate liability in the form of deprivation of the independent expert status for deliberately false anticorruption expertise and for anticorruption examination in the case of lobbying. Scientific novelty it is concluded that the key directions to increase the efficiency of independent anticorruption expertise of normative legal acts and their drafts are a more detailed regulation of the status of the independent expert and the interaction of

  5. The Legal Policy Of The General Election As An Independent Commission A Review Of Indonesian Election 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josner Simanjuntak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Legal Institution of the General Election in Indonesia has an important role in the process of elections to realize the sovereignty of the people. The legal institution is independent as mandated of the Indonesian constitution The 1945 Constitution. In the Election organizers as a chapter of the 1945 Constitution stating that the Election Commission shall be independent and impartial toward participating in the election and political party. However in practice this task is not easy and can be run smoothly it is difficult to maintain a balanced relationship between the participant election commissions. This research is a descriptive analytic one using juridical normative approach to study the legal principles legal synchronization. The technique being used to gather data is librarian research supported by field research using interview and questionnaire technique. The data being gathered are analyzed qualitatively. The result of the research shows that the legal institution the general election in undertaking has not been independent as expected because for institutional and administrative for has not been independence and not impartiality and not professionalism. The rules in the process of elections is it not the election system and achievement of justice.

  6. Securing financial independence in the legal basis of a central bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTogether with institutional, functional and organizational independence, financial independence constitutes one of the cornerstones of central bank independence, the economic ratio of which has been demonstrated extensively in the literature. In broad terms financial independence may be

  7. Legal and actual central bank independence : A case study of Bank of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period

  8. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...

  9. Legal, imagined, and real worlds: reflections on National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaw, Jerry L

    2013-04-01

    Chief Justice John Roberts's opinion upholding the individual mandate in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has been hailed as an act of judicial statesmanship that saved the Supreme Court from serious criticism as a partisan, political institution. This article argues that any such praise should be tempered by an understanding of just how far outside mainstream legal understandings the chief justice's opinion strayed when considering constitutional issues that were unnecessary to the decision of the case and, in one instance, not ripe for judicial review. Except in its narrow result upholding the mandate, the chief justice's opinion is heedless of long-standing precedent, aggressive in creating novel grounds for judicial second-guessing of legislative judgments, cavalier with factual assertions, and disrespectful of the position of other governmental institutions.

  10. U.S. financing for international independent power production projects: Legal and business issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, J.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental changes are occurring in the capital and project development markets both domestically and internationally. In the United States, the capital market has undergone dramatic changes recently, characterized by clubbed debt structures, uncertain pricing spreads, and declining leverage ratios. In response, project sponsors and their investment bankers have created innovative debt and equity structures to attract investors while at the same time minimizing project risk and preserving the flexibility for the project to operate optimally. The structure of a project financing, either U.S. or international, will vary depending on (1) the differing project management/control concerns, financial goals and risk profiles of the developer, equipment and fuel suppliers, bank lenders and equity sources, (2) regulatory issues, such as compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) in the U.S. and similar national utility legislation in the host foreign country, and (3) the tax implications of a given structure to the project owner, lender, and equity supplier. In response to these investor-specific goals and/or constraints, various forms of project structures have been developed. The focus of this paper is on legal and business issues which arise in international project finance, using U.S.project finance as a model that expresses the risk profile that U.S. financial institutions are accustomed to and overlaying the unique risks that are added to project financing which are international in nature

  11. Superstructures: First Cold Test and Future Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; C Albrecht; V Ayvazyan; R Bandelmann; T Buttner; P Castro; S Choroba; J Eschke; B Faatz; A Gossel; K Honkavaara; B Horst; J Iverson; K Jensch; H Kaiser; R Kammering; G Kreps; D Kostin; J Lorkiewicz; R Lange; A Matheisen; W -D Moller; H -B Peters; D Proch; K Rehlich; H Schlarb; S Schrieber; D Reschke; S Simrock; W Singer; X Singer; K Twarowski; T Weichert; M Wojtkiewicz; G Wendt; K Zapfe; M Liepe; M Huening; M Ferrario; E Plawski; C Pagani; P Kneisel; G Wu; N Baboi; C Thomas; H Chen; W Huang; C Tang; S Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirme Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results. The tests confirmed very good damping of HOMs in superstructures and thus has opened a possible new application of this concept to high current energy recovery machines. We have built two 1.5 GHz copper models of two superstructures: 2x5-cells and 2x2-cells to prove further improvement of HOM damping. This contribution presents also measured results on these models. d expectations on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results

  12. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: a randomized, independent samples design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S

    2006-02-01

    Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age 18. Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure than for the non-exposed teen beyond .0001 alpha

  13. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  14. Test of two Nb superstructure prototypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sekutowicz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative layout of the TESLA linear collider (Technical Design Report, DESY Report No. 2001-011, 2001, based on weakly coupled multicell superconducting structures (superstructures, significantly reduces the investment cost due to a simplification in the rf system of the main accelerator. In January 1999, preparation of the beam test of the superstructure began in order to prove the feasibility of this layout. Progress in the preparation was reported frequently in Proceedings of TESLA Collaboration Meetings. Last year, two superstructures were installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac at DESY to experimentally verify methods to balance the accelerating gradient in a weakly coupled system, the stability of the energy gain for the entire train of bunches in macropulses, and the damping of higher order modes. We present results of the first cold and beam test of these two Nb prototypes.

  15. Super-structure and building performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The super-structure consists predominantly of the load- and no-load-bearing walls-including all doors and windows and suspended floor slabs. The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard...

  16. Superstructure of stapes. An analysis by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Hunai, Hiroaki; Ichimura; Keiiti; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki

    1989-03-01

    High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone has now become a routine test for the diagnosis of various temporal bone lesions. Correct assessment of such minute structures as ossicles, especially stapes, is important in the pre-operative HRCT evaluation. On the other hand, analysis for the reliability of HRCT findings has not been done, including the superstructure of the stapes. A retrospectively study was done in order to assess the availability of HRCT findings in axial overlapping scans in 226 ears, with respect to the superstructures of stapes. The study was concerned with the analysis of HRCTs of 148 normal ears, 71 ears of chronic otitis media and 7 ears of ossicular abnormalities. HRCT findings were compared to those of surgeries in pathological cases. The present study revealed that the superstructures of stapes are noted in 70% when the stapes is surrounded by air. The major limitations in the proper analysis of stapes by HRCT are partial volume averaging and effects of soft tissue silhouetting, this is especially so when the stapes is surrounded by soft tissue density.

  17. Dental implant superstructures by superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, R.V.; Garriga-Majo, D.; Soo, S.; Pagliaria, D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dental Biomaterials Science; Juszczyk, A.S.; Walter, J.D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry

    2001-07-01

    A novel application of superplastic forming is described for the production of fixed-bridge dental implant superstructures. Finite element analysis (FEA) has shown that Ti-6Al-4V sheet would be a suitable candidate material for the design of a fixed-bridge dental implant superstructure. Traditionally superstructures are cast in gold alloy onto pre-machined gold alloy cylinders but castings are often quite bulky and 25% of castings do not fit accurately (1) which means that sectioning and soldering is required to obtain a fit that is clinically acceptable and will not prejudice the integrity of the commercially pure cp-titanium implants osseointegrated with the bone. Superplastic forming is shown to be a forming technique that would allow the production of strong, light-weight components of thin section with low residual stress that could be suitable for such applications. Considerable cost savings over traditional dental techniques can be achieved using a low-cost ceramic die material. The properties of these die materials are optimised so that suitable components can be produced. Satisfactory hot strength is demonstrated and thermal properties are matched to those of the titanium alloy for accurate fit of the prosthesis. (orig.)

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescent properties of stacked indium sulfide superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hongjie; Song, Shuyan; Feng, Jing; Lei, Yongqian; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Meiye

    2008-03-28

    Unusual hierarchical stacked superstructures of cubic beta-In2S3 were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process in the presence of a surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide CTAB; the 3D superstructures were developed by helical propagation of surface steps from microflakes of 10-20 nm thickness.

  19. Switching Colloidal Superstructures by Critical Casimir Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truc A; Newton, Arthur; Veen, Sandra J; Kraft, Daniela J; Bolhuis, Peter G; Schall, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Recent breakthroughs in colloidal synthesis promise the bottom-up assembly of superstructures on nano- and micrometer length scales, offering molecular analogues on the colloidal scale. However, a structural control similar to that in supramolecular chemistry remains very challenging. Here, colloidal superstructures are built and controlled using critical Casimir forces on patchy colloidal particles. These solvent-mediated forces offer direct analogues of molecular bonds, allowing patch-to-patch binding with exquisite temperature control of bond strength and stiffness. Particles with two patches are shown to form linear chains undergoing morphological changes with temperature, resembling a polymer collapse under poor-solvent conditions. This reversible temperature switching carries over to particles with higher valency, exhibiting a variety of patch-to-patch bonded structures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the collapse results from the growing interaction range favoring close-packed configurations. These results offer new opportunities for the active control of complex structures at the nano and micrometer scale, paving the way to novel temperature-switchable materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Model of Individual Constitutional Complaint Subject to Commonwealth of Independent States Members’ Legislation: a Comparative Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Kukhlivskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CIS members legislation regulating judicial proceedings on individual constitutional complaints is in the process of development, the relevant problems are debated by leading experts on national and international level. In view of the aforesaid this article is devoted to core concept of constitutional complaint - the model of complaint and contains comparative legal analysis of models incorporated in legislation of CIS members in different historical periods. The author proposes to enlarge the list of objects of constitutional complaint so that it includes all types of normative acts as well as individual acts, i.e. to introduce the model of full constitutional complaint. The named measures are aimed to strengthen protection of constitutional human rights in Russia and also to decrease the number of complaints against Russia filed to European Court of Human Rights.

  1. Non covalent assembly of coordination superstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Khlobystov, A N

    2002-01-01

    The main topic of this work is the design of discrete and polymeric multi-component coordination structures using non-covalent interactions between organic and inorganic molecular components. All of the structures described herein are based on transition metal cations and N-donor heterocyclic bis-exodentate ligands with different geometries and various spacer functionalities. The predominant method used for the structural characterisation of the complexes was single crystal X-ray crystallography. X-ray powder diffraction, IR and NMR spectroscopies and TEM and AFM imaging were used to characterise the bulk products from the reactions. Chapter 1 is a comparative review of non-covalent interactions relevant to coordination superstructures and covers the latest developments in the area of crystal engineering and supramolecular chemistry. The nature, geometry and relative energy of the non-covalent interactions are considered in detail in order to reveal their influence on the structure and properties of complexes...

  2. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  3. CHANGE OF THE ORGANISATIONAL AND LEGAL FORM OF INDEPENDENT PUBLIC HEALTHCARE CENTRES (SPZOZ AND CONSEQUENCES FOR FINANCING HEALTHCARE ENTITY ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Local government units (LGU are nowadays facing the very difficult and complicated task of making reasonable decisions regarding the transforming of SPZOZs into capital companies. First, it seems necessary to carry out a simulation of costs and advantages of the assumed models and solutions together with an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the new legal and organisational forms. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the process of transforming SPZOZs into capital companies is purposeful and reasonable, and to define a way to prepare hospitals for functioning in an altered legislative environment. The paper draws attention to the fact that transformation itself does not guarantee that the results achieved by the given entity will automatically improve. The transformation can bring financial advantages for the newly created company and the local government, from the subsidies and remissions in accordance with art. 197 of the act on medical activity. Yet the conditions for getting such help are quite restrictive and not in every situation can financial help from the central budget be counted on. Such aid could help improve the financial standing of a hospital considerably. Also, it must be remembered that a hospital transformed into a capital company acquires the capacity to go bankrupt. If the new entity generates a loss, it may result in the owner having to raise the initial capital in order to avoid filing a bankruptcy petition by the company. In practice, the financial consequences for the local government are the same as in the case of having to cover losses. The difference lies in the continuity of the provided medical services.

  4. An industrialized construction approach to concrete superstructures for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop drawings for a specific site or sites that incorporated the best concepts of industrialized bridge superstructure construction, that is, great emphasis was placed upon the use of modular design and assembly ...

  5. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  6. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  7. Superstructure for a super tokamak: Alcator C-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.; Becker, H.; Hwang, I.; Titus, P.; Fisher, K.; Werber, K.

    1989-01-01

    ALCATOR C-MOD is a compact high performance tokamak presently being constructed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the program is to study the production, confinement, heating, and control of strongly shaped, fully diverted, high density plasmas. The high toroidal magnetic field produces extremely large forces on the magnet conductors. Those loads are reacted by an external superstructure. The machine will be operated in a pulsed mode, with a design life of 50,000 cycles. That combination places exceptional requirements on the design, materials processing, and fabrication of the superstructure components. The superstructure consists of a large forged AISI 316LN pressure vessel that is assembled with alloy 718 fasteners. The chemistries and thermomechanical processing techniques were selected to provide the necessary mechanical properties at both room temperature and at the 77K operating temperature. This presentation addresses the superstructure design, stress analysis, materials processing, static and fatigue properties, components fabrication, and inspection. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Construction of prestressed concrete single-tee bridge superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses in detail the construction of the first five precast, prestressed concrete, single-tee beam bridge superstructures to be let to contract in Virginia. The data suggest that this single-tee beam enables efficient construction of t...

  9. Provisional polymer-based CAD/CAM implant superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A

    2014-01-01

    The prosthetic restoration of implants to obtain an esthetically balanced outcome is an extremely complex process--especially in terms of effective soft-tissue management. So-called hybrid abutment crowns, which can be made from polymer milling blocks in an uncomplicated process and used for immediate provisional restoration, represent an advance in the efficient production of superstructures.

  10. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  11. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ushakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.

  12. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  13. 40 CFR 745.228 - Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745.228 Section 745.228 Protection of... of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. ...

  14. Retrofitting the Superstructure of a Large Passenger Ship Using Composites – A Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Hjørnet, Niels; Berggreen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    conditions as prescribed from the regulations. Additionally, the effects that the composite superstructure has on the weight of the ship have been calculated. Results indicate that there is a large potential for retrofitting and building new passenger ships with composite superstructures as long...

  15. Nonlinear analysis of collapse mechanism in superstructure vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    The EU directive 2001/85/EC is an official European text which describes the specifications for "single deck class II and III vehicles" required to be approved by the regulation UN/ECE no.66 (R66). To prevent the catastrophic consequences by occupant during an accident, the Malaysian government has reinforced the same regulation upon superstructure construction. This paper discusses collapse mechanism analysis of a superstructure vehicle using a Crash D nonlinear analysis computer program based on this regulation. The analysis starts by hand calculation to define the required energy absorption by the chosen structure. Simple calculations were then performed to define the weakest collapse mechanism after undesirable collapse modes are eliminated. There are few factors highlighted in this work to pass the regulation. Using the selected cross section, Crash D simulation showed a good result. Generally, the deformation is linearly correlates to the energy absorption for the structure with low stiffness. Failure of critical members such as vertical lower side wall must be avoided to sustain safety of the passenger compartment and prevent from severe and fatal injuries to the trapped occupant.

  16. Collapse Mechanism Analysis in the Design of Superstructure Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.

    2016-11-01

    The EU directive 2001/85/EC is an official European text which describes the specifications for “single deck class II and III vehicles” required to be approved by the regulation UN/ECE no.66 (R66). To prevent the catastrophic consequences by occupant during an accident, the Malaysian government has reinforced the same regulation upon superstructure construction. This paper discusses collapse mechanism analysis of a superstructure vehicle using a Crash D nonlinear analysis computer program based on this regulation. The analysis starts by hand calculation to define the required energy absorption by the chosen structure. Simple calculations were then performed to define the weakest collapse mechanism after undesirable collapse modes are eliminated. There are few factors highlighted in this work to pass the regulation. Using the selected cross section, Crash D simulation showed a good result. Generally, the deformation is linearly correlates to the energy absorption for the structure with low stiffness. Failure of critical members such as vertical lower side wall must be avoided to sustain safety of the passenger compartment and prevent from severe and fatal injuries to the trapped occupant.

  17. Mesoscopic superstructures of flexible porous coordination polymers synthesizedviacoordination replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Kenji; Moitra, Nirmalya; Reboul, Julien; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The coordination replication technique is employed for the direct conversion of a macro- and mesoporous Cu(OH) 2 -polyacrylamide composite to three-dimensional superstructures consisting of the flexible porous coordination polymers, Cu 2 (bdc) 2 (MeOH) 2 and Cu 2 (bdc) 2 (bpy) (bdc 2- = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine). Detailed characterization of the replicated systems reveals that the structuralization plays an important role in determining the adsorptive properties of the replicated systems, and that the immobilization of the crystals within a higher-order architecture also affects its structural and dynamic properties. The polyacrylamide polymer is also found to be crucial for maintaining the structuralization of the monolithic systems, and in providing the mechanical robustness required for manual handling. In all, the results discussed here demonstrate a significant expansion in the scope of the coordination replication strategy, and further confirms its utility as a highly versatile platform for the preparation of functional three-dimensional superstructures of porous coordination polymers.

  18. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  19. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  20. Superconducting superstructure for the TESLA collider: A concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sekutowicz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a new layout of a cavity chain (called superstructure allowing, we hope, a significant cost reduction due to a simplification of the rf system of the TESLA linear collider. The proposed scheme increases the fill factor and thus makes an effective gradient of the accelerator higher. In this paper computations and preliminary measurements on existing copper models of the TESLA Test Facility accelerating structures are presented. A new copper model of the scheme has been ordered, made of four 7-cell standing wave cavities, which according to the results of computations and measurements seems to be the most promising version. Experiments with a beam will be necessary to prove that the proposed layout can be used for the acceleration.

  1. Abnormal Congenital Location of Stapes’ Superstructure: Clinical and Embryological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Henriques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital middle ear malformations are rare. Most part of them are usually associated with other malformations, such as aural atresia, microtia, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. A clinical case of a 24-year-old male with a right-sided conductive hearing loss since his childhood, without craniofacial malformation, is presented. He was proposed for exploratory tympanotomy under the suspicious diagnosis of otosclerosis. The surgery revealed an abnormal location of stapes’ superstructure, which was attached to the promontory and had an isolated and mobile osseous footplate in the oval window. A stapes prosthesis was inserted and resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 25 dB. A review of the literature was also performed using MEDLINE. Two theories diverge on the embryologic origin of the stapes. Our findings seem to be in favour of the theory that defines two different embryologic origins to the stapes.

