WorldWideScience

Sample records for legal research guide

  1. Good research guide, second edition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This guide informs CSIR staff about the standards that they are expected to meet when doing research. Researchers who follow this guide will have satisfied the legal requirement for 'due diligence' in their work....

  2. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  3. Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Health Research: Enlisting Legal Theory as a Methodological Guide in an Interdisciplinary Case Study of Mental Health and Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we assess whether a legal theory, known as therapeutic jurisprudence, functions as a useful methodological theory. Therapeutic jurisprudence, recruited across discipline boundaries, succeeds in guiding our qualitative inquiry at the complex intersection of mental health care and criminal law by providing a framework foundation for directing the study's research questions and the related propositions that focus our analysis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  5. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...

  6. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  7. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...

  8. Service level agreements a legal and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    By reading this a short, legal and practical guide to SLAs, you should be able to quickly come up to speed with some of the legal and practical issues that might arise. Negotiating the SLA and putting the SLA into action are also discussed in the pocket guide. Whilst short and easy to digest, case references and weblinks have been provided in the text so readers can find out more information about SLAs.  

  9. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    However, its application in legal research could pose specific challenges to researchers and could impact on crucial aspects of .... electronic media channels. Rather, they emphasise that legal research ..... to the changing information environment and to exercise control over the digital tools and resources. This involves ...

  10. On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth

    In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research

  11. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  12. ELSA for Children Legal Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    for Children’. Throughout 2012, 250 students from 23 countries carried out research on the implementation of European and international instruments protecting children against violence and sexual abuse. The project resulted in a final report compiling national data on the different definitions and legal...

  13. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  14. Are AustLII and Google Enough for Legal Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2006-01-01

    For the past ten years law students, academics and legal practitioners have relied on AustLII and various internet search engines to conduct legal research. The purpose of this article is to examine what these can offer and to note the importance of other websites when conducting legal research. This article is based on an address given to the…

  15. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.

  16. The legal ethics of pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Doriane Lambelet

    2007-12-01

    Since the mid- to late 1990s, the scientific and medical research community has sought to increase its access to healthy children for research protocols that involve harm or a risk of harm. This move reverses longstanding policy within that community generally to exclude healthy children from such protocols on the grounds that the research as to them is non-therapeutic, that they are particularly vulnerable to research-related abuses, and that they are unable themselves to give informed consent to their participation. The research community's new posture has been supported by prominent pediatric bioethicists who have argued that unless healthy children are included as research subjects in harmful or risky research, the pediatric population will continue to suffer relative to the adult population in the extent to which it benefits from modern advances in science and medicine. In their view, it is possible for the research community to self-administer a rule that strikes a balance between protecting healthy children from research-related abuses and allowing their inclusion in cutting-edge pediatric research. In this scheme, parental consent is central to the research community's claims about child protection. This Article explores the flaws inherent in this ethics of pediatric research. Specifically, it challenges the view from ethics that the law permits parents to consent to their children's inclusion in harmful or risky research to the extent that related invasions would meet legal maltreatment standards. More broadly, it challenges the movement to increase access to healthy children for harmful and risky research on the ground that it risks two important regressions: First, in its willingness to risk harm to individual children in the interests of the group, it threatens the progress the law has made in its development of the concept of the child as an individual worthy of respect in his or her own right, a concept that imagines parents as fiduciaries and that

  17. Making the Case for Case Studies in Empirical Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.

    2017-01-01

    This is a contribution to the scholarly discussion concerning the limited use of the case study qualitative method in support of legal research. It demonstrates the use of the case study qualitative method in the context of an empirical legal research project, which examines stakeholder

  18. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent

  19. Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on ... This involves providing strategic and tactical advice to, and working as an integral member of, IDRC negotiating teams on particular transactions towards:.

  20. Legal research using digitised historic newspapers.

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the Australian Newspapers service. It contains over 20 million digitised historic newspapers. The service is now being integrated with Trove. Librarians on the panel describe how they have used the information to solve legal cases. Most of these involve family names and history including ownership of property.

  1. Overseas Research. A Practical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Cason, Jeffrey W.

    This guide is intended to give practical advice that prepares graduate student researchers for the realities and challenges of living and working abroad, with a particular focus on that area of research experience that is between participation and observation. Drawing on the experiences of 150 scholars, funded over a 6-year period by the MacArthur…

  2. Civil Law Legal Assistance; Lawyer’s Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    marital or cohabitation domicile. Sexual relations leading to conception. Maintenance of matrimonial domicile within the state. Possible "in rem...satisfied, superseded, materially amended or set aside. The member may raise that there is a legal impediment to the establishment of an involuntary

  3. Intimate partner violence: A helpful guide to legal and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a combined health and social sector system response to intimate partner violence, this article provides health professionals with insight into domestic violence and current legal and psychosocial support services. It focuses on how to support and advise abused women about practicalities of obtaining protection orders and ...

  4. American Legal Realism: Research Programme and Policy Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s  work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th century in helping to develop and implement the New Deal policy vis-à-vis its scientific work?After outlining some characteristics of American Legal Realism and Lakatos’s concept, the author studies LR from this perspective and concludes that LR can at the maximum be seen as a research programme of a very rudimentary nature with largely only a focus on procedures/methods. Despite this conclusion, LR has been important in stimulating questions in which social science research and law came together. Next, the professor-realist-relationship that helped President Roosevelt to have his New Deal developed and implemented is also discussed. A downside of this ‘professor-realist-advisor-partnership’ may have been that a LR scientific research programme has not been developed. Given the increased visibility of New Legal Realism, the paper finally stresses the relevance of working with scientific research programmes and the importance of being on the alert when linking research to (legal policies.

  5. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  6. IT in legal practice : research in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wees, Leo; Huysman, Marleen

    1994-01-01

    A research project initiated by the Centre for Computers and Law of the Erasmus University Rotterdam will examine the application of information technology (IT) to law firms. The project stresses the specific organizational aspects that need to be taken into account when dealing with the

  7. Legal framework for e-research : realising the potential

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Legal Framework for e-Research: Realising the Potential provides an overview of key legal issues facing e-Research. Part One of this book considers the broader prospect and context of what e-Research will allow. Part Two looks more closely at the role law will play in the e-Research environment. Part Three focuses on the key issues of data exchange and data management highlighting important legal issues. Part Four reflects on the changing nature of Scholarly Communications while Part Five looks at the fundamental role of agreements for collaborative endeavour (contracts) in structuring collaboration and calls for greater consideration of way we can streamline the process. Part Six examines the role and operation of privacy law in an e-Research world while Part Seven posits a new approach to commercialisation that embraces the paradigm of open innovation. Part Eight looks at the international legal implications for e-Research and Part Nine considers the national survey we undertook on e-Research, collaborative...

  8. Research Notes -- Openness and Evolvability -- Legal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group *Innovation Science DST-Group-TN-1543 ABSTRACT These Research Notes form...Innovation Science under contract to Defence Science and Technology Group during the period from the late 1990s until early 2007. In entirety the...within well-bounded capability granules, offers the acquisition organisation the opportunity to best direct funding to licence or acquire only the

  9. Empirical Scientific Research and Legal Studies Research--A Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…

  10. John Milton: A Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, for sources of criticism for the study of 17th-century British author John Milton. The guide is intended to help readers find critical and biographical information on Milton. It explains important reference sources in the…

  11. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  12. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  13. Researchers and experts faced with legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.; Pirard, P.; Hubert, P.

    1998-01-01

    In France, radon has emerged as a public health issue mainly at the initiative of scientists. Public authorities are currently considering regulations but for a long time scientists faced the radon issue alone. As a consequence, scientists were involved and are still involved in producing knowledge, in informing about their results, in giving advice to various bodies and individuals, and in participating in the process of technical standardization. These functions are identified in the paper in order to sketch out a typology of different situations, formal and informal, in which researchers transformed into experts are called to collaborate. During their missions related to radon, experts are exposed to 'legal risks', particularly in terms of civil liability or 'professional' responsibility and even criminal responsibility. They face legal difficulties because their roles are not clearly defined. Such difficulties will be also described in this paper, because they are symptomatic of the lack of a legal framework for public scientific expertise. Indeed, there is a growing need to involve scientific experts in decision-making in the field of public health. At the same time, however, there is increased protest against the technocratic nature of public decision-making. We observe an increase in the attribution of blame and penal responsibility in French society, as shown in the 'contaminated blood' case in which not only blood suppliers but also public officials and now politicians have been or are being prosecuted. Radon, which is a domestic risk whose reduction relies entirely on homeowners, is sui generis in many ways. Nevertheless, in an analysis of scientists' roles/actions and of the legal difficulties they meet, radon can be used to illustrate the problems that arise as expertise is developed about new risks. (authors)

  14. Legal Rights of Asbestos Exposure Victims. A Practical Legal Guide for People With Breathing and Other Medical Problems, Possibly Resulting from Exposure to Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberfeld, Roman M.; Hecht, Richard L.

    This practical legal guide for people with breathing and other medical problems, possibly resulting from exposure to asbestos, provides 19 questions and detailed answers about Asbestosis and other diseases resulting from asbestos exposure. Included is information concerning symptoms, difficulty of diagnosis, necessity of a detailed…

  15. Placebo use in research with commercial purposes: legal restrictions in the light of the Brazilian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVABEM, Fernanda Schaefer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ethical discussions about the use of placebo in research with humans. These discussions often occur from a bioethical standpoint, particularly in the light of the bioethical principles of autonomy, justice and equity. However, and without disregarding the impor-tance of these discussions, the legal aspect should also be considered, particularly concerning medical research with commercial purposes. This article, from a literature interdisciplinary review, aims to discuss, in the light of the Brazilian legal system, how research using placebo and financed by laboratories and pharmaceutical companies should be tackled and how to assess the liability arising from this research in case of damage caused to the participants.

  16. LEGAL PROTECTION VERSUS LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS (The changing Perspective in Law and Society Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Helmy Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important role of historical, cultural, social, and attitudinal aspects in the study of law, there has been a shift from instrumental law to constitutive law. While instrumental law considers law beyond the social and cultural spheres, constitutive law integrally embraces law, politics, ideology, and action. Legal consciousness is an important asset for marginalised people who are at high risk of discriminative treatments in occupational and social life. Not only will they are legally aware of their rights and obligations at works, they will have adequate knowledge of where and how to name, blame, and claim in case mistreatment do occur. Legally proficient will allow them build legal protection which is not adequately provided by the authorized bodies.

  17. Research study for an entrepreneurship practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, João

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a research study, which is aimed to be published later, in the form of a practical guide for those who have an idea and plan to go one step forward on the creation of a brand and/or a business. The main questions addressed are regarding the main concerns of an entrepreneur, identifiying the main topics that an entrepreneur's practical guide must approach. This work aims to provide relevant and important insights for those who want to start a business, taking i...

  18. Penitentiary crime as an object of legal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp

  19. Guide to Academic Research Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Neely, J; Smith, Richard J; Graboyes, Evan M; Paniello, Randal C; Paul Gubbels, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Development of an academic career easily follows a clinical course for which there are multiple role models; however, development of an academic research career involves few role models, and rarely do instructional guides reach out to the new faculty. The purpose of this article is to present the cumulative experiences of previously and currently funded authors to serve as a guide to young as well as older faculty for developing their research careers. Cumulative experiences of research-dedicated faculty. This article is the result of lessons learned from developing a Triological Society National Physician-Scientist Program and Network, as well as the cumulative experiences of the authors. Table I illustrates key elements in developing a serious research career. Table II records the career courses of five surgeon-scientists, highlighting the continued theme focus with theme-specific publications and progressive grants. These cumulative experiences have face validity but have not been objectively tested. The value added is a composite of 50 years of experiences from authors committed to research career development for themselves and others. Crucial elements in developing a research career are a desire for and commitment to high-quality research, a focus on an overall theme of progressive hypothesis-driven investigations, research guidance, a willingness to spend the time required, and an ability to learn from and withstand failure. 5.

  20. Commissioning of research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on meeting the requirements for the commissioning of research reactors on the basis of international best practices. Specifically, it provides recommendations on fulfilling the requirements established in paras 6.44 and 7.42-7.50 of International Atomic Energy Agency, Safety of Research Reactors, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-4, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and guidance and specific and consequential recommendations relating to the recommendations presented in paras 615-621 of International Atomic Energy Agency, Safety in the Utilization and Modification of Research Reactors, Safety Series No. 35-G2, IAEA, Vienna (1994) and paras 228-229 of International Atomic Energy Agency, Safety Assessment of Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report, Safety Series No. 35-G1, IAEA, Vienna (1994). This Safety Guide is intended for use by all organizations involved in commissioning for a research reactor, including the operating organization, the regulatory body and other organizations involved in the research reactor project

  1. The ethical and legal regulation of HIV-vaccine research in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical and legal frameworks are important for ensuring that the goals of scientific research are realised while at the same time the rights and welfare of human participants are adequately protected. A balance in attaining these two goals can be achieved if such frameworks provide for legally binding structures and ...

  2. Research with Pregnant Women: New Insights on Legal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Anna C; Henry, Leslie Meltzer; Robinson, David; Bailey, Theodore; Faden, Ruth R; Little, Margaret O; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2017-05-01

    U.S. researchers and scholars often point to two legal factors as significant obstacles to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research: the Department of Health and Human Services' regulatory limitations specific to pregnant women's research participation and the fear of liability for potential harm to children born following a pregnant woman's research participation. This article offers a more nuanced view of the potential legal complexities that can impede research with pregnant women than has previously been reflected in the literature. It reveals new insights into the role of legal professionals throughout the research pathway, from product conception to market, and it highlights a variety of legal factors influencing decision-making that may slow or halt research involving pregnant women. Our conclusion is that closing the evidence gap created by the underrepresentation and exclusion of pregnant women in research will require targeted attention to the role of legal professionals and the legal factors that influence their decisions. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. Untested assumptions: psychological research and credibility assessment in legal decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Herlihy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma survivors often have to negotiate legal systems such as refugee status determination or the criminal justice system. Methods & results: We outline and discuss the contribution which research on trauma and related psychological processes can make to two particular areas of law where complex and difficult legal decisions must be made: in claims for refugee and humanitarian protection, and in reporting and prosecuting sexual assault in the criminal justice system. Conclusion: There is a breadth of psychological knowledge that, if correctly applied, would limit the inappropriate reliance on assumptions and myth in legal decision-making in these settings. Specific recommendations are made for further study.

  4. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  5. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  6. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... up or have access to a REC. This section must be read in concert with the NHREC guidelines, which set obligations for obtaining ethical approval.[7]. This means that the legislature intended all forms of health research to: (i) fall within national research priorities if being conducted by the public sector or ...

  7. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of ...

  8. A guide to medico-legal photography for personal injury claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, D

    1994-01-01

    Clinical photographs are in essence medico-legal records but when instructions are given to take photographs for litigation the requirement is for a more specialized approach than when producing a clinical record for the notes. There are special considerations when providing a medico-legal photographic service, from clients' instructions, preparations before photography, and the photography itself to presenting the photographs and handling the administration. As photographs are taken in support of claims for compensation for personal injury many of them can have far greater impact, financially and psychologically, on the client than clinical photographs. Inadequate coverage could be construed as professional negligence.

  9. MARKETING RESEARCH OF SECTORS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL SERVICES’ MARKET OF CHERNIVTSI REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Olex KHOKHULIAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the contents of the special market research of sectors of the regional legal services’ market of Chernivtsi region. Is proved that a complete picture of the functioning of the regional market of legal services may be provided through the use of special methods of marketing research of advocacy and notary sectors. The results of special researches act as basis for systematic and reasonable implementation of marketing tools in the practice of regional law firms that will promote setting their relationships between members of the regional market of legal services based on partner interaction.// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  10. Individual Autonomy, Law, and Technology: Should Soft Determinism Guide Legal Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockfield, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    How one thinks about the relationship between individual autonomy (sometimes referred to as individual willpower or human agency) and technology can influence the way legal thinkers develop policy at the intersection of law and technology. Perspectives that fall toward the "machines control us" end of the spectrum may support more interventionist…

  11. The no-nonsense guide to legal issues in web 2.0 and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Oppenheim, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Offers an advice on getting the most out of web 2.0 and cloud computing. This book features practical working tool that makes the relevant legal principles simple to understand for those with little or no experience and common problems quick to solve when you're struggling with daily deadlines.

  12. Legal aspects of open access to publicly funded research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Margoni, T.

    2015-01-01

    Internet growth, content digitisation, and expanding "big data" and data analytics capabilities have affected the ways in which publicly funded research results are accessed, disseminated and used. While these technological advances have made sharing and processing information easier, that does not

  13. Student Use of Library Research Guides Following Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi Mahaffy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Librarians often provide students who attend one-shot library instruction sessions with research guides they can refer to once class is over. These guides, whether in paper or electronic form, serve to remind the students of key points and resources addressed during the session. It is unclear, though, if and how students refer to these guides once leaving the classroom. This article reports on the results of two focus groups made up of students who attended a basic library instruction session as part of a survey art course. The students shared how they used a paper and electronic research guide, delivered via LibGuides, and what they would like research guides to contain. The article also suggests directions for further research on the topic.

  14. Legal Limitations of Researching and Using the Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustin-Petru CIASC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of research in view of using stem cells for scientific and medical purposes must be regulated in a clear and, to the degree possible, single manner, at European and world level. Beginning with this obvious necessity, this article attempts to review the relevant provisions in the domestic legislation, while supplying the required appreciations and criticism. In the end, it reaches the idea, also upon replying on some compared law elements, that not only some legislative modifications or adaptations are imposed, in connection to the normative acts in force, but particularly the creation of a complete and complex legislative framework. It must cover the existence of all practical situations and regulate the scientific research activity in this domain, without ignoring at any time the inviolability of human dignity and acknowledging the right of integrity of the person’s body and mind.

  15. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  16. Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-30

    Oct 30, 2010 ... ... A Practical Guide for Research and Community-Based Organizations. This guide provides a collection of information and activities that can help development research non-profits gain financial sustainability by: Planning resource mobilization in a strategic, mission-driven rather than donor-driven manner ...

  17. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  19. Comparative effectiveness research and big data: balancing potential with legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra; Thorpe, Jane Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    Big data holds big potential for comparative effectiveness research. The ability to quickly synthesize and use vast amounts of health data to compare medical interventions across settings of care, patient populations, payers and time will greatly inform efforts to improve quality, reduce costs and deliver more patient-centered care. However, the use of big data raises significant legal and ethical issues that may present barriers or limitations to the full potential of big data. This paper addresses the scope of some of these legal and ethical issues and how they may be managed effectively to fully realize the potential of big data.

  20. Guides and forms | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Guidelines for Financial Reporting · General IDRC Funding Guidelines · Grants to Institutions: A Guide to Administrative Procedures · Grants to Institutions: Frequently Asked Questions · Standard Terms and Conditions for a Grant Agreement · Términos y condiciones generales desl Acuerdo de Subvención · Institutional ...

  1. A Guide to Research in Education with Appended Informational Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.

    THis annotated bibliography is designed to help students beginning educational research at Pattee Library of Pennsylvania State University Libraries. Grouped in sections A through H in the body of the guide by the type of information they contain, items listed include: bibliographies, guides to theses and dissertations; indexes and abstracts;…

  2. The Possibility of Developing Researches in the Legal Field Making use of the Qualitative Approach Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Serafim de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, through the deductive research, discusses the possibility to research in the field of legal sciences through the qualitative methodology used in the researches in Human Sciences. The north for this study was given by the qualitative methodology to the exploration of the content of the bibliography interdisciplinary elected in Law and Education areas, considering the object of the study the connection of the objects of the research in these areas. Education, in Human Sciences, uses this approach to investigate facts through documentary or field research and the same methodology can be applied in the Law area.

  3. Three Research Strategies of Neuroscience and the Future of Legal Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkwon Jun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach. Cognitive subtraction is outdated and problematic; consequently, the court deemed it to be an inadequate approach in terms of legal evidence in 2012. In contrast, the data-driven and brain manipulation approaches, which are state-of-the-art approaches, have overcome the limitations of cognitive subtraction. The data-driven approach brings data science into the field and is benefiting immensely from the development of research platforms that allow automatized collection, analysis, and sharing of data. This broadens the scale of imaging evidence. The brain-manipulation approach uses high-functioning tools that facilitate non-invasive and precise human brain manipulation. These two approaches are expected to have synergistic effects. Neuroscience has strived to improve the evidential reliability of NIE, with considerable success. With the support of cutting-edge technologies, and the progress of these approaches, the evidential status of NIE will be improved and NIE will become an increasingly important part of legal practice.

  4. Scrutinizing Immutability: Research on Sexual Orientation and U.S. Legal Advocacy for Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J

    2016-01-01

    We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation.

  5. Three Research Strategies of Neuroscience and the Future of Legal Imaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jinkwon; Yoo, Soyoung

    2018-01-01

    Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach. Cognitive subtraction is outdated and problematic; consequently, the court deemed it to be an inadequate approach in terms of legal evidence in 2012. In contrast, the data-driven and brain manipulation approaches, which are state-of-the-art approaches, have overcome the limitations of cognitive subtraction. The data-driven approach brings data science into the field and is benefiting immensely from the development of research platforms that allow automatized collection, analysis, and sharing of data. This broadens the scale of imaging evidence. The brain-manipulation approach uses high-functioning tools that facilitate non-invasive and precise human brain manipulation. These two approaches are expected to have synergistic effects. Neuroscience has strived to improve the evidential reliability of NIE, with considerable success. With the support of cutting-edge technologies, and the progress of these approaches, the evidential status of NIE will be improved and NIE will become an increasingly important part of legal practice.

  6. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. A practitioner's guide to telemental health how to conduct legal, ethical, and evidence-based telepractice

    CERN Document Server

    Luxton, David D; Maheu, Marlene M

    2016-01-01

    As telecommunication technologies and health apps become more ubiquitous and affordable, they expand opportunities for mental health professionals to provide quality care. However, physical distance as well as technology itself can create challenges to safe and ethical practice. Such challenges are manageable when following the best practices outlined in this book. Providers can use videoconference and other technologies for assessment, treatment delivery, psychoeducation, supervision, and consultation. This practical guide covers each facet of telemental health care in turn, with emphasis on:

  8. Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

  9. Ireland and medical research with minors: some medico-legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Asim A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of medical research with minors in Ireland consist of practices pertaining to therapeutic and non-therapeutic medical research. Clinical trials (a category of therapeutic research), is governed by legislation. However, any other therapeutic research (non-clinical trials research) and non-therapeutic research, e.g. observational medical research such as a longitudinal study of children or non-therapeutic research such as blood sample collection for analysis of cause of disease, are unregulated by legislation. This, article will outline and describe some of the medico-legal issues involved in both types of research and will comment on matters such as what national law exists, how the directive on good clinical practice has been implemented, what guidelines, if any, exist.

  10. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sforza, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project is to leverage the manpower resources dedicated to basic research in technologies relevant to autonomous precision systems at the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate (AFRL/MN...

  11. Note Taking on Trial: A Legal Application of Note-Taking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice--the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of…

  12. Analysing Discursive Practices in Legal Research : How a Single Remark Implies a Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Different linguistic theories of meaning (semantic theories) imply different methods to discuss meaning. Discussing meaning is what legal practitioners frequently do to decide legal issues and, subsequently, legal scholars analyse in their studies these discursive practices of parties, judges and

  13. A Counsellor's Guide to Conducting Psychobiographical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2017-01-01

    By nature of their interests and professional training, counsellors are ideally equipped to conduct psychobiographical research. This article positions the counselling field in the broad specialty area of psychobiography, highlights the preparedness of counsellors to conduct psychobiographical research, and emphasizes the benefits of this research…

  14. Research on a Socially, Ethically, and Legally Complex Phenomenon: Women Convicted of Filicide in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmi Razali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about filicide from the perspective of women convicted of the offence. The lack of research is partly attributable to the many difficulties entailed in researching socially marginalised and incarcerated people. Research on filicide engages with socially, culturally, and politically sensitive matters, including gendered social structures and behaviours, legal and ethical complexity, emotionally arousing topics, a rare phenomenon, and hard-to-reach participants. In countries where there is poor surveillance, limited local information, and few resources or experts in filicide, researchers must find innovative ways of overcoming these problems. Here we describe the particular challenges in conducting research on women convicted of filicide in Malaysia, a predominantly Muslim country, when the researchers are based at an Australian university. The persistence, resilience, and creativity required to overcome each problem were justified by the achievement of research that contributes to knowledge and has implications for change in policy and practice.

  15. Talent Development: A Guide for Practice and Research Within Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Russell J. J.; Collins, Dave; Daubney, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The transformation of talented youngsters into senior world-beaters is a topic of interest for practitioners and researchers alike. Unfortunately there is a dearth of research to guide the optimization of this process. Accordingly, this paper offers an overview of key themes apparent in the literature that have relevance to the effective…

  16. Grantees Guide to Research Databases at IDRC

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research Support. Wild cards and truncation. These functions help to create searches where there are unknown characters, multiple spelling or different endings. Note: It cannot be used as the first character of a word. Wild Cards: • To use the ? wildcard, enter your search terms and replace each unknown character with a ?

  17. Guide to Library Research in Chicano Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerena, Salvador; Gonzalez, Raquel Quiroz

    Designed to acquaint persons conducting library research in Chicano Studies with the reference materials found in the University Library at the University of California-Santa Barbara, the manual provides information on the Coleccion Tloque Nahuaque, relevant subject headings, and a useful search strategy. Resources, staff, assigned reading…

  18. The legal aspects of the research and mining in the Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The mining system main principles and concepts in Brazilian Legislation are presented, with description of the legislation that disciplines the activities of mineral research and mining emphasizing the special rules that guide the tasks of explotation, production and use of nuclear minerals and other minerals related to the nuclear area. (A.L.) [pt

  19. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  20. Evolution of the legal system of nuclear research in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelle, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years after the creation of Euratom, the Treaty establishing it is analysed together with the procedures for setting up joint projects and research programmes. The projects and programmes and their results are described as are the changes in the outlook and objectives of Euratom as compared with its original concept. In view of developments in the nuclear field, from the economic, political and social angles, its legal basis has developed greater flexibility from the institutional point of view, thus enabling closer co-operation between the Member States and the Commission in the setting up of efficient and useful programmes for the Communities. (NEA) [fr

  1. Guides to Pollution Prevention: Research and Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Office of Research and Development.

    This guide provides an overview of waste generating processes and operations that occur in educational or research institutions and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A broad spectrum of waste chemicals in laboratories, art studios, print shops, maintenance, and other operations can be…

  2. Choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of important methodological considerations that nurse researchers need to adhere to when choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy and research method. Phenomenology is a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts disciplines with a central goal of describing people's experiences. However, many nurse researchers continue to grapple with methodological issues related to their choice of phenomenological method. The author conducted online and manual searches of relevant research books and electronic databases. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2011 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used. Although phenomenology is widely used today to broaden understanding of human phenomena relevant to nursing practice, nurse researchers often fail to adhere to acceptable scientific and phenomenological standards. Cognisant of these challenges, researchers are expected to indicate in their work the focus of their investigations, designs, and approaches to collecting and analysing data. They are also expected to present their findings in an evocative and expressive manner. Choosing phenomenology requires researchers to understand it as a philosophy, including basic assumptions and tenets of phenomenology as a research method. This awareness enables researchers, especially novices, to make important methodological decisions, particularly those necessary to indicate the study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity. This paper adds to the discussion of phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. It aims to guide new researchers on important methodological decisions they need to make to safeguard their study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity.

  3. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  4. Zotero a guide for librarians, researchers, and educators

    CERN Document Server

    Puckett, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Functioning as a thorough introduction to Zotero-from setting up to saving, organizing, and citing items, and ending with more advanced topics-as well as a guide to teaching Zotero, including case studies of researchers throughout the book, this is both a guide to the tool and a handbook for understanding how different groups use it. Zotero also looks at strategies for developing effective support structures and channels within an institution and building the right linkages between relevant players, in particular library support staff and IT.

  5. Ageing Management for Research Reactors. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide was developed under the IAEA programme for safety standards for research reactors, which covers all the important areas of research reactor safety. It supplements and elaborates upon the safety requirements for ageing management of research reactors that are established in paras 6.68-6.70 and 7.109 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Safety of Research Reactors. The safety of a research reactor requires that provisions be made in its design to facilitate ageing management. Throughout the lifetime of a research reactor, including its decommissioning, ageing management of its structures, systems and components (SSCs) important to safety is required, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions. Managing the safety aspects of research reactor ageing requires implementation of an effective programme for the monitoring, prediction, and timely detection and mitigation of degradation of SSCs important to safety, and for maintaining their integrity and functional capability throughout their service lives. Ageing management is defined as engineering, operation, and maintenance strategy and actions to control within acceptable limits the ageing degradation of SSCs. Ageing management includes activities such as repair, refurbishment and replacement of SSCs, which are similar to other activities carried out at a research reactor in maintenance and testing or when a modification project takes place. However, it is important to recognize that effective management of ageing requires the use of a methodology that will detect and evaluate ageing degradation as a consequence of the service conditions, and involves the application of countermeasures for prevention and mitigation of ageing degradation. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on managing ageing of SSCs important to safety at research reactors on the basis of international

  6. Guide to legal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is a directory of law firms that provide services to the independent energy industry. The directory lists the firm's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a contact person. Included is a description of the specialties or services offered by the firm in the area of independent energy projects; some of these include regulatory, tax, fuel supply, operations and maintenance, environmental, real estate, government contracts and bankruptcy

  7. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    provedures used to provide me with nourishment and hydration (including, for example, parenteral feeding, intravenous feedings, misting, and endotracheal or...example, parenteral feeding, intravenous feedings, misting, and endotracheal or nasogastric tube use) be instituted or, if previously instituted, to...die naturally with only the administracion of medication or the performance of any medical procedure deemed necessary to provide me with comfort care

  8. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  9. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  10. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

  11. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  12. Air Force Systems Command Research Planning Guide (Research Objectives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    should include the role of neural regulation in determining the state of responsiveness of the intact organism, for example, the neurobiology of the...reference for pointing and tracking andi nrecision qyro compassing (1.0 arcsecond). Research addressinq fre- quency lock and drift stability should be

  13. Analysing Discursive Practices in Legal Research: How a Single Remark Implies a Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different linguistic theories of meaning (semantic theories imply different methods to discuss meaning. Discussing meaning is what legal practitioners frequently do to decide legal issues and, subsequently, legal scholars analyse in their studies these discursive practices of parties, judges and legal experts. Such scholarly analysis reveals a methodical choice on how to discuss meaning and therefore implies positioning oneself towards a semantic theory of meaning, whether the scholar is aware of this or not. Legal practitioners may not be bound to be consistent in their commitment to semantic theories, as their task is to decide legal issues. Legal scholars, however, should be consistent because commitment to a semantic theory implies a distinct position towards important legal theoretical doctrines. In this paper three examples are discussed that require an articulated position of the legal scholar because the discursive practices of legal practitioners show inconsistencies. For each of these examples it can be shown that a scholar’s methodic choice implies commitment to a specific semantic theory, and that adopting such a theory implies a distinct position towards the meaning of the Rule of Law, the separation of powers doctrine and the institutional position of the judge.

  14. Bioluminescence Tomography–Guided Radiation Therapy for Preclinical Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin, E-mail: kwang27@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yu, Jingjing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi (China); Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Reyes, Juvenal; Malek, Reem [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Oncology and Urology, Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Patterson, Michael S. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Wong, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: In preclinical radiation research, it is challenging to localize soft tissue targets based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. As a more effective method to localize soft tissue targets, we developed an online bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system for small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP). We demonstrated BLT-guided radiation therapy and validated targeting accuracy based on a newly developed reconstruction algorithm. Methods and Materials: The BLT system was designed to dock with the SARRP for image acquisition and to be detached before radiation delivery. A 3-mirror system was devised to reflect the bioluminescence emitted from the subject to a stationary charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Multispectral BLT and the incomplete variables truncated conjugate gradient method with a permissible region shrinking strategy were used as the optimization scheme to reconstruct bioluminescent source distributions. To validate BLT targeting accuracy, a small cylindrical light source with high CBCT contrast was placed in a phantom and also in the abdomen of a mouse carcass. The center of mass (CoM) of the source was recovered from BLT and used to guide radiation delivery. The accuracy of the BLT-guided targeting was validated with films and compared with the CBCT-guided delivery. In vivo experiments were conducted to demonstrate BLT localization capability for various source geometries. Results: Online BLT was able to recover the CoM of the embedded light source with an average accuracy of 1 mm compared to that with CBCT localization. Differences between BLT- and CBCT-guided irradiation shown on the films were consistent with the source localization revealed in the BLT and CBCT images. In vivo results demonstrated that our BLT system could potentially be applied for multiple targets and tumors. Conclusions: The online BLT/CBCT/SARRP system provides an effective solution for soft tissue targeting, particularly for small, nonpalpable, or

  15. Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research on Private Sector Development in Developing Countries. 16 décembre 2010. Simon White. Depuis la dernière décennie, les agences de développement international ont porté une attention grandissante au rôle du secteur privé comme source de ...

  16. Essentials of apoptosis - A guide for basic and clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Essentials of apoptosis - A guide for basic and clinical researchSecond edition, 2009. Xiao-Ming Yin and Zheng Dong (Eds; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Pages: 730; €92.95; ISBN: 978-1-60327-380-0When a book get a second edition in a six-year period, it means that the usually employed words praising the unbounded qualities of the underselling book (a key technical reference; comprehensive and cutting-edge; for beginners and experienced researchers; step-by-step readily reproducible protocols; notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls; etc. etc. have been checked by the scientific comunity...

  17. Altmetrics a practical guide for librarians, researchers and academics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an overview of altmetrics, their tools and how to implement them successfully to boost your research output. New methods of scholarly communication and dissemination of information are having a huge impact on how academics and researchers build profiles and share research. This groundbreaking and highly practical guide looks at the role that library and information professionals can play in facilitating these new ways of working and demonstrating impact and influence. The book explains the theory behind the growing altmetrics – alternative metrics for measuring scholarly impact, from social networks such as Twitter and blogs to online platforms such as Mendeley, ResearchGate and Altmetrics.org – movement, how it came about, why it can help improve academics and their research profiles and where it sits amongst current measurements of impact. Drawing on the expertise of leading altmetric innovators and the LIS professionals using their tools, the book explains the connections between r...

  18. Civil nuclear activities in Switzerland: status, legal framework, researches and harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the present status of nuclear activities in Switzerland. It indicates and comments the shares of the different sources of production of electricity, the electricity consumption, and electricity imports. It describes the structure of the sector. It proposes a history of nuclear development (first reactors, accidents, abandoned projects), describes the present nuclear plant stock, and the fuel cycle management (supply, waste management and storage, reprocessing). It presents the IFSN (the Swiss nuclear safety authority), the nuclear industry organization, and the professional bodies. Then, it describes the legal framework. It discusses the issue of nuclear plant replacement, and that of waste storage in deep geological layers, and comments the posture of the political parties on these issues. It gives a rather detailed overview of researches in the nuclear field (general framework and institutions, research reactors, researches in security and radioprotection, in nuclear safety, in controlled thermonuclear fusion, in waste management). Finally, it describes the harmonization efforts in relationship with international organizations (safety authorities and nuclear industries)

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL RESEARCH OF INDICATORS OF INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN COUNTRYSIDE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrozhek SI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For recent decades in Ukraine populations’ health indicators became quite serious negative trends: increased mortality rates among people of working age, morbidity, reduced life expectancy and more. It should also be noted that one of the main indicators of the state, its civilization and competitiveness is the degree of orientation of the state to improve the health of citizens, legal and organizational improvement of the healthcare sector. The financial and economic crisis has significantly exacerbated the problems associated with the provision of medical care in Ukraine, ensuring its availability and good quality. The current healthcare system is fair and complaints from the public, and the medical staff, it is still not able to adequately meet the needs of the population in healthcare, to ensure the availability, quality and timeliness of health services, adequate prevention of morbidity, mortality and more. The need for healthcare reform emphasizes the failure to ensure the proper conditions existing in state funding and to implement effective schemes for full competition in the healthcare and pharmaceutical provision in countryside areas is therefore, in Ukraine implemented new organizational and legal approaches in reforming the health service. That is why in Ukraine implementing processes that are transparent, will reduce unnecessary costs for public administration and improve accessibility of the medications in countryside areas of different clinical and pharmacological, classification, nomenclature, legal and regulatory groups used in the pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. The organizational and legal, forensic and pharmaceutical researches were conducted in countryside areas at the regional level on example of the Kharkiv region on the basis of 62 public healthcare institutions, 16 public enterprises of healthcare and health companies of other ownership. Materials of the research were: the

  20. Reporting Research: A Biologist's Guide to Articles, Talks, and Posters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymo, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Want to learn how to present your research successfully? This practical guide for students and postdoctoral scholars offers a unique step-by-step approach to help you avoid the worst, yet most common, mistakes in biology communication. Covering irritants such as sins of ambiguity, circumlocution, inconsistency, vagueness and verbosity, misuse of words and quantitative matters, it also provides guidance to design your next piece of work effectively. Learn how to write scientific articles and get them published, prepare posters and talks that will capture your audience and develop a critical attitude towards your own work as well as that of your colleagues. With numerous practical examples, comparisons among disciplines, valuable tips and real-life anecdotes, this must-read guide will be a valuable resource to both new graduate students and their supervisors.

  1. How to Integrate Student Internships into Legal Studies Research and Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperson, Jill O.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to answer the "how" and "why" of a Legal Studies internship experience at a public university. Internship is an integral part of student learning. Although the Faculty/Organizers conducted a free legal clinic for five years previous, this case study discusses a first time internship attempt by faculty…

  2. The OpenAIRE Guide for Research Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gültekin Gürdal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is transcript of OpenAIRE Guide which is prepared in order to help research institutions was released on 13.04.2011and translated with the cooperation of ANKOS Open Access and Institutional Repositories Grup members and OpenAIREplus project team of Turkey which is coordinated from Izmir Institute of Technology Library. OpenAIRE Project aims to support researchers in complying with the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme Open Access Pilot through a European Helpdesk System; support researchers in depositing their research publications in an institutional or disciplinary repository; build up an OpenAIRE portal and e-infrastructure for repository networks. The project will work in tadem with OpeanAIREplus Project which has the principal goal of creating a robust, participatory service for the cross-linking of peer-reviewed scientific publications and associated datasets.

  3. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  5. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A practical guide to big data research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric Evan; Wojcik, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    The massive volume of data that now covers a wide variety of human behaviors offers researchers in psychology an unprecedented opportunity to conduct innovative theory- and data-driven field research. This article is a practical guide to conducting big data research, covering data management, acquisition, processing, and analytics (including key supervised and unsupervised learning data mining methods). It is accompanied by walkthrough tutorials on data acquisition, text analysis with latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling, and classification with support vector machines. Big data practitioners in academia, industry, and the community have built a comprehensive base of tools and knowledge that makes big data research accessible to researchers in a broad range of fields. However, big data research does require knowledge of software programming and a different analytical mindset. For those willing to acquire the requisite skills, innovative analyses of unexpected or previously untapped data sources can offer fresh ways to develop, test, and extend theories. When conducted with care and respect, big data research can become an essential complement to traditional research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized, and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and requirements for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Standards Series in an internally consistent set of publications that reflect an international consensus. The publications will provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed publications to assist in the derivation of, and to complement, national criteria, standards and practices. The Safety Standards Series consists of three categories of publications: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. With respect to the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme, the set of publications is currently undergoing review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Standards Series. This Safety Guide addresses the subject of decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities where radioactive materials and sources are produced, received, used and stored. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations, particularly to those in developing countries (as such facilities are predominant in these countries), for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such facilities. The Safety Guide has been prepared through a series of Consultants meetings and a Technical Committee meeting

  8. Decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized, and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and requirements for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. This is accomplished within the IAEA Safety Standards Series in an internally consistent set of publications that reflect an international consensus. The publications will provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed publications to assist in the derivation of, and to complement, national criteria, standards and practices. The Safety Standards Series consists of three categories of publications: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. With respect to the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme, the set of publications is currently undergoing review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Standards Series. This Safety Guide addresses the subject of decommissioning of medical, industrial and research facilities where radioactive materials and sources are produced, received, used and stored. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations, particularly to those in developing countries (as such facilities are predominant in these countries), for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such facilities. The Safety Guide has been prepared through a series of Consultants meetings and a Technical Committee meeting

  9. Psychological and sociological research and the decriminalization or legalization of prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, L M

    1991-04-01

    In maintaining criminal prohibitions on prostitution and prostitution-related activity, the United States has ignored the two alternative approaches successfully invoked in many other countries: legalization and decriminalization of prostitution. This article questions the justifications usually advanced in favor of criminal sanctions and against the two alternatives. Studies of prostitutes and their clients, as well as larger societal studies, undercut the arguments against decriminalization and legalization, and reveal that none of the traditional goals of imposing criminal sanctions (punishment, deterrence, and rehabilitation) are furthered by the current prohibition of prostitution. These studies also reveal the advantages offered by a system of decriminalized or legalized prostitution. Further policy arguments for the removal of such sanctions are discussed and legal arguments are offered to attempt to limit the reach of current criminal prostitution laws while the present system remains in effect.