  2. Garden-like perovskite superstructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meidan; Wang, Mengye; Zheng, Dajiang; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-03-01

    By subjecting amorphous flower-like TiO2 to a facile hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of Sr2+, garden-like perovskite SrTiO3 superstructures were achieved. The amorphous TiO2 was preformed using ZnO flowers as templates. Different three-dimensional SrTiO3 architectures were coexisted in the garden, including SrTiO3 flowers composed of several hollow sword-shaped petals, many sheet-shaped petals or numerous flake-shaped petals, and SrTiO3 grass consisting of a number of long blades. These SrTiO3 superstructures were simultaneously grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. On the basis of a comprehensive study on the effects of growth time, temperature, initial concentrations of precursor, and pH, the formation of these various hierarchical architectures was attributed primarily to the dissolution of amorphous TiO2 and precipitation of perovskite crystals, followed by the Ostwald ripening process of perovskite nanocrystals and self-organization of perovskite building blocks. Interestingly, this approach can be readily extended to create other perovskite structures, including dendritic BaTiO3 and nest-like CaTiO3, as well as PbTiO3 transformed from plate-like pyrochlore Pb2Ti2O6 after post-thermal treatment. Garden-like SrTiO3 superstructures showed a superior photocatalytic performance when compared to other as-prepared semiconductors and perovskite materials (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, BaTiO3, CaTiO3 and PbTiO3), probably due to their intrinsic photocatalytic activity and special garden-like features with a coexistence of various structures that significantly facilitated the adsorption and diffusion of methyl blue (MB) molecules and oxygen species in the photochemical reaction of MB degradation.By subjecting amorphous flower-like TiO2 to a facile hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of Sr2+, garden-like perovskite SrTiO3 superstructures were achieved. The amorphous TiO2 was preformed using ZnO flowers as templates. Different three-dimensional SrTiO3

  3. The Egg Carton: Theory of a Periodic Superstructure of Some Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Rüdiger; Helfrich, Wolfgang

    1996-02-01

    A model calculation of the square membrane superstructure of some mixed lipid bilayers is presented. It involves bending elasticity of higher than quadratic order in the principal curvatures and employs Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Recrystallization-induced self-assembly for the growth of Cu₂O superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Shao, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Feng; Guo, Lin

    2014-10-20

    The assembly of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into 3D superstructures with defined morphologies is of particular interest. A novel strategy that is based on recrystallization-induced self-assembly (RISA) for the construction of 3D Cu2O superstructures and employs Cu2O mesoporous spheres with diameters of approximately 300 nm as the building blocks has now been developed. Balancing the hydrolysis and recrystallization rates of the CuCl precursors through precisely adjusting the experimental parameters was key to success. Furthermore, the geometry of the superstructures can be tuned to obtain either cubes or tetrahedra and was shown to be dependent on the growth behavior of bulk CuCl. The overall strategy extends the applicability of recrystallization-based processes for the guided construction of assemblies and offers unique insights for assembling larger particles into complicated 3D superstructures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Large-scale laboratory observations of wave forces on a highway bridge superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The experimental setup and data are presented for a laboratory experiment conducted to examine realistic wave forcing on a highway bridge : superstructure. The experiments measure wave conditions along with the resulting forces, pressures, and struct...

  6. JOINT SIMULTANEOUS RECONSTRUCTION OF REGULARIZED BUILDING SUPERSTRUCTURES FROM LOW-DENSITY LIDAR DATA USING ICP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wichmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many applications for 3D city models, e.g., in visualizations, analysis, and simulations; each one requiring a certain level of detail to be effective. The overall trend goes towards including various kinds of anthropogenic and natural objects therein with ever increasing geometric and semantic details. A few years back, the featured 3D building models had only coarse roof geometry. But nowadays, they are expected to include detailed roof superstructures like dormers and chimneys. Several methods have been proposed for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne based point clouds. However, they are usually unable to reliably recognize and reconstruct small roof superstructures as these objects are often represented by only few point measurements, especially in low-density point clouds. In this paper, we propose a recognition and reconstruction approach that overcomes this problem by identifying and simultaneously reconstructing regularized superstructures of similar shape. For this purpose, candidate areas for superstructures are detected by taking into account virtual sub-surface points that are assumed to lie on the main roof faces below the measured points. The areas with similar superstructures are detected, extracted, grouped together, and registered to one another with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm. As an outcome, the joint point density of each detected group is increased, which helps to recognize the shape of the superstructure more reliably and in more detail. Finally, all instances of each group of superstructures are modeled at once and transformed back to their original position. Because superstructures are reconstructed in groups, symmetries, alignments, and regularities can be enforced in a straight-forward way. The validity of the approach is presented on a number of example buildings from the Vaihingen test data set.

  7. Joint Simultaneous Reconstruction of Regularized Building Superstructures from Low-Density LIDAR Data Using Icp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Andreas; Kada, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are many applications for 3D city models, e.g., in visualizations, analysis, and simulations; each one requiring a certain level of detail to be effective. The overall trend goes towards including various kinds of anthropogenic and natural objects therein with ever increasing geometric and semantic details. A few years back, the featured 3D building models had only coarse roof geometry. But nowadays, they are expected to include detailed roof superstructures like dormers and chimneys. Several methods have been proposed for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne based point clouds. However, they are usually unable to reliably recognize and reconstruct small roof superstructures as these objects are often represented by only few point measurements, especially in low-density point clouds. In this paper, we propose a recognition and reconstruction approach that overcomes this problem by identifying and simultaneously reconstructing regularized superstructures of similar shape. For this purpose, candidate areas for superstructures are detected by taking into account virtual sub-surface points that are assumed to lie on the main roof faces below the measured points. The areas with similar superstructures are detected, extracted, grouped together, and registered to one another with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. As an outcome, the joint point density of each detected group is increased, which helps to recognize the shape of the superstructure more reliably and in more detail. Finally, all instances of each group of superstructures are modeled at once and transformed back to their original position. Because superstructures are reconstructed in groups, symmetries, alignments, and regularities can be enforced in a straight-forward way. The validity of the approach is presented on a number of example buildings from the Vaihingen test data set.

  8. Use of Polycrystalline Ice for Assembly of Large Area Au Nanoparticle Superstructures as SERS Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, Deribachew; Liu, Rui; Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2017-01-11

    It is still a great challenge to develop simple and low-cost methods for preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Taking advantage of the microstructure of polycrystalline ice, we developed a new method to assemble large area gold nanoparticle (AuNP) superstructures as SERS substrates without external templating and aggregating agent. The assembly was conducted by freezing AuNP colloid at -20 °C, which concentrated AuNPs in the ice veins and produced an AuNP superstructure upon thawing the ice. The AuNP superstructures exhibited high SERS activity with enhancement factors on the order of 7.63 × 10 7 owing to the high-density hot spots throughout the superstructures. The SERS activity was found to increase with particle size and aggregate size of AuNP superstructures. Besides, the substrates showed good uniformity and reproducibility with relative standard deviations of 11.9% and 12.4%, respectively. The substrates showed long-term stability, maintaining SERS activity over a period of five months without noticeable change in morphology of the superstructures. The substrates was further used for label-free detection of trace Thiram on apple fruit with high sensitivity down to the concentration of 0.28 ng/cm 2 , offering great potential to monitor Thiram levels in foodstuffs and environmental samples.

  9. Anatomopathology of the Superstructure of the Stapes in Patients with Otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Otosclerosis is a disease that causes bone resorption and deposition in the auditory structures, leading to deafness. Many studies have evaluated the histopathology of the stapes footplate in this disease (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, vascular proliferation, fibroblasts, and histiocytes, but we found no studies in the literature involving the histology of the superstructure of the stapes. Objectives To perform an analysis under optical microscopy of histopathologic findings of the superstructure of the stapes from patients with otosclerosis. Methods A contemporary cross-sectional cohort study of pathology analysis of superstructures of the stapes of patients with otosclerosis. Results Fifteen superstructures of stapes in patients with otosclerosis operated in our service and four stapes of cadavers used for dissection (controls were evaluated. No areas of bone resorption or deposition or presence of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in the superstructure of the stapes were found. However, we found in the more distal portions of the crura areas with prominent cementitious lines and woven bone, which was different than the mature trabecular bone found in the head of the stapes or in the controls. Conclusion There were histologic changes in the superstructure of the stapes in patients with otosclerosis operated in our service.

  10. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  11. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  12. Piecewise Phototuning of Self-Organized Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lang; Gu, Wei; Wei, Jia; Yu, Yanlei

    2018-02-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) exhibit selective reflection that can be tuned owing to the dynamic control of inherent self-organized helical superstructures. Although phototunable reflection is reported, these systems hitherto suffer from a limitation in that the tuning range is restricted to one narrow period and the optically addressed images have to sacrifice one color in the visible spectrum to serve as the background, resulting from the insufficient variation in helical twisting power of existing photoresponsive chiral switches that are all bistable. Here, delicate patterns of three primary red, green, and blue (RGB) colors with a black background are presented, which is realized based on piecewise reflection tuning of the CLC induced by a newly designed photoresponsive tristable chiral switch. Three stable configurations of the chiral switch endow the CLC with two continuous and adjacent tuning periods of the reflection, covering not only entire visible spectrum, but also one more wide period within near-infrared region. Therefore, the concept of piecewise tuning in CLC system demonstrates a new strategy for phototunable RGB and black reflective display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bilateral Congenital Absence of the Stapes Superstructure in Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Undabeitia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear ossicle malformations are an uncommon event. Among them, the congenital absence of the stapes is a very rare condition that is seldom described in the literature. We report the cases of two women, aged 19 and 22 , who presented with a long history of conductive deafness. An exploratory tympanotomy was performed and the absence of the stapes superstructure and an abnormal position of the facial nerve could be observed. A bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA was implanted in both patients with good results. It is believed that stapes agenesis is related to an abnormal development of the facial nerve, which by the 5th to 6th week of gestation would interpose between the otic capsule and the stapes blastema, preventing these structures from contacting. A long history of nonprogressive hearing loss from birth or early childhood is the key to reach a diagnosis. Several treatment options have been described. The authors opted for a hearing aid due to the high risk of facial nerve lesion, with good functional results.

  14. Simultaneous synthesis and assembly of silver nanoparticles to three-demensional superstructures for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqiong; Wang, Wenqin; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhong-Ren

    2014-12-10

    Construction of superstructures with controllable morphologies from NPs is of great scientific and technological importance. A one-step method for simultaneous synthesis and assembly of Ag NPs to three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous superstructures is demonstrated. By varying the adsorption time of Ag precursors, an array of well-defined Ag superstructures with different morphologies are harvested. A "hot spot"-rich substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is established, which exhibits high sensitivity in trace detection of molecules. It is believed that the presented 3D nanoporous Ag superstructures hold great potential for various uses, such as novel multifunctional sensing and monitoring chips or devices.

  15. Influence of superstructure geometry on the mechanical behavior of zirconia implant abutments: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, Alexander; Diebels, Stefan; Nothdurft, Frank P

    2014-12-01

    To predict the clinical performance of zirconia abutments, it is crucial to examine the mechanical behavior of different dental implant-abutment connection configurations. The international standard protocol for dynamic fatigue tests of dental implants (ISO 14801) allows comparing these configurations using standardized superstructure geometries. However, from a mechanical point of view, the geometry of clinical crowns causes modified boundary conditions. The purpose of this finite element (FE) study was to evaluate the influence of the superstructure geometry on the maximum stress values of zirconia abutments with a conical implant-abutment connection. Geometry models of the experimental setup described in ISO 14801 were generated using CAD software following the reconstruction of computerized tomography scans from all relevant components. These models served as a basis for an FE simulation. To reduce the numerical complexity of the FE model, the interaction between loading stamp and superstructure geometry was taken into account by defining the boundary conditions with regard to the frictional force. The results of the FE simulations performed on standardized superstructure geometry and anatomically shaped crowns showed a strong influence of the superstructure geometry and related surface orientations on the mechanical behavior of the underlying zirconia abutments. In conclusion, ISO testing of zirconia abutments should be accompanied by load-bearing capacity testing under simulated clinical conditions to predict clinical performance.

  16. Light-Directed Dynamic Chirality Inversion in Functional Self-Organized Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2016-02-24

    Helical superstructures are widely observed in nature, in synthetic polymers, and in supramolecular assemblies. Controlling the chirality (the handedness) of dynamic helical superstructures of molecular and macromolecular systems by external stimuli is a challenging task, but is of great fundamental significance with appealing morphology-dependent applications. Light-driven chirality inversion in self-organized helical superstructures (i.e. cholesteric, chiral nematic liquid crystals) is currently in the limelight because inversion of the handedness alters the chirality of the circularly polarized light that they selectively reflect, which has wide potential for application. Here we discuss the recent developments toward inversion of the handedness of cholesteric liquid crystals enabled by photoisomerizable chiral molecular switches or motors. Different classes of chiral photoresponsive dopants (guests) capable of conferring light-driven reversible chirality inversion of helical superstructures fabricated from different nematic hosts are discussed. Rational molecular designs of chiral molecular switches toward endowing handedness inversion to the induced helical superstructures of cholesteric liquid crystals are highlighted. This Review is concluded by throwing light on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging frontier, and it is expected to provide useful guidelines toward the development of self-organized soft materials with stimuli-directed chirality inversion capability and multifunctional host-guest systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Self-assembly of polyhedral metal-organic framework particles into three-dimensional ordered superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Civan; Imaz, Inhar; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Pariente, Jose Angel; Tasios, Nikos; Pérez-Carvajal, Javier; Alonso, Maria Isabel; Blanco, Alvaro; Dijkstra, Marjolein; López, Cefe; Maspoch, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Self-assembly of particles into long-range, three-dimensional, ordered superstructures is crucial for the design of a variety of materials, including plasmonic sensing materials, energy or gas storage systems, catalysts and photonic crystals. Here, we have combined experimental and simulation data to show that truncated rhombic dodecahedral particles of the metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 can self-assemble into millimetre-sized superstructures with an underlying three-dimensional rhombohedral lattice that behave as photonic crystals. Those superstructures feature a photonic bandgap that can be tuned by controlling the size of the ZIF-8 particles and is also responsive to the adsorption of guest substances in the micropores of the ZIF-8 particles. In addition, superstructures with different lattices can also be assembled by tuning the truncation of ZIF-8 particles, or by using octahedral UiO-66 MOF particles instead. These well-ordered, sub-micrometre-sized superstructures might ultimately facilitate the design of three-dimensional photonic materials for applications in sensing.

  18. Linking experiment and theory for three-dimensional networked binary metal nanoparticle–triblock terpolymer superstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zihui

    2014-02-21

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Controlling superstructure of binary nanoparticle mixtures in three dimensions from self-assembly opens enormous opportunities for the design of materials with unique properties. Here we report on how the intimate coupling of synthesis, in-depth electron tomographic characterization and theory enables exquisite control of superstructure in highly ordered porous three-dimensional continuous networks from single and binary mixtures of metal nanoparticles with a triblock terpolymer. Poly(isoprene-block-styrene-block-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) is synthesized and used as structure-directing agent for ligand-stabilized platinum and gold nanoparticles. Quantitative analysis provides insights into short-and long-range nanoparticle-nanoparticle correlations, and local and global contributions to structural chirality in the networks. Results provide synthesis criteria for next-generation mesoporous network superstructures from binary nanoparticle mixtures for potential applications in areas including catalysis.

  19. A general strategy to superstructured networks and nested self-similar networks of bismuth compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Zhang, Jianming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2012-10-23

    We have reported the synthesis of superstructured nanonetworks of BiOCl and nested nanonetworks of Bi(2)S(3) in a series of lattice-directed topotactic transformations [C. F. Guo et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 138, 8211-8215]. Here we extend the transformations to a much broader system including ordered nanowall networks of BiOCl, BiOBr, Bi(2)O(2)CO(3), β-Bi(2)O(3), and Bi(2)S(3), as well as nested self-similar networks of Bi(2)S(3) and amorphous BiO(x). We suggest even more superstructured networks and nested self-similar networks of bismuth compounds with a lattice parameter of ~2(n/2) × 3.9 Å (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), might also be obtained. The superstructured networks and nested networks are novel architectures that may find applications in electronic devices, sensors, filters, and photocatalysts.

  20. Ab initio study of long-period superstructures in close-packed A3B compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations of the stability of one-dimensional long-period superstructures in Cu3Pd, Cu3Al, and Ag3Mg by means of an interface Green's function technique based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic-sphere approximations......-structure calculations of the structural energy differences for the two short-period superstructures DO22 and DO23. We find that at zero temperature the ground states of Cu3Pd, Cu3Al, and Ag3Mg are one-dimensional superstructures with antiphase boundary separations of 2-5 unit cells of the underlying L1(2) structure....

  1. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  2. Ferromagnetism and superstructure in Ca1-xLaxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin; Gor'kov

    2000-03-06

    We critically investigate the model of a doped excitonic insulator, which has recently been invoked to explain some experimental properties of the ferromagnetic state in Ca1-xLaxB6. We demonstrate that the ground state of this model is intrinsically unstable towards the appearance of a superstructure. In addition, the model would lead to a phase separation of doped carriers into electron-enriched and neutral domains, which may be prevented by Coulomb forces only. Recent experiments indicate that a superstructure may indeed show up in this material.

  3. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed......In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...

  4. Antiphase boundaries, inversion, and ferroelastic domains in the striped-type superstructure of γ-brass Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Y.; Hatano, M.; Tanimura, M.

    1996-05-01

    Features of the striped-type superstructure in γ-brass Cu-Al alloys have been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy in order to understand the role of a rhombohedral distortion in its stability. From dark field images taken from alloys exhibiting the superstructure, it was found that there exist two types of ferroelastic rhombohedral domains, which are in a twin relation. In other words, the superstructure is characterized by a periodic array of the ferroelastic domains as well as inversion antiphase boundaries. Because charge density waves should be responsible for the formation of the superstructure, as suggested in our previous paper [Phys. Rev. B 40, 5378 (1989)], the rhombohedral distortion must play a crucial role in their appearance. Presumably the distortion enlarges parallel portions of the Fermi surface. On the basis of the present experimental data, the interplay between the striped-type superstructure and the rhombohedral γ-brass structure is also discussed.

  5. Systematic network synthesis and design: Problem formulation, superstructure generation, data management and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat

    2015-01-01

    is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...

  6. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through...

  7. Globalisation in Africa: Reflecting on Peter Jarvis's Superstructure and Substructure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on Peter Jarvis' book "Globalisation, lifelong learning and the learning society," volume 2--in which he describes human learning within a global context and factors contributing to globalisation. He describes the relationship of power between countries manifested as the superstructure and sub structure. The paper…

  8. Adjusting the Metrics of 1-D Helical Gold Nanoparticle Superstructures Using Multivalent Peptide Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merg, Andrea D; Slocik, Joseph; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C; Naik, Rajesh; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-01

    The properties of nanoparticle superstructures depend on many factors, including the structural metrics of the nanoparticle superstructure (particle diameter, interparticle distances, etc.). Here, we introduce a family of gold-binding peptide conjugate molecules that can direct nanoparticle assembly, and we describe how these molecules can be systematically modified to adjust the structural metrics of linear double-helical nanoparticle superstructures. Twelve new peptide conjugates are prepared via linking a gold-binding peptide, AYSSGAPPMPPF (PEP(Au)), to a hydrophobic aliphatic tail. The peptide conjugates have 1, 2, or 3 PEP(Au) headgroups and a C12, C14, C16, or C18 aliphatic tail. The soft assembly of these peptide conjugates was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Several peptide conjugates assemble into 1-D twisted fibers having measurable structural parameters such as fiber width, thickness, and pitch that can be systematically varied by adjusting the aliphatic tail length and number of peptide headgroups. The linear soft assemblies serve as structural scaffolds for arranging gold nanoparticles into double-helical superstructures, which are examined via TEM. The pitch and interparticle distances of the gold nanoparticle double helices correspond to the underlying metrics of the peptide conjugate soft assemblies, illustrating that designed peptide conjugate molecules can be used to not only direct the assembly of gold nanoparticles but also control the metrics of the assembled structure.

  9. A generic methodology for processing route synthesis and design based on superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Frauzem, Rebecca; Sanchez-Arcilla, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic framework for novel and sustainable synthesis-design of processing routes is presented along with the associated computer-aided methods and tools. In Stage 1, superstructure optimization is used to determine the optimal processing route(s). In Stage 2, the design issue...

  10. Role of Steric Hindrance in the Crystal Packing of Z′ = 4 Superstructure of Trimethyltin Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Dey, S.