  10. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams) will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”). Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data). Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research. PMID:22928979

  13. Researcher-decision-maker partnerships in health services research: Practical challenges, guiding principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmeyer Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health services research, there is a growing view that partnerships between researchers and decision-makers (i.e., collaborative research teams will enhance the effective translation and use of research results into policy and practice. For this reason, there is an increasing expectation by health research funding agencies that health system managers, policy-makers, practitioners and clinicians will be members of funded research teams. While this view has merit to improve the uptake of research findings, the practical challenges of building and sustaining collaborative research teams with members from both inside and outside the research setting requires consideration. A small body of literature has discussed issues that may arise when conducting research in one’s own setting; however, there is a lack of clear guidance to deal with practical challenges that may arise in research teams that include team members who have links with the organization/community being studied (i.e., are “insiders”. Discussion In this article, we discuss a researcher-decision-maker partnership that investigated practice in primary care networks in Alberta. Specifically, we report on processes to guide the role clarification of insider team members where research activities may pose potential risk to participants or the team members (e.g., access to raw data. Summary These guiding principles could provide a useful discussion point for researchers and decision-makers engaged in health services research.

  14. Teaching Legal English for Company Law: A Guide to Specialism and ELP Teaching Practices and Reference Books

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Faedo, María José

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses one of the less mainstream areas of ESP teaching, that of legal English for students of company law. The author begins by analysing the approach used by subject-domain specialists themselves and the current criticism regarding the conservative textbook approach which continues to dominate teaching theory in this area. To this effect, she presents the results of a study carried out from October 2014 to March 2015 regarding subject-domain textbooks most used in Law School...

  15. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers' perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers' legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients' control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale.

  16. Doing Case Study Research: A Practical Guide for Beginning Researchers. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Algozzine, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting recent knowledge and developments in the field, this very practical, easy-to-use guide emphasizes learning how to do case study research--from the first step of deciding whether a case study is the way to go to the last step of verifying and confirming findings before disseminating them. The authors show students how to determine an…

  17. Research ethics and approval process: A guide for new GP researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Tam, Chun Wah Michael

    2015-06-01

    The underlying moral principles and values, and the virtues held as desirable for a researcher, should be reflected upon and embedded in the research. The foundation step is to download the National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC's) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and the NHMRC's Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research to use as references. This paper draws on the experience of The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners' (RACGP's) National Research and Evaluation Ethics Committee to provide an eight-step approach to the research ethics process. The researcher should use the research ethics process as an opportunity to foster and guide the development and conduct of ethical research.

  18. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers’ perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers’ legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients’ control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale. PMID:27755563

  19. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Content of the definition of a “victim”, its derivatives and adjacent categories in the legal acts of the Soviet state in pre-victimology period (1917–1950: historical-legal victimological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Kabanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the content of the legal category of ldquovictimrdquo the victimological terms derived from it and related categories used in the Soviet legislation and subnormative legal acts of the first half of the 20th century. nbsp Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods analysis synthesis comparison systematic formallegal comparativelegal methods. Results the content of the legal category of ldquovictimrdquo has been researchhed as wellas the related and derived legal definitions of the Soviet legislation which can significantly broaden the boundaries of the modern subject of the Russian victimology. Based on the analysis of the Soviet legislation the author proposed scientific classification of victims into separate types. The territorial boundaries of the study completely cover the USSR territory. The temporal boundaries of the study are defined as the period from 1917 to 1950. In some cases for completeness of research the author refers to the normative legal acts of other time periods and other countries. The empirical base of the study consisted of 168 existing and invalid regulatory legal acts of the RSFSR and the USSR and politicallegal documents of senior officials of the RSFSR and the USSR. Scientific novelty for the first time in the Russian victimological science the content of the basic category of ldquovictimrdquo was studied which was used in normative legal acts of the Soviet state in the first half of the 20th century i.e. before the formation of the domestic Soviet victimology. The author for the first time in domestic victimology offered to recognize as a victim not only physical and legal persons social groups and public formations but also a social institution ndash a family. Practical significance

  1. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  2. Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from Socio-legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Roach Anleu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluation processes and programs tend to imply an abstract, normative model of the proper judge. The focus is on the individual judicial officer, identifying how judges ought to perform their judicial work and assessing any departures from the model. However, there is considerable diversity in judging which abstract models of JPE may not anticipate. Importantly, judicial performance occurs within a context – the practical and natural settings in which every day judicial work is undertaken. This entails time constraints, workload patterns, and dependence on the activities of others, factors over which the judicial officer may have little control, but which in turn may affect his/her behaviour. Often, judicial performance is taken to refer to in-court work only. Judicial work also occurs outside court and outside regular court hours and so may be less visible for judicial performance evaluation. Although there is considerable variety in judicial experiences of judging, JPE only sometimes includes self-perceptions or judges’ own reflections on their work. Social science and socio-legal research, including original empirical data from Australia, investigates judging in various contexts and explores judicial officers’ experiences of their work. Such empirical research can widen understandings of judicial performance and evaluation. Los procesos y programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial tienden a implicar un modelo normativo abstracto del juez competente. La atención se centra en el funcionario judicial individual, identificando cómo deben realizar su labor los jueces y determinando cualquier desviación respecto al modelo. Sin embargo, a la hora de juzgar, existe una gran diversidad que los modelos abstractos de evaluación del rendimiento judicial no pueden anticipar. Es importante destacar que el desempeño judicial se produce en un contexto – el marco práctico y natural en el que se desarrolla cada d

  3. Modern British Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, intended to help students find sources of criticism on Modern British Literature (long fiction, short fiction, poetry, and drama). The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and…

  4. Embedded Library Guides in Learning Management Systems Help Students Get Started on Research Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether library guides embedded in learning management systems (LMS get used by students, and to identify best practices for the creation and promotion of these guides by librarians. Design – Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (survey, interviews, and statistical analysis. Setting – A large public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 100 undergraduate students and 14 librarians. Methods – The researchers surveyed undergraduate students who were participating in a Project Information Literacy study about their use of library guides in the learning management system (LMS for a given quarter. At that university, all course pages in the LMS are automatically assigned a library guide. In addition, web usage data about the course-embedded guides was analyzed and high use guides were identified, namely guides that received an average of at least two visits per student enrolled in a course. The researchers also conducted a qualitative analysis of the layout of the high use guides, including the number of widgets (or boxes and links. Finally, librarians who created high use library guides were interviewed. These mixed methods were designed to address four research questions: 1 Were students finding the guides in the LMS, and did they find the guides useful? 2 Did high use guides differ in design and composition? 3 Were the guides designed for a specific course, or for an entire department or college? and, 4 How did the librarians promote use? Main Results – Only 33% of the students said they noticed the library guide in the LMS course page, and 21% reported using the guide. Among those who used the guide, the majority were freshmen (possibly because embedding of library guides in the LMS had just started at the university. Library guides with high use in relation to class enrollment did not significantly differ from low use guides in terms of numbers of

  5. Outline of examination guides of water-cooled research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, F.; Kimura, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan published two examination guides of water-cooled research reactors on July 18, 1991; one is for safety design, and another is for safety evaluation. In these guides, careful consideration is taken into account on the basic safety characteristic features of research reactors in order to be reasonable regulative requirements. This paper describes the fundamental philosophy and outline of the guides. (author)

  6. A Primer on Employment and Intellectual Property Law: Legal Guidance for Supervisors of Assessment and Institutional Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William; Lugg, Elizabeth Timmerman

    2017-01-01

    Institutional research (IR) leaders rely on staff members to accomplish office missions and support institutional decisions. Like any supervisors in higher education, IR leaders must be familiar with a host of employment and intellectual property laws that guide the institution/employee relationship. This chapter offers insights into specific…

  7. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    execution, language difficulties, loosing perception of time and space, changes in mood and behaviour, personality alterations, loss of interests and initiative). Towards more accurate determination of legal competency the psychometric tests are being used. The appliance of these tests must be guided with basic question during evaluation: "For what is or is not he/she capable?" In prediction of possible dementia development, the modern diagnostic procedures are used as help for potentially demented individuals in order to plan own affairs and by oneself determine future guardian. This ensures the maximal respect and protection of rights among persons with dementia in order to independently manage life one step ahead of progressive illness. Finally, it is to be distinguished medical concept of legal capacity which is universal and judicial concept which is restricted by rules of national legal system differing from country to country.

  8. Research on Recognition and Evaluation of Traffic Guide Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic guide signs are effective only when they are clearly recognized by drivers. Three experiments were conducted in this study. In the first, the influence factors of guide sign recognition were studied. This study investigated 11 main factors with a convenience sample of drivers from Nanjing city in China. Weights of different influence factors were obtained through analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results showed that the setting position, occlusion degree, and character size of guide sign had the most significant influence on the guide sign recognition, while other factors were less important. In the second stage, an evaluation model of guide sign recognition was developed based on weights of different factors. Four equations were presented to calculate the comprehensive score of guide sign, and the level of recognition was divided into five grades according to the comprehensive score. At last, a typical case in Nanjing was studied to verify the rationality and reliability of the evaluation model. Results from the real application indicate that the method had good applicability and can be used by traffic engineers.

  9. A guide introducing burnup credit, preliminary version. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    It is examined to take burnup credit into account for criticality safety control of facility treating spent fuel. This work is a collection of current technical status of predicting isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuel, points to be specially considered for safety evaluation, and current status of legal affairs for the purpose of applying burnup credit to the criticality safety evaluation of the facility treating spent fuel in Japan. (author)

  10. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  11. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes.

  12. Guiding Students in Using the World Wide Web for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubly, Kristin

    This paper addresses the need for educators and librarians to guide students in using the World Wide Web appropriately by teaching them to evaluate Internet resources using criteria designed to identify the authoritative sources. The pros and cons of information commonly found on the Web are discussed, as well as academic Internet subject or…

  13. Working Paper 6: A conceptual framework to guide research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... The paper presents findings, conclusions and recommendations on PSD to guide the PSD-related investments of IDRC 's Globalization, Growth and Poverty ( GGP ) programme initiative, and to help IDRC to reach a common vision of PSD, across all programming units, for future PSD-related investments.

  14. Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; Thompson, Katie A; Lowe, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decision-making principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives.

  15. Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research: Facilitator's Guide and Resources. REL 2017-214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jill; Redford, Jeremy; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    This Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research tool consists of a facilitator guide and workshop handouts. The toolkit is intended for use by state or district education leaders and others who want to conduct training on developing and administering surveys. The facilitator guide provides materials related to various phases of the survey…

  16. Solution mechanism guide: implementing innovation within a research & development organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, Kathryn E; Richard, Elizabeth E; Davis, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    In order to create a culture more open to novel problem-solving mechanisms, NASA's Human Health and Performance Directorate (HH&P) created a strategic knowledge management tool that educates employees about innovative problem-solving techniques, the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). The SMG is a web-based, interactive guide that leverages existing and innovative problem-solving methods and presents this information as a unique user experience so that the employee is empowered to make the best decision about which problem-solving tool best meets their needs. By integrating new and innovative methods with existing problem solving tools, the SMG seamlessly introduces open innovation and collaboration concepts within HH&P to more effectively address human health and performance risks. This commentary reviews the path of creating a more open and innovative culture within HH&P and the process and development steps that were taken to develop the SMG.

  17. Legal and Ethical Aspects of Informed Consent: A Nursing Research Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Virginia R.; Oddi, Lorys F.

    1986-01-01

    Issues related to the doctrine of informed consent for research on human subjects are discussed as they concern the conduct of nursing research. They include the subject's capacity to consent, disclosure of information, and freedom to decide. (MSE)

  18. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  19. In Their Own Words: Using First-Year Student Research Journals to Guide Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Glenda M.; Lantz, Catherine; Armstrong, Annie

    2018-01-01

    This action research study explores first-year students' conceptions of the research process, with a focus on which aspects students find most challenging and how this information can guide stakeholders in developing curricular or service-based interventions. To gather student reflections on the research process, researchers assigned and collected…

  20. A new means of dissemination for doctoral research in Danish legal education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of research dissemination at different stages of a PhD Programme in a Danish and Nordic context, and how the first large-scale Postgraduate Law Conference in a Nordic country was instigated. It firstly contextualises the concept of a Postgraduate Law Conference...... elaborates on how fresh methods of research output will begin to become more commonplace within higher educational institutions that specialise in the researching and teaching of law into the future....

  1. Conflicts of interest in medical research: how much conflict should exceed legal boundaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanica, Kaley

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the current plague of financially conflicted research from various perspectives including the research community, the medical community, patients/subjects, the Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.), and other government agencies. Part one lays out the current conflicts of interest within medical research. Part two explains the actual and potential effects of these conflicts, highlighting the conflict of interest associated with the death of Jesse Gelsinger. Part three describes how conflicts of interest are currently regulated by government agencies and within individual institutions. Lastly, part four concludes by recommending a system of seven balanced reform measures that protect research subjects and the scientific integrity of medical research while encouraging scientific progress.

  2. Managing and sharing research data a guide to good practice

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Louise; Bishop, Libby; Woollard, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Research funders in the UK, USA and across Europe are implementing data management and sharing policies to maximize openness of data, transparency and accountability of the research they support. Written by experts from the UK Data Archive with over 20 years experience, this book gives post-graduate students, researchers and research support staff the data management skills required in today’s changing research environment.

  3. [Research progress on meridian-guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Qun-Lin; Lin, Zhu-Xia; Xie, He; Sun, Bei

    2016-07-01

    Ancient materia medica and medical formularies were consulted to illustrate the development history of meridian-guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The influences of various meridian-guiding drugs (Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, borneol, Bupleuri Radix, Platycodon Radix) on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of other drugs were summarized. Meridian-guiding drugs can promote the absorption and targeted distribution of other drugs and enhance the efficacy of injured tissues. The possible mechanisms of meridian-guiding are related with changing the component of cell membrane, inhibiting the efflux of P-gp, opening physiological barriers, modulating the levels of biochemicals, promoting microcirculation and adjusting the pH of targeted tissues. The chemical components of meridian-guiding drugs are the substance basis of meridian-guiding. The aim of exploring meridian-guiding chemicals is to find a natural targeted delivery system. At the present time, some progress has been made in the research on meridian-guiding field. However, further studies are required for the meridian-guiding theory of TCM. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Research and experience report 2008. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reviews research into regulatory safety and the work done during 2008. In the area of reactor safety, research - in addition to research into materials - was concentrated primarily on safety and reliability analyses. ENSI supports projects looking at ageing mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, embrittlement and the development of cracks under a range of environmental conditions. Topics such as the interaction between core meltdown and water and concrete as well as the development of methods and computer codes are covered. In the area of transport and waste management, ENSI is focussing its efforts on research into the geological strata suitable for the final storage of highly radioactive, long-lived waste. Human and organisational factors and safety culture now account for an increasing part of the work of this regulatory body. Appendices present an overview of work done, international activities, publications and the basic principles of the new ENSI guidelines

  5. Computing patient data in the cloud: practical and legal considerations for genetics and genomics research in Europe and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Gábor, Fruzsina; Lueck, Rupert; Yakneen, Sergei; Korbel, Jan O

    2017-06-20

    Biomedical research is becoming increasingly large-scale and international. Cloud computing enables the comprehensive integration of genomic and clinical data, and the global sharing and collaborative processing of these data within a flexibly scalable infrastructure. Clouds offer novel research opportunities in genomics, as they facilitate cohort studies to be carried out at unprecedented scale, and they enable computer processing with superior pace and throughput, allowing researchers to address questions that could not be addressed by studies using limited cohorts. A well-developed example of such research is the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project, which involves the analysis of petabyte-scale genomic datasets from research centers in different locations or countries and different jurisdictions. Aside from the tremendous opportunities, there are also concerns regarding the utilization of clouds; these concerns pertain to perceived limitations in data security and protection, and the need for due consideration of the rights of patient donors and research participants. Furthermore, the increased outsourcing of information technology impedes the ability of researchers to act within the realm of existing local regulations owing to fundamental differences in the understanding of the right to data protection in various legal systems. In this Opinion article, we address the current opportunities and limitations of cloud computing and highlight the responsible use of federated and hybrid clouds that are set up between public and private partners as an adequate solution for genetics and genomics research in Europe, and under certain conditions between Europe and international partners. This approach could represent a sensible middle ground between fragmented individual solutions and a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  6. User guide : process for quantifying the benefits of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services has adopted a process for quantifying the monetary benefits of research projects, such as the dollar value of particular ideas when implemented across the states transportation system. T...

  7. Neurophilia: Guiding Educational Research and the Educational Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeyers, Paul

    2016-01-01

    For a decade or so there has been a new "hype" in educational research: it is called educational neuroscience or even neuroeducation (and neuroethics)--there are numerous publications, special journals, and an abundance of research projects together with the advertisement of many positions at renowned research centres worldwide. After a…

  8. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Ferguson, Laura; Aggleton, Peter; Mane, Purnima; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Giang, Le Minh; Barbosa, Regina M; Caceres, Carlos F; Parker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

  9. Legal Review: Issuance of Separate Permits for a Nuclear Reactor for Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gun-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Wwon; Koh, Jae-Dong; Kim, Chang-Bum; Ahn, Sang-kyu

    2006-01-01

    With regard to the nuclear reactor permission system under the Atomic Energy Act of the Republic of Korea, two types of permits must be obtained for nuclear power reactors under Article 11 and Article 21 of the Atomic Energy Act: construction permits and operation permits. Concerning nuclear reactors for research, however, only one permit is required: a dual permit that authorizes both construction and operation, under Article 33 of said act. This permit can be obtained by submitting an application for a dual construction and operation permit to the regulatory authority. The question is whether a dual permit can be issued for nuclear reactors for research under any circumstances. If the literal provisions of the Atomic Energy Act are applied rigorously even in cases where it is realistically difficult to submit a dual permit application or issue a dual permit for construction and operation considering the power output, usage, and design complexity of nuclear reactors for research, separate permits for construction or operation shall never be issued, with only dual permits for construction and operation issued. For the Hanaro research reactor, a dual permit was issued with a condition attached thereto based on the literal provisions of the Atomic Energy Act at the time of its construction, although an application for and issuance of a dual permit for its construction and operation were impossible at the time. This is in violation of the purport of the law that provides for a dual permit

  10. Conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research: an international legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.

  11. The use of stem cells in research and therapies: Ethical, legal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... From the perspective of medical and scientific research, South Africa is well placed through its many resources to make an important positive contribution to the global knowledge base and also to the improvement of the quality of life of its patients. Our focus is on stem cells and the potential impact their ...

  12. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  13. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  14. "Knowing the ledge": participatory action research as legal studies for urban high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, David; Delgado, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Zero-tolerance discipline policies, harsh sentencing laws, and the gentrification of communities of color have devastating effects for the lives of young people. Coupled with the fact that urban schools can devalue their views, values, and understandings of the world, this article examines an effort to challenge deficit theories that permeate discussions on urban youth. Through the setting of a street law class at a high school with a social justice focus, two facilitators (an African American male and a Latina of Puerto Rican descent, one a qualitative sociologist and the other a lawyer, both trained as qualitative researchers) and a group of high school freshmen analyze the processes of the judicial system to analyze their lives through the tenets of participatory action research.

  15. Research and experience report 2012. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) acts upon the basis of the latest developments in science and technology. ENSI supports and coordinates safety research, the results of which influence directly its Guidelines, individual decisions and resources. Research projects also serve training purposes and maintain competence within ENSI and its experts. The research in fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the graded approach to barriers used for the confinement of radioactive materials. Based on test results from accidents involving a loss of coolant ENSI instructed the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants to review whether they were relevant to their own facilities. Ageing mechanisms affecting structural materials are crucial to the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. Specialised thematic databases are being created in order to facilitate a systematic analysis of relevant operating experience from numerous countries. In addition to damage that may result from events within nuclear power plants, the safety analyses also reflect external events. ENSI supports international projects conducting complex experiments and simulations of aircraft accidents and earthquakes. It is involved in some projects relating to flood risks. The effect of operator behaviour on accidents in nuclear power plants is the focus point of research into human factors which identifies and analyses certain operator errors influencing negatively the course of an accident. Proposals to improve accident procedures were developed. This research area also focuses on the influence of the control room layout on the performance of operating staff. System behaviour and accident sequences in nuclear power plants are analysed in conditions ranging from normal operations through to accidents resulting in core melt-down. The results are used for the quantitative evaluation of the plant risk in probabilistic safety analyses. Applied research in radiological protection ranges

  16. Research and experience report 2007. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reviews the aims, duties and responsibilities of the inspectorate and the work done during 2007. In the area of reactor safety, the research covered materials and the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of incidents and their consequences. In the area of radiation protection, the protection of persons and the environment in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from ionising radiation is addressed. In this area, accurate metrology and research to improve dosimetry and radiation analysis is discussed. In the area of transport and waste management, the HSK is focussing its efforts on research into the geological strata suitable for the final storage of highly radioactive, long-lived waste. Human factors, organisation and safety culture are quoted as playing a major role in nuclear safety. According to the report, greater attention is being given to these factors by those bodies responsible for nuclear regulation. Appendices present an overview of work done, international activities and publications along with the ENSI's guidelines

  17. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.

  18. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  19. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  20. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    In terms of research into regulatory safety, ENSI awards and coordinates research projects designed to develop current scientific knowledge and expertise and to make the results available to the regulatory process. ENSI currently supports research in four different areas: Reactor Safety; Radiological Protection; Transport and Waste Management; and Human Influence, Organisation and Safety Culture. Research in reactor safety focuses on materials research of relevance to the monitoring of ageing mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, embrittlement and the development of cracks, together with research into incidents and accidents and their relevance to improvements in safety analyses. It investigates issues such as the interaction between core meltdown and water and concrete, as well as the development of methodologies and software. In addition, ENSI is a partner in a range of international database projects giving it access to information on the causes, frequency and characteristics of individual incidents. The aim of radiological protection is to protect personnel, local people and the environment in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from ionising radiation. ENSI supports research into dosimetry and radio analysis. Another area of particular importance is research designed to improve the methodologies used to monitor the release of radioactive materials into the environment. In the area of transport and waste management, ENSI investigates the suitability of geological strata for the deep storage of radioactive waste. Experiments are being conducted at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory into the geological, hydro-geological, geochemical and rock-mechanical properties of the Opalinus clay. ENSI is supporting an experiment designed to characterise the fracture generation in the excavation damage zone of a gallery triggered by stress changes in the surrounding rock. The research is also looking at the chemical reactions occurring in a deep repository, together with the

  1. Eye Tracking: A Brief Guide for Developmental Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking offers a powerful research tool for developmental scientists. In this brief article, the author introduces the methodology and issues associated with its applications in developmental research, beginning with an overview of eye movements and eye-tracking technologies, followed by examples of how it is used to study the developing mind…

  2. Solidarity and justice as guiding principles in genomic research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, R.H.M.V.; Gordijn, B.; Pijnenburg, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In genomic research the ideal standard of free, informed, prior and explicit consent is sometimes difficult to apply. This has raised concern that important genomic research will be restricted. Different consent procedures have therefore been proposed. This paper explicitly examines the question

  3. Web indicators for research evaluation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Thelwall, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand for research evaluation within universities and other research-based organisations. In parallel, there has been an increasing recognition that traditional citation-based indicators are not able to reflect the societal impacts of research and are slow to appear. This has led to the creation of new indicators for different types of research impact as well as timelier indicators, mainly derived from the Web. These indicators have been called altmetrics, webometrics or just web metrics. This book describes and evaluates a range of web indicators for aspects of societal or scholarly impact, discusses the theory and practice of using and evaluating web indicators for research assessment and outlines practical strategies for obtaining many web indicators. In addition to describing impact indicators for traditional scholarly outputs, such as journal articles and monographs, it also covers indicators for videos, datasets, software and other non-standard scholarly out...

  4. GUIDING MARKS REGARDING THE REASONING OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA CENAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research activity in accounting is governed by the principles of logic thinking, is not subject to change and must be conducted according to a strict and rigorous schedule. For these reasons, it is a planned activity, but it shouldn’t be seen as rigid, because it can withstand changes or adjustments during its deployment. Naturally, scientific reasoning is at the foundation of any research undertaking, including in the area of accounting. This paper deals with issues related to the positioning of accounting within the areas of research, the components of the reasoning used in all the stages involved in accounting research, from establishing its objective or research subject to exploiting the obtained results.

  5. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    While substantial progress in the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells was possible by optimizing the energy levels of the polymer and more recently also the acceptor molecule, further progress beyond 10% efficiency requires a number of criteria to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely, low energy-level offsets at the donor–acceptor heterojunction, low open-circuit voltage losses due to nonradiative recombination, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this feature article we discuss these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide applicability, we focus on FOMs that are easily accessible from common experiments. We demonstrate the relevance of these FOMs by looking at the historic and recent achievements of organic solar cells. We hope that the presented FOMs are or will become a valuable tool to evaluate, monitor, and guide further development of new organic absorber materials for solar cells.

  6. Research and experience report 2013. Developments in the technical and legal areas of nuclear monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    The research into regulatory safety carried out by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) serves to clarify outstanding issues, establish fundamentals and develop the tools that ENSI requires for the fulfillment of its responsibilities. The programme is divided into seven areas: 1) research on fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the multiple successive barriers used for the containment of radioactive materials. It is concentrated on high burn-ups and safety criteria. Research into structural materials is focused on ageing mechanisms. The NORA Project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) looked into the addition of platinum to the coolant as a way of reducing crack formation in primary circuits; 2) the OECD Projects on internal events and damage encourage international exchange of experience on incidents. Specific data bases facilitate a systematic analysis of relevant operating experience from numerous countries. In the field of damage to the influence of pressurised conduits, an overview report on flow-accelerated corrosion was submitted; 3) ENSI supports international projects on external events, including complex experiments and simulations of aircraft crashes and earthquakes. Earthquakes were simulated by shaking-table tests on models of reinforced concrete structures. The structural load-bearing reserves of safety-critical buildings in the event of an earthquake were studied. The Extreme Events Platform is looking at issues related to flood risks; 4) concerning human factors, the research is looking at the reliability of operator behaviour under various conditions. A methodology developed by PSI analyses operator errors with a negative impact on the course of an accident. Research continued into the optimum way to design simulator tests and into the effects of earthquakes on the reliability of operator behaviour; 5) System behaviour and accident sequences in nuclear power plants are analysed in various conditions ranging from normal

  7. Research and experience report 2010 - Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    This comprehensive annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) in the year 2010. The inspectorate's fields of activity - fuels and materials, significant internal and external events and occurrences, human factors, system behaviour and accident sequences, radiological protection and waste disposal - are reviewed. Information on incidents in Swiss nuclear facilities are reviewed in the ENSI Surveillance Report. The Research and Experience Report also provides information on a selection of particularly instructive incidents in nuclear facilities outside Switzerland. Incidents are analysed with a view to identifying any potential relevance to Swiss nuclear facilities. International co-operation is mentioned and current changes and developments related to plant surveillance are noted. Organisational aspects are discussed and various guidelines and directives are presented and discussed

  8. Research and experience report 2014. Developments in the technical and legal areas of nuclear monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    The research into regulatory safety carried out by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) serves to develop the tools that ENSI requires for the fulfilment of its responsibilities. The programme is divided into seven areas: 1) research on fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the multiple successive barriers used for the containment of radioactive materials. It is concentrated on high burn-ups and safety criteria. Research into structural materials is focused on ageing mechanisms. The SAFE Project has been investigating the formation and growth of cracks in materials used in reactor cooling circuits. The researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) obtained results on how the hydrogen present in hot water as well as the sequence of mechanical stresses affect crack development; 2) the OECD Projects on internal events and damage encourage international exchange of experience on incidents. Specific data bases facilitate the analysis of relevant operating experience from many countries. The ICDE Project, which is looking at common-cause failures in the components used in nuclear power plants, published an overview report on heat exchangers; 3) ENSI supports research projects on external events such as aircraft crashes, flooding and earthquakes. The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) published a report on ground motion attenuation as a function of increasing distance to the earthquake's source. By incorporating data from countries with high seismic activity, the SED has improved the attenuation model for Switzerland. The international SMART project has been looking at the impact of severe earthquakes on nuclear power plant buildings in order to represent the dynamic behaviour and vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures; 4) as far as human factors are concerned, the Halden Reactor Project completed informative simulation studies. A comparative study of 10 operator groups revealed marked variability in the way unforeseen situations

  9. Research and experience report 2016 - Developments in the technical and legal basis for nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-04-01

    Projects in the research programme of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) contribute to the clarification of outstanding issues, establish fundamentals and develop the tools required for its regulatory activities. International projects deliver results that Switzerland could not achieve on its own and encourage cross-border networking. The research on fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the multiple barriers for the retainment of radioactive materials especially concerning high burn-up rates and safety criteria. In 2016, the Studsvik Cladding Integrity Project in Sweden commissioned a new test facility to investigate the behaviour of fuel rods in loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Research into structural materials focuses on ageing processes. In the NORA project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), platinum is injected into the cooling system with a view to reducing corrosion. Projects conducted under the auspices of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and relating to internal events and damage encourage the international exchange of information on incidents, accidents and component damage. Subject-specific databases are created on incidents involving fires or damage to passive metal components. In 2016 the OECD CODAP project prepared a report on reliability and integrity management in pressurised components. ENSI supports research projects on external events such as earthquakes, flooding, aircraft crashes and explosions. Within the OECD MECOS project, the behaviour of pipes subjected to powerful earthquakes was modelled; it showed improvements in the calculation of cyclic loading and on the limits for simulating elastic-plastic material behaviour under high loads. The impact of operator actions on incidents and accidents is the most important human factor in view of reducing uncertainty in probabilistic safety analyses, as well as the interfaces between humans and technical systems. System behaviour and accident sequences in

  10. Research and experience report 2015 - Developments in the technical and legal basis for nuclear oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Projects in the research programme of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) contribute to the clarification of outstanding issues, establish fundamentals and develop the tools required for its regulatory activities. International projects deliver results that Switzerland could not achieve on its own and encourage international networking. The research on fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the multiple barriers for the retainment of radioactive materials. In 2015 the OECD Halden Reactor Project developed new methods for measuring the thermal conductivity of fuel and the creep of cladding materials during irradiation in the reactor and ageing processes. The PISA project of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) focused on the deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the integrity of reactor pressure vessels. Under the auspices of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, specific databases are being created on damage to passive metal components and electrical cables. The OECD FIRE project completed its report into the combination of fires with other events; half of these events are linked to electric arcing. ENSI research projects address external events such as earthquakes, flooding, aircraft crashes and explosions. A project of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers is investigating pre-stressed reinforced concrete slabs under explosive loads. Other OECD projects consider the effects of severe earthquakes on reinforced concrete walls and pipelines. The ROES PSI project is expanding the application of methods for assessing operator errors that can negatively influence the course of an accident. System behaviour and accident sequences in nuclear power plants are analysed in conditions ranging from normal operations through to accidents involving core meltdown. The results of computer models are used for the quantitative identification of plant risk in probabilistic safety analyses. The STARS PSI project improves the basic principles for

  11. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  12. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy

    2010-03-23

    Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In

  13. research note condition scoring as a guide to the nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH NOTE. CONDITION SCORING AS A GUIDE TO THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE BEEF COW. AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE. Receipt of MS I9-08-1981. A. van Niekerk. Cedara College of Agriailture & Research Instiruft, Private Bag X9059, Pietermarinburg. (Key words:.

  14. Successfully Mentoring Undergraduates in Research: A How to Guide for Mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Michael; Henrich, Allison; Pudwell, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate research occurs in a variety of mathematical fields and in diverse settings, but all mentors of undergraduates face a number of common considerations. This article is a brief guide to help faculty with various levels of previous mentoring experience lead students in research projects. In particular, we discuss the issues of picking…

  15. Mentoring Graduate Students through the Action Research Journey Using Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joi A.; Molina, Sarina Chugani

    2018-01-01

    Our department has adopted action research (AR) projects as the culminating task for our master's degree candidates. This article presents our work on mentoring graduate students towards the completion of their final AR research projects and details the deliberate structures put in place to guide them through the AR process. These structures…

  16. Document de travail 6: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Aging populations may improve the standard of living. Recent research has shown that worldwide population changes could increase economic growth and promote equity across generations. View moreAging populations may improve the standard of living ...

  17. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Experience has shown us that development efforts that ignore local technologies, local systems of knowledge, and the local environment generally fail to achieve their desired objectives. Examples abound of western-lead teams of researchers failing to consult properly with indigenous populations,with the resulting ...

  18. Psicologia e deliberação legal no tribunal do júri brasileiro: proposição de uma agenda de pesquisa Psychology and legal deliberation in Brazil: proposition for a research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pilati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo propor uma agenda brasileira de pesquisa sobre a psicologia da deliberação legal e se justifica pela carência de pesquisas empíricas no Brasil sobre o tema. Considerando as peculiaridades do processo penal brasileiro, argumenta-se pela necessidade de criação de uma linha de investigação nacional sobre o tema, de forma a produzir conhecimento empírico consolidado em nossa tradição jurídico-processual. São sugeridos seis pontos de uma agenda para o desenvolvimento das atividades de pesquisa na área.This paper has the purpose of proposing a Brazilian research agenda about the psychology of legal deliberation and it is justified by a low quantity of empirical investigations in Brazil. Considering the peculiarities of the Brazilian juridical processes we argument for the necessity of creating a national line of scientific investigation about the field. The aim is to produce theory about social psychology of Brazilian legal deliberation processes. We suggest six agenda themes to be investigated in the Brazilian context.

  19. A Guide for Scientists Interested in Researching Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David

    2015-11-01

    Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for

  20. Guides to Aerospace Research and Development in NATO Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    companies and officials. It covers the United States. de Aerounves, de Enlidades Oficils y de Servicios Aeronauticos. 53. ed. ICAO- Canada and 170...twk Smeatig of Earth IUisumae European Space Research Organisation, Neuilly-sur-Seine ( France ). Space Applications Div. 2 ed. ESKO/IPFC-73-26-ADD.-1 N73...12 Awwsatie and Space Ihutry of France , Groupenient des Industries investigators, the experimental programmes, the sensors and remote platforms

  1. Eye tracking the user experience a practical guide to research

    CERN Document Server

    Bojko, Aga

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking is a widely used research method, but there are many questions and misconceptions about how to effectively apply it. Eye Tracking the User Experience the first how-to book about eye tracking for UX practitioners offers step-by-step advice on how to plan, prepare, and conduct eye tracking studies; how to analyze and interpret eye movement data; and how to successfully communicate eye tracking findings.

  2. Evacuation in emergencies: An annotated guide to research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore the relevant sources of knowledge regarding evacuation related issues among recent work published in the social sciences and emergency planning fields. In organizing the material, we looked primarily for articles that included either a theoretical or empirical basis for the findings. By empirical, we mean that the findings were based on data taken from actual research gained through surveys, questionnaires, interviews or a combination of these, and the use of secondary sources. The theoretical material consisted of work that built on past research or which explored the use of models. Some conceptual work, raising issues not covered by the general format, were included if they attempted to synthesize aspects of the literature now segmented or which asked additional questions about topics related to but not necessarily within the strict realm of research studies. The material was divided as to the emphasis placed on the individual or the organizational level of behavior. Empirically the individual, family or household response is easier to assess because of the bias that may intrude when individuals of organizations or agencies involved in the evacuation process are interviewed regarding their official status. The annotations of the literature as well as the specific key findings from each study, where appropriate, are organized by hazard type. An author index is provided.

  3. Guide for dosimetry in radiation research on food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This guide covers the minimum requirements for dosimetry and absorbed-dose validation needed to conduct research on the irradiation of food and agricultural products. Such research includes establishment of the quantitative relationship between the absorbed dose and the relevant effects in these products. This guide also describes the overall need for dosimetry in such research, and in reporting of the results. This guide is intended for use by research scientists in the food and agricultural communities, and not just scientists conducting irradiation research. It, therefore, includes more tutorial information than most other ASTM and ISO/ASTM dosimetry standards for radiation processing. This guide is in no way intended to limit the flexibility of the experimenter in the experimental design. However, the radiation source and experimental set up should be chosen such that the results of the experiment will be beneficial and understandable to other scientists, regulatory agencies, and the food and agricultural communities. The effects produced by ionizing radiation in biological systems depend on a large number of factors which may be physical, physiological, or chemical. Although not treated in detail in this guide, quantitative data of environmental factors that may affect the absorbed-dose response of dosimeters, such as temperature and moisture content in the food or agricultural products should be reported. The overall uncertainty in the absorbed-dose measurement and the inherent absorbed-dose range within the specimen should be taken into account in the design of an experiment. The guide covers research conducted using the following types of ionizing radiation: gamma rays, bremsstrahlung X-rays, and electron beams. This guide does not include other aspects of radiation processing research, such as planning of the experimental design. Dosimetry must be considered as an integral part of the experimental design. The guide does not include dosimetry for irradiator

  4. How to write a surgical clinical research protocol: literature review and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Briel, Matthias; Bucher, Heiner C; Oertli, Daniel; Dell-Kuster, Salome

    2014-02-01

    The study protocol is the core document of every clinical research project. Clinical research in studies involving surgical interventions presents some specific challenges, which need to be accounted for and described in the study protocol. The aim of this review is to provide a practical guide for developing a clinical study protocol for surgical interventions with a focus on methodologic issues. On the basis of an in-depth literature search of methodologic literature and on some cardinal published surgical trials and observational studies, the authors provides a 10-step guide for developing a clinical study protocol in surgery. This practical guide outlines key methodologic issues important when planning an ethically and scientifically sound research project involving surgical interventions, with the ultimate goal of providing high-level evidence relevant for health care decision making in surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Journalism Agenda Guide (JAG: Proposal for Applied Research in Journalism (ARJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenildo Luiz Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the Journalism Agenda Guide (JAG, a technical tool for managing journalistic content. Developed from an Applied Research in Journalism (ARJ methodology, the Guide is based on articulating concepts of Agenda Setting, Journalistic Relevance (JR, organizational productivity and Semantic Resolution (SR. The basis of the Guide is the relation between the relevance of a theme and how much space it should occupy in the news, subject to a particular organization’s production capacity. Incorporating the Guide as a tool for editorial management means adopting practices of accountability which affect both the ethical conduct an organization and its professionals adhere to and the sustainability of companies, becoming an important ally in the efforts to consolidate the credibility in journalism.

  6. Practical process research and development a guide for organic chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Neal G

    2014-01-01

    Designed to provide a comprehensive, step-by-step approach to organic process research and development in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural chemical industries, this book describes the steps taken, following synthesis and evaluation, to bring key compounds to market in a cost-effective manner. It describes hands-on, step-by-step, approaches to solving process development problems, including route, reagent, and solvent selection; optimising catalytic reactions; chiral syntheses; and ""green chemistry."" Second Edition highlights:  Reflects the current thinking in chemical p

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Reactor Experimenters' Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagle, C.D. (comp.)