    2018-01-22

    The roomerature crystal structure of trimethyltin hydroxide, (CH)SnOH, has been described by Anderson et al. [Cryst. Growth Des. 2011, 11, 820-826] as a 2a × 2b × 8c, 32-fold superstructure. We report a a × b × 8c, eight-fold superstructure with orthorhombic P2cn symmetry and Z′ = 4. Structured diffuse scattering observed at the positions of presumed superlattice reflections along a∗ and b∗ might have appeared as Bragg reflections in the experiment by Anderson et al. Alternatively, Anderson et al. and the present work might have studied different polymorphs of (CH)SnOH. Crystalline (CH)SnOH constitutes polymeric chains arranged parallel to c. In the eight-fold superstructure at 220 K, the polymeric chains possess a distorted zigzag arrangement of linked linear O-Sn-O units with bent angle at oxygen of ∼139.2°. This structure is essentially different from the 8-helical arrangement in the published 32-fold superstructure model. The origin of the distorted zigzag structure is explained by steric hindrance between hydrogen atoms of adjacent hydroxy groups and (CH)Sn groups. Frustration in the packing of the chains is determined by steric hindrance between methyl groups of neighboring chains, which prevents the formation of interchain C-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  11. Optically Reconfigurable Chiral Microspheres of Self-Organized Helical Superstructures with Handedness Inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Dong; Gutierrez-Cuevas, Karla G; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Fan, Jing; Zola, Rafael S; Li, Guoqiang; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Weitz, David A; Li, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Optically reconfigurable monodisperse chiral microspheres of self-organized helical superstructures with dynamic chirality were fabricated via a capillary-based microfluidic technique. Light-driven handedness-invertible transformations between different configurations of microspheres were vividly observed and optically tunable RGB photonic cross-communications among the microspheres were demonstrated.

  12. Creosote retention levels of timber highway bridge superstructures in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Douglas M. Crawford; Merv O. Eriksson

    2003-01-01

    Environmental concerns about preservative bleeding (or migrating) from timber bridges have increased in recent years. This preliminary study examined the creosote retention levels at six timber highway bridges in Michigan's lower peninsula during the summer of 2000. Several test core samples were removed from the bridge superstructures (four bleeders and two...

  13. Nanomanufacturing of gold nanoparticle superstructures from the "bottom-up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Tingling

    Gold nanoparticles that can generate surface plasmons under appropriate conditions have attracted significant interest for their potential in optics, photonics, data storage and biological sensors. Developing high fidelity fabrication methods that yield gold nanoparticles with well-defined size, shape, composition and self-assembly allows manipulation of surface plasmonic properties for novel applications as well as revealing new aspects of the underlying science. This dissertation demonstrates multiple techniques that describe cost-effective bottom-up" fabrication methods that yield gold nano-superstructures. In my initial work, I outline the solution conditions for fabricating Janus nanoparticles composed of one gold nanoparticle per micelle. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) was synthesized and processed into spherical micelles, which served as the template to induce gold nanoparticles growth within the PEO corona in situ. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticle formation was controlled kinetically by manipulating the concentration of both the micelle and reducing agent (HEPES). We also found that under certain condition, PEO-b-PS yielded micelles with pearl-like morphology, which possessed concentrated PEO domains at the interface between two adjacent PS cores. Careful manipulation of reaction conditions afforded gold nanoparticles that grew from the core-shell interface to form 1-dimensional (1-D) periodical gold nanoparticle chains. Based on similar principles, gold-gold dimers were synthesized by growing a second gold nanoparticle from a gold nanoparticle template surface-functionalized with PEO ligands. Gold dimers fabricated with this method exhibited strong enhancement properties via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Instead of kinetic control, the number of newly grown gold nanoparticles on each particle template heavily relied on the PEO density on the nanoparticle template. As the size of the particle template increased from 10 nm to

  14. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  15. Unknown Aspects of Self-Assembly of PbS Microscale Superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Hernández-Garrido, Juan C.; Yang, Hengxi; Zhou, Yunlong; Varela, Aurea; Parras, Marina; Calvino-Gámez, José J.; González-Calbet, Jose M.; Green, Peter F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    A lot of interesting and sophisticated examples of nanoparticle (NP) self-assembly (SA) are known. From both fundamental and technological standpoints this field requires advancements in three principle directions: a) understanding the mechanism and driving forces of three-dimensional (3D) SA with both nano- and micro-levels of organization; b) understanding of disassembly/deconstruction processes; and c) finding synthetic methods of assembly into continuous superstructures without insulating barriers. From this perspective, we investigated the formation of well-known star-like PbS superstructures and found a number of previously unknown or overlooked aspects that can advance the knowledge of NP self-assembly in these three directions. The primary one is that the formation of large seemingly monocrystalline PbS superstructures with multiple levels of octahedral symmetry can be explained only by SA of small octahedral NPs. We found five distinct periods in the formation PbS hyperbranched stars: 1) nucleation of early PbS NPs with an average diameter of 31 nm; 2) assembly into 100–500 nm octahedral mesocrystals; 3) assembly into 1000–2500 nm hyperbranched stars; 4) assembly and ionic recrystallization into six-arm rods accompanied by disappearance of fine nanoscale structure; 5) deconstruction into rods and cubooctahedral NPs. The switches in assembly patterns between the periods occur due to variable dominance of pattern–determining forces that include vander Waals and electrostatic (charge-charge, dipole-dipole, and polarization) interactions. The superstructure deconstruction is triggered by chemical changes in the deep eutectic solvent (DES) used as the media. PbS superstructures can be excellent models for fundamental studies of nanoscale organization and SA manufacturing of (opto)electronics and energy harvesting devices which require organization of PbS components at multiple scales. PMID:22515512

  16. Independent supervisory authorities: a fragile concept-draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.; Ottow, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the development of the legal (de jure) independence requirements of national and European supervisory authorities in European law. The European legislator recently strengthened the legal and political independence of national supervisors in the telecommunications and energy

  17. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  18. Highly Ordered Single Crystalline Nanowire Array Assembled Three-Dimensional Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 Superstructures for Energy Storage and Conversion Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Porun; Chou, Shu Lei; Wang, Jia Zhao; Liu, Hongwei; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) metal oxide superstructures have demonstrated great potentials for structure-dependent energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we reported a facile hydrothermal method for direct growth of highly ordered single crystalline nanowire array assembled 3D orthorhombic Nb3O7(OH) superstructures and their subsequent thermal transformation into monoclinic Nb2O5 with well preserved 3D nanowire superstructures. The performance of resultant 3D Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 superstructures differed remarkably when used for energy conversion and storage applications. The thermally converted Nb2O5 superstructures as anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) showed higher capacity and excellent cycling stability compared to the Nb3O7(OH) superstructures, while directly hydrothermal grown Nb3O7(OH) nanowire superstructure film on FTO substrate as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) without the need for further calcination exhibited an overall light conversion efficiency of 6.38%, higher than that (5.87%) of DSSCs made from the thermally converted Nb2O5 film. The high energy application performance of the niobium-based nanowire superstructures with different chemical compositions can be attributed to their large surface area, superior electron transport property, and high light utilization efficiency resulting from a 3D superstructure, high crystallinity, and large sizes. The formation process of 3D nanowire superstructures before and after thermal treatment was investigated and discussed based on our theoretical and experimental results.

  19. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  20. In situ synthesis of P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures and their application in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Song, Guosheng; Hu, Xianghua; He, Guanjie; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Junqing

    2013-02-26

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells have great potentials to revolutionize solar cells, but their use has been limited by inefficient electron/hole transfer due to the presence of long aliphatic ligands and unsatisfying continuous interpenetrating networks. To solve this problem, herein, we have developed a one-pot route for in situ synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-capped CdSe superstructures, in which P3HT acts directly as the ligands. These CdSe superstructures are in fact constructed from numerous CdSe nanoparticles. The presence of P3HT ligands has no obvious adverse effects on the morphologies and phases of CdSe superstructures. Importantly, higher content of P3HT ligands results in stronger photoabsorption and fluorescent intensity of CdSe superstructure samples. Subsequently, P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures prepared with 50 mg P3HT were used as a model material to fabricate the solar cell with a structure of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures: P3HT/Al. This cell gives a power conversion efficiency of 1.32%.

  1. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study of GaSb and AlSb surface superstructures based on the (100) planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubyshev, D.I.; Gonzalez-Borrero, P.P.; Marega Junior, E.; La Scala Junior, N.; Basmaji, P

    1995-01-01

    Full text. Surface superstructure (SS) on semiconductor surfaces determines properties like Schottky barrier heights, vacancy densities and surface adatom migration length at the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In this work we have studied the evolution of surface structures as function of the substrate temperature on the (100) Al Sb and Ga Sb by RHEED analysis. Atomic smooth surfaces were produced by MBE on the (100) Ga As substrates. As the temperature of the Sb-rich surfaces of Al Sb and Ga Sb increases from the room temperature, it is observed that the surface superstructure is changed to the (4 x 2)metal stabilized one. On the Ga Sb (100) surfaces were observed the following number of SS: the (2 x 5)Sb-stabilized, (1 x 3) and (2 x 4)Ga stabilized SS. The phase transition from the (2 x 5)Sb-stabilized SS to (1 x 3) ones goes through unusual changing of superstructure strike positions. This can be explained considering the SS rotation during the phase transition relatively to the bulk lattice. The strike intensities for different azimuths of the (2 x 5)SS are altered in a factor 2, indicating a lower SS ordering across the domain axe (x2). On the Al Sb surfaces the following SS sequence were detected: at low temperature there is a superposition of the (6 x 1) and (2 x 1) SS, at higher temperatures (3 x 1), (3 x 3) and (2 x 4)Al-stabilized structures. We have supposed that the low temperature SS (6 x 1)+(2 x 1) have more than one monolayer coverage by Sb. We have also observed form the first time evidences of mixed surface superstructures (6 x 1)+(2 x 1) and SS (3 x 3). (author)

  3. Superstructure-based Design and Optimization of Batch Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuh, M. Z.; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel as a fuel comprised of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil and animal fat. Biodiesel production is complex process which need systematic design and optimization. However, no case study using the process system engineering (PSE) elements which are superstructure optimization of batch process, it involves complex problems and uses mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The PSE offers a solution to complex engineering system by enabling the use of viable tools and techniques to better manage and comprehend the complexity of the system. This study is aimed to apply the PSE tools for the simulation of biodiesel process and optimization and to develop mathematical models for component of the plant for case A, B, C by using published kinetic data. Secondly, to determine economic analysis for biodiesel production, focusing on heterogeneous catalyst. Finally, the objective of this study is to develop the superstructure for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst. The mathematical models are developed by the superstructure and solving the resulting mixed integer non-linear model and estimation economic analysis by using MATLAB software. The results of the optimization process with the objective function of minimizing the annual production cost by batch process from case C is 23.2587 million USD. Overall, the implementation a study of process system engineering (PSE) has optimized the process of modelling, design and cost estimation. By optimizing the process, it results in solving the complex production and processing of biodiesel by batch.

  4. Overcoming artificial spatial correlations in simulations of superstructure domain growth with parallel Monte Carlo algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleier, W.; Besold, G.; Heinz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors study the applicability of parallelized/vectorized Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms to the simulation of domain growth in two-dimensional lattice gas models undergoing an ordering process after a rapid quench below an order-disorder transition temperature. As examples they consider models with 2 x 1 and c(2 x 2) equilibrium superstructures on the square and rectangular lattices, respectively. They also study the case of phase separation ('1 x 1' islands) on the square lattice. A generalized parallel checkerboard algorithm for Kawasaki dynamics is shown to give rise to artificial spatial correlations in all three models. However, only if superstructure domains evolve do these correlations modify the kinetics by influencing the nucleation process and result in a reduced growth exponent compared to the value from the conventional heat bath algorithm with random single-site updates. In order to overcome these artificial modifications, two MC algorithms with a reduced degree of parallelism ('hybrid' and 'mask' algorithms, respectively) are presented and applied. As the results indicate, these algorithms are suitable for the simulation of superstructure domain growth on parallel/vector computers. 60 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  5. Legal significance of environmental protection in foreign investments law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of conceptual interaction between foreign investments and environmental protection, as well as its legal repercussions. A part of the paper has been directed towards critical review of the attempt of legal regulating of these relationships at an international level. A special attention was paid to the treatment of the environment in our foreign investments law. It can be concluded that the dominant paradigm of the future direction of development in this field is going to be the strengthening of the bond between international investments and environmental protection. It is insisted on the attitude that our law needs to approach adequately to the matter of legal valorization of the environmental protection issue. This requires the creating of a complex, coherent approach that should be based on adequate legal superstructure and amendments to the existing Law on Foreign Investments. The main direction of changes implies that the current obligation of foreign investors in this field should be raised onto a higher level and foreign investments should be placed in the function of accomplishing of the concept of sustainable development. However, such an approach has to be accompanied by appropriate mechanism of control and supervision in the given field, if its full effectiveness is to be achieved.

  6. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  7. Independent Candidaturas in Mexico: A Paradoxical Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Jorge; Aranda, Marco; Infante, José; Ruiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The aim this paper is to evaluate the performance of the independent candidates in Mexico, since its legal adoption in 2014. Specifically, this paper analyses its legal foundations, the legal and the economic requirements –compared to the traditional candidacies of the political parties. The second part of the paper analyses the performance of the independent candidates in the electoral processes carried out in the years 2015, 2016 and 2017. Finally, some conclusions are proposed that revolve...

  8. Morphology-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of MnCO3 hierarchical superstructures with Schiff base as stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, He; Xu, Jie-yan; Yang, Hong; Liang, Jie; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: MnCO3 microcrystals with hierarchical superstructures were synthesized by using the CO2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source and Schiff base as shape guiding-agent in water/ethanol system under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: → The most interesting in this work is the use of the greenhouse gases CO 2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source to precipitate with Mn 2+ for producing MnCO 3 crystals. → This work is the first report related to the small organic molecule Schiff base as shape guiding-agent to produce different MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures. → We are controllable synthesis of the MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like microcrystals. → The as-prepared MnCO 3 could be used precursor to fabricate the Mn 2 O 3 hierarchical superstructures after thermal decomposition at high temperature. -- Abstract: MnCO 3 with hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like were synthesized in water/ethanol system under environment-friendly hydrothermal condition. In the synthesis process, the CO 2 in atmosphere was used as the source of carbonate ions and Schiff base was used as shape guiding-agent. The different superstructures of MnCO 3 could be obtained by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, the molar ratio of manganous ions to the Schiff base, or the volume ratio of water to ethanol. A tentative growth mechanism for the generation of MnCO 3 superstructures was proposed based on the rod-dumbbell-sphere model. Furthermore, the MnCO 3 as precursor could be further successfully transferred to Mn 2 O 3 microstructure after heating in the atmosphere at 500 o C, and the morphology of the Mn 2 O 3 was directly determined by that of the MnCO 3 precursor.

  9. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  10. Preparation of flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures and the adsorption behavior to dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Ni, Yonghong; Ye, Shiyong

    2017-05-01

    Flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures were synthesized by a simple solvothermal route with subsequent direct precipitation at room temperature, employing bismuth nitrate, sodium molybdate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the raw materials. The phase and the morphology of the as-prepared products were characterized by SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD and EDS. BET investigation proved the mesoporous structure of flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures. It was found that the composite superstructures exhibited higher adsorption ability to methylene blue (MB) and pyronine B (PB) dyes from their solutions than single component (BiOBr or Bi2MoO6). As a case, the adsorption behavior of MB aqueous solution on BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures was detailedly studied, including the adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. The results indicated that flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures have potential applications in the field of wastewater treatment.

  11. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  12. Polymersomes with asymmetric membranes and self-assembled superstructures using pentablock quintopolymers resolved by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haataja, J. S.

    2018-01-09

    Polystyrene-block-poly(1,4-isoprene)-block-poly(dimethyl siloxane)-block-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine), PS-b-PI-b-PDMS-b-PtBMA-b-P2VP, self-assembles in acetone into polymersomes with asymmetric (directional) PI-b-PDMS membranes. The polymersomes, in turn, self-assemble into superstructures. Analogically to supravesicular structures at a smaller length scale, we refer to them as suprapolymersome structures. Electron tomograms are shown to be invaluable in the structural assessment of such complex self-assemblies.

  13. Experimental Study of Properties of Pervious Concrete used for Bridge Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2014-01-01

    One of the main advantages of pervious concrete is its ability to drain water easily. Moreover, ear-lier studies on pervious concrete have shown that it can be designed to perform well in freeze-thaw regions. Bridge superstructures placed in regions where the temperature during winter time varies...... substructure and the wearing course. One pervious concrete mixture contain-ing air entrainment is designed and tested. The tests include investigations of compaction meth-ods, compressive strength, stiffness, frost resistance and permeability....

  14. Superstructure formation in PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-09-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} - a CaCu{sub 5} derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F{sup 2} values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F{sup 2} values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T{sub 2}Al{sub 3}]{sup δ-}, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  15. Synthesis of micro-sized shell-isolated 3D plasmonic superstructures for in situ single-particle SERS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Jingjing; Ji, Ji; Liu, Baohong

    2016-04-01

    A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis.A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis and characterization of the Ag@SiO2@Au superstructures (SEM and TEM images, UV/vis and SERS spectra). See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00278a

  16. Topotactic transformations of superstructures: from thin films to two-dimensional networks to nested two-dimensional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Jianming; Tang, Haoying; Guo, Shengming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2011-06-01

    Design and synthesis of super-nanostructures is one of the key and prominent topics in nanotechnology. Here we propose a novel methodology for synthesizing complex hierarchical superstructures using sacrificial templates composed of ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures through lattice-directed topotactic transformations. The fabricated superstructures are nested 2D orthogonal Bi(2)S(3) networks composed of nanorods. Further investigation indicates that the lattice matching between the product and sacrificial template is the dominant mechanism for the formation of the superstructures, which agrees well with the simulation results based on an anisotropic nucleation and growth analysis. Our approach may provide a promising way toward a lattice-directed nonlithographic nanofabrication technique for making functional porous nanoarchitectures and electronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray refinement of Ortho-II superstructure in YBa2Cu3O6.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadfield, R.A.; Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly defined Lorentzian-like profiles of the Ortho-II superstructure diffraction peaks have been observed with neutrons for the first time. The superstructure has been refined by simultaneously fitting neutron and x-ray measurements on the same crystal. The combination of both x-ray and neutron...

  18. In situ synthesis of P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures and their application in solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yanling; Song, Guosheng; Hu, Xianghua; He, Guanjie; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells have great potentials to revolutionize solar cells, but their use has been limited by inefficient electron/hole transfer due to the presence of long aliphatic ligands and unsatisfying continuous interpenetrating networks. To solve this problem, herein, we have developed a one-pot route for in situ synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-capped CdSe superstructures, in which P3HT acts directly as the ligands. These CdSe superstructures are in fact constr...

  19. Historical Development and Applications of Unconventional Structure of Railway Superstructure of the Railway Infrastructure of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižvolt Libor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the paper deals with the origin and reasons to construct an unconventional type of the structure of railway superstructure, which is referred to as a slab track, it is shortly characterized by its development and the possible application of the railway tracks. The second part of the paper deals with the historical development of unconventional structure of railway superstructure in the Slovak Republic, characteristics of the developed and tested structures, and then in the third part of this paper, there are characterized specific structures of slab track applied in the ongoing modernization of the railway infrastructure in the Slovak Republic

  20. Experimental Investigation of a Self-Sensing Hybrid GFRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructure with Embedded FBG Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanlei; Li, Yunyu; Ran, Jianghua; Cao, Mingmin

    2012-01-01

    A self-sensing hybrid GFRP-concrete bridge superstructure, which consists of two bridge decks and each bridge deck is comprised of four GFRP box sections combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using eight embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of the four GFRP box sections at midspan section of one bridge deck along longitudinal direction, respectively. The proposed self-sensing hybrid bridge superstructure was tested in 4-point loading to...