    1982-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has three multipurpose research reactors which accommodate testing loops, target irradiations, and beam-type experiments. Since the experiments must share common or similar facilities and utilities, be designed and fabricated by the same groups, and meet the same safety criteria, certain standards for these have been developed. These standards deal only with those properties from which safety and economy of time and money can be maximized and do not relate to the intent of the experiment or quality of the data obtained. The necessity for, and the limitations of, the standards are discussed; and a compilation of general standards is included.

  8. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  9. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Nurse Delegation in Home Care: Research Guiding Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; Farnham, Jennifer; Reinhard, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    The current study evaluated nurse delegation in home care, a pilot program introduced in 2007 in New Jersey to promote home care options for consumers needing assistance with medical/nursing tasks. Findings on readiness for the program, barriers and facilitating factors, experience with the program, and recommendations are summarized and presented. Methods included surveys and interviews with participants in nurse delegation, observations of planning and implementation meetings, and review meeting minutes. Major findings were no negative outcomes for consumers, improvements in quality of life and quality of care for consumers, high readiness and increasing satisfaction with experience in delegation, perception of nurse delegation in home care as a valued option, and the challenges of ensuring adequate staffing. Subsequent changes in regulation in New Jersey are underway, translating this research into policy. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(9), 7-15.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Guide to energy R and D programs for universities and other research groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this guide to provide researchers in universities and other research institutions with summary-level information on the various research and development programs supported by the Department. Collectively, DOE programs support a wide range of research activities - from studies on the fundamental nature of matter and energy to exploratory and advanced research on the development of new technical approaches leading to new energy technologies. The guide summarizes, in one source, basic information on DOE's energy research and development and related programs, interests and needs. It supplies information on current Federal and DOE grant and contract policies and procedures and lists the names of DOE staff, by program area, from whom additional information may be obtained

  12. Neuroethics 1995-2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Guiding Themes of an Emerging Research Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leefmann, Jon; Levallois, Clement; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    In bioethics, the first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by the emergence of interest in the ethical, legal, and social aspects of neuroscience research. At the same time an ongoing extension of the topics and phenomena addressed by neuroscientists was observed alongside its rise as one of the leading disciplines in the biomedical science. One of these phenomena addressed by neuroscientists and moral psychologists was the neural processes involved in moral decision-making. Today both strands of research are often addressed under the label of neuroethics. To understand this development we recalled literature from 1995 to 2012 stored in the Mainz Neuroethics Database (i) to investigate the quantitative development of scientific publications in neuroethics; (ii) to explore changes in the topics of neuroethics research within the defined time interval; (iii) to illustrate the interdependence of different research topics within the neuroethics literature; (iv) to show the development of the distribution of neuroethics research on peer-reviewed journals; and (v) to display the academic background and affiliations of neuroethics researchers. Our analysis exposes that there has been a demonstrative increase of neuroethics research while the issues addressed under this label had mostly been present before the establishment of the field. We show that the research on the ethical, legal and social aspects of neuroscience research is hardly related to neuroscience research on moral decision-making and that the academic backgrounds and affiliations of many neuroethics researchers speak for a very close entanglement of neuroscience and neuroethics. As our article suggests that after more than one decade there still is no dominant agenda for the future of neuroethics research, it calls for more reflection about the theoretical underpinnings and prospects to establish neuroethics as a marked-off research field distinct from neuroscience and the diverse branches

  13. Neuroethics 1995–2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Guiding Themes of an Emerging Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leefmann, Jon; Levallois, Clement; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    In bioethics, the first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by the emergence of interest in the ethical, legal, and social aspects of neuroscience research. At the same time an ongoing extension of the topics and phenomena addressed by neuroscientists was observed alongside its rise as one of the leading disciplines in the biomedical science. One of these phenomena addressed by neuroscientists and moral psychologists was the neural processes involved in moral decision-making. Today both strands of research are often addressed under the label of neuroethics. To understand this development we recalled literature from 1995 to 2012 stored in the Mainz Neuroethics Database (i) to investigate the quantitative development of scientific publications in neuroethics; (ii) to explore changes in the topics of neuroethics research within the defined time interval; (iii) to illustrate the interdependence of different research topics within the neuroethics literature; (iv) to show the development of the distribution of neuroethics research on peer-reviewed journals; and (v) to display the academic background and affiliations of neuroethics researchers. Our analysis exposes that there has been a demonstrative increase of neuroethics research while the issues addressed under this label had mostly been present before the establishment of the field. We show that the research on the ethical, legal and social aspects of neuroscience research is hardly related to neuroscience research on moral decision-making and that the academic backgrounds and affiliations of many neuroethics researchers speak for a very close entanglement of neuroscience and neuroethics. As our article suggests that after more than one decade there still is no dominant agenda for the future of neuroethics research, it calls for more reflection about the theoretical underpinnings and prospects to establish neuroethics as a marked-off research field distinct from neuroscience and the diverse branches

  14. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  15. At the Edge of US Immigration’s “Halt of Folly:” Data, Information, and Research Needs in the Event of Legalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Riosmena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all accounts of the state of the US immigration system point to its patently broken condition, with the presence of almost 12 million people without legal status paramount to this characterization. Because of several recent developments including continued and renewed interest in regularizing the status of most unauthorized migrants in executive and legislative branch agendas, the Center for Migration Studies of New York, with support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, convened a group of immigration specialists, researchers, scholars, and advocates in Washington, DC in September 2013 to discuss potential data, information, and research needs in the event of the enactment of large-scale legalization programs for the unauthorized population.This paper describes the results of this one-and-a-half day discussion. It begins with a description of the contours of a legalization program if it were to follow a similar form as S. 744, the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act passed by the Senate in June 2013. In addition to being the most recent effort in this area, S. 744 includes a relatively complex set of conditions for “earning” legalization. A number of data, information, and research needs would need to be met to ensure the proper implementation of such a program. First, planning for effective local outreach and service delivery efforts requires estimating the eligible population at finer-scale geographies; understanding financial and time disincentives to apply and adhere to the program and skill levels required; assessing capacity in service delivery relative to the size and service needs of the local eligible population; tracking the progress of applicants through the legalization process; and understanding effective forms of outreach and service delivery. Second, assessing the effects of legalization on immigrant integration, future immigration, and fiscal and economic life

  16. Fundamental Nursing: Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the effect of a Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) implementation in a fundamental baccalaureate-nursing course is one way to determine its effectiveness. To date, the use of POGIL from a research perspective in fundamental nursing has not been documented in the literature. The purpose of the study was to measure the…

  17. Actively Teaching Research Methods with a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning approaches have shown to improve student learning outcomes and improve the experience of students in the classroom. This article compares a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning style approach to a more traditional teaching method in an undergraduate research methods course. Moving from a more traditional learning environment to…

  18. CG-DAR-1: Guide to the declassified areas of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    This guide, which is based on classification of information by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and on subsequent declassification actions by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, is intended to identify those areas of nuclear research and development that have been removed from the Restricted Data (RD) category and declassified

  19. Legal consciousness and LGBT research: the role of the law in the everyday lives of LGBT individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    The law occupies a prominent place in the everyday lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and the continuing regulation and policing of sexuality and gender weighs heavily on many people who identify as LGBT. Despite remarkable progress in the area of LGBT civil rights, LGBT individuals in the United States still lack formal equality and are denied many of the protections that are afforded other historically disadvantaged groups. These legal disabilities represent an ongoing source of minority stress and can produce a correspondingly high degree of legal consciousness within the LGBT community.

  20. Novel Study Guides for Biochemistry Meaningful Learning in Biology: a Design-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, C ; Galembeck, E. Costa, C ; Galembeck, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties for biochemistry learning is the persistence of traditional teaching methods, based on transmission and memorization of abstract and detailed information, usually in a decontextualized way. Such scenario results in surface learning and content reproduction. In order to address these problems, three interventions in a discipline (Metabolism for Biology majors were applied, in the form of innovative teaching tools (study guides. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to evaluate the impact of these interventions on interest, motivation, and learning of the metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the development, application, and evaluation of two study guides – one created from a problem used as a contextual connection for glycogen metabolism study and another embedding an integrative view based on glutamate metabolism. Both materials were guided by broad themes like evolution, metabolic adaptation, and comparative biochemistry. The development of the study guides combined submicroscopic (molecular and macroscopic (body, environment levels, aiming to motivate reading and discussion. A design-based research with cycles of application and assessment was carried out, by means of classroom observation, grade analysis in written exams, and students’ interviews. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In general, based on in-class student feedback to professors and to the researcher in the interviews, the study guides arouse curiosity and fostered peer discussion. Final average grades indicate a good global performance in all proposed activities. Whole data from study guides’ application in classroom evidenced their impact on interest, motivation, and learning. The strategy of developing problem or integrative situation linking molecular (micro and contextual (macro levels were helpful to foster critical thinking and to value topics of scientific literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis and interpretation of the results point to benefits for

  1. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  2. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  3. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  4. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Geary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  6. Learning, teaching and researching on the internet a practical guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, S D

    2014-01-01

    Learning, Teaching and Researching on the Internet: A Practical Guide for Social Scientists is directed at students and academic staff who want to be able to access Internet resources quickly and efficiently without needing to become IT experts. The emphasis throughout is on the harnessing of the large volume of potentially useful Internet resources to everyday requirements, whether these be focused on learning, teaching or research. The Internet is a significantly rich information, communication and research resource for all those involved in higher education, whether they be students, academ

  7. Socialisation to Interdisciplinary Legal Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund

    2018-01-01

    This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....

  8. PROPOSING AN INTEGRATIVE-PROGRESSIVE MODEL IN HANDLING TROUBLED INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS IN THE TRANSIT AREA (A SOCIO-LEGAL RESEARCH IN TANJUNG PINANG CITY, KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung Pinang City of the Riau Islands Province (Provinsi Kepulauan Riau is a transit area for the troubled Indonesian overseas workers from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indonesian National Board for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia/BNP2TKI reported that 15,105 troubled Indonesian overseas workers were deported from January to November 2014 via Tanjung Pinang City.  Previous research revealed that citizens of Tanjung Pinang City criticized the treatments given by the local government to the deported workers by reason that they were not the citizens of the Riau Islands Province, yet the local government has to provide shelters and funds prior to returning them to their home towns. The treatments for the deported workers in the transit area have also raised pros and cons among the stakeholders who are in charge of handling the deported workers. This circumstance may not occur if a special regional regulation of the Riau Islands Province has been issued to govern the troubled Indonesian overseas workers in the transit area.  Due to this vacuum of law, this research aims to establish a mechanism in handling the deported workers in the transit area by designing an integrative-progressive model which can be adopted by the stakeholders. The model is to link the legal and non- legal issues and as well as to provide the collaborative mechanisms for the stakeholders based on the approaches of the integrative and progressive legal theory.

  9. Taxation Of Partnership - Legal national reports for the Nordic Tax Research Council′s annual meeting, 2015 in Aarhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilling Axel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This joint report includes the five legal national reports on the taxation of partnership in the Nordic countries. The general contents of these reports are summarized and thoroughly analyzed in Liselotte Madsen’s General report, published in this issue of the NTaxJ. For additional information, details on legislative measures etc. we find it important, however, to also publish the national reports in full length. We hope you will find it valuable as well.

  10. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  11. Mindfulness Research Guide: a New Paradigm for Managing Empirical Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of human health continues to grow substantially through publication in empirical journals. These journals, which serve as the warehouses of scientific knowledge, continue to publish vast amounts of empirical information. This abundance of information, which promotes an understanding of and advances in human health, is also a precursor of information overload that can result in unintended and negative effects in both empirical and applied fields. Researchers and practitioners also struggle with this abundance as they are often pressured by an inability to stay abreast with the vast influx of current information. I offer a brief discussion of a new paradigm to manage empirical health information. The Mindfulness Research Guide serves as a case example for use as a publicly available specialized electronic information management system that endeavors to manage, organize, centralize, and deliver a wide range of information on a specific health construct—mindfulness. As empirical information continues to accumulate and guide our knowledge of human health at an unprecedented pace, new information management paradigms such as the Mindfulness Research Guide will be needed to organize, maintain, and deliver information in an easily accessible and timely fashion. PMID:21731591

  12. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  13. Law in the laboratory a guide to the ethics of federally funded science research

    CERN Document Server

    Charrow, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation together fund more than $40 billon of research annually in the United States and around the globe. These large public expenditures come with strings, including a complex set of laws and guidelines that regulate how scientists may use NIH and NSF funds, how federally funded research may be conducted, and who may have access to or own the product of the research. Until now, researchers have had little instruction on the nature of these laws and how they work. But now, with Robert P. Charrow’s Law in the Laboratory, they have a readable and entertaining introduction to the major ethical and legal considerations pertaining to research under the aegis of federal science funding. For any academic whose position is grant funded, or for any faculty involved in securing grants, this book will be an essential reference manual. And for those who want to learn how federal legislation and regulations affect laboratory research, Charrow’s primer wil...

  14. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  15. An ecological model of workplace bullying: a guide for intervention and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    The origins and outcomes of workplace bullying can be understood through the use of a conceptual model which is based on the ecological perspective. This model portrays the work environment as a series of nested, interconnected layers that exist within society as a whole. These layers are society (macrosystem), the corporation (exosystem), the co-workers and managers of the bully and target (mesosystem), and the bully and target (microsystem). Workplace bullying does not occur in isolation. Elements at each of these levels serve as antecedents to bullying, and the outcomes of bullying are manifested at each of these levels. These antecedents and outcomes need to be considered when developing interventions that target workplace bullying. The model can be used as a theoretical framework to guide intervention planning and evaluation, and can also be used to guide the formulation of questions for empirical research. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  17. Draft Revised Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the European Organization for Nuclear Research concerning the Legal Status of the Said Organization in France - Changes to be made to the English and French Texts of the Draft

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Draft Revised Agreement Between the Government of the French Republic and the European Organization for Nuclear Research concerning the Legal Status of the Said Organization in France - Changes to be made to the English and French Texts of the Draft

  18. Doing global science a guide to responsible conduct in the global research enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    InterAcademy Partnership

    2016-01-01

    This concise introductory guide explains the values that should inform the responsible conduct of scientific research in today's global setting. Featuring accessible discussions and ample real-world scenarios, Doing Global Science covers proper conduct, fraud and bias, the researcher's responsibilities to society, communication with the public, and much more. The book places special emphasis on the international and highly networked environment in which modern research is done, presenting science as an enterprise that is being transformed by globalization, interdisciplinary research projects, team science, and information technologies. Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is required reading for students, practitioners, and anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science today.

  19. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  1. A Framework for Research in Gamified Mobile Guide Applications using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Doumanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Guides are mobile applications that provide players with local and location-based services (LBS, such as navigation assistance, where and when they need them most. Advances in mobile technologies in recent years have enabled the gamification of these applications, opening up new opportunities to transfer education and culture through game play. However, adding traditional game elements such as PBLs (points, badges, and leaderboards alone cannot ensure that the intended learning outcomes will be met, as the player’s cognitive resources are shared between the application and the surrounding environment. This distribution of resources prevents players from easily immersing themselves into the educational scenario. Adding artificial conversational characters (ECAs that simulate the social norms found in real-life human-to-human guide scenarios has the potential to address this problem and improve the player’s experience and learning of cultural narratives [1]. Although significant progress has been made towards creating game-like mobile guides with ECAs ([2], [3], there is still a lack of a unified framework that enables researchers and practitioners to investigate the potential effects of such applications to players and how to approach the concepts of player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability in this context. This paper presents a theoretically-well supported research framework consisted of four key components: differences in players, different features of the gamified task, aspects of how the ECA looks, sound or behaves and different mobile environments. Furthermore, it provides based on this framework a working definition of what player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability are in the context of game-like mobile guide applications. Finally, a synthesis of the results of six empirical studies conducted within this research framework is discussed and a series of design guidelines for the effective gamification

  2. Obtaining active parental consent for school-based research: a guide for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Kypri, Kypros; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca

    2009-06-01

    Schools increasingly require researchers to obtain active parental consent for students to participate in health research. We sought to identify effective strategies for the recruitment of child research participants through schools. A search of Medline, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, ProQuest 5000 and the Cochrane Library electronic databases was conducted for the period 1988 to 2008. The review found evidence that the following strategies may be effective in enhancing participation rates: 1) promotion of the research to school principals, teachers, parents and students; 2) dissemination of study information using methods allowing direct contact with parents (i.e. telephone or face-to-face); 3) provision of incentives to teachers, students and at a class level; 4) making reminder contacts; and 5) having a member of the research team co-ordinate and closely monitor the recruitment process. Application of these strategies should reduce the risk of non-response and other biases that result from selective non-participation. Further randomised controlled trials of these and other strategies are required to strengthen the evidence base.

  3. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves Carballo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  4. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin [Department of Radiology, Tzu-Chi University and Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsin Wu, Tung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Hui, E-mail: yhhuang@isu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO{sub 2} probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153{+-}0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693{+-}0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO{sub 2} probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  5. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J.S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  6. Teacher Emotion Research: Introducing a Conceptual Model to Guide Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Mansfield, Caroline; Dobozy, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a conceptual model of teacher emotion through a review of teacher emotion research published between 2003 and 2013. By examining 82 publications regarding teacher emotion, the main aim of the review was to identify how teacher emotion was conceptualised in the literature and develop a conceptual model to…

  7. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  8. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  9. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  10. Behaviour Guides and Law. Research Perspectives on the (InFormal and its Currently Shifting Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Harrasser / Elisabeth Timm

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The juridification of social life in the modern bourgeois world was long understood as a triumph of rationality over particular interests, as the “civilisation” of physical violence. For some time now, this grand narrative of the modern world has been criticized as a specific historical case, as Eurocentric and bourgeois. Additionally, the concept and practice of modern, national sovereign statehood is being challenged in many ways. Individuals are also experiencing an unbounding of their “sovereignty”. The article sums up different disciplines’ research into the fields of behaviour guides and law. In doing so, it sketches out research perspectives intended to transcend the either-or dichotomy of the previous debates (ethics / particular / informal / personal / emotional-cultural vs. law / universal / formal / institutional and envisions new analytical assessments of these two poles.

  11. Legal aspects of financing solar-heated residential structures. Final report of Innovative Research Program Subtask, December 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, R.L.

    1978-10-01

    Through both interviews with primary and secondary mortgage market lending institutions and a search of the relevant literature, the major concerns and attitudes of financial institutions toward solar homes are reviewed, unique problems encountered in making loans on such structures are discussed and special requirements placed upon solar home loans are explored. At present, these are seen as centered around: (1) placing an appropriate valuation on a solar-heated home, (2) assessing the technical feasibility of a solar energy system, and (3) determining what energy savings might accrue through installation of a solar energy system and how such savings can best be integrated into the lending process. Some of the most pertinent literature on this subject is reviewed and the goals to be strived for in protecting solar access are set forth. Negative solar easements and restrictive covenants are seen as the most appropriate legal tools for assuring adequate solar access. Seven elements which must be addressed when describing the air space to be protected by an effective easement or covenant are identified. Appendices are included which show how one innovative lending institution has developed a policy for financing solar homes based upon these elements. Problems with regard to obtaining title insurance are discussed, and the enforceability and transferability of solar access rights are detailed.