  1. Antipulverization Electrode Based on Low-Carbon Triple-Shelled Superstructures for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Lianhai; Su, Qingmei; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Bingjie; Lu, Huanhuan; Peng, Chengxin; He, Ting; Du, Gaohui; He, Pengfei; Chen, Kai; Yang, Shihe; Yang, Jinhu; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-09-01

    The realization of antipulverization electrode structures, especially using low-carbon-content anode materials, is crucial for developing high-energy and long-life lithium-ion batteries (LIBs); however, this technology remains challenging. This study shows that SnO 2 triple-shelled hollow superstructures (TSHSs) with a low carbon content (4.83%) constructed by layer-by-layer assembly of various nanostructure units can withstand a huge volume expansion of ≈231.8% and deliver a high reversible capacity of 1099 mAh g -1 even after 1450 cycles. These values represent the best comprehensive performance in SnO 2 -based anodes to date. Mechanics simulations and in situ transmission electron microscopy suggest that the TSHSs enable a self-synergistic structure-preservation behavior upon lithiation/delithiation, protecting the superstructures from collapse and guaranteeing the electrode structural integrity during long-term cycling. Specifically, the outer shells during lithiation processes are fully lithiated, preventing the overlithiation and the collapse of the inner shells; in turn, in delithiation processes, the underlithiated inner shells work as robust cores to support the huge volume contraction of the outer shells; meanwhile, the middle shells with abundant pores offer sufficient space to accommodate the volume change from the outer shell during both lithiation and delithiation. This study opens a new avenue in the development of high-performance LIBs for practical energy applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparative analysis of cogeneration power plants optimization based on stochastic method using superstructure and process simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leonardo Rodrigues de [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: leoaraujo@ifes.edu.br; Donatelli, Joao Luiz Marcon [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: joaoluiz@npd.ufes.br; Silva, Edmar Alino da Cruz [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Joao Luiz F. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (CTA/IAE/ALA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal systems are essential in facilities such as thermoelectric plants, cogeneration plants, refrigeration systems and air conditioning, among others, in which much of the energy consumed by humanity is processed. In a world with finite natural sources of fuels and growing energy demand, issues related with thermal system design, such as cost estimative, design complexity, environmental protection and optimization are becoming increasingly important. Therefore the need to understand the mechanisms that degrade energy, improve energy sources use, reduce environmental impacts and also reduce project, operation and maintenance costs. In recent years, a consistent development of procedures and techniques for computational design of thermal systems has occurred. In this context, the fundamental objective of this study is a performance comparative analysis of structural and parametric optimization of a cogeneration system using stochastic methods: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. This research work uses a superstructure, modelled in a process simulator, IPSEpro of SimTech, in which the appropriate design case studied options are included. Accordingly, the cogeneration system optimal configuration is determined as a consequence of the optimization process, restricted within the configuration options included in the superstructure. The optimization routines are written in MsExcel Visual Basic, in order to work perfectly coupled to the simulator process. At the end of the optimization process, the system optimal configuration, given the characteristics of each specific problem, should be defined. (author)

  3. Dynamic cholesteric liquid crystal superstructures photoaligned by one-step polarization holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen-Sen; Shen, Yuan; Chang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Wen-Song; Xu, Yan-Chao; Fan, Xing-Yu; Chen, Lu-Jian

    2017-12-01

    A convenient approach to modulate the fingerprint textures of methyl red (MR) doped cholesteric liquid crystals by asymmetric photoalignment in the green-light waveband is presented, resulting in the generation of voltage-controllable helical superstructures. The interaction between the MR molecules and the incident light polarization determines the initial twisted planar geometry, providing a multivariant control over the stripe directions of fingerprint textures by applying a proper electric field. The key factors for precise manipulation of fingerprint stripes in a predictable and rewritable manner are analyzed theoretically and investigated experimentally, which involves the alignment asymmetry, the ratio of cell gap to natural pitch length, and the chirality of chiral dopant. Dynamic periodic fingerprint textures in shapes of dashed curve and dashed line are further demonstrated by utilizing a facile one-step polarization holography process using two beams with orthogonal circular and orthogonal linear polarizations, respectively. It is believed that the practical approach described in this study would enrich the research contents of self-assembled hierarchical superstructures using soft liquid crystal building blocks.

  4. Solving a superstructure from two-wavelength x-ray powder diffraction data - a simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Rong; Gu, Yuan-Xin; Fan, Hai-Fu

    2003-03-01

    Two different kinds of phase ambiguities are intrinsic in two-wavelength x-ray powder diffraction from acentric crystal structures having pseudo-translation symmetry. In a test calculation we have solved the problem for the first time by two different phasing procedures developed originally in single-crystal structure analysis. They are the direct method of breaking enantiomorphous phase ambiguity in protein crystallography and that of breaking translational phase ambiguity for superstructures. An artificial structure was used in the test, which is based on atomic coordinates of the known structure, SHAS (C5H6O5N3K), with the atom K replaced by Rb. The arrangement of Rb atoms possesses a subperiodicity of t = (a + b + c)/2. Two-wavelength synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data were simulated with lambda1=0.0816nm and lambda2=0.1319nm. Overlapped reflections were uniformly decomposed at the beginning and redecomposed afterward when the partial-structure information became available. The enantiomorphous phase ambiguity was resolved only for reflections with h + k + l even. Phases of reflections with h + k + l odd were derived by the direct method of solving superstructures. A fragment was then obtained, which led to the complete structure in five cycles of Fourier iteration.

  5. Stimuli-Driven Control of the Helical Axis of Self-Organized Soft Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2018-03-30

    Supramolecular and macromolecular functional helical superstructures are ubiquitous in nature and display an impressive catalog of intriguing and elegant properties and performances. In materials science, self-organized soft helical superstructures, i.e., cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), serve as model systems toward the understanding of morphology- and orientation-dependent properties of supramolecular dynamic helical architectures and their potential for technological applications. Moreover, most of the fascinating device applications of CLCs are primarily determined by different orientations of the helical axis. Here, the control of the helical axis orientation of CLCs and its dynamic switching in two and three dimensions using different external stimuli are summarized. Electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and light-irradiation-driven orientation control and reorientation of the helical axis of CLCs are described and highlighted. Different techniques and strategies developed to achieve a uniform lying helix structure are explored. Helical axis control in recently developed heliconical cholesteric systems is examined. The control of the helical axis orientation in spherical geometries such as microdroplets and microshells fabricated from these enticing photonic fluids is also explored. Future challenges and opportunities in this exciting area involving anisotropic chiral liquids are then discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dynamic Orthogonal Switching of a Thermoresponsive Self-Organized Helical Superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Wang, Ling; Hiremath, Uma S; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Nair, Geetha G; Yelamaggad, Channabasaveshwar V; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2017-06-01

    Controllable manipulation of self-organized dynamic superstructures of functional molecular materials by external stimuli is an enabling enterprise. Herein, we have developed a thermally driven, self-organized helical superstructure, i.e., thermoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), by integrating a judiciously chosen thermoresponsive chiral molecular switch into an achiral liquid crystalline medium. The CLC in lying state, in both planar and twisted nematic cells, exhibits reversible in-plane orthogonal switching of its helical axis in response to the combined effect of temperature and electric field. Consequently, the direction of the cholesteric grating has been observed to undergo 90° switching in a single cell, enabling non-mechanical beam steering along two orthogonal directions. The ability to reversibly switch the cholesteric gartings along perpendicular directions by appropriately adjusting temperature and electric field strength could facilitate their applications in 2D beam steering, spectrum scanning, optoelectronics and beyond. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  8. On-Particle Rolling Circle Amplification-Based Core-Satellite Magnetic Superstructures for MicroRNA Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Jing

    2018-01-01

    , and it determines the signal intensity in response to a biological/physical stimulation/actuation. Herein, for the first time, we utilize on-particle rolling circle amplification (RCA) to prepare rapidly responsive core-satellite magnetic superstructures with a high load of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) satellites...

  9. Reversible near-infrared light directed reflection in a self-organized helical superstructure loaded with upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Dong, Hao; Li, Yannian; Xue, Chenming; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Li, Quan

    2014-03-26

    Adding external, dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular systems for applications. Here, the new light-driven chiral molecular switch and upconversion nanoparticles, doped in a liquid crystal media, were able to self-organize into an optically tunable helical superstructure. The resulting nanoparticle impregnated helical superstructure was found to exhibit unprecedented reversible near-infrared (NIR) light-guided tunable behavior only by modulating the excitation power density of a continuous-wave NIR laser (980 nm). Upon irradiation by the NIR laser at the high power density, the reflection wavelength of the photonic superstructure red-shifted, whereas its reverse process occurred upon irradiation by the same laser but with the lower power density. Furthermore, reversible dynamic NIR-light-driven red, green, and blue reflections in a single thin film, achieved only by varying the power density of the NIR light, were for the first time demonstrated.

  10. Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Tobias [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Welzmiller, Simon [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Neudert, Lukas [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Urban, Philipp [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Fitch, Andy [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A superstructure of the rocksalt-type observed in quenched CVT-grown single crystals of Ge{sub 3.25(7)}Sn{sub 1.10(3)}Sb{sub 1.10(3)}Te{sub 6} was elucidated by X-ray diffraction using fourfold twinned crystals (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, a=4.280(1) Å, c=20.966(3) Å). The structure is built up of distorted rocksalt-type building blocks typical for long-range ordered GST materials and substitution variants thereof. In contrast to those phases, an exclusive ABC-type cubic stacking sequence of the Te-atom layers is present. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals spheroidal domains with this structure (average diameter 25 nm) whose stacking direction is perpendicular to the 〈1 1 1〉 directions of the basic rocksalt-type structure. Additional slab-like domains with a lateral extension up to 1 µm occasionally result in a hierarchical structure motif. Due to the similar electron counts of the elements involved, resonant diffraction was used in order to elucidate the element distribution in rocksalt-type building blocks of the stable layered compound 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7} (R3{sup ¯}m, a=4.24990(4) Å, c=73.4677(9) Å). Sb tends to occupy the atom site close to the van der Waals gaps while Ge concentrates in the center of the building blocks. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution transmission electron micrograph, SAED pattern and reciprocal lattice section of X-ray single crystal data of Ge{sub 3.25}Sn{sub 1.1}Sb{sub 1.1}Te{sub 6} with an 11P-type superstructure of the rocksalt type. - Highlights: • A novel superstructure of the rocksalt-type in the system Ge–Sn–Sb–Te is elucidated. • It combines the cubic stacking of the HT phase with building blocks of the RT phase. • It indicates the ordering mechanism during the phase transition of GST materials. • A hierarchical structure motif is promising with respect to the reduction of κ{sub L}. • Resonant diffraction reveals the element distribution in 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7}.

  11. Morphology-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures with Schiff base as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, He; Xu, Jie-yan; Yang, Hong; Liang, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Yang, Shiping, E-mail: shipingy@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Wu, Huixia [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: MnCO3 microcrystals with hierarchical superstructures were synthesized by using the CO2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source and Schiff base as shape guiding-agent in water/ethanol system under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: {yields} The most interesting in this work is the use of the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} in atmosphere as carbonate ions source to precipitate with Mn{sup 2+} for producing MnCO{sub 3} crystals. {yields} This work is the first report related to the small organic molecule Schiff base as shape guiding-agent to produce different MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures. {yields} We are controllable synthesis of the MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like microcrystals. {yields} The as-prepared MnCO{sub 3} could be used precursor to fabricate the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures after thermal decomposition at high temperature. -- Abstract: MnCO{sub 3} with hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like were synthesized in water/ethanol system under environment-friendly hydrothermal condition. In the synthesis process, the CO{sub 2} in atmosphere was used as the source of carbonate ions and Schiff base was used as shape guiding-agent. The different superstructures of MnCO{sub 3} could be obtained by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, the molar ratio of manganous ions to the Schiff base, or the volume ratio of water to ethanol. A tentative growth mechanism for the generation of MnCO{sub 3} superstructures was proposed based on the rod-dumbbell-sphere model. Furthermore, the MnCO{sub 3} as precursor could be further successfully transferred to Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructure after heating in the atmosphere at 500 {sup o}C, and the morphology of the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was directly determined by that of the MnCO{sub 3} precursor.

  12. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  13. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  14. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  15. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  16. Template-free synthesis of beta-In2S3 superstructures and their photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, R; Akilandeswari, S; Ahmmad, Bashir; Muruganandham, M; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we have successfully fabricated various morphological beta-Indium sulfide (In2S3) superstructures by using indium thiocyanate complex at acidic pH. All the synthesis has been performed by a template-free, hydrothermal method at 195 degrees C for 3 h. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized In2S3 have been investigated by using UV-B (lamda = 365 nm) light with Methyl Orange dye as a model pollutant. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by using XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, DRS spectra and nitrogen adsorption analysis. The influence of indium precursors and solvents on the morphology as well as the surface properties has also been discussed. The XRD result shows that cubic phase beta-In2S3 formed under all experimental conditions. A plausible mechanism of the In2S3 microsphere formation has been discussed based on experimental observations.

  17. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    Global warming and other environmental concerns are fueling increased focus on sustainability resulting in new and stringent guidelines, especially with regard to emissions [1]. Greenhouse gases are prevalent and among harmful emissions that are targeted to be reduced; carbon dioxide (CO2...... of feedstock [4], in this case carbon dioxide. This stage contains three steps, each incorporating relevant methods and tools. First, with the help of user specifications, the problem is specified. Then, the processing routes linking feed and product are represented via a superstructure. This is performed....... This database contains information on the raw material (including different carbon dioxide emission conditions), the products and the reactions linking these. With this help of the database it is possible to quickly compare utilization processes for a specific problem as the information is easily accessible...

  18. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation Strategy for Bridge Superstructure Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles and their superstructures; Darstellung von Edelmetallnanopartikeln und deren Ueberstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigall, Nadja-Carola

    2009-08-18

    A modified synthesis procedure for citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution is transferred under application of equal concentrations to the systems silver, platinum, and palladium. The nanoparticles are analyzed by means of absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Ordered superstructures of the noble-metal nanoparticles can be synthesized by infiltration of templates of block-copolymer films with aqueous nanoparticle solution. In dependence on the pre-treatment of the polymer films either two-dimensional periodical arrangements with a periodicity of less than 30 nm or fingerprint-like arrangements with a groove distance in the same order of magnitude. By removal of the polymer one- respectively two-dimensional arrangements of platinum nanowires respectively nanoparticles on a silicon waver arise.

  20. Unsupervised performance evaluation strategy for bridge superstructure based on fuzzy clustering and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yubo; Liu, Hanbing; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xianqiang; Wei, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Growth and Transfer of Monolithic Horizontal ZnO Nanowire Superstructures onto Flexible Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng

    2010-04-28

    A method of fabricating horizontally aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with full control over the width and length is demonstrated. A cross-sectional view of the NWs by transmission electron microscopy shows a "mushroom-like" structure. Novel monolithic multisegment superstructures are fabricated by making use of the lateral overgrowth. Ultralong horizontal ZnO NWs of an aspect ratio on the order often thousand are also demonstrated. These horizontal NWs are lifted off and transferred onto a flexible polymer substrate, which may have many great applications in horizontal ZnO NW-based nanosensor arrays, light-emitting diodes, optical gratings, integrated circuit interconnects, and high-output-power alternating-current nanogenerators. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Sceptical remarks on the 'open' legal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendler, H.

    1987-01-01

    Undeterminate concepts of law are used in Atomic Energy Law and in many other legal fields. The author has the opinion, the undeterminate concepts of law signify a relocation of responsibility to the administration. After a period of control of the administration by courts, a reversal to more independence of the administration is required. (CW) [de

  3. Synthesis and study of strontium ferromolybdate nanopowders with high degree of superstructural ordering for spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmolich M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal oxide compounds Sr2FeMoO6-δ systems with an ordered double perovskite structure due to their unique and extremely important magnetotransport and magnetic properties are among the most promising materials for spintronic devices. In the present work, we investigated the correlation between the citrate-gel synthesis conditions (pH of initial solutions and annealing temperature and the microstructure, phase transformations and magnetic properties of the Sr2FeMoO6-δ nanopowders. According to the results the average grain size of the powders in the dispersion grows from 250 to 550 nm with increasing of pH values. Single-phase nanosized Sr2FeMoO6-δ powders had various degrees of superstructural ordering of Fe3+ and Mo5+ (P = 65% for pH = 4, P = 51% for pH = 6 and P = 20 % for pH = 9. With increasing of pH, the Fe2+ concentration increases from 63% to 72%, and the Fe+3 concentration drops from 37% to 28%. According to the results of investigations of magnetization temperature dependence in Sr2FeMoO6-δ powders a metastable superparamagnetic state was established at TS<19 K in low-dimensional grains. An optimized synthesis procedure, based on an initial solution of pH = 4, has allowed obtaining a single-phase Sr2FeMoO6-δ compound having grain size in the range of 50-120 nm and a superstructural ordering of iron and molybdenum cations of 88%. The optimum conditions of synthesis of nanopowders strontium ferromolybdate allow for the directional change of the phase composition of the synthesized nanosized ceramic with reproducible physical and chemical properties.

  4. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  5. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  6. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  7. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  8. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and tensile loading using superstructure FBGs developed by laser direct writing of periodic on-fiber metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemohammad, Hamidreza; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) by laser-assisted direct writing of on-fiber metallic films. A novel laser direct write method is characterized to fabricate periodic films of silver nanoparticles on the non-planar surface of as-fabricated FBGs. Silver films with a thickness of 9 µm are fabricated around a Bragg grating optical fiber. The performance of the superstructure FBG is studied by applying temperature and tensile stress on the fiber. An opto-mechanical model is also developed to predict the optical response of the synthesized superstructure FBG under thermal and structural loadings. The results show that the reflectivity of sidebands in the reflection spectrum can be tuned up to 20% and 37% under thermal and structural loadings, respectively. In addition, the developed superstructure FBG is used for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature to eliminate the inherent limitation of regular FBGs in multi-parameter sensing

  9. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Đ. Majkić; Novak S. Vukčević

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided ...

  10. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  11. Egg albumin-assisted preparation, characterization and influencing factors of Dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong, E-mail: niyh@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Li Xiaolong [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Hong Jianming; Ma Xiang [Centers of Modern Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Dumbbell-shaped barium carbonate superstructures were successfully synthesized in the aqueous system containing egg albumin and ethylenediaminetetraacetate disodium (EDTA-2Na), employing BaCl{sub 2}, NaHCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O as the starting reagents. The as-prepared product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some factors influencing the morphology of BaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as the time, the amounts of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na, were studied. Experimental facts showed that a proper amount of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na played crucial roles in the formation of dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures.

  12. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  13. The Effects on the Operating Condition of a Passenger Ship Retro-fitted with a Composite Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Hjørnet, N. K.; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2016-01-01

    As sustainability and climate change have come on the politi-cal agenda, the shipping industry will have to be operating energy efficient ships. An appealing step to achieve this goal is by designing superstructures made out of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) aiming at the reduction of the ship’s...... on the stability and the fuel consumption of the retrofitted ship com-pared to the original design....

  14. Stimuli-Directed Dynamic Reconfiguration in Self-Organized Helical Superstructures Enabled by Chemical Kinetics of Chiral Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Lan, Ruochen; Gao, Yanzi; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Wanshu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lanying; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic controllability of self-organized helical superstructures in spatial dimensions is a key step to promote bottom-up artificial nanoarchitectures and functional devices for diverse applications in a variety of areas. Here, a light-driven chiral overcrowded alkene molecular motor with rod-like substituent is designed and synthesized, and its thermal isomerization reaction exhibits an increasing structural entropy effect on chemical kinetic analysis in anisotropic achiral liquid crystal host than that in isotropic organic liquid. Interestingly, the stimuli-directed angular orientation motion of helical axes in the self-organized helical superstructures doped with the chiral motors enables the dynamic reconfiguration between the planar (thermostationary) and focal conic (photostationary) states. The reversible micromorphology deformation processes are compatible with the free energy fluctuation of self-organized helical superstructures and the chemical kinetics of chiral motors under different conditions. Furthermore, stimuli-directed reversible nonmechanical beam steering is achieved in dynamic hidden periodic photopatterns with reconfigurable attributes prerecorded with a corresponding photomask and photoinduced polymerization.