  12. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  13. A guide to critiquing a research paper on clinical supervision: enhancing skills for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, A; Lipp, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to do two things: First, we want to show the reader how to critique a published research paper. The second aim is to take the reader through the various stages of critiquing using a guide. In the paper, we explain at each stage the research terms that can deter the novice critic from reading and understanding the findings in research. From this we hope the reader will have developed an ability to do their own critiquing, so that they are better informed about the quality of research that influences nursing practice. In this paper we have taken a previously published paper on the effectiveness of clinical supervision and undertaken a systematic critique of the merits of this quantitative research using a recognized critiquing framework compiled by Coughlan et al. (2007). Our purpose was twofold: First, we wanted to demonstrate the various stages of critiquing a paper in order that the reader might make an informed judgment of the quality and relevance of the research. The reader/critic is then able to decide whether to use this research in their own practice. Second, we wanted to assist the reader to develop their own critical, analytical skills through methodically appraising the merits of published research. Nursing as an evidence-based profession requires nurses at both pre- and post-registration level to be able to understand, synthesize and critique research, this being a fundamental part of many nursing curricula. These have become core skills to acquire because implementing up-to-date evidence is the cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. We have provided in this paper a template for critiquing, which is based on our combined experiences as academics specifically in teaching at the bachelor, master's and doctoral levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Model-guided fieldwork: practical guidelines for multidisciplinary research on wildlife ecological and epidemiological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restif, Olivier; Hayman, David T S; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Plowright, Raina K; George, Dylan B; Luis, Angela D; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bowen, Richard A; Fooks, Anthony R; O'Shea, Thomas J; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

    2012-10-01

    Infectious disease ecology has recently raised its public profile beyond the scientific community due to the major threats that wildlife infections pose to biological conservation, animal welfare, human health and food security. As we start unravelling the full extent of emerging infectious diseases, there is an urgent need to facilitate multidisciplinary research in this area. Even though research in ecology has always had a strong theoretical component, cultural and technical hurdles often hamper direct collaboration between theoreticians and empiricists. Building upon our collective experience of multidisciplinary research and teaching in this area, we propose practical guidelines to help with effective integration among mathematical modelling, fieldwork and laboratory work. Modelling tools can be used at all steps of a field-based research programme, from the formulation of working hypotheses to field study design and data analysis. We illustrate our model-guided fieldwork framework with two case studies we have been conducting on wildlife infectious diseases: plague transmission in prairie dogs and lyssavirus dynamics in American and African bats. These demonstrate that mechanistic models, if properly integrated in research programmes, can provide a framework for holistic approaches to complex biological systems. © 2012 Crown copyright.

  15. Mapping the Landscape of Qualitative Research on Intercultural Communication. A Hitchhiker's Guide to the Methodological Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Otten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An exploration of the interdisciplinary field of intercultural communication reveals both very inspiring thoughts and instruments to analyze culture in human interaction, and a confusing diversity of methods and arguments to deal with. In this article a "conceptual metaphor" (LAKOFF & JOHNSON, 1980 of exploring unknown territories and spaces is proposed for establishing a heuristic frame to maneuver through a rapidly expanding "galaxy" of research on intercultural communication. The aim is to provide a general framework to assess the methodological coherence of empirical studies on intercultural communication, as well as their relative position in the wider field of qualitative social research methodologies. Three dimensions will be discussed: 1 The theoretical question of the underlying cultural concept of a research project, 2 the methodical question of the basic research design and modes of analysis, and 3 the question of generalizations drawn from the empirical findings. These dimensions constitute what we call a methodological galaxy in which current trends and developments of the field of intercultural communication can be located and traced. The suggested framework may serve as a guiding "compass," using a set of "etic" parameters for navigation while respecting the "emic" nature of qualitative approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901520

  16. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  17. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  18. Theory-guided selection of discrimination measures for racial/ ethnic health disparities research among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Clay, Olivio J; Ford, Chandra L; Stewart, Anita L

    2012-09-01

    Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This article illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discrimination and health. First, we describe three theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the study of perceived discrimination and health-stress-process models, life course models, and the Public Health Critical Race (PHCR) praxis. We then review four widely-used measures of discrimination, comparing their content and describing how well they address key aspects of each framework, and discussing potential areas of modification. Using theory to guide measure selection can help improve understanding of how perceived discrimination may contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among older adults.

  19. Getting Started with Market Research for Out-of-School Time Planning: A Resource Guide for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokela, Julianne; Steblea, Ingrid; Shea, Linda; Denny, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Conducting market research for out-of-school-time planning can replace assumptions with facts, give kids and parents a voice to express their needs and preferences, and help build stakeholder buy-in and support. This practical guide shows community leaders, policymakers and out-of-school-time practitioners how to use market research to make more…

  20. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  3. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne S.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Faith, Myles S.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Although research shows that “food parenting practices” can impact children’s diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs – coercive control, structure, and autonomy support – as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization. PMID:26724487

  4. Legal consciousness and legal culture in the context of legal education of future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. M. Alieksieieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts

  5. Developing an organizing framework to guide nursing research in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Hooke, Mary C.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Landier, Wendy; Haase, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and application of an organizing research framework to guide COG Nursing research. Data Sources Research articles, reports and meeting minutes Conclusion An organizing research framework helps to outline research focus and articulate the scientific knowledge being produced by nurses in the pediatric cooperative group. Implication for Nursing Practice The use of an organizing framework for COG nursing research can facilitate clinical nurses’ understanding of how children and families sustain or regain optimal health when faced with a pediatric cancer diagnosis through interventions designed to promote individual and family resilience. The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is the sole National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported cooperative pediatric oncology clinical trials group and the largest organization in the world devoted exclusively to pediatric cancer research. It was founded in 2000 following the merger of the four legacy NCI-supported pediatric clinical trials groups (Children’s Cancer Group [CCG], Pediatric Oncology Group [POG], National Wilms Tumor Study Group, and Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group). The COG currently has over 200 member institutions across North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe and a multidisciplinary membership of over 8,000 pediatric, radiation, and surgical oncologists, nurses, clinical research associates, pharmacists, behavioral scientists, pathologists, laboratory scientists, patient/parent advocates and other pediatric cancer specialists. The COG Nursing Discipline was formed from the merger of the legacy CCG and POG Nursing Committees, and current membership exceeds 2000 registered nurses. The discipline has a well-developed infrastructure that promotes nursing involvement throughout all levels of the organization, including representation on disease, protocol, scientific, executive and other administrative committees (e.g., nominating committee, data safety monitoring

  6. AudioGuides at a National Research Laboratory Supporting Visitors With Special Needs: Initial Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Lewis, H.; Abshire, W.; Mann, L.

    2003-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Laboratory offers the public an opportunity to visit an internationally recognized research laboratory housed in an architectural landmark located in a dramatic geological setting. The Mesa Lab's exhibits are viewed by over 80,000 people each year. Exhibits provide information about NCAR's scientific mission, current research efforts, technology, and the societal benefits of weather and climate research. Nearly 13,000 of NCAR's visitors are served with staff-led guided tours, including 3,000 students in school groups. Frequently, these tours are tailored to address the interests, ages, nationality, and special needs of the visitors. In June 2003, an audioguide was unveiled in English and Spanish versions for both adults and children. Based on preliminary summer usage figures, the audioguides may reach an additional 7,000 visitors in the coming year, many of whom may have special needs. With this in mind, the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Office of Education and Outreach (EO) contracted local experts as advisors on the needs of people with low-vision, hearing loss, and Spanish language accessibility as the audioguide was developed. The script was written with the help of scientists and an internationally recognized audioguide production firm. Since the installation of the audioguide in July, visitors of all ages appear to be enthusiastic about this service and better focused on their learning experiences while viewing the exhibits. Interviews are helping EO to learn more about how the audioguide is helpful or may be revised to more effectively serve visitors in general as well as visitors with special needs. The audioguide was made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation Geoscience Education Program and the Friends of UCAR Fund.

  7. Functional Bowel Disorders: A Roadmap to Guide the Next Generation of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Farrugia, Gianrico; Hamilton, Frank A; Mawe, Gary M; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Wiley, John W

    2018-02-01

    In June 2016, the National Institutes of Health hosted a workshop on functional bowel disorders (FBDs), particularly irritable bowel syndrome, with the objective of elucidating gaps in current knowledge and recommending strategies to address these gaps. The workshop aimed to provide a roadmap to help strategically guide research efforts during the next decade. Attendees were a diverse group of internationally recognized leaders in basic and clinical FBD research. This document summarizes the results of their deliberations, including the following general conclusions and recommendations. First, the high prevalence, economic burden, and impact on quality of life associated with FBDs necessitate an urgent need for improved understanding of FBDs. Second, preclinical discoveries are at a point that they can be realistically translated into novel diagnostic tests and treatments. Third, FBDs are broadly accepted as bidirectional disorders of the brain-gut axis, differentially affecting individuals throughout life. Research must integrate each component of the brain-gut axis and the influence of biological sex, early-life stressors, and genetic and epigenetic factors in individual patients. Fourth, research priorities to improve diagnostic and management paradigms include enhancement of the provider-patient relationship, longitudinal studies to identify risk and protective factors of FBDs, identification of biomarkers and endophenotypes in symptom severity and treatment response, and incorporation of emerging "-omics" discoveries. These paradigms can be applied by well-trained clinicians who are familiar with multimodal treatments. Fifth, essential components of a successful program will include the generation of a large, validated, broadly accessible database that is rigorously phenotyped; a parallel, linkable biorepository; dedicated resources to support peer-reviewed, hypothesis-driven research; access to dedicated bioinformatics expertise; and oversight by funding

  8. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  9. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL-LEGAL RESEARCH OF THE PHENOMENON OF THE GENDER AS THE FACTOR OF THE SOCIAL STATUS OF THE UKRAINIAN WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. Under the conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the European community, there is an urgent need to restructure all social institutions, freeing them from all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of gender. Modern problems of the state's socioeconomic development require a new look at the functional roles of men and women, as well as the understanding that the political, economic, cultural future of society depends on overcoming gender stereotypes that are deeply rooted in the social and individual consciousness and inhibit social progress, and also the development of democracy. That is why, today, it is extremely important to study the issue of social influence and the role of women and determine their social status against the backdrop of the historical development of our state. Purpose. The article studies the emergence and adoption of the phenomenon of gender as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman in the historical, philosophical and legal realm. Methodology. In the research process the authors used the methods of analyzing and synthesizing historical sources to study the content and main provisions of philosophical concepts and legal norms that formed the social status of a Ukrainian woman at different historical periods of society development, with their subsequent comparison and generalization. Originality. The work further develops the theory of gender processes with the use of interdisciplinary approaches to the study of the phenomenon of gender in the historical, philosophical and legal field as a factor of the social status of the Ukrainian woman, to critically re-evaluate the value guidelines on the construction of modern society and the formation of new ideas about the role and model of behavior of men and women and their interaction in society. Conclusions. For a long time, the social status of women was formed under the influence of philosophical views and concepts, slowly turned into

  10. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  11. HTA and its legal issues: a framework for identifying legal issues in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.

  12. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  13. ASPECTOS ÉTICOS Y LEGALES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN BRASIL ASPECTOS ÉTICOS E LEGAIS DA PESQUISA CIENTÍFICA NO BRASIL ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Silva

    2010-06-01

    ção humana, das pesquisas com populações indígenas, das pesquisas em genética humana, dos projetos multicêntricos e das bases de dados biológicas. Pode-se concluir que existem leis de amparo à pesquisa científica no Brasil, estabelecendo prioridades nacionais, determinando direitos e deveres dos pesquisadores e dos sujeitos de pesquisa. Existe um sistema nacional de regulação ética; todavía estabelecido por resoluções do poder executivo. As resoluções incluem diversas temáticas associadas com a investigação científica, incluindo as diretrizes mundiais acerca da ética em pesquisa, considerando até a Declaração de Helsinki.This article has searched and analyzed the regulatory process of the ethics of scientific research in Brazil. The methodology consisted in a systematic review, characterized by a bibliographical and documental study, results being analyzed by the content analysis technique. Legal documents studied dealt mainly with constitutional guaranties associated with scientific research, system of ethics regulation, definition of user, clinical investigations, investigations with foreign cooperation, treatment and diagnosis safeguards, human reproduction research, research with aboriginal populations, human genetics research, multicenter projects and biological data bases. It can be concluded that there are protection laws for scientific research in Brazil, establishing national priorities, determining researchers and research subjects rights and duties. There is a national system of ethics regulation established by resolutions of legislative power. Resolutions include diverse topics associated with scientific research, in line with world guidelines for research ethics, in this case the Helsinki Declaration.

  14. Lexical processing and organization in bilingual first language acquisition: Guiding future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    A rich body of work in adult bilinguals documents an interconnected lexical network across languages, such that early word retrieval is language independent. This literature has yielded a number of influential models of bilingual semantic memory. However, extant models provide limited predictions about the emergence of lexical organization in bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Empirical evidence from monolingual infants suggests that lexical networks emerge early in development as children integrate phonological and semantic information. These findings tell us little about the interaction between 2 languages in early bilingual memory. To date, an understanding of when and how languages interact in early bilingual development is lacking. In this literature review, we present research documenting lexical-semantic development across monolingual and bilingual infants. This is followed by a discussion of current models of bilingual language representation and organization and their ability to account for the available empirical evidence. Together, these theoretical and empirical accounts inform and highlight unexplored areas of research and guide future work on early bilingual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Guiding research and practice: a conceptual model for aerobic exercise training in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Yu

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a global, epidemic problem affecting mainly older adults with tremendous social and financial burdens. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease showed reduced physical activity and cognitive changes that are probably amenable to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to guide future aerobic exercise research and practice by synthesizing the current state of the science on aerobic exercise training in older adults with AD. The literature review found 12 qualified studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review and revealed six constructs (aerobic exercise training, physical fitness, physical performance, activities of daily living limitations, cognition, and psychological and behavioral symptoms), which composed the Functional Impact of aerobic exercise Training in Alzheimer's disease (FIT-AD) model. The state of science on each construct in older adults with Alzheimer's disease is reviewed and summarized. The emerging evidence suggests that aerobic exercise training might positively impacts all five other constructs. The implications of the FIT-AD model for future research and practice are discussed highlighted.

  16. What is the contribution of the dialogue with social sciences for Brazilian legal research? An analysis from an empirical study in the small claims criminal court in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ribeiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes some observations regarding a broader research in which both literature and methods from social sciences were employed. These resources have become important instruments for understanding legal actors' speeches and their judicial practices, with an emphasis on the analysis of consensus building in the criminal justice system of the city of Rio de Janeiro. This emphasis was justified because in the course of such analysis it was possible to observe law through a non-normative perspective. In order to do so, we have compared the speeches (both legal and doctrinal with the practices and speeches of the actors themselves about the "consensus" as a category. By discussing the results obtained with this exercise, we expect to contribute to the reflection about the paths of the Brazilian legal research and the indispensable dialogue with contributions from other fields.

  17. The Decision Maker's Guide to Applied Planning, Organization, Administration, Research, Evaluation, Information Processing and Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Neil S.

    This guide is an attempt to eliminate the need for decision makers to suffer from many of their future errors. It is an attempt to insure that the "right" decision is made the first time. Briefly, the theory is that one can learn from other peoples' experience and thus avoid making future mistakes. This volume is a guide to other…

  18. [Research development of surface hydrophilicity and lubrication modification of interventional guide wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Liu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Surface lubricity is one of the important performance criteria for interventional guide wire. In this paper, a review of the methods of surface hydrophilicity and lubrication modification of interventional guide wire is presented, including their fundamental principles, effects and some relative applications. These methods all have their own advantages and disadvantages, therefore, limitations of experimental conditions need to be taken into account.

  19. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Metallurgy Technology. Interim Report. Research 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Carl, Jr.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the information necessary for writing educational specifications for facilities to house technical education programs in metallurgy. It is organized in these parts: (1) Part I discusses the major purpose, underlying assumptions, recent instructional trends, and guiding principles utilized in the…

  20. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  1. Legal and security requirements for the air transportation of cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacterial cells for legitimate research and analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Meriluoto, J A O; Codd, G A

    2006-05-25

    Cyanotoxins are now recognised by international and national health and environment agencies as significant health hazards. These toxins, and the cells which produce them, are also vulnerable to exploitation for illegitimate purposes. Cyanotoxins are increasingly being subjected to national and international guidelines and regulations governing their production, storage, packaging and transportation. In all of these respects, cyanotoxins are coming under the types of controls imposed on a wide range of chemicals and other biotoxins of microbial, plant and animal origin. These controls apply whether cyanotoxins are supplied on a commercial basis, or stored and transported in non-commercial research collaborations and programmes. Included are requirements concerning the transportation of these toxins as documented by the United Nations, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and national government regulations. The transportation regulations for "dangerous goods", which by definition include cyanotoxins, cover air mail, air freight, and goods checked in and carried on flights. Substances include those of determined toxicity and others of suspected or undetermined toxicity, covering purified cyanotoxins, cyanotoxin-producing laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria. Implications of the regulations for the packaging and air-transport of dangerous goods, as they apply to cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacteria, are discussed.

  2. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  3. A newly developed technique of wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides of cold neutron research facilities at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In

    2012-01-01

    KAERI developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron research facilities at HANARO from 2003 to 2010. In 2008, the old plug shutter and instruments were removed, and a new plug and primary shutter were installed as the first cold neutron delivery system at HANARO. At the beginning of 2010, all the neutron guides and accessories had been successfully installed as well. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in pile plug assembly with in pile guides, the primary shutter with in shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with secondary shutter, and the neutron guides in the neutron guide hall. Three kinds of glass materials were selected with optimum lengths by considering their lifetime, shielding, maintainability and cost as well. Radiation damage of the guides can occur on the coating and glass by neutron capturing in the glass. It is a big challenge to inspect a guide failure because of the difficult surrounding environment, such as high level radiation, limited working space, and massive hard work for removing and reinstalling the shielding blocks as shown in Fig 1. Therefore, KAERI has developed a wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides using an infrared light camera mounted on the vehicle moving in the guide

  4. Legal Officer Civil Law Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    you observe him walk ? d. What was the condition of his eyes, etc.? e. What was lie drinking? f. How much? g. Over what period of time? 2. In many...proper equipment due to lack of availability (identify) (3) Not using proper equipment due to lack of comfort or " sissy " -connotations (identify) (4

  5. A guide to radiological research. The Research Sub-Committee of the Board of the Faculty of Clinical Radiology, the Royal College of Radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    There are broad categories of radiological research. Basic science research undertaken in universities or in manufacturing companies may lead to new techniques or even new products like MRI, CT or contrast media. MRI is a product of university based research, while CT developed within a manufacturing company. Basic science type research is vital for the continuing development of our speciality, but requires considerable resources, teamwork, and research/management expertise. The best place for an interested radiologist to learn such skills is within university departments, typically in the context of an MD, Ph.D. or similar degree course. Clinical radiological research is of equal importance and, in the UK, underpins our international reputation for radiological excellence. Clinical research may be defined as research requiring patients. It can therefore only be carried out in hospitals and clinics. New technologies, drugs, indications, procedures etc., all require clinical research to validate them. The role of the clinical radiologist is pivotal to the proper conduct of clinical imaging research and technology assessment. This is not confined to university and teaching centres, but is of equal importance in district general hospitals. Results from clinical research carried out 'in the field' are the true test of our specialty. This research guide is sponsored by the RCR. Its target is radiologists and others carrying out clinical research within departments of radiology. If it stimulates Fellows and Members of the RCR to conduct more and better research then it will have succeeded in its basic objective. Research is always planned. It is based on observation, measurement and the testing of ideas or hypotheses. It is presented to peers for criticism and then published to be available to all for review. Research is always hard work and requires discipline. Like many things the ability to conduct research improves with practice. Many radiologists have not had much

  6. ENHANCING THE LEGAL PROFESSION’S CAPACITY FOR INNOVATION: THE PROMISE OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE AND ACTION RESEARCH FOR INCREASING ACCESS TO JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M Leering

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent national reports have documented growing justice gaps in Canada and have identified a compelling need for innovation in the justice sector to better meet the needs of the public. Nurturing a greater capacity for individual, collective, and critical reflection will ensure the legal profession is much better equipped to respond creatively and strategically to a lack of equal access to justice. In this article, I explore the generative and transformative potential of reflective practice – an important professional competency in other professional disciplines, but under-theorized in law, and action research – a dynamic and flexible form of qualitative research for supporting a culture of innovation in the legal profession and the justice system. Reflective capacity is a crucial enabler of innovative thinking, and it undergirds approaches to encouraging individual and systems change emerging from the organizational learning and innovation literature. An enhanced capacity for reflection will also support more generative and “future-forming” dialogues within the profession and between justice system stakeholders. Furthermore, systematically reflecting on disorienting empirical data about the troubling state of access to justice could develop an “access to justice consciousness” in law students and legal professionals, leading to a stronger willingness to take action to narrow the justice gaps. Introducing action research as an unpretentious and effective enabler of profound transformation and innovation in individual and organizational practices offers significant promise for tackling the “wicked problem” of access to justice. Practical illustrations of action research as an enabler of innovation drawn from legal practice are provided.   De récents rapports font état de lacunes croissantes du système de justice canadien et de la nécessité impérieuse d’innover dans le secteur de la justice afin de mieux répondre aux

  7. The Style Guide: Research and Writing at the Joint Military Intelligence College (Edition 2)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Major, James

    1996-01-01

    ... are consolidated in chapters with the papers to which they apply, for convenient reference. Most appendixes in the first edition of This guide follows The Chicago Manual of Style and the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual...