  15. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  16. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  17. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  18. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  19. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  20. Investigation of Dispersion, Interaction and Superstructure Formation in PTMEG/MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Pishdad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of polymer/CNT nanocomposites enhances the physical and mechanical properties of polymer matrices. Basically, the mechanical properties are investigated by means of polymer/filler interactions. The other properties such as the rheological and electrical properties are examined by particle distribution and dispersion in the polymer matrices. Due to the variety of industrial applications of polyurethane and the need to improve their properties, in the current work, the improvements of PTMEG with carbon nanotubes have been studied. The particles were acid treated in a mixture of sulfuric/nitric acid, providing uniform dispersion of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The rheological measurements have been used to obtain the optimum degree of MWCNT dispersion, and the formation of nanoparticles superstructure were quantified by two percolation thresholds (Ф*,Ф** at low deformation rates. The critical percolation for PTMEG/MWCNT was estimated at 0.25-0.5 wt%. A significant improvement in the rheological characteristics was observed due to the agglomeration of particles at Ф* and continuous network of clusters at Ф**. The interfacial interaction of composites was also measured by means of relaxation time spectra and showed high improvement at Ф** (0.5 wt%. Considering the FE-SEM images of specimens, it was found that there is a nanotube network or cluster agglomeration at the concentration 0.75 wt% of MWCNT in the polymeric matrix.

  1. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  2. Solution Construction of Multigeometry Nanoparticles and Multicompartment Superstructures from Block Copolymer Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2013-03-01

    Novel soft objects with both compositional and geometric complexity at nanoscale have been constructed through solution supramolecular assembly from block copolymer mixtures due to their non-ergodic character. The mixture is composed of two block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) hydrophilic block. First, multigeometry nanoparticles, due to segregation of unlike block copolymer molecules into multiple subdomains trapped within the same micelle-like structures, have been assembled in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. Through carefully designed molecular architecture, mixing ratio and pathway kinetics, both size and shape of subdomains can be controlled to produce a novel class of multigeometry nanoparticles, including sphere-sphere, sphere-cylinder, cylinder-cylinder, cylinder-disk, and sphere-disk hybrid nanoparticles. Second, hierarchical multicompartment superstructures including particle chains, rings and other nano to micro cluster formations, have been built up from pre-formed multigeometry nanoparticles by taking advantage of their surface anisotropy and the controlled particle-particle association. The interparticle association can be achieved via either covalent or non-covalent bindings due to different post-polymerization chemical modifications with hydroxyethyl acrylate or crown ether functionalities, respectively.

  3. Superstructure ZrV2O7nanofibres: thermal expansion, electronic and lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qidong; Zhao, Yanming; Kuang, Quan; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Liu, Xudong

    2016-11-30

    ZrV 2 O 7 has attracted much attention as a negative thermal expansion (NTE) material due to its isotropic negative structure. However, rarely has investigation of the lithium storage behaviors been carried out except our first report on it. Meanwhile, the electrochemical behaviors and energy storage characteristics have not been studied in depth and will be explored in this article. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization and lithium intercalation mechanism of superstructure ZrV 2 O 7 nanofibres that were prepared through a facile solution-based method with a subsequent annealing process. The thermal in situ XRD technique combined with the Rietveld refinement method is adopted to analyze the change in the temperature-dependent crystal structure. Benefiting from the nanostructured morphology and relatively high electronic conductivity, it presents acceptable cyclic stability and rate capability. According to the operando evolution of the XRD patterns obtained from electrochemical in situ measurements, the Li intercalation mechanism of the solid solution process with a subsequent conversion reaction can be concluded. Finally, the amorphous state of the electrodes after the initial fully discharged state can effectively enhance the electrochemical performances.

  4. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  5. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  6. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  7. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  8. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  9. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  10. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  12. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  13. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.

  14. Bone-repair properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite nano-rod superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L.; Mathieu, Colleen; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Laiuppa, Juan A.; Santillán, Graciela E.; Messina, Paula V.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures for the in vitro conditions of bone-repair. Experiments are underway to investigate the effects of the material microstructure, surface roughness and hydrophilicity on their osseo-integration, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction abilities. Materials were tested in the presence of both, rat primary osteoblasts and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells. The following aspects are discussed: (i) cytotoxicity and material degradation; (ii) rat osteoblast spreading, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) rabbit mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on nano-HAp and nano-HAp/collagen type I coatings. We effectively prepared a material based on biomimetic HAp nano-rods displaying the appropriate surface topography, hydrophilicity and degradation properties to induce the in vitro desired cellular responses for bone bonding and healing. Cells seeded on the selected material readily attached, proliferated and differentiated, as confirmed by cell viability, mitochondrial metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cytoskeletal integrity analysis by immunofluorescence localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. These results highlight the influence of material's surface characteristics to determine their tissue regeneration potential and their future use in engineering osteogenic scaffolds for orthopedic implants.Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures

  15. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  16. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  17. DEMOLISHING A COLD-WAR-ERA FUEL-STORAGE BASIN SUPERSTRUCTURE LADEN WITH ASBESTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Orgill, T.K.; Dagan, E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The K East (KE) Basin facilities are located near the north end of the Hanford Site's 100 K area. The facilities were built in 1950 as part of the KE Reactor complex and constructed within 400 meters of the Columbia River, which is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest and by volume the fourth largest river in the United States. The basin, located adjacent to the reactor, was used for the underwater storage of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged from the reactor. The basin was covered by a superstructure comprising steel columns and beams, concrete, and cement asbestos board (CAB) siding. The project's mission was to complete demolition of the structure over the K East basin within six months of tumover from facility deactivation activities. The demolition project team implemented open-air demolition techniques to demolish the facility to slab-on-grade. Several innovative techniques were used to control contamination and maintain contamination control within the confines of the demolition exclusion zone. The techniques, which focused on a defense-in-depth approach, included spraying fixatives on interior and exterior surfaces before demolition began; applying fixatives; misting using a fine spray of water during demolition; and demolishing the facility systematically. Another innovation that aided demolition was to demolish the building with the non-friable CAB remaining in place. The CAB siding covered the exterior of the building, portions of the interior walls, and was an integral part of the multiple layered roof. The project evaluated the risks involved in removing the CAB material in a radiologically contaminated environment and determined that radiological dose rates and exposure to radiological contamination and industrial hazards would be significantly reduced by removing the CAB during demolition using heavy equipment. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without spreading contamination (radiological or asbestos) demonstrates that similar

  18. Optomagnetic Detection of MicroRNA Based on Duplex-Specific Nuclease-Assisted Target Recycling and Multilayer Core-Satellite Magnetic Superstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Ma, Jing; Qiu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Superstructural assembly of magnetic nanoparticles enables approaches to biosensing by combining specially tailored properties of superstructures and the particular advantages associated with a magnetic or optomagnetic read-out such as low background signal, easy manipulation, cost-efficiency, an......Superstructural assembly of magnetic nanoparticles enables approaches to biosensing by combining specially tailored properties of superstructures and the particular advantages associated with a magnetic or optomagnetic read-out such as low background signal, easy manipulation, cost......RNA and DSN-assisted target recycling, the core-satellite magnetic superstructures release their "satellites" to the suspension, which subsequently can be quantified accurately in a low-cost and user-friendly optomagnetic setup. Target miRNAs are preserved in the cleaving reaction and can thereby trigger more...... cleavage and release of "satellites". For singleplex detection of let-7b, a linear detection range between 10 fM and 10 nM was observed, and a detection limit of 4.8 fM was obtained within a total assay time of 70 min. Multiplexing was achieved by releasing nanoparticles of different sizes in the presence...

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  20. Advanced practice nurses: starting an independent practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, V A; Lambert, C E

    1996-01-01

    Independent or private practice is the delivery of nursing services provided by nurses over which nurses have full control. With a changing healthcare system, nurses are in a prime position to negotiate the delivery of appropriate, acceptable, and cost-effective health care as independent practitioners. This article addresses the mission and goals of independent practice, community need, business structure of the practice, housing the practice, legal considerations, financing the practice, marketing issues, clientele, record keeping, and reimbursement.

  1. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  2. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  3. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  5. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  6. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  7. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  8. Studies on growth mechanism and physical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CdS with novel hierarchical superstructures and their photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamble, Shweta N.; Ghoderao, Karuna P.; Kale, Rohidas B.

    2018-03-01

    A simple, facile and organic-free hydrothermal method was utilized to synthesize cadmium sulfide (CdS) superstructures. The cadmium chloride and thiourea used as a Cd2+ and S2- ion sources for the growth of CdS superstructures. The reaction was carried out at different time and temperatures. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the obtained products were highly crystalline with hexagonal phase. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images reveal a monodisperse dendrite-like CdS superstructure. It consisted of a central long trunk with secondary branches, lying parallel to each other and making a certain angle with the central trunk, and small ternary branches grew out of the secondary branches. The selected area electron diffraction altogether with high-resolution electron microscopy patterns depicted that the leaves of dendrite were single crystalline in nature and preferentially grown along (111) direction. The UV-vis absorbance and photoluminescence study illustrated that the hierarchically grown CdS superstructures revealed the good quality of optical properties. A probable growth mechanism for the formation of CdS dendritic superstructures was also discussed and demonstrated by experimental results. The photocatalytic activity of CdS superstructures was studied with the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution, under the visible light irradiation. The results showed that the degradation ratio of MB could reach 94.93% in 220 min. Based on the results, the possible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction of MB with CdS dendrites is useful for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  9. Controllable topological transformation from BiOCl hierarchical microspheres to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures in the Bi–W–Cl–O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiao [National Engineering Research Center for Manufacturing Equipment Digitization, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Shi, Songxin, E-mail: shisx@hust.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Manufacturing Equipment Digitization, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Tengteng [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tian, Shouqin [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Dawen [Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The three-dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures assembled by nanosheets were directly transformed topologically from BiOCl hierarchical microspheres via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. Furthermore, the crystal growth of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructure was confirmed to occur at the exposed plane (0 0 1) of BiOCl nanosheets with WO{sub 6}{sup 6−} units replacing the interlaminar Cl atoms. Their similar layered structures favored the controllable transformation of BiOCl to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} through the substitution process. And this topological transformation may provide a new prospective to the synthesis of other 3D compounds. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures were prepared by topological transformation of BiOCl assembly. • Transformation process experienced three stages of BiOCl, BiOCl/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures grew at the exposed (0 0 1) facets of BiOCl nanosheets. • The growth mechanism was revealed from thermodynamic and kinetic dynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this work, three-dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures assembled by nanosheets were prepared using the topological transformation of BiOCl hierarchical microspheres via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. Interestingly, it was found that the transformation process experienced three stages including BiOCl, BiOCl/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with increasing solvothermal time at 150 °C, which was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results. Importantly, the crystal growth of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures occurred at the exposed (0 0 1) facets of BiOCl nanosheets with WO{sub 6}{sup 6−} units replacing the interlaminar Cl atoms. Also, the growth mechanism was revealed and discussed in the thermodynamic and kinetic dynamic aspects. Compared with BiOCl superstructures, the Bi

  10. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  11. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  12. Curvature aided efficient axial field emission from carbon nanofiber–reduced graphene oxide superstructures on tungsten wire substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Arunava [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Rajarshi; Sen, Dipayan [Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Efficient axial field emitter was fabricated through deposition of thin RGO layer by Langmuir–Blodgett method. • Tungsten wire substrate was used. • The CNF–RGO superstructure produced better field emission characteristics compared to bare CNF. - Abstract: Field emission characteristics found in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO based composite systems have always been an area of research interest mainly due to presence of prolific quasi aligned edges working as emitter sites. However, the specific role and extent of edge curvature geometry in RGO systems in regards to the enhancement of field emission has not discussed thoroughly prior to this work. In this work we demonstrate enhanced axial field emission due to top assembly of thin RGO layer over a quasi-vertically aligned carbon nanofiber thin film supported on a tungsten wire substrate. Furthermore, simulation analysis for our RGO based hybrid system using finite element modeling showed that two-stage local field amplification in RGO is responsible for the overall improvement of field emission characteristics. In support of our findings, a tentative explanation has been proposed based on the additional emission from RGO edges in between the CNF network resulting to the enhancement of axial field emission in the nanocomposite superstructure.

  13. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  14. Numerical Analysis of the Behavior of an IPM Bridge According to Super-Structure and Sub-Structure Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincheol Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A bridge with an integrated and pile-bent abutment with a mechanically stabilized earth-wall (IPM was developed by separating earth pressure from the abutment to overcome the problems typically faced by integral abutment bridges. Also, the IPM bridge removes expansion joints and bearing by integrating the super-structure and the abutment and does not need many piles because it separates the earth pressure from backfills. Therefore, it is superior in cost, durability, and maintainability to traditional bridges and is sustainable due to using less material. A numerical analysis was conducted to ascertain the behavior of the IPM bridge according to its super-structural and sub-structural characteristics. Based on the analysis results, the behaviors of the IPM bridge are as follows: The bending moments ( M y of the pre-stressed concrete (PSC girder and the steel-plate girder of the bridge were influenced by the presence of the time-dependent loads. The contraction behavior in the PSC girder is largely due to the time-dependent loads, whereas the expansion behavior in the steel-plate girder is large due to its greater thermal expansion coefficient and temperature range compared with those of the PSC girder. In general, the suggested bridge length limit for PSC girders in both the integral abutment bridge and the IPM bridge is larger than that in a steel bridge. This needs to be reviewed again with consideration of the long-term and seasonal behaviors.

  15. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  16. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  17. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  18. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  19. Guide to legal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is a directory of law firms that provide services to the independent energy industry. The directory lists the firm's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a contact person. Included is a description of the specialties or services offered by the firm in the area of independent energy projects; some of these include regulatory, tax, fuel supply, operations and maintenance, environmental, real estate, government contracts and bankruptcy

  20. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  1. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  2. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  3. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  4. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  5. Substitution-induced superstructures in Cu(1)-doped YBa2(Cu/sub 1-x/M/sub x/)3O7 ceramic (M=trivalent cation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic calculations and conceptual arguments are presented that indicate that a (3 x 3) ordered oxygen-atom superstructure in the Cu(1)-O plane may play an important role in attaining tetragonal symmetry when +3 cations favoring six coordination are selectively substituted in Cu(1)-doped YBa 2 (Cu/sub 1-x/M/sub x/) 3 O 7 ceramics

  6. Ag on Ge(111): 2D x-ray structure analysis of the #sq root#3 x #sq root#3 superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dornisch, D.; Moritz, W.; Schulz, H.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the Ag/Ge(111) square-root 3 x square-root 3 superstructure by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. In our structural analysis we find striking similarities to the geometry of Au on Si(111). The Ag atoms form trimer clusters with an Ag-Ag distance of 2.94 +/- 0.04 angstrom...

  7. A novel high-temperature commensurate superstructure in a natural bariopyrochlore: A structural study by means of a multiphase crystal structure refinement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bindi, L.; Petříček, Václav; Withers, R. L.; Zoppi, M.; Bonazzi, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, - (2006), s. 716-725 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pyrochlore * superstructure * X-ray data * multiphase structure refinement * TEM study Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  8. Gender mainstreaming in law and legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujadinović Dragica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Political revolutions of the 18th and 19th century engendered an idea of universal equality. However, the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen have not been gender sensitive documents. Women had to struggle for a long time in order to achieve visibility in laws and they did gain an equal right to vote in the USA only 144 years later and in France only 160 years after the issuing of these documents. Contemporary international and national law has greatly advanced from a gender equality point of view. However, gender sensitive legislation and implementation of legal norms has been far from widely accepted. Gender sensitive legal education of (future legislators, lawyers, judges, and prosecutors has thus been of the utmost importance. First, the article offers theoretical clarifications and historical background analysis of a sense and purpose of gender mainstreaming. The achievements in international law and strategic documents concerning gender equality will be taken into consideration in the second chapter. The main focus will be on the meaning of and instruments for gender mainstreaming in legal education in Serbia as well as generally. Paradigmatic examples from judicial practice will also be presented.

  9. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  10. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  11. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  12. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  13. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  14. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  15. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  16. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  17. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  18. Hierarchical assembly of inorganic nanostructure building blocks to octahedral superstructures-a true template-free self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Karakoti, Ajay S; Seal, Sudipta

    2007-01-01

    A room temperature, template-free, wet chemical synthesis of ceria nanoparticles and their long term ageing characteristics are reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques are used to observe the variation in size, structure and oxidation state, respectively as a function of time. The morphology variation and the hierarchical assembly (octahedral superstructure) of nanostructures are imputed to the inherent structural aspects of cerium oxide. It is hypothesized that the 3-5 nm individual building blocks will undergo an intra-agglomerate re-orientation to attain the low energy configuration. This communication also emphasizes the need for long term ageing studies of nanomaterials in various solvents for multiple functionalities

  19. Oxygen-ordering superstructures in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x studied by hard X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, M. Von; Schneider, J.R.; Frello, T.

    2003-01-01

    High-energy x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the bulk oxygen-ordering properties of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+x). Four different superstructures of Cu-O chains aligned along the b axis and ordered with periodicity ma, along the a axis have been observed. For x... is ortho-II with m=2. At room temperature, we find ortho-III (m=3) for 0.72less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.82, ortho-V (m=5) in a mixed state with ortho-II at x=0.62, and ortho-VIII (m=8) at x=0.67. Ortho-II is a three-dimensional ordered structural phase, the remaining ones are essentially...

  20. Tunable superstructure fiber Bragg grating with chirp-distribution modulation based on the effect of external stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yize; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huiqun; Tong, Guoxiang; Fang, Baoying; Li, Liu; Shen, Yujian; Zheng, Qiuxin; Liang, Qian; Yan, Meng; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuan; Ding, Jie; Wang, Xiaohua

    2012-09-15

    We report an external stress modulation method for producing a superstructure fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with approximate cascaded resonant cavities composed of different index chirp distributions. The 15 mm uncoated apodized uniform-period FBG is pressed by the vertical stress from the upper 11 pieces of the pattern plate controlled by a piezoelectric ceramic actuator. The piece length is 1 mm, and the interval of the adjacent pieces is 0.4 mm. The reflectivity of the modulated FBG gradually shows six obvious multichannel 75%-85% reflection peaks with the increase of the vertical stress of each pattern-plate piece from 0 to 30 N. The channel spacing is steady at about 10 GHz for a C-band wavelength division multiplexing system.

  1. Topotactic epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal superstructures with anisotropic construction for efficient overall water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (SANKEN), Osaka University (Japan); Ochi, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Kobori, Yasuhiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University (Japan); Tachikawa, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University (Japan); PRESTO, Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama (Japan)

    2017-05-02

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO{sub 2} mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Topotactic epitaxy of SrTiO3 mesocrystal superstructures with anisotropic construction for efficient overall water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro; Ochi, Tomoya; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Tachikawa, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO 3 mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO 2 mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO 3 mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Diamondlike carbon coating as a galvanic corrosion barrier between dental implant abutments and nickel-chromium superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkomur, Ahmet; Erbil, Mehmet; Akova, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy, to investigate the effect of diamondlike carbon (DLC) coating over titanium on galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and Ni-Cr alloy, and to evaluate the effect of DLC coating over titanium abutments on the fit and integrity of prosthetic assemblies by scanning electron microcopy (SEM). Five Ni-Cr and 10 titanium disks with a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 3 mm were prepared. DLC coating was applied to five titanium disks. Electrode samples were prepared, and open circuit potential measurements, galvanic current measurements over platinum electrodes, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out. For the SEM evaluation, 20 Ni-Cr alloy and 10 gold alloy superstructures were cast and prepared over 30 abutments. DLC coating was applied to 10 of the abutments. Following the fixation of prosthetic assemblies, the samples were embedded in acrylic resin and cross sectioned longitudinally. Internal fit evaluations were carried out through examination of the SEM images. Titanium showed more noble and electrochemically stable properties than Ni-Cr alloy. DLC coating over the cathode electrode served as an insulating film layer over the surface and prevented galvanic coupling. Results of the SEM evaluations indicated that the DLC-coated and titanium abutments showed no statistically significant difference in fit. Hence, no adverse effects on the adaptation of prosthetic components were found with the application of DLC coating over abutment surfaces. DLC coating might serve as a galvanic corrosion barrier between titanium abutments and Ni-Cr superstructures.

  4. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe. December 13, 2016. Julie Stewart, Rosalie Katsande, and Olga Chisango. Zimbabwean independence ended racial segregation and colonial rule. Yet the hopes and expectations that it would radically improve living conditions for the country's black majority remain ...

  5. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  6. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  8. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  9. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  11. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  12. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  13. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  14. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    the public interest is defined and normatively framed in line with these interests, there are diverse quasi-techniques which reflect the arbitrary application of law. The recent state-building legal history is characterized by a prominent legal discontinuity, which has two forms of expression: first, legal discontinuity is a result of frequent changes of different and often conflicting socio-political systems of government, which are necessarily accompanied by respective changes in the positive legislation; second, discontinuity may also be a result of frequent legislative changes within a specific type of legal system. Such practices give rise to contradictions and polarizations in the legal culture and legal socialization. The common feature of all legal systems (thus far is the problem of applying the law, or the applicability of the normative framework. The normative legal tradition is not accompanied by the consistent factual application of the envisaged norms. Frequently, there is a prominent incongruity between the norm and the actual state of affairs. In addition to undermining the important function of law, this phenomenon shows the prevalence of traditional legal heritage in Serbian social relations. In comparison to transition countries which have meanwhile been integrated into the European Union, the Serbian society is poverty-stricken, economically devastated, inadequately structured in terms of public/private interests, normatively underdeveloped and value-barren; as such, it is difficult to administer and hard to change. The heritage of socio-economic relations slows down the reception of the liberal-democratic system and the adjustment to the model of competitive market economy. The former model of irrational authority of a powerful leader and a single-party system has been transformed into the party-state system (partocracy involving the dominant role of the authoritarian party leadership, which slows down the development of independent, autonomous

  15. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  16. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  17. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  18. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  19. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  20. LEGAL REGULATION IN THE SPHERE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA (HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yashchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of article is to analyze the evolution of legal regulation of higher education in Russia since the beginning up to the beginning of reform in modern conditions.Characteristics of the problem field. Higher education is studied in various aspects (sociological, cultural, historical, economic. An independent institute of educational law is distinguished in the legal science. Serious transformations of higher education in the Russian Federation have actualized the need for understanding the domestic experience of legal regu-lation. The state policy in the sphere of higher education and the evolution of educational legislation are studied in historical and legal studies.The methodology. The narrative method is the method of description. It is necessary for the reconstruction of past events and phenomena. The narrative method is supplemented by a chronological method. The formal legal method is applied to the interpretation of norms. The sociological method establishes the links between state policy, regulatory legal regulations and the social result achieved. The comparative method is used fragmentarily.Results. Higher education is a relatively new social institution. In the European tradition it took shape during the Middle Ages. The completed model was formed in the XIX century in Germany.The Russian Empire used the German model. Higher education was regulated by the state. The main regulations governing educational relations at the university were the General Charters. These Charters reflected the autonomy of universities.Three stages are identified in the legal and regulatory framework of higher education in the Soviet period: 1917 – the first floor 1930s; second floor 1930s – the first floor 1950s; second floor 1950s – 1980s.At the first stage the state regulated only politically and ideologically important educational relations. Many questions were not regulated centrally. In the 1930s the state impact on higher education was

  1. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  2. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  3. Legal Support for Ecological Safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhazira A. Ilyasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article features the analysis of Kazakhstan’ National Legislation, international conventions (agreements in the area of Ecological Sustainability ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan. The agreements have been endorsed by Resolutions of Inter-Parliament Assembly of States Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Recommended legal act dated November 2, 1996, “Law on Ecological Safety” dated November 15, 2003. The analysis of Kazakhstan’s legislation demonstrates partially effective laws on ecological safety. In this regard, there is a need to systemize the current legislature and adopt legal instrument regulating sustainability of ecological safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  4. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  5. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  6. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  7. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  8. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Lai, Zhe-Ping

    2016-02-04

    In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%). This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics) for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML), perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), object meshing method (OMM), and boundary meshing method (BMM) into the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size.

  9. DNA-Assembled Core-Satellite Upconverting-Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticle Superstructures for Efficient Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangcan; Brasino, Michael; Mao, Chenchen; Cho, Suehyun; Park, Wounjhang; Goodwin, Andrew P; Cha, Jennifer N

    2017-06-01

    DNA-mediated assembly of core-satellite structures composed of Zr(IV)-based porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF) and NaYF 4 ,Yb,Er upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reported. MOF NPs generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) upon photoirradiation with visible light without the need for additional small molecule, diffusional photosensitizers such as porphyrins. Using DNA as a templating agent, well-defined MOF-UCNP clusters are produced where UCNPs are spatially organized around a centrally located MOF NP. Under NIR irradiation, visible light emitted from the UCNPs is absorbed by the core MOF NP to produce 1 O 2 at significantly greater amounts than what can be produced from simply mixing UCNPs and MOF NPs. The MOF-UCNP core-satellite superstructures also induce strong cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, which are further enhanced by attaching epidermal growth factor receptor targeting affibodies to the PDT clusters, highlighting their promise as theranostic photodynamic agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Jing He

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%. This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML, perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB, object meshing method (OMM, and boundary meshing method (BMM into the finite element method (FEM and eigenmode expansion method (EEM. The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size.

  11. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work. Following a market survey carried out among 112 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2546/ST/Rev.) was sent on 12 April 2001 to eleven consortia, four consisting of four firms, three consisting of three firms and four consisting of two firms, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from eight consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SPIE CITRA SUD-EST(FR)-ANTIRUST TECHNOLOGY (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 January 2002 for an amount not exceeding 15 375 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this ...

  12. Topotactic Epitaxy of SrTiO3 Mesocrystal Superstructures with Anisotropic Construction for Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ochi, Tomoya; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Majima, Tetsuro; Tachikawa, Takashi

    2017-05-02

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO 3 mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO 2 mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO 3 mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} - a MgZn{sub 2} superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The gallide Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} was synthesized by high-frequency melting of the elements in a sealed niobium ampoule. The structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Nb{sub 6.4}Ir{sub 4}Al{sub 7.6} type, P6{sub 3}/mcm, a = 930.4(1), c = 843.0(1) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0597, 379 F{sup 2} values and 22 variables. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} adopts a superstructure of the MgZn{sub 2} Laves phase by a complete ordering of the iridium and gallium atoms on the zinc substructure, i.e. the network consists of ordered and condensed Ir{sub 3}Ga and IrGa{sub 3} tetrahedra with Ir-Ga distances ranging from 260 to 265 pm. The crystal chemical details and the underlying group-subgroup scheme are discussed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  15. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  16. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  17. Gender characteristics of legal conscience in internal affairs agencies staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research results of the level of legal conscience forming in law enforcement officials. The study of gender specifics of personnel is now becoming more and more relevant due to a constant increase in the number of women entering the Ministry of Internal Affairs service. The study involved 160 male and 120 female staff members. Analysis of the results revealed a general legal conscience trend typical for male and female employees which manifests in a high level of legal knowledge, adequate understanding of group relativity of moral and ethical norms, civic un-engagement and disinterest to leadership role. This trend reflects a certain viewpoint when human rights are considered to include only freedom, independence and personal self-assertion without responsibility and civic duties. It was found that female employees have higher level of legal conscience forming than male employees. This led to the conclusion of a high-availability of female employees to comply with legal regulations and requirements.

  18. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  19. The Legal Junction: the complex promise of modern legal professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Kwak

    2005-01-01

    textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted

  20. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  1. Electrical conduction through surface superstructures measured by microscopic four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanabe, F.

    2003-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of the local electrical conductivity of well-defined crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum, we have developed two kinds of microscopic four-point probe methods. One involves a "four-tip STM prober," in which four independently driven tips of a scanning tunneling microscope...... (STM) are used for measurements of four-point probe conductivity. The probe spacing can be changed from 500 nm to 1 mm. The other method involves monolithic micro-four-point probes, fabricated on silicon chips, whose probe spacing is fixed around several mum. These probes are installed in scanning...... compared with the macroscopic four-point probe method. Then the conduction through the topmost atomic layers (surface-state conductivity) and the influence of atomic steps on conductivity can be directly measured....

  2. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  3. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  4. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  5. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  6. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  7. [Legal aspects of geriatric rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, T

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.

  8. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  9. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  10. Legal Education Reform: Modest Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…

  11. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  12. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  13. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  14. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  15. THE RIGHT TO AN INDEPENDENT COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN-GHEORGHE GAVRILESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The independence of the court is essential of state of rule, to maintain the stability in juridical intercourse, for the existence of a constitutional democracy achieved through a warranty of the necessary objectivity for the steady and legal settlement of the causes deducted to the trial and the achievement of a fair trial. The article emphasizes the main international juridical tools in which independence of justice is reflected, achieving an examination of judicial practice of European instance as well as an analysis of this principle as it is regulated by Romanian justice.

  16. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  17. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  18. Some ideas about remote legal education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraberjush Ivan Fedorovych

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article displays the features of remote training as an independent form in the system of higher education in Ukraine. The author also allocates the features of formation of distant learning system and considers possibilities of using this form in legal education in Ukraine. The article defines the categories of graduate lawyers for whose training the distant learning system based on the advanced information technologies is the most effective one.

  19. International countertrade arrangements and their legal structure: Double edge sword or future of the modern trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković-Kerković Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiences and the practice of many countries show that countertrade could be used as the significant method for incensement of the export as well as for the promotion of the foreign investments even in the period of deep financial crises. Contemporary governments' pro-active countertrade orientation in USA, Israel, Sweden, Norway, Japan and other developed countries highlights the inadequacy of the obsolete and stereotypical concept of the countertrade as the compensation transaction based on the 'trade without money' concept. Besides this, the practices proved that countertrade transactions are the consequence and the indicator of economic shocks. Therefore, the study of the special legal issues that may arise in countertrade transactions will be very important not only for the domestic legal doctrine but also for the commercial practice. As national laws do not contain provisions specific for countertrade, it is of particular importance to analyze legal question such as structuring and drafting of countertrade arrangements as well as to study the question of the legal nature of the contractual link between legal instruments which form multicontractual mechanism of countertrade transactions. The character of the legal connection among the legal instruments in countertrade arrangement, as well as the legal nature of the countertrade commitment, strongly influence the countertrade agreement's legal nature. The economic reality of a group of contracts joined by the common goal of the transaction (consideration and the countertrade commitment has to be followed by the legal reality which will recognize the legal interdependence of the obligation deriving from the legally independent countertrade arrangement.

  20. A multi-period superstructure optimisation model for the optimal planning of China's power sector considering carbon dioxide mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; Liu Pei; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is the largest CO 2 emitter in China. To mitigate CO 2 emissions for the power sector is a tough task, which requires implementation of targeted carbon mitigation policies. There might be multiple forms for carbon mitigation policies and it is still unclear which one is the best for China. Applying a superstructure optimisation model for optimal planning of China's power sector built by the authors previously, which was based on real-life plants composition data of China's power sector in 2009, and could incorporate all possible actions of the power sector, including plants construction, decommission, and application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) on coal-fuelled plants, the implementation effects of three carbon mitigation policies were studied quantitatively, achieving a conclusion that the so-called “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best from the viewpoint of increasing CO 2 reduction effect and also reducing the accumulated total cost. Based on this conclusion, the corresponding relationships between CO 2 reduction objectives (including the accumulated total emissions reduction by the objective year and the annual emissions reduction in the objective year) were presented in detail. This work provides both directional and quantitative suggestions for China to make carbon mitigation policies in the future. - Highlights: ► We study the best form of carbon mitigation policy for China's power sector. ► We gain quantitative relationship between CO 2 reduction goal and carbon tax policy. ► The “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best. ► Nuclear and renewable power and CCS can help greatly reduce CO 2 emissions of the power sector. ► Longer objective period is preferred from the viewpoint of policy making.

  1. Sense and sensibility in a legal argument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  3. Women's legal knowledge: a case study of Mexican urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Izabal, L M

    1995-06-01

    In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.

  4. Legal regulation of the Commercial Register

    OpenAIRE

    Hanková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...

  5. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Codruta BADEA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  7. Lawyers and legal services in NW England

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  8. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...

  9. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  10. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  11. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  12. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  13. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  14. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  15. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  16. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  17. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...

  18. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  19. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  20. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  1. Legal Logic? Or can we do without?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid

  2. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  3. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  4. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  5. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...

  6. 33 CFR 327.6 - Legal adviser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...

  7. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...

  8. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...

  9. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  10. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  11. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  12. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  13. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  14. Superstructural chirality of a periodic system of domains of opposite chirality and π-walls in B.sub.2./sub. phase composed of bent-shaped molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-11 (2010), s. 1001-1013 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : B 2 phase * bent-shaped molecules * domains of opposite chirality * π-walls * superstructural chirality Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  15. Observation of Vacancies, Faults, and Superstructures in Ln5Mo2O12 (Ln = La, Y, and Lu) Compounds with Direct Mo-Mo Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabello, Diane M; Sobalvarro, Elizabeth M; Sheckelton, John P; Neuefeind, Joerg C; McQueen, Tyrel M; Khalifah, Peter G

    2017-11-06

    Among oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding, the Y 5 Mo 2 O 12 (A 5 B 2 O 12 ) structural family of compounds has a particularly intriguing low-dimensional structure due to the presence of bioctahedral B 2 O 10 dimers arranged in one-dimensional edge-sharing chains along the direction of the metal-metal bonds. Furthermore, these compounds can have a local magnetic moment due to the noninteger oxidation state (+4.5) of the transition metal, in contrast to the conspicuous lack of a local moment that is commonly observed when oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding have integer oxidation states resulting from the lifting of orbital degeneracy typically induced by the metal-metal bonding. Although a monoclinic C2/m structure has been previously proposed for Ln 5 Mo 2 O 12 (Ln = La-Lu and Y) members of this family based on prior single crystal diffraction data, it is found that this structural model misses many important structural features. On the basis of synchrotron powder diffraction data, it is shown that the C2/m monoclinic unit cell represents a superstructure relative to a previously unrecognized orthorhombic Immm subcell and that the superstructure derives from the ordering of interchangeable Mo 2 O 10 and LaO 6 building blocks. The superstructure for this reason is typically highly faulted, as evidenced by the increased breadth of superstructure diffraction peaks associated with a coherence length of 1-2 nm in the c* direction. Finally, it is shown that oxygen vacancies can occur when Ln = La, producing an oxygen deficient stoichiometry of La 5 Mo 2 O 11.55 and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the number of unpaired electrons due to the reduction of the average Mo valence from +4.5 to +4.05, a result confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. This represents the first observation of oxygen vacancies in this family of compounds and provides an important means of continuously tuning the magnetic interactions within the one

  16. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...

  17. Legal identity as spiritual constituent of sense of justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kravtsov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern social and cultural situation of modern man requires mobility and adequate response to the requirements of modern society, and put it in front of the need to revise the traditional goals and targets. The authors show that it is not a system of knowledge and skills in itself, but a set of core competencies in modern intellectual, social, legal, communication, information sphere should be the main result of the process of formation of legal consciousness of modern man. In identifying the identification own life trajectory, gaining experience of independent activity and personal responsibility law today a special place. The authors emphasize that the position of acting, its identity is defined situation in the legal space. From its goals, values, personal preferences affect the choice of a particular mode of action. Familiarity with the legal situation as a choice situation, analysis of the position and actions of the person who is the subject of them, it is the spiritual content of justice, and creates conditions for personal self­determination ­ to find an answer to the question «Who am I, what do I want?»

  18. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  19. A novel dataset on legal traditions, their determinants, and their economic role in 155 transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Guerriero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law and the economy are deeply influenced by the legal tradition or origin, which is the bundle of institutions shaping lawmaking and dispute adjudication. The two principal legal traditions, common law and civil law, have been transplanted through colonization and occupation to the vast majority of the jurisdictions in the world by a group of European countries. Here, I illustrate a novel dataset recording the lawmaking institution employed by 155 of these jurisdictions at independence and in 2000 and four discretion-curbing adjudication institutions adopted by 99 of these “transplants” at the same two points in time. Contrary to the “legal origins” scholars׳ assumption, 25 transplants changed the transplanted lawmaking institution and 95 modified at least one of the transplanted lawmaking and adjudication rules. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12], I document that these reforms are consistent with a model of the design of legal institutions by societies heterogeneous in their endowment of both the extent of cultural heterogeneity and the quality of the political process. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13] moreover, I show the relevance of considering legal evolution and the endogeneity between legal traditions and economics outcomes. The data illustrated here also include the proxies for the determinants of legal evolution I use in “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a [12] and the novel measure of economic outcomes I employ in “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b [13].

  20. Archival Sources for Legal Biography at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...

  1. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  2. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...

  3. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  4. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  5. Photochemically and Thermally Driven Full-Color Reflection in a Self-Organized Helical Superstructure Enabled by a Halogen-Bonded Chiral Molecular Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2018-02-05

    Supramolecular approaches toward the fabrication of functional materials and systems have been an enabling endeavor. Recently, halogen bonding has been harnessed as a promising supramolecular tool. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel halogen-bonded light-driven axially chiral molecular switch. The photoactive halogen-bonded chiral switch is able to induce a self-organized, tunable helical superstructure, that is, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), when doped into an achiral liquid crystal (LC) host. The halogen-bonded switch as a chiral dopant has a high helical twisting power (HTP) and shows a large change of its HTP upon photoisomerization. This light-driven dynamic modulation enables reversible selective reflection color tuning across the entire visible spectrum. The chiral switch also displays a temperature-dependent HTP change that enables thermally driven red, green, and blue (RGB) reflection colors in the self-organized helical superstructure. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  7. Legal protection of the whistleblowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Safta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.

  8. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  9. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  10. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  11. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  12. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  13. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  14. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  15. [Psychiatric treatment--legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

  17. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  18. Traditional leadership and independent bantustans of south africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this article is to explore and discuss the legal position and the role of the politics of the traditional leaders in the independent Bantustans or homelands of apartheid South Africa. As a point of departure, this article gives a brief account of the status of the traditional leaders before the inception of apartheid.

  19. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  20. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  1. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  2. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  4. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  6. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  7. Technology Transfer in Digital Era: Legal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.

  8. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  9. Legal origin, colonial origin and deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien MARCHAND

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...

  10. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  12. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...

  13. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  14. Civil Legal Services and Medical-Legal Partnerships Needed by the Homeless Population: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.

  15. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  16. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  17. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  18. Legal training of students in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kablukov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.

  19. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  20. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  1. Internet advertising and its legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, Evgeniia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i

  2. Abortion Rights Legal Mobilization in the Peruvian Media, 1990–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Abstract State and non-state actors engaged in disputes to expand and limit abortion rights have engaged in legal mobilization—in other words, strategies using rights and law as a central tool for advancing contested political goals. Peru, like other Latin American countries, has experienced an increase in abortion rights legal mobilization in recent years, including litigation before national and international courts. This paper centers on societal legal mobilization, or the legal mobilization that occurs outside the legislative and judicial branches and that includes strategies promoted by the executive branch, political actors, and non-partisan organizations and individuals. It presents an analysis of op-ed articles published in two national newspapers, El Comercio and La República, between 1990 and 2015. The paper argues that the media is also an arena where legal mobilization takes place and is not just a space influenced by legal mobilization. Rather, the media’s agenda operates independently of legal mobilization in the legislature and the courts, and it determines whether certain issues receive coverage and the way these issues are framed. PMID:28630547

  3. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  4. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.

  5. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  6. TUBERCULOSIS: MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrugno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.