  8. Small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and interchangeable IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable interchangeable imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a

  9. Research on gesture recognition of augmented reality maintenance guiding system based on improved SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shouwei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Bin; Ma, Dongxi

    2014-09-01

    Interaction is one of the key techniques of augmented reality (AR) maintenance guiding system. Because of the complexity of the maintenance guiding system's image background and the high dimensionality of gesture characteristics, the whole process of gesture recognition can be divided into three stages which are gesture segmentation, gesture characteristic feature modeling and trick recognition. In segmentation stage, for solving the misrecognition of skin-like region, a segmentation algorithm combing background mode and skin color to preclude some skin-like regions is adopted. In gesture characteristic feature modeling of image attributes stage, plenty of characteristic features are analyzed and acquired, such as structure characteristics, Hu invariant moments features and Fourier descriptor. In trick recognition stage, a classifier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is introduced into the augmented reality maintenance guiding process. SVM is a novel learning method based on statistical learning theory, processing academic foundation and excellent learning ability, having a lot of issues in machine learning area and special advantages in dealing with small samples, non-linear pattern recognition at high dimension. The gesture recognition of augmented reality maintenance guiding system is realized by SVM after the granulation of all the characteristic features. The experimental results of the simulation of number gesture recognition and its application in augmented reality maintenance guiding system show that the real-time performance and robustness of gesture recognition of AR maintenance guiding system can be greatly enhanced by improved SVM.

  10. Caregiving process and caregiver burden: Conceptual models to guide research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental care for a child with a developmental disability is an enormous responsibility, one that can far exceed that of typical parental care. While most parents adapt well to the situation of caring for a child with a disability, some do not. To understand parents' adaptations to their children's disabilities, the complex nature of stress processes must be accounted for and the constructs and factors that play a role in the caregiving must be considered. Discussion Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers adapt to their caregiving demands. Many studies have sought to qualify the association between caregiving and health outcomes of the caregivers. Contextual factors such as SES, child factors such as child behaviour problems and severity of disability, intra-psychic factors such as mastery and self-esteem, coping strategies and social supports have all been associated with psychological and/or physical outcome or parents or primary caregivers. In reviewing these issues, the literature appears to be limited by the use of traditional analytic approaches which examine the relationship between a factor and an outcome. It is clear, however, that changes to single factors, as represented in these studies, occur very rarely even in the experimental context. The literature has also been limited by lack of reliance on specific theoretical frameworks. Summary This conceptual paper documents the state of current knowledge and explores the current theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe the caregiving process from two diverse fields, pediatrics and geriatrics. Integration of these models into one comprehensive model suitable for this population of children with disabilities and their caregivers is proposed. This model may guide future research in this area.

  11. Developing Internet-based health interventions: a guide for public health researchers and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Ecklund, Alexandra M; Hunt, Shanda L; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-01-23

    Researchers and practitioners interested in developing online health interventions most often rely on Web-based and print resources to guide them through the process of online intervention development. Although useful for understanding many aspects of best practices for website development, missing from these resources are concrete examples of experiences in online intervention development for health apps from the perspective of those conducting online health interventions. This study aims to serve as a series of case studies in the development of online health interventions to provide insights for researchers and practitioners who are considering technology-based interventional or programmatic approaches. A convenience sample of six study coordinators and five principal investigators at a large, US-based land grant university were interviewed about the process of developing online interventions in the areas of alcohol policy, adolescent health, medication adherence, and human immunodeficiency virus prevention in transgender persons and in men who have sex with men. Participants were asked questions that broadly addressed each of the four phases of the User-Centered Design Process Map from the US Department of Health and Human Services' Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Qualitative codes were developed using line-by-line open coding for all transcripts, and all transcripts were coded independently by at least 2 authors. Differences among coders were resolved with discussion. We identified the following seven themes: (1) hire a strong (or at least the right) research team, (2) take time to plan before beginning the design process, (3) recognize that vendors and researchers have differing values, objectives, and language, (4) develop a detailed contract, (5) document all decisions and development activities, (6) use a content management system, and (7) allow extra time for testing and debugging your

  12. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  13. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  14. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  15. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  16. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  17. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  18. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  19. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  20. The Availability And Legal Aspects of the Fresh Water Management in Brazil: A Path to Reach the 2030 Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes Filho, Cláudio Barbosa; Anjos, Ester Dorcas Ferreira dos

    2016-01-01

    This research has as object of analysis the availability and the aspects of water management in Brazil. The 2030 Agenda corresponds the set of programs, actions and policies that will guide the UN work and its member countries towards a sustainable development. This study is justified by the society and environment changes, which affect the relation between human being and water. This research intends to verify if the legal management instruments contemplated by our legislation meet the goals...

  1. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  2. Photovoice in research involving people with intellectual disabilities: A guided photovoice approach as an alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmars-Marx, Tessa; Thomése, Fleur; Moonen, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    In studies involving people with intellectual disabilities, photovoice is increasingly used to include the voice of participants. Analysing existing literature, the present authors found that photovoice was used in various forms with different outcomes. These studies describe both obstructing and facilitating factors. The present authors designed a more standardized approach of photovoice and developed an alternative strategy: "guided photovoice." The "guided photovoice" approach was tested on fourteen participants with intellectual disabilities. The outcomes of the approach were evaluated. The effectiveness of the approach varied with the participants' capabilities and needs. Some participants were talked more while taking photographs, others told their story easily during the interviews. The use of follow-up questions was helpful to deepen the interview. A more standardized, guided photovoice approach is a helpful addition to the various options for using photovoice; it is important to decide which approach best fits the needs and capabilities of the participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  4. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.

  5. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  6. Japan and Northeast Asia: A Selected Bibliography and Guide to Research at Tutt Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Robin; Cheek, Timothy

    Written as a guide for students using the Tutt Library at the Colorado College in Colorado Springs, this 88-item bibliography lists bibliographies, encyclopedias, dictionaries and handbooks, language aids, statistics sources, atlases, periodical indexes, book review indexes, periodicals, newspaper and newspaper indexes, and video tapes that might…

  7. Clean intermittent catheterization and urinary tract infection: review and guide for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Brauner, Annelie; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Bela, Koves; Peter, Tenke; Bjerklund-Johanson, Truls E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the factors related to urinary tract infection (UTI), the most prevalent complication in patients who perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). METHODS We conducted a literature search then a group discussion to gather relevant information on aspects of UTI to guide

  8. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

  9. What We Know about Guided Pathways: Helping Students to Complete Programs Faster. Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Jenkins, Davis

    2015-01-01

    The idea behind guided pathways is straightforward. College students are more likely to complete a degree in a timely fashion if they choose a program and develop an academic plan early on, have a clear road map of the courses they need to take to complete a credential, and receive guidance and support to help them stay on plan. However, most…

  10. The Comer School Development Program. Education Research Consumer Guide, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacquelyn, Ed.

    This consumer guide describes what the James Comer School Development Program is, how it got started, and its goals and principles; and presents an evaluation of its success. The program, which was started 25 years ago by a child psychiatrist (James Comer), is designed to improve the educational experience of poor minority youth. It works on the…

  11. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    have been used in the research. The author have used a comparative method to investigate the EU cybersecurity strategy as well a, Lithuanian and foreign situations. The empirical analysis of legal documents was used to determine the legal regulation of the cybersecurity in Lithuania. In addition, Legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania have been analyzed. Having analyzed the official documents, the method allows identifying and describing the relationship between the valid legal regulations accurately. Using literature resources, the author has used the deductive method which allows drawing sufficiently reliable conclusions.

  12. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  13. Patient Dose Optimization in Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many surgical procedures have increasingly been replaced by interventional procedures that guide catheters into the arteries under X ray fluoroscopic guidance to perform a variety of operations such as ballooning, embolization, implantation of stents etc. The radiation exposure to patients and staff in such procedures is much higher than in simple radiographic examinations like X ray of chest or abdomen such that radiation induced skin injuries to patients and eye lens opacities among workers have been reported in the 1990's and after. Interventional procedures have grown both in frequency and importance during the last decade. This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and TECDOC were developed within the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) framework of statutory responsibility to provide for the worldwide application of the standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRP took place between 2003 and 2005 in six countries, with a view of optimizing the radiation protection of patients undergoing interventional procedures. The Fundamental Safety Principles and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS) issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), among others, require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and through optimization. In keeping with its responsibility on the application of standards, the IAEA programme on Radiological Protection of Patients encourages the reduction of patient doses. To facilitate this, it has issued specific advice on the application of the BSS in the field of radiology in Safety Reports Series No. 39 and the three volumes on Radiation

  14. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): A Guide to a Good Qualitative Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alase, Abayomi

    2017-01-01

    As a research methodology, qualitative research method infuses an added advantage to the exploratory capability that researchers need to explore and investigate their research studies. Qualitative methodology allows researchers to advance and apply their interpersonal and subjectivity skills to their research exploratory processes. However, in a…

  15. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers; Guia tecnica de gestion de materiales residuales con contenido radiactivo en centro de investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.; Pulido, J.; Sastre, G.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2013-07-01

    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  16. Supporting student skill development in undergraduate research experiences through the development of a self-reflection guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M.

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on documenting the benefits of participating in undergraduate research opportunities (URO) and developing an understanding of the factors that influence these benefits. While tools to effectively measure the behavior, attitude, skills, interest, and/or knowledge (BASIK) that result from UROs have matured, little focus has been placed on developing practical tools and strategies to support students and mentors as they work to develop the BASIK being measured. Viewed through the lens of constructivism, a URO can be examined as a cognitive apprenticeship (CA) where learning occurs through several key methods: modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, and exploration. In a study of UROs as CA, Feldman et al., (2013) found reflection to be one of the least commonly initiated methods employed by interns and mentors, and concluded, "there is need for professors to be more proactive in helping their students gain intellectual proficiency". This work, in its pilot stages, seeks to address this gap through the development of an intern self-reflection guide and implementation plan to further increase students' skill development. The guide is being developed based on IRIS's existing self-reflection tool. However, it has recently been revised to bring its constructs and items into better alignment with those of the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment (URSSA) tool. The URSSA was selected because it is designed to measure skills and has recently undergone a validation study. In addition, it serves as the basis for the development of a new tool, the NSF Biology REU CORE. The revised self-reflection guide and protocol were piloted this summer in IRIS Summer REU program. The alignment between the constructs of the URSSA and the self-reflection guide will be presented along with findings from the 2016 program evaluation. Future development of the intervention will include a validation of the items on the self

  17. Use of cold neutrons for condensed matter research at the neutron guide laboratory ELLA in Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaetzler, R.; Monkenbusch, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cold neutrons produced in the FRJ-2 DIDO reactor are guided into the external hall ELLA. It hosts 10 instruments that are red by three major neutron guides. Cold neutrons allow for diffraction and small angle scattering experiments resolving mesoscopic structures (1 to 100 nm). Contrast variation by isotopic substitution in chemically identical species yields information uniquely accessible bi neutrons. Inelastic scattering of cold neutrons allows investigating slow molecular motions because the low neutron velocity results in large relative velocity changes even at small energy transfers. The SANS machines and the HADAS reflectometer serve as structure probes and the backscattering BSS1 and spin-echo spectrometers NSE as main dynamics probes. Besides this the diffuse scattering instrument DNS and the lattice parameter determination instrument LAP deal mainly with crystals and their defects. Finally the beta-NMR and the EKN position allow for methods other than scattering employing nuclear reactions for solid state physics, chemistry and biology/medicine. (author)

  18. Preparing Students for Research: Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones as a Comprehensive Guided-Inquiry Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyvyan, James R.; Pavia, Donald L.; Lampman, Gary M.; Kriz, George S., Jr.

    2002-09-01

    A guided inquiry experiment involving the synthesis and characterization of substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) is described. The chalcones are produced in the aldol condensation of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted acetophenones. Each student is assigned a different target chalcone and conducts online and printed literature searches on the target. After completing the synthesis and purification of their product, the students compare their data with those found in the literature.

  19. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  20. Building bridges between theory and practice in medical education using a design-based research approach: AMEE Guide No. 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Tigelaar, D

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research has grown enormously over the past 20 years, but it does not sufficiently make use of theories, according to influential leaders and researchers in this field. In this AMEE Guide, it is argued that design-based research (DBR) studies should be conducted much more in medical education design research because these studies both advance the testing and refinement of theories and advance educational practice. In this Guide, the essential characteristics of DBR as well as how DBR differs from other approach such as formative evaluation are explained. It is also explained what the pitfalls and challenges of DBR are. The main challenges deal with how to insure that DBR studies reveal findings that are of a broader relevance than the local situation and how to insure that DBR contributes toward theory testing and refinement. An example of a series of DBR studies on the design of a teaching portfolio in higher education that is aimed at stimulating a teacher's professional development is described, to illustrate how DBR studies actually work in practice. Finally, it is argued that DBR-studies could play an important role in the advancement of theory and practice in the two broad domains of designing or redesigning work-based learning environments and assessment programs.

  1. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  2. Law guide for photovoltaic installations: Array installation; Connecting the grid; Financing; The new legal regime implemented in 2011; Is green taxing still so green?; Which judge will bring the light?: Reactions of actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracci, Vanina; Vandervorst, Alain; Tixier, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Christophe; Cloche-Dubois, Celine; Tenailleau, Francois; Rubio, Aurore-Emmanuelle; Pechamat, Olivier; Gandet, Stephanie; Deharbe, David; Rousset, Alain; Boedec, Morgan; Joffre, Andre; Blosseville, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane; Maincent, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss legal issues and aspects regarding photovoltaic installations in France: the array installation (constraints related to urban planning: rules, authorizations and competencies when setting up on the ground or on buildings, urban taxes, estate issues), the connection to the grid, the financing (electricity prices, partnership contract), the new legal regime implemented in 2011, the question whether green taxing is still sufficiently attractive, the dispute about the mandatory purchase mechanism, and the attitude of the different actors (notably local communities, and industries) in front of the decrease of purchase prices

  3. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  4. Day Care Legal Handbook: Legal Aspects of Organizing and Operating Day Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, William F.

    This guide for providers of day care services presents information on business regulations and other legal considerations affecting for-profit and not-for-profit day care programs. Three basic topics covered are: (1) choosing the type of organization (sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation), (2) forming the organization, and (3) operating…

  5. Theoretical Review on Indonesian Academic Legal Education in Conjunction with ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariawan Gunandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia will be welcoming the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 as a multilateral agreement to create integrated regions such as: (a a single market and production base, (b a highly competitive economic region, (c a region of equitable economic development, and (d a region fully integrated into the global economy. These characteristics are interrelated and mutually reinforcing in a sense that overall development would not be complete without total completion of the previous sector. This article discusses the participation of Indonesia as part of ASEAN as a single market and production base, through free flow of services which targets higher education in law. The author researched that Indonesian higher education system still faces issues, especially in legal education. Compared to other states that manages higher education in a relatively guided term, Indonesian legal education is still regulated generally by the government, operated by state and private educational entity, and further trained by profession organization. Indonesian legal education standard has not been supported by proper accreditation bureaucracy from BAN-PT or fair treatment from the government between state and private university. As a result, the quality of Indonesian law graduate still varies. Indonesian legal education is special in nature since it is considered profession and regulated by code of ethic. According to the author, legal education should be integrated with profession organization so that upon graduation, law graduates can directly conduct internship according to their desired profession and compete against ASEAN law graduates.

  6. iRPD--A Framework for Guiding Design-Based Research for iPad Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The last 5 years have been marked by an explosion of tablet and smartphone applications designed for young children and several calls to encourage educational researchers to engage in children's app research. This paper presents a novel prospect for educational researchers: to collaboratively research, implement and produce iPad apps for…

  7. PARA ESCRIBIR UNA TESIS JURÍDICA: TÉCNICAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN DERECHO TO WRITE A LEGAL THESIS: RESEARCH TECHNIQUES IN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián López Escarcena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigar es buscar información para responder una pregunta destinada a resolver un problema. Esta actividad requiere un método, que puede definirse como un modo de decir o de hacer algo con orden. En derecho, normalmente, será necesario plantear una proposición razonada o tesis, orientada a hacer una contribución original. Es indispensable definir el objeto de la tesis a fin de determinar la accesibilidad y manejo de las fuentes, tanto primarias como secundarias. Elegido el tema de la tesis, se debe hacer una bibliografía e índice tentativos. El plan de trabajo incluye un título provisorio, que transformado en pregunta guiará la investigación. Su respuesta se debe articular en torno a un argumento central, siguiendo cuatro modelos posibles: descriptivo; analítico; argumentativo, y mixto. Redactar una respuesta efectiva a una pregunta de investigación requiere respetar ciertas reglas que rigen su macro y/o micro-estructuras. Un aspecto fundamental en este proceso es la satisfacción de las expectativas del lector.Research means to look for information to answering a question aimed at solving a problem. This activity requires a method, which can be defined as a form of saying or doing something with order. In law, it will normally be necessary to state a reasoned proposition or thesis, destined to make an original contribution. It is essential to define the object of the thesis in order to establish the accessibility and handling of the sources, both primary and secondary. Once the subject of the thesis is chosen, a tentative bibliography and table of contents should be made. The work plan includes a provisional title, which transformed in a question will guide the research. Its answer should be articulated around a central argument, following four possible models: descriptive; analytic; argumentative; and matrix patterns. Drafting an effective answer to a research question requires respecting certain rules that regulate its macro

  8. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  9. ENHANCING THE LEGAL PROFESSION’S CAPACITY FOR INNOVATION: THE PROMISE OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE AND ACTION RESEARCH FOR INCREASING ACCESS TO JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Michele M Leering

    2017-01-01

    Recent national reports have documented growing justice gaps in Canada and have identified a compelling need for innovation in the justice sector to better meet the needs of the public. Nurturing a greater capacity for individual, collective, and critical reflection will ensure the legal profession is much better equipped to respond creatively and strategically to a lack of equal access to justice. In this article, I explore the generative and transformative potential of reflective practice –...

  10. Visitor’s Guide to Oliktok Point Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, North Slope of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desilets, Darin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helsel, Fred M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lucero, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dexheimer, Danielle N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of Oliktok Point, Alaska, as a focal point for climate research in the Arctic continues to grow with the addition of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) and the expansion of infrastructure to support airborne measurements. The site hosts a suite of instruments for making multi-year, high-fidelity atmospheric measurements; serves as a base of operations for field campaigns; and contains the only Restricted Airspace and Warning Area in the U.S. Arctic, which enables the use of unmanned aircraft systems. The use of this site by climate researchers involves several considerations, including its remoteness, harsh climate, and location amid the North Slope oilfields. This guide is intended to help visitors to Oliktok Point navigate this unique physical and administrative environment, and thereby facilitate safe and productive operations.

  11. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  12. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  13. Mapping genetic research in non-communicable disease publications in selected Arab countries: first step towards a guided research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddine, Zeina; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Othman, Shahd; Yazbek, Soha

    2016-11-10

    In the Arab world, intervention and policy response to non-communicable diseases (NCD) has been weak despite extensive epidemiological evidence highlighting the alarmingly increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Generating genetic information is one key component to promote efficient disease management strategies. This study undertook a scoping review to generate the profile of the undertaken research on genetics of NCD publications in selected Arab countries. An analysis of the research produced examined the extent, range, nature, topic and methods of published research. The study aimed at identifying the gaps in genetic NCD research to inform policy action for NCD prevention and control. The scoping review was conducted based on the five-stage methodological framework and included countries in Arab region selected to represent various economies and epidemiological transitions. The search identified 555 articles that focus on genetics-NCD research in the selected Arab countries over the duration of this study (January 2000 to December 2013). The most commonly conducted research was descriptive and clinically focused, rather than etiologically focused. Country-specific carrier and risk screening studies were not among the top research designs. The genetic component of certain highly heritable diseases, as well as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic lung dysfunction and metabolic syndrome were all under investigated. This scoping review identified gaps for further research in the context of bioinformatics and genome-wide association studies. Genetic research in the Arab region has to be redirected towards NCDs with the highest morbidity, heritability and health burden within each country. A focused research plan to include community genetics is required for its proper integration in the Arab community.

  14. Opening Science : The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration and Scholarly Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartling, Sönke; Friesike, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, together with a cultural upheaval within the research community, have profoundly changed research in nearly every aspect. Ranging from sharing and discussing ideas in social networks for scientists to new collaborative environments and novel

  15. Industrial Education Safety Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…

  16. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  17. Action research: A practical step-by-step guide for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural extension professionals lag behind their counterparts in research and training institutions with regard to conducting research and generating new knowledge. This is mainly because conventional research methods are not appropriate for field practitioners whose main preoccupation is improving livelihoods of ...

  18. A Practical Guide to Using the Positive Deviance Method in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam J; McCullough, Megan B

    2017-06-01

    To provide practical tips for health services researchers considering the use of positive deviance (PD) methods to help explain variations in quality of care or other meaningful parameters. Published literature and personal experience. Narrative review. This review includes a discussion of possible applications of PD to health services research, some methodological choices applicable to PD, and some brief tips regarding publishing the results and incorporating them into future interventions. It is hoped that this article will help health services researchers to use this valuable research method more effectively, especially those who have not done so before. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Review on conformance of JMTR reactor facility to safety design examination guides for water-cooled reactors for test and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Naka, Michihiro; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki; Hori, Naohiko; Matsui, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Masataka

    2009-03-01

    The safety design examination guides for water-cooled reactors for test and research are formulated as fundamental judgements on the basic design validity for licensing from a viewpoint of the safety. Taking the refurbishment opportunity of the JMTR, the conformance of the JMTR reactor facility to current safety design examination guides was reviewed with licensing documents, annexes and related documents. As a result, it was found that licensing documents fully satisfied the requirements of the current guides. Moreover, it was found that the JMTR reactor facility itself also satisfied the guides requirements as well as the safety performance, since the facility with safety function such as structure, systems, devices had been installed based on the licensing documents under the permission by the regulation authority. Important devices for safety have been produced under authorization of regulating authority. Therefore, it was confirmed that the licensing was conformed to guides, and that the JMTR has enough performance. (author)

  20. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

  1. Inventory of Federal Energy-Related Environment and Safety Research for FY 1978. Volume III, interactive terminal users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. E.; Barker, Janice F.

    1979-12-01

    This users' guide was prepared to provide interested persons access to, via computer terminals, federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects for FY 1978. Although this information is also available in hardbound volumes, this on-line searching capability is expected to reduce the time required to answer ad hoc questions and, at the same time, produce meaningful reports. The data contained in this data base are not exhaustive and represent research reported by the following agencies: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of the Interior, Department of Transportation, Federal Energy Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee Valley Authority, U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  3. Multivariable analysis: a practical guide for clinicians and public health researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H

    2011-01-01

    .... It is the perfect introduction for all clinical researchers. It describes how to perform and interpret multivariable analysis, using plain language rather than complex derivations and mathematical formulae...

  4. A writer's guide to education scholarship: Quantitative methodologies for medical education research (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Camorlinga, Paola; Chan, Teresa M; Hall, Andrew Koch; Murnaghan, Aleisha; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative research is one of the many research methods used to help educators advance their understanding of questions in medical education. However, little research has been done on how to succeed in publishing in this area. We conducted a scoping review to identify key recommendations and reporting guidelines for quantitative educational research and scholarship. Medline, ERIC, and Google Scholar were searched for English-language articles published between 2006 and January 2016 using the search terms, "research design," "quantitative," "quantitative methods," and "medical education." A hand search was completed for additional references during the full-text review. Titles/abstracts were reviewed by two authors (BT, PC) and included if they focused on quantitative research in medical education and outlined reporting guidelines, or provided recommendations on conducting quantitative research. One hundred articles were reviewed in parallel with the first 30 used for calibration and the subsequent 70 to calculate Cohen's kappa coefficient. Two reviewers (BT, PC) conducted a full text review and extracted recommendations and reporting guidelines. A simple thematic analysis summarized the extracted recommendations. Sixty-one articles were reviewed in full, and 157 recommendations were extracted. The thematic analysis identified 86 items, 14 categories, and 3 themes. Fourteen quality evaluation tools and reporting guidelines were found. Discussion This paper provides guidance for junior researchers in the form of key quality markers and reporting guidelines. We hope that quantitative researchers in medical education will be informed by the results and that further work will be done to refine the list of recommendations.

  5. Research that Guides Practice: Outcome Research in Swedish PhD Theses Across Seven Disciplines 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M; Sundell, Knut

    2016-05-01

    The core of evidence-based practice (EBP) as advocated for within the practice arms of the health and social sciences is to promote the routine incorporation of the best available research evidence into practice efforts. This requires discipline-specific education that is not only grounded in professional practice but also prepares would-be scientists in the application of the sophisticated techniques that characterize today's high research standards. Doctoral-level education is an important primer for future scientific endeavors across disciplines. This study examined 2334 theses published across Sweden in public health, criminology, nursing, psychiatry, psychology, social work, and sociology during the period 1997-2012. Of the theses reviewed, 13% aimed to investigate the effects of interventions. The highest percentage of effectiveness studies was found in nursing, public health, and psychology. The percentage of outcome research increased during the period. Controlled studies (with comparison group and pre- and post-test) occurred primarily within public health, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology. Of the 296 theses that included an intervention effectiveness study, 131 (44%), or 5.6% of all theses reviewed, met all four assessment criteria for quality. PhD education across seven disciplines in Sweden may be producing a professional core of scientists that is ill prepared to produce the type of research that is necessary to inform practice of the effects of its interventions as exposure to the rigors of quality effectiveness research is all but non-existent. This has implications for the advancement of an evidence-based practice and intervention science more broadly.

  6. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  7. Statistical Power in Evaluations That Investigate Effects on Multiple Outcomes: A Guide for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.

    2016-01-01

    In education research and in many other fields, researchers are often interested in testing the effectiveness of an intervention on multiple outcomes, for multiple subgroups, at multiple points in time, or across multiple treatment groups. The resulting multiplicity of statistical hypothesis tests can lead to spurious findings of effects. Multiple…

  8. "A Guided Walk in the Woods": Boundary Crossing in a Collaborative Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the ideal and practice of collaboration in a collaborative action research project in which university researchers work together with staff from the field of primary education. A qualitative case study was conducted using the theory of boundary crossing to make sense of the ways collaboration took place within the project…

  9. Aspirations and Expectations of the Rural Poor--A Guide to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Walter L.

    Two research areas relating to the rural poor--educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of youth, and aspirations and expectations of adults for economic progress--are reviewed. Hypotheses are developed, and suggested research topics (e.g., attitudinal norms of the family, work history of the family head, and perceived reality and…

  10. Tour Guide Robots: An Integrated Research and Design Platform to Prepare Engineering and Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamarthi, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting research and design questions occur at the intersections of traditional disciplines, yet most coursework and research programs for undergraduate engineering students are focused on one discipline. This leads to underutilization of the potential in better preparing students through multidisciplinary projects. Identifying this…

  11. Navigating the Complexity of Qualitative Research in Postmodern Contexts: Assemblage, Critical Reflexivity, and Communion as Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…

  12. The P.O.E.Ms of Educational Research: A Beginners' Concise Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rami F.

    2011-01-01

    Embarking in an educational research paper is one of the daunting processes any scholar can go through. And the process is even harder for novice education students who wander through the plethora of terminology, styles and paradigms trying to figure out their way in that jungle called educational research. The following of the review presents the…

  13. Guia para Presentar Solcitudes de Financiacion de Investigaciones (A Guide to Requesting Financial Aid for Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This booklet describes the procedures and requirements to be observed when financial support for education research is requested from the Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia (ICOLPE), an educational improvement agency established by the Colombian government in 1968. The educational priorities for research are listed along with the rules and format…

  14. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  15. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  16. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  17. Research methods for graduate students: a practical framework to guide teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Patricia F; Christian, Becky J; Smith, Sandra L; Vance, David E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the Arrow Framework for Research Design, an organizing framework that facilitates teaching and learning of research methods, providing logical organization of interrelationships between concepts, content, and context of research methods, and practice application. The Arrow Framework was designed for teaching and learning research methods to facilitate progression of knowledge acquisition through synthesis. The framework was developed over several years and used successfully to teach masters, DNP, and PhD nursing students across five universities. The framework is presented with incremental graphics and narrative for teaching. The Arrow Framework provides user-friendly information, in an organized and systematic approach demonstrated as successful for teaching and learning the foundational language of research, facilitating synthesis and application in scholarly endeavors. The Arrow Framework will be useful for educators and students in teaching and learning research language, relationships, and application of methods. The materials are easily adaptable to slide or paper presentation, and meet learner needs for narrative and visual presentation. Teaching research design to graduate students is critical to meet the expectation that students are to understand the scientific underpinnings of nursing science and appropriate use of evidence that are essential for well-educated practitioners. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  19. Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weisner, C.M. Substance use, education, employment, and criminal activity outcomes of adolescents in outpatient chemical dependency programs. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research Jan;36(1):75– 95, 2009. 51. Tanner- ...

  20. Opening science the evolving guide on how the Internet is changing research, collaboration and scholarly publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Friesike, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Modern information and communication technologies, together with a cultural upheaval within the research community, have profoundly changed research in nearly every aspect. Ranging from sharing and discussing ideas in social networks for scientists to new collaborative environments and novel publication formats, knowledge creation and dissemination as we know it is experiencing a vigorous shift towards increased transparency, collaboration and accessibility. Many assume that research workflows will change more in the next 20 years than they have in the last 200. This book provides researchers, decision makers, and other scientific stakeholders with a snapshot of the basics, the tools, and the underlying visions that drive the current scientific (r)evolution, often called ‘Open Science.’

  1. Critically appraising qualitative research: a guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Stephen; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Papers using qualitative methods are increasingly common in psychiatric journals. This overview is an introduction to critically appraising a qualitative paper for clinicians who are more familiar with quantitative methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data, rather than the more deductive, hypothesis centred approach of quantitative research. This overview compares and contrasts quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias and generalisability have qualitative equivalents. These include triangulation, trustworthiness, saturation, reflexivity and applicability. Reflexivity also shares features of transference. Qualitative approaches include: ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research can complement quantitative approaches. An understanding of both is useful in critically appraising the psychiatric literature.

  2. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume I Executive Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  3. A research agenda to guide progress on childhood obesity prevention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, L; Jones-Smith, J; Jaime Miranda, J; Pratt, M; Reis, R S; Rivera, J A; Sallis, J F; Popkin, B M

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity rates in Latin America are among the highest in the world. This paper examines and evaluates the many efforts underway in the region to reduce and prevent further increases in obesity, identifies and discusses unique research challenges and opportunities in Latin America, and proposes a research agenda in Latin America for the prevention of childhood obesity and concomitant non-communicable diseases. Identified research gaps include biological challenges to healthy growth across the life cycle, diet and physical activity dynamics, community interventions promoting healthy child growth, and rigorous evaluation of national food and activity programs and regulatory actions. Addressing these research gaps is critical to advance the evidence-based policy and practice in childhood obesity tailored to the Latin American context that will be effective in addressing obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  4. What Works and What Doesn't: A Practitioner's Guide to Research Findings in Economic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallows, Karen; Becker, William

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of research findings related to factors involved in effective economics instruction and student achievement. Finds that student academic ability and teachers training in economics are the two most important variables of students' economic knowledge. (CFR)

  5. Practical Tips for Establishing Partnerships With Academic Researchers: A Resource Guide for Community-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Margaret; Gonzalez, Florencia; Graves, Kristi; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Leventhal, Kara-Grace; Caicedo, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Research exists on strategies for successful conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Unfortunately, few published resources are available to advise community-based organizations (CBOs) on preparation for and engagement in CBPR. We aimed to create a resource for CBOs that describes how an organization can prepare for and participate in CBPR. We used a case study approach of one CBO with a decade-long history of collaboration with academic researchers. We identified lessons learned through a retrospective review of organizational records and the documentation of experiences by CBO leadership and research partners. The findings were then labeled according to CBPR Partnership Readiness Model dimensions. The review of CBO documents and key informant interviews yielded ten practical tips to increase organizational readiness for and engagement in CBPR. By understanding the best practices for organizational readiness for and participation in CPBR, CBOs will be better equipped to actively participate in community-academic partnerships.

  6. The Role of a Burn Research Coordinator: A Guide for Novice Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, Shari; Caceres, Maria; Romo, Mariana; Gibran, Nicole S; Gamelli, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    As health-care complexity and costs increase, evidence-based research has become essential to the advancement of burn care. Multicenter trials involve procedures, regulations, and guidelines that require meticulous attention to details and strict adherence to compliance issues. Taking on a large, multicenter trial can be a daunting task for a new burn research coordinator. The purpose of this article is to provide a resource for new burn research coordinators in multicenter clinical trial planning, especially in the field of burns. The burn research coordinator must possess organizational and multitasking skills, attention to detail, professionalism, initiative, and motivation. The burn research coordinator must exercise five principles of practice: compliance, confidentiality, consistency and correctness, and collaboration. Compliance assures subject safety, study integrity, and burn center reputation. Confidentiality is essential, especially when handling sensitive health information. Maintaining subject privacy through secure links and destruction of linked data in a timely matter protects the subjects and complies with the regulations of many governing bodies. Consistency and correctness minimize human errors through continuous data validation and self-auditing and peer auditing. Collaboration between the Principal Investigator/burn research coordinator and all departments involved in the study maintains the study focus and allows for enforcement of procedures. Preparing a budget confirms adequate compensation for work done by the research team and can be broken down into the following five steps: protocol review, calculation of initial payment, establishment of indirect costs, calculation of direct costs, and budget negotiation. Over time, one becomes familiar with the details involved with study success. Advocating for subject safety and protocol adherence are of highest priority. Study design is the most important element that dictates the success of the

  7. A Behind-the-Scenes Guide to School-Based Research

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Benjamin D.; Galla, Brian M.; Finn, Amy; Patrick, Sarah D.; Meketon, David; Leonard, Julia; Goetz, Calvin; Fernandez-Vina, Elizabeth; Bartolino, Sara; White, Rachel E.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are an important context for both basic and applied scientific research. Unlike the laboratory, however, the physical and social conditions of schools are not under the exclusive control of scientists. In this article, we liken collecting data in schools to putting on a theatrical production. We begin by describing the large cast of characters whose collaborative efforts make school-based research possible. Next, we address the critics, including the university Institutional Review Bo...

  8. Simulations and measurements of the performance of a channeled neutron guide for a time-of-flight spectrometer at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jeremy C.; Copley, John R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the identification and analysis of the principal sources of intensity loss within the five-channeled neutron guide tube that was originally installed in the chopper section of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. (The purpose of the five channels was to optimize intensity and resolution in three different modes of operation known as ''resolution modes.'') By combining measurements, Monte Carlo simulations, and analytical calculations, we have developed a model that successfully explains performance losses in the original guide. We have used this model to quantify expected returns in performance using a replacement guide in which the principal contributions to the intensity loss are reduced to the minimum achievable with current technology. We have also estimated the intensity gains that would be achieved if one of the limited number of options were adopted for modifying the original guide in a manner likely to produce such gains. We describe factors that affect the performance of the original guide and compare the measured and predicted performance of the modified guide against predictions for the optimal replacement guide. The simulations indicate that the modified guide (which has three channels rather than the original five) produces greater intensity gains over a large incident wavelength band for the low and medium resolution modes, whereas a high quality replacement guide greatly improves performance in the high resolution mode of operation. Because the low and medium resolution modes are most heavily demanded, we opted to modify the guide rather than replace it. We describe the nature of this modification and present intensity measurements that meet or exceed predictions in all resolution modes with no detectable change in the energy resolution nor increase in the instrumental background

  9. NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

  10. A nursing theory-guided framework for genetic and epigenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Katherine A; DeVon, Holli A

    2018-04-01

    The notion that genetics, through natural selection, determines innate traits has led to much debate and divergence of thought on the impact of innate traits on the human phenotype. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine how innate theory informs genetic research and how understanding innate theory through the lens of Martha Rogers' theory of unitary human beings can offer a contemporary view of how innate traits can inform epigenetic and genetic research. We also propose a new conceptual model for genetic and epigenetic research. The philosophical, theoretical, and research literatures were examined for this synthesis. We have merged philosophical and conceptual phenomena from innate theory with the theory of unitary beings into the University of Illinois at Chicago model for genetic and epigenetic research. Innate traits are the cornerstone of the framework but may be modified epigenetically by biological, physiological, psychological, and social determinants as they are transcribed. These modifiers serve as important links between the concept of innate traits and epigenetic modifications, and, like the theory of unitary human beings, the process is understood in the context of individual and environmental interaction that has the potential to evolve as the determinants change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  12. The role of personal practice in therapist skill development: a model to guide therapists, educators, supervisors and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Levy, James; Finlay-Jones, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Prior to 2000, personal practice (PP) for therapists mostly meant personal therapy. Recently a new landscape of PPs has emerged, with meditation-based programs and therapy self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) programs playing an increasing role in training and personal/professional development. The challenge now for practitioners and researchers is to refocus on the role of PPs in training and professional development. Are PPs of value - or not? Do they have a role in therapist development? How might PPs enhance therapist skilfulness? Do different PPs act in similar or different ways? Currently, the PP literature lacks a theoretical framework to guide practitioners in their choice of PPs or researchers in their choice of research questions and measures. The purpose of this article is to provide such a framework, the Personal Practice (PP) model. The PP model proposes primary impacts of PPs in four domains: personal development/wellbeing, self-awareness, interpersonal beliefs/attitudes/skills and reflective skills. The model also suggests a secondary impact on therapists' conceptual/technical skills when therapists use reflection to consider the implications of their PP for their "therapist self". We offer some suggestions to enhance the quality of future research, and conclude that PPs may play an important and perhaps unique role in therapist training.

  13. Informatics-guided procurement of patient samples for biomarker discovery projects in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, K Stephen; Remache, Yvonne K; Patel, Jalpa S; Chen, Steve H; Haystrand, Russell; Ford, Peggy; Shaikh, Anadil M; Wang, Jian; Goy, Andre H

    2009-02-01

    Modern cancer research for biomarker discovery program requires solving several tasks that are directly involved with patient sample procurement. One requirement is to construct a highly efficient workflow on the clinical side for the procurement to generate a consistent supply of high quality samples for research. This undertaking needs a network of interdepartmental collaborations and participations at various levels, including physical human interactions, information technology implementations and a bioinformatics tool that is highly effective and user-friendly to busy clinicians and researchers associated with the sample procurement. Collegial participation that is sequential but continual from one department to another demands dedicated bioinformatics software coordinating between the institutional clinic and the tissue repository facility. Participants in the process include admissions, consenting process, phlebotomy, surgery center and pathology. During this multiple step procedures, clinical data are collected for detailed analytical endpoints to supplement logistics of defining and validating the discovery of biomarkers.

  14. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  16. Successful aging in the United States and China: a theoretical basis to guide nursing research, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2015-03-01

    Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  18. Comments on the art and research project ‘The division of the earth: tableaux on the legal synopses of the Berlin Africa conference’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierk Schmidt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Is pictorial language able to convey a juridical abstraction? This co-authored text addresses that question in the context of the geo-political division of Africa after the Berlin Africa Conference (Congo Conference, as a means to conceptualise colonial rule in 1884/85 – and its manifold grave consequences – as a historical by-product of Europe’s political and aesthetic modernity