  7. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL LAWS FOR THE PROTECTION AND REALIZATION OF RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedžad Milanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulation of the persons with mental disabilities their support primarily finds in international legal acts of which provisions each state by their free determination incorporate into their regulations and coordinate them with the national legal norms. The persons with the mental disabilities are the persons with some degree of mental retardation who in greater or lesser extent are not able to independently take care of the realization and protection of their rights. Bosnia and Herzegovina, though it is a signatory of a great number of the international legal acts for the protection of the persons with mental disabilities, contrary to the international modern standards, has a very few institutes in which are placed in the aforementioned persons, in order to be treated, rehabilitated and engaged in the social life.

  8. Rule of Law and Human Rights Challenges in South East Asia: A Case Study of Legal Pluralism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldi Isra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been over 72 years since Indonesia proclaimed her independence on 17 August 1945. However, the 350 years of the Dutch colonization is still impacting the lives of the Indonesian people. The difficulties faced by the Indonesian legal system as the government tries to accommodate adat (custom and religion principles within the national law and the extent to which this legal mechanism affects the everyday life of the Indonesian people. In a nation where customs and religion are so preeminent, setting up an all-inclusive document meant to be the foundation of the state’s legal system at the dawn of independence was no easy task. This paper discusses the practice of legal pluralism in Indonesia and its struggle to implement rule of law and human rights principles after a half-century of authoritarian regimes. The study involves socio-legal research drawing on empirical data. Survey research was conducted between September 2014 and February 2015 at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, as well as in 5 cities in Indonesia (Aceh, Bali, Batam, Medan, and Padang to collect data. The research reveals that legal pluralism is not helping to strengthen the Indonesian legal system, and that the foreignness of the Western law along with the neglect of the Indonesian customary and Islamic laws, totalitarianism and military involvement in politics, corruption within the state apparatus and unsynchronized laws weaken the legal system in Indonesia and hinder its effort to implement rule of law and human rights principles.

  9. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...

  10. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  11. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  12. Independent community care gerontological nursing: becoming an entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Rosalie A

    2005-08-01

    Few nurses have the experience of developing an independent practice. This ethnographic study explores the process and challenges of becoming an entrepreneur as described by nurses developing independent practices in community care gerontologic nursing. The process included developing a legal contract, marketing strategies, and reimbursement amounts and strategies. Major barriers to implementing this role identified by the nurses included ignorance and confusion by others about their role, financial issues related to an uncertain income, time management, and legal concerns especially around delegation. These were experienced and dedicated nurses who were also risk-takers and enjoyed the independence of practicing nursing because they believed it was meant to be practiced. Suggestions for research, education, and practice are included.

  13. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  14. On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth

    In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research

  15. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  16. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential

  17. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  18. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  19. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  20. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  1. The legal personality of TNC: the issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimanov M.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.

  2. Extracting legal arguments from forensic Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with

  3. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  4. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  5. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  6. Legalizing the Intolerable Is a Bad Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…

  7. Copyright, the Internet, and Other Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaway, Laura N.

    1998-01-01

    Copyright and other intellectual property issues have dominated discussions of legal issues surrounding the Internet. There are other issues of considerable importance that also attract attention. Five legal issues affecting the Internet are addressed: copyright, online service-provider liability, database protection, obscenity, and privacy. Cited…

  8. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the project on legal terminology in the African languages. It focuses on terminology aspects relating to the coining of terms for the legal profession. Terminology development in South Africa has been hampered by a number of sociolinguistic factors. During recent years South Africa has seen ...

  9. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  10. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  11. The internationalization of law and legal education

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, Mortimer; Sellers, Mortimer

    2013-01-01

    The internationalization of commerce and contemporary life has led to a globalization of legal standards and practices. The essays in this text explore this new reality and suggest ways in which the new legal order can be made more just and effective.

  12. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...

  13. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...

  14. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  15. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or...

  16. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    However, its application in legal research could pose specific challenges to researchers and could impact on crucial aspects of .... electronic media channels. Rather, they emphasise that legal research ..... to the changing information environment and to exercise control over the digital tools and resources. This involves ...

  17. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  18. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  19. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  20. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  1. SrNi{sub 7.90(8)}In{sub 5.10(8)}. A new superstructure in the NaZn{sub 13} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Muts, Ihor [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine); Zaremba, Vasyl [Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    SrNi{sub 7.90(8)}In{sub 5.10(8)} was synthesized by induction melting of the elements in a sealed tantalum tube in a water-cooled silica sample chamber. The structure was refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Cccm, a = 1615.2(4), b = 1822.3(4), c = 1238.5(4) pm, wR2 = 0.1481, 4144F{sup 2} values and 150 variables. The striking structural motifs of the SrNi{sub 7.90}In{sub 5.10} structure are one-dimensional [Ni{sub 7} ] cluster units (242-286 pm Ni-Ni) which are surrounded by indium atoms. The structural relationship to the other NaZn{sub 13} superstructures is discussed on the basis of a group-subgroup scheme. (orig.)

  2. Formation of an L10 superstructure in austenite upon the α → γ transformation in the invar alloy Fe-32% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanova, I. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.

    2011-09-01

    Structure of a metastable austenitic invar alloy Fe-32% Ni preliminarily quenched for martensite and subjected to α → γ transformation using slow heating to various temperatures (430-500°C) with the formation of variously oriented nanocrystalline lamellar austenite, which was subjected to an additional annealing at 280°C (below the calculated temperature of ordering of the γ phase), has been studied electron-microscopically. An electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of an L10 superstructure in the disperse nickel-enriched nanocrystalline γ phase both after annealing at 280°C and in the unannealed alloy immediately after α → γ transformation upon slow heating to 430°C.

  3. Genetic-algorithm discovery of a direct-gap and optically allowed superstructure from indirect-gap Si and Ge semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avezac, Mayeul; Luo, Jun-Wei; Chanier, Thomas; Zunger, Alex

    2012-01-13

    Combining two indirect-gap materials-with different electronic and optical gaps-to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Si(n)/Ge(m)/…/Si(p)/Ge(q) superstructures grown on (001) Si(1-x)Ge(x). The search reveals a robust configurational motif-SiGe(2)Si(2)Ge(2)SiGe(n) on (001) Si(x)Ge(1-x) substrate (x≤0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced Γ-X coupling at the band edges.

  4. Application of a generic superstructure-based formulation to the design of wind-pumped-storage hybrid systems on remote islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chu; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model for hybrid power system (HPS) design to support a remote island. • Use pumped hydro storage to store tentative surplus electricity. • Formulate the HPS design problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). - Abstract: This paper aims to present a mathematical model for the design of a hybrid power system (HPS) to support a remote island with 100 thousand citizens. The goal is to reduce diesel fuel consumption by adequate expansion of wind power supply. Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is used in the HPS to buffer the impact of intermittent behavior of wind energy. A superstructure is proposed for HPS design, considering all possible capital decisions (e.g. the number of wind turbines) and hourly-basis operational variables (such as the amount of surplus electricity in storage and its discharge). The HPS design problem can then be formulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) based on the proposed superstructure. For a given total share of wind power, the optimal mix of diesel-based and wind power supplies as well as the required capacity of PHS are determined using a four-step optimization approach, involving minimizing (i) the consumption of diesel fuel, (ii) the number of wind turbines, (iii) the size of the upper water reservoir, and (iv) the charge/discharge rates of the PHS system. In this sequential optimization, the objective value obtained in a previous step is added as an additional constraint to the next step. The proposed HPS design model is applied to a real case study of the remote K Island on the other side of Taiwan Strait using hourly-basis, year-round historical data. Inclusion of other renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic cells and biomass-fired power plants, as well as economic perspectives will be considered in future work.

  5. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  6. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  7. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  8. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  9. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  10. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  11. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  12. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  13. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  14. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  15. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.

  16. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  17. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  19. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  20. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  1. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  2. Rule of Law and Human Rights Challenges in South East Asia: A Case Study of Legal Pluralism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saldi Isra; Ferdi Ferdi; Hilaire Tegnan

    2017-01-01

    It has been over 72 years since Indonesia proclaimed her independence on 17 August 1945. However, the 350 years of the Dutch colonization is still impacting the lives of the Indonesian people. The difficulties faced by the Indonesian legal system as the government tries to accommodate adat (custom) and religion principles within the national law and the extent to which this legal mechanism affects the everyday life of the Indonesian people. In a nation where customs and religion are so preemi...

  3. Traceability and change in legal requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.

    2010-01-01

    While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of

  4. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  5. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  6. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  7. International Legal Norms in Macedonia's Domestic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerton SINANI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, international treaties ratified in accordance with the Constitution are considered part of the internal legal order and cannot be changed by an act of Parliament. This solution confirms the principle that international treaties have more legal authority than all the other legal acts, with the exception of the Constitution. This article aims to give an insight on the constitutional provisions that regulate the position of international treaties in the Macedonian legal order. It identifies its advantages and shortcomings and offers some solutions that might be taken into account by the lawgiver in the future. The article also analyses the profound impact that the European Convention on Human Rights has exerted on the substantial nature of the catalogue of fundamental rights and freedoms prescribed in the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.

  8. [Legalization of drugs--pro and con].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović-Cengić, S

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status.

  9. Theorizing Mediation: Lessons Learned from Legal Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simon Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing interest in mediation in the Netherlands, as part of a set of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ methods. Politicians, lawyers and practitioners have embraced mediation as a legitimate method for settling disputes, alongside the adjudication of conflicts in courts of law. However, there is a striking lack of literature aimed at theorizing mediation from a legal perspective. This article argues that the legal anthropology literature on disputes and dispute settlement offers useful insights for understanding mediation from a ‘legal research’ point of view. This is because a lot of current common knowledge on mediation has its roots in a legal anthropological understanding. The argument that is set forth in this article is that the most important lesson that can be learned is that mediation should not be seen in isolation, but as part of a social process.

  10. Distro’: Independent Creativity for Independent Industr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sri Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To shortened this introduction, ‘Distro’ is one of cultural phenomenon in theyoung generation nowadays. The word of ‘Distro’ is the shortened of DistributionOutlet. The phenomenon of ‘Distro’ has been some kind of new trends inproducing and distributing creative design products of goods amongst theyoungsters independently, in an independence industry that open for challengingand competitiveness for everyone. This field research has been done in the city ofYogyakarta, reknown as the second city in creative design products after the cityof Bandung. Yogyakarta is welknown as the students’ city as well as the capital cityof culture of Indonesia. As a students’ city it is normal that Yogyakarta is growingin numbers of young people who pursued to study here and enriched the cultureof the city to become more multicultural and the varieties of pluralism as well.This sociocultural phenomenon not only brought some dynamic changing tosociety, economy and cultural life of the city, but also social problems that needsto be overcome. My first research question then is about how the existence of‘Distro’ in Yogyakarta can be a positive answer for social problems that may arisesfrom the hegemony of globalization markets domestically? My second questionis how the creative product designs are being made and distributed creatively inindependent industry? Lastly, my third question is dealling with the genres ofthe design products and how it can be a new trend in art expression? ‘Distro’ is aproduct of culture and it is also creating cultural change in some aspects of the lifeof the youngsters who are ‘Distro’ enthusiasts. ‘Distro’ phenomenon basically is anoffensive to the hegemony of internationally branded product design which turnsto become more over-dominated to the domestic markets and industry and thus,‘Distro’ has the spirit of survival whilts at the same time producing opportunity ofenterpreneurship

  11. Interprofessional Medical-Legal Education of Medical Students: Assessing the Benefits for Addressing Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettignano, Robert; Bliss, Lisa; McLaren, Susan; Caley, Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Screening tools exist to help identify patient issues related to social determinants of health (SDH), but solutions to many of these problems remain elusive to health care providers as they require legal solutions. Interprofessional medical-legal education is essential to optimizing health care delivery. In 2011, the authors implemented a four-session didactic interprofessional curriculum on medical-legal practice for third-year medical students at Morehouse School of Medicine. This program, also attended by law students, focused on interprofessional collaboration to address client/patient SDH issues and health-harming legal needs. In 2011-2014, the medical students participated in pre- and postintervention surveys designed to determine their awareness of SDH's impact on health as well as their attitudes toward screening for SDH issues and incorporating resources, including a legal resource, to address them. Mean ratings were compared between pre- and postintervention respondent cohorts using independent-sample t tests. Of the 222 medical students who participated in the program, 102 (46%) completed the preintervention survey and 100 (45%) completed the postintervention survey. Postintervention survey results indicated that students self-reported an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH issues and an increased likelihood to refer patients to a legal resource (P education into undergraduate medical education may result in an increased likelihood to screen patients for SDH and to refer patients with legal needs to a legal resource. In the future, an additional evaluation to assess the curriculum's long-term impact will be administered prior to graduation.

  12. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  13. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Atul

    2010-01-01

    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensati...

  14. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  15. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  16. The Legal Road To Replicating Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2004-01-01

    Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...

  17. A legal version of the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  18. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  19. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  20. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-01-01

    There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strateg...

  1. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  2. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  3. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  4. Legal Aspects In Stroke Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajmanouchehri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing the cases of complaint from therapeutic staff, referred to Legal Medicine decided to mention a few examples of these actions and by reviewing them, we want to do something even nothing to prevention. Three cases were given and discussed in this article. 1. Patient is a 68-year-old woman complaining of weakness of her left side and speech disturbance that started about 2 hours earlier, was admitted to hospital at 8 am. Patient with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke in progress is placed in antiplatelet therapy (Plavix 4 initial dose and one per day and an 80 mg aspirin per day and anti-Coagulation Heparin (initial dose of 6000 units and 1000 units per hour.Patient conflicts with loss of consciousness at 17:45. By doing CT, they have found a large hemorrhage in the right parietal Frontó with severe shift from midline, IVH, SAH. Currently, patient has movement disorders and several cerebral complications. 2. The patient took under angiography because of chest pain. Patient had an unpleasant feeling in organs at the time of angiography and the symptoms have been intensified in the afternoon of that day and conflicted with headache and blurred vision. The next day, he also afflicted with weakness of organs and at 8 am neurology consultation is requested, and according to a neurologist takes MRI. The patient was suffered from speech impairment and right hemiparesis. MRI indicates stroke. Two days later, intravenous heparin begins. The Patient discharged on 31/4/ … . 3. The patient hospitalized because of headache and weakness of right organs and with a presumptive diagnosis of stroke. Headache had progressive trend. There were not seen certain lesions on the initial CT. 5000 units of heparin with 1000 units of infusion in an hour starts with telephone orders at 8 am. The morning 1/8 /..., he afflicted with loss of consciousness, and transferred to the ICU. In morning experiment, patient’s platelet is reported low (47000.The patient

  5. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  6. The Reach of the Arbitration Agreement to Parties involved in the Same Legal Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vollbrecht Sperandio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex legal relationships may involve a net of companies, linked to each other by several autonomous contracts, performing works and services towards a single project. If disputes arise, resolving each of them independently may result in incompatible decisions, situation which could hinder the project outcome. Therefore, it might be recommended to resolve these disputes into multi-party proceedings or multiple proceedings before the same arbitral tribunal. In order to achieve the purpose, the proper legal instruments shall be identified and, based on these; a contractual framework has to be tailored.

  7. Legal status, role and competencies of the commissioner for protection of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Commissioner for Protection of Equality is an autonomous and independent state authority established on the basis of the Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (2009, as a central national institution for protection from and suppression of discrimination. The article analyses the legal profile and position of the institution within the legal system, the role and scope of its authority in preventing and reacting to discrimination. In addition, the Commissioner’s acting upon complaints has been considered, as well as so-called strategic litigation, its potentials, and the indicators used for identifying strategically important cases of discrimination, and the requirements for initiating strategic litigation.

  8. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  9. Independence of the judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana LLANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors which influence the independence of the judiciary. In a decision making process, judges, at any rate, must be able to act independently of any direct or indirect restriction, improper influence, inducement, pressure, threatening or obstacle. The law should provide explicit punishment measures against anyone who tries to impose any of the above means upon the judges. Any judge should possess the inviolable freedom of judging impartially, by his/her consciousness and interpretation, and pursuant to law. However, this is often impossible for judges are frequently put under various pressures that should be avoided. I have employed theoretical and practical methods for the purposes of this article. In conclusion, the research results have shown a heavy infringement of the independence of the judiciary in our country. There is a quite frequent tendency to influence the judges’ decisions. Common violations of law and judicial independence, to a large extent, remain unnoticed and unpunished. A considerable number of judges think that such tendencies have no significant influence on the management of justice.

  10. INDEPENDENT AND GROUP LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICKINSON, MARIE B.

    IN CONTRAST TO THE TRADITIONAL EMPHASES ON ROTE LEARNING AND FACT ACCUMULATION, RECENT TRENDS EMERGING FROM EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH STRESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING PROCESSES SUCH AS THE ABILITY TO REASON ABSTRACTLY AND TO SYNTHESIZE. CHILDREN WORKING INDEPENDENTLY OR IN GROUPS MOVE THROUGH A DISCOVERY LEARNING CURRICULUM IN WHICH THE TEACHER…

  11. Independent for longer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretien van Campen; Jurjen Iedema; Marjolein Broese van Groenou; Dorly Deeg

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Langer zelfstandig. The Dutch government's reform of long-term care is intended to reinforce the trend whereby older persons continue to live independently for longer and the need for admission to a care institution is avoided or delayed. Many Dutch citizens aged 65 years and

  12. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  13. Rate independent Kurzweil processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Liero, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 117-145 ISSN 0862-7940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Kurzweil integral * rate independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2009 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/140355/AplMat_54-2009-2_2.pdf

  14. Ten common mistakes to avoid as an independent consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, M L

    1997-01-01

    1. Enthusiasm, dedication, and hard work will not guarantee success as an independent consultant. 2. Careful market research, selecting a venture that promises clients and profit, should be the basis for deciding to start a consultant business, not just enthusiasm and emotional drive. 3. Business management practices of developing a business plan, careful price setting, and managing cash flow are essential for business survival. 4. Legal considerations, including the form of the business, contracts, and essential recordkeeping, must not be overlooked.

  15. The questionable legality and political wisdom of Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence: reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wet, E.

    2008-01-01

    Early in August 2008 violent clashes between Georgia and forces of its separatist province South Ossetia (receiving economic, political and military support from Russia), drew renewed attention to the fragile political stability throughout the Caucasus region. One of the questions that come to mind

  16. Polymorphism of NaVO2F2: a P2₁/c superstructure with pseudosymmetry of P2₁/m in the subcell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zi-Qun; Wang, Jing-Quan; Huang, Ya-Xi; Botis, Sanda M; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2015-06-01

    The ADDSYM routine in the program PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] has helped researchers to avoid structures of (metal-)organic compounds being reported in an unnecessarily low symmetry space group. However, determination of the correct space group may get more complicated in cases of pseudosymmetric inorganic compounds. One example is NaVO2F2, which was reported [Crosnier-Lopez et al. (1994). Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 31, 957-965] in the acentric space group P2₁ based on properties but flagged by ADDSYM as (pseudo)centrosymmetric P2₁/m within default distance tolerances. Herein a systematic investigation reveals that NaVO2F2 exists in at least four polymorphs: P2₁, (I), P2₁/m, (II), P2₁/c, (III), and one or more low-temperature ones. The new centrosymmetric modification, (III), with the space group P2₁/c has a similar atomic packing geometry to phase (I), except for having a doubled c axis. The double-cell of phase (III) arises from atomic shifts from the glide plane c at (x, ¼, z). With increasing temperature, the number of observed reflections decreases. The odd l reflections gradually become weaker and, correspondingly, all atoms shift towards the glide plane, resulting in a gradual second-order transformation of (III) into high-temperature phase (II) (P2₁/m) at below 493 K. At least one first-order enantiotropic phase transition was observed below 139 K from both the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Periodic first-principles calculations within density functional theory show that both P2₁/c superstructure (III) and P2₁ substructure (I) are more stable than P2₁/m structure (II), and that P2₁/c superstructure (III) is more stable that P2₁ substructure (I).

  17. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) superstructure with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Citakovic, Nada [Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Panjan, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stanojevic, Boban [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Dragana [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dorde [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Spasojevic, Vojislav [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas TEM shows {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M{sub r} = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T{sub M} = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface

  18. Denial of abortion in legal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-07-01

    Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Developing Legal Terminology in African Languages as Aid to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with legal language, the bridging of communication problems in a legal setting by especially court interpreters, and difficulties these legal linguists may experience in this endeavour. Some word-forming principles are discussed and examples are given of typical multilingual coinages in the legal profession.

  20. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...

  1. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal adoption...

  2. Legal Personality as a Fundamental Concept of International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Nijman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Legal personality is generally understood as the capability to be - in traditional anthropomorphic terms - ‘the bearer of legal rights and obligations’. Legal personality is a structuring tool in legal systems, not least that of international law, as it indicates who are the participants. This paper

  3. Building the South African Nation through Legal Deposit: The Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal deposit of and preservation of digital materials depends on the proper legislative framework and implementation of the Legal Deposit Act. This article examines the challenges related to legal instruments affecting the legal deposit of digital materials in South Africa. Two main objectives of the study upon which this ...

  4. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other person...

  5. Legal Nature and Functions of Referendum in Constitutional Law Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Petr A.; Sangadzhiev, Badma.V.; Velibekov, Murad C.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study of the legal nature and functions of the referendum is conditioned by the increasing dynamics of development of direct democracy in the developed countries and the needs to legalize it in constitutional and legal norms to ensure stability in society. The purpose of this paper is to define the legal nature of the…

  6. The Enigmatic but Unique Nature of the Israeli Legal System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this respect, Israel may have contributed much to the reinvigoration of the modern comparative law agenda, and it may continue to do so in the future, as the system is not one of legal stasis (a mixed system) but one of legal kinesis (a mixing system). Keywords: Israeli legal system, Israeli Supreme Court, legal systemics, ...

  7. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  8. Legal ethics, rules of conduct and the moral compass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legal ethics training in law faculties the world over often neglects teaching aspects of morality to focus on reviews of rules of professional legal conduct. This article argues that if legal education is to adequately prepare law graduates for legal practice, it must offer more than reviews of these codes of conduct. To properly ...

  9. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  10. 42 CFR 57.1511 - Opinion of legal counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indebtedness to the lender, stating that the credit and security instruments executed by the applicant are duly... memorandum or opinion of legal counsel with respect to the legality of any proposed note issue, the legal authority of the applicant to issue the note and secure it by the proposed collateral, and the legality of...

  11. 5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A person using this part shall serve interrogatories and legal process on the agent to receive process as...

  12. Judicial Capacity in a Transforming Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Corder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the perennial problem of lack of access to justice; the fact that there was no shortage of superior court judges until 1994; the demands on court process which flow directly from transition to the constitutional democratic system; and the urgent and justified necessity for the demographic transformation of judicial personnel, two challenges to the capacity of the judicial system present themselves in South Africa: Enlarging the number of suitable candidates for judicial appointment to redress the former demographic imbalance; and developing the kind of skills among those appointed as judges to be able to respond with confidence across a wide range of often complex legal issues; and developing a theory of judicial deference which observes the separation of powers and preserves judicial independence. This paper explores these challenges, after setting out the socio-political context, as it impacts directly on their nature and scope, and the prospects of meeting them.Debido al constante problema de la falta de acceso a la justicia, al hecho de que no hubo escasez de jueces de tribunales superiores hasta 1994, las demandas del proceso judicial que surgen directamente de la transición al sistema democrático constitucional, y la necesidad urgente y justificada de la transformación demográfica del personal judicial, el rendimiento judicial en Sudáfrica se encuentra con dos desafíos: Aumentar el número de candidatos aptos al nombramiento judicial para compensar el anterior desequilibrio demográfico y desarrollar en los jueces nombrados aquellas habilidades que les permitan responder con confianza a asuntos jurídicos a menudo complejos; y desarrollar una teoría de deferencia judicial que respete la separación de poderes y preserve la independencia judicial. Este artículo explora estos desafíos tras explicar el contexto sociopolítico, ya que éste afecta directamente a su naturaleza y alcance, y las probabilidades de que se superen

  13. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization.......In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  14. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  15. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  16. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  17. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  18. Indonesian legal framework to support innovation sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    The successful economy in a country can be measured by the number of commercializing intellectual property rights (IPR). To pursue IPR growth, triple helix component becomes a backbone to weave academia, business and government to collaborate with each other. Generally, collaborations move from their common interest, but within triple helix the collaboration can be run structurally and sustain. Depart from the arguments; the question arises: How is the condition of Indonesia Innovation System? Through legal approach, this paper will explain current legal condition and legal structure of the Indonesian innovation system. The reason to review the law is to relate with the government’s target to create 1000 digital start-ups alike as in Silicon Valley level size. Therefore, legal framework review becomes useful to explain the condition of the law as a supporting system. In this sense, the legal prescription can be generated to confirm Indonesian laws, whether supported the national innovation system or conversely. Within law perspective, Indonesian government categorizes the innovative industry as a creative industry. However, there is still no resolute concept to follow. Therefore, some of law adjustment is needed to support the government’s plan to pursue commercialized innovation.

  19. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  20. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  1. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  4. TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cuiling; Yang, Renchi; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Bin; Liang, Lu; Lu, Min

    2008-03-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis is a continuous developmental process of platelet production. In this process, a complex network of hemopoietic growth factors are involved, among which TPO (thrombopoietin) is the most thoroughly investigated regulator of MKs (megakaryocytes). In addition to TPO, other regulators also have non-negligible effects on megakaryocytopoiesis. The majority of their effects are independent of TPO signaling. To date, TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis forms a regulatory system that includes four signals and (an) unknown signaling pathway(s). These four pathways are the gp 130 (glycoprotein 130)-dependent signaling pathway, the Notch pathway, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor-mediated signaling, and the SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1)/FGF-4 (fibroblast growth factor-4) paradigm. Understanding of the TPO-independent regulatory system is important because the system may offer additional opportunities to understand the developmental process and the mechanisms of disorders characterized by abnormal MK and platelet production, such as thrombocytopenia and thrombocythemia, and to advance the development of therapeutics.

  5. Abstract legal effect of juridical acts in European and Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author gives an overview of the development from abstract to causal juridical acts and explains the abstract legal effect of juridical acts in present-day European civil law (in the law of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France. He concludes that in contemporary law juridical acts cannot have full abstract legal effect, as in archaic legal orders, because modern legal orders do not allow the creation of claims and debts in a way that entirely excludes the possibility to scrutinize whether a juridical act is null and void for the infringement of public order by its aim. In relation to the law of Serbia, the author refers to the difference between juridical acts that create obligations, that is claims and debts, and acts by which the parties merely dispose of the claims and debts already imposed. This division of juridical acts has its origins in the German legal culture, but it is fairly applicable to the Serbian law, as well. The author points out that the requirement of the Law on obligations, that all juridical acts must have a valid cause, applies without exception to juridical acts imposing an obligation (the so-called Verpflichtungsgeschäfte, regardless of whether they are concluded in the form of an abstract of causal act, i.e. whether the purpose of the transaction is determinable from their content. In this context he refers to the standpoint adopted in the doctrine that the cause of juridical acts gains relevance by three means: by the agreement of the parties, objection of the respondent and when the court determines ex officio whether the contract is contrary to public order. The author supports the point of view that in Serbian law juridical acts aimed merely to disposing of claims and debts already imposed (the so-called Verfügungsgeschäfte may have a legal effect, which is independent from their cause. For these reasons, the author is of the opinion that in present-day legal orders, hence in Serbian law too

  6. €œLegal Boundaries of Online Advertising"

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkaynak, Gönenç; Yılmaz, İlay; Yeşilaltay, Burak

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the legal framework of online advertising and common legal issues pertaining thereto. This paper also addresses the implementation of general legal provisions to online advertising issues in different jurisdictions and the diversity of approaches. It provides the legal boundaries that are specifically applicable to online advertising. The paper then provides a legal analysis on online advertising with a focus on Turkish laws and practice. In the conclusion, there a...

  7. Transnational Legal Education : A Comparative Study of Japan and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Legal education is transnationalizing. The legal classroom is globalizing, in that a university's classroom is not defined by walls but is now mobile through technology and international university affiliations. The legal classroom itself is globalized, composed of local and international students. To meet the demands of a global economy and the subsequent globalization of the legal profession, law faculties have been required to transnationalize their legal education, teaching a mix of domes...

  8. THE LEGAL ARRANGEMENT OF WAGE PROTECTION BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGAL CERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetniwati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wage protection in Indonesian positive law is still not provide legal certainty for the weaker party in the aspect of social economic. In every anniversary of May Day, labor union always demanded to abolish the wage cost, which the Government Regulation No. 78 Year 2015 leanihg to the interests of investors. The principle of legal certainty in the norm of wage protection needs to be realized with respect to: the concept of wage protection, lack of certainty purpose of law, established by the competent authorities, accepted by society, legal materials in accordance with the legal hierarchy, the company's obligation to make books wages, and avoid multiple interpretations in legal norms.

  9. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ Composite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lazenka, Vera; Schwinkendorf, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; Van Bael, Margriet J; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Oeckler, Oliver; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-13

    Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient α ME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient α ME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe) at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of α ME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO₃-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  10. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO3-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  11. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lazenka, Vera; Schwinkendorf, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; Van Bael, Margriet J.; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Oeckler, Oliver; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe) at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO3-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites. PMID:28787843

  12. On the crystal structure of Cr2N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. III. Neutron diffraction study on the ordered Cr2N superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sung-Joon; Shin, Eunjoo; Takaki, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    The ordered structure of Cr(2)N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic steel was investigated utilizing high-resolution neutron powder diffractometry (HRPD). On the basis of the Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction patterns, the ordered Cr2N superstructure was confirmed to be trigonal (space group P31m), with lattice parameters a=4.800 (4) and c=4.472 (5) A, as suggested in previous transmission electron microscopy studies [Lee, Oh, Han, Lee, Kim & Takaki (2005). Acta Cryst. B61, 137-144; Lee, Kim & Takaki (2006). Acta Cryst. B62, 190-196]. The occupancies of the N atoms in four crystallographic sites [1(a), 1(b), 2(d) and 2(c) Wyckoff sites] were determined to be 1.00 (5), 0.0, 0.74 (9) and 0.12 (3), respectively, reflecting a partial disordering of N atoms along the c axis. The position of the metal atom was specified to be x=0.346 (8) and z=0.244 (6), corresponding to a deviation from the ideal position (x=0.333 and z=0.250). This deviation caused the ((1/3 1/3)(0))-type superlattice reflection to appear. A comparison between the ideal and measured crystal structures of Cr2N was performed using a computer simulation of selected-area diffraction patterns.

  13. Genetic-Algorithm Discovery of a Direct-Gap and Optically Allowed Superstructure from Indirect-Gap Si and Ge Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Avezac, M.; Luo, J. W.; Chanier, T.; Zunger, A.

    2012-01-13

    Combining two indirect-gap materials - with different electronic and optical gaps - to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Si{sub n}/Ge{sub m}/.../Si{sub p}/Ge{sub q} superstructures grown on (001) Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}. The search reveals a robust configurational motif - SiGe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}SiGe{sub n} on (001) Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} substrate (x {le} 0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced {Gamma}-X coupling at the band edges.

  14. Nuclear terrorism and legal protection of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad-zada, Z.; Aliev, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: For the last years the terrorism has significantly changed. If 20-30 years ago terrorists would kidnap famous politicians or hijack planes, but at this stage they switched to massive destruction of innocent people. Now the problem of struggle against nuclear terrorism becomes very actual problem. The nuclear terrorism is meant as an opportunity of accomplishment of act of terrorism with use of the nuclear weapon, or accomplishment of explosions on atomic power stations and other objects of an atomic energy. Threats to nuclear objects become more and more often and appreciable. In the world there were some similar cases of threat to nuclear objects from the part of terrorists, and also cases of use by terrorists of nuclear, chemical and bacteriological substances. These cases testify to real threat of use by terrorists of the weapon of mass destruction. It is natural, that accomplishment of acts of terrorism on these objects can lead to ecological catastrophe and can put an irreparable loss to an environment and process of social development. Up to the middle of sixtieth years of twentieth century protection of an environment was not put forward as an independent political problem, and its scientific substantiation has not been developed enough as a diversified, complex, global problem. Only dynamical development in seventieth - eightieth years of scientific bases of global problems has allowed to allocate the rules of law concerning to protection of an environment, into special group. International legal protection of ecology was precisely allocated now in system of the general international law as independent, specific sphere of regulation. The principle of inadmissibility of radioactive pollution of environment covers both military, and peace area of use of nuclear power. Formation and the statement of this special principle of International law of the Environment takes place in two ways - contractual and usual, with observance by the states of

  15. Controlling superstructural ordering in the clathrate-I Ba 8 M 16 P 30 (M = Cu, Zn) through the formation of metal–metal bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolyniuk, J.; Whitfield, P. S.; Lee, K.; Lebedev, O. I.; Kovnir, K.

    2017-01-01

    Order–disorder–order phase transitions in the clathrate-I Ba8Cu16P30 were induced and controlled by aliovalent substitutions of Zn into the framework. Unaltered Ba8Cu16P30 crystallizes in an ordered orthorhombic (Pbcn) clathrate-I superstructure that maintains complete segregation of metal and phosphorus atoms over 23 different crystallographic positions in the clathrate framework. The driving force for the formation of this Pbcn superstructure is the avoidance of Cu–Cu bonds. This superstructure is preserved upon aliovalent substitution of Zn for Cu in Ba8Cu16-xZnxP30 with 0 < x < 1.6 (10% Zn/Mtotal), but vanishes at greater substitution concentrations. Higher Zn concentrations (up to 35% Zn/Mtotal) resulted in the additional substitution of Zn for P in Ba8M16+yP30-y (M = Cu, Zn) with 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. This causes the formation of Cu–Zn bonds in the framework, leading to a collapse of the orthorhombic superstructure into the more common cubic subcell of clathrate-I (Pm[3 with combining macron]n). In the resulting cubic phases, each clathrate framework position is jointly occupied by three different elements: Cu, Zn, and P. Detailed structural characterization of the Ba–Cu–Zn–P clathrates-I via single crystal X-ray diffraction, joint synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffractions, pair distribution function analysis, electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy, along with elemental analysis, indicates that local ordering is present in the cubic clathrate framework, suggesting the evolution of Cu–Zn bonds. For the compounds with the highest Zn content, a disorder–order transformation is detected due to the formation of another superstructure with trigonal symmetry and Cu–Zn bonds in the clathrate-I framework. It is shown that small changes in the composition, synthesis, and crystal structure have significant impacts on the structural and transport properties of Zn-substituted Ba8Cu16P30.

  16. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  18. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  19. Legal procedures regarding state budget expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government spending and the procedures for making them can be examined on the basis of many of public regulations, which are the legal grounds for these expenditure. The procedures of government spending can be studied in the field of personal expenditure of the state budget (including salaries, pensions and social benefits. Appropriate procedures are related to expenditure for purchases of goods and services and for making of public investments (e.g. public roads and buildings. An extensive area of expenditure is in the form of grants. There are special legal ways for transferring the budget grants to different legal organizations and entities. The state expenditure are fixed in the Budget Act. The implementation of the budgetary expenditure needs to take up, by state authorities and agencies, thousands of individual and concrete actions (e.g. the contracts, administrative decisions, other activities. That is, in the Budget Act fixed expenditure have, in principle, normative act features.

  20. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    1995-01-01

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  1. Ethical or legal perceptions by dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T K; Lange, B; Bower, C F; Purtilo, R B

    1988-03-01

    Perplexing ethical and legal concerns cross health professions and reach into many professions and vocations. Confidentiality is crucial not only to the health professional and the patient, but also to the lawyer and client, and the investigative reporter and the source. Reporting poor work or whistleblowing is a dilemma not only for dentists and other health care professionals, but also for the engineer, architect, and federal employee, among others. This survey of the ethical or legal perceptions of the dental practitioner supports two conclusions: perplexing situations are perceived as predominantly ethical rather than legal problems and the factor of age (number of years in practice) might affect this trend toward the ethical consideration of complicated issues. Understanding the nature of these and other perplexing situations requires that dental practitioners step beyond the confines of their practice and the boundaries of the dental profession to search for more effective ways of dealing with, and therefore living with, the realities of their practice.

  2. About Some Aspects of License Contracts Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Sviridova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years subjects of a civil turn estimated possibilities of use of the intellectual rights for results of intellectual activity and means of an individualization equated to them in business activity and began "to commercialize" intellectual property actively. In the present article the author investigates some aspects of legal regulation of license contracts. In the conclusion the author notes that, rules of law of intellectual property are independent, the rules regulating contracts on alienation of an exclusive right and license contracts are taken out for the part framework the second Civil Code of the Russian Federation regulating questions of the contract of donation and therefore is inadmissible to apply as analogy of the law to the contract on gratuitous alienation of an exclusive right and the license contract of norm on the contract of donation.

  3. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  4. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  5. Legal scenario in burn care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Atul Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen's compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  6. Legal scenario in burn care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Atul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensation act, Persons with disabilities act and guidelines for calculation of physical impairments are listed.

  7. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  8. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian

  9. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...... in terms of - standards of selection, training and asessments of legal interpreters & translators - standards of ethics, code of conduct and good practice - interdisciplinary working arrangements with the legal services. With this paper, the authors aim to share the outcomes of their work....

  10. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Legal and regulatory framework of Uranium's enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antelo, Josefina; Figueredo, Micaela S.; Mangone, Gisela P.; Manin, Maria L.; Pota, Luciana F.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop the legal aspects referred to the activities of uranium's enrichment, in order to achieve the pacific use of nuclear energy and to obey treatments, agreements and international conventions in which Argentine is party and through them assumes the non proliferation's commitment. In this context, we will develop the rights and obligations established in those legal instruments, as well as the juridical concerns of the eventual subscription of Argentine to the Additional Protocol approved by the Board of Governors in 1997. (author)

  12. Model-independent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is well-known for text files, but for models it is a very young field - especially patches for models are still matter of research. Text-based and model-based diffs have different starting points because the semantics of their structure...... is fundamentally different. This paper reports on our ongoing work on model-independent diffs, i.e. a diff that does not directly refer to the models it was created from. Based on that, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic diffs are merged to a new, generalized diff. One use...

  13. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is wellknown for text files, but for models it is a very young field. Text-based and model-based diffs have different goals and different starting points, because the semantics of their structure is fundamentally different. Text files...... it was created from. We present concepts for model-independent diffs, how it can be created and used. In the end, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic differences are merged to a new, generalized diff – similar to a patch for text files. The advantage of such a generalized...

  14. Means to improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence: An empirical legal study on legislation and legal offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marotta, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how recent legal reforms and the creation of legal offices in Argentina may improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence. The paper looks into the way the judicial system developed to provide suitable options for victims of

  15. Changing roles of legal : on the impact of innovations on the role of legal professionals and legal departments in contracting practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Legal departments play a pivotal role in the quality of contracts and contracting processes within an organization. This article reflects on current developments and innovations in contracting practice and their impact on the role of legal professionals and legal departments within organizations.

  16. Independent task Fourier filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  17. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  18. Beyond Species: The Quest for an Adequate Legal Concept for Animals in Brazilian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Nasser Cury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of the proper legal treatment of animals. To this end, we debunked the importance of the criterion of species for justifying the distinction between humans and animals. Then, we also sought to analyse the main ethical theories that overcome speciesism and its legal repercussions. We then discussed three theories, which are animal abolitionism, Kantian approach to animal rights and the utilitarian view. We addressed the differences between abolitionists, Kantian, and utilitarian bias regarding legal consideration of animals. Finally, we presented an alternative criterion to the current proposals regarding animal rights, which aims to overcome the dichotomy between things and persons on Law.

  19. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  20. 7. Emerging Applications and Some legal Issues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Electronic Commerce - Emerging Applications and Some Legal Issues. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 22-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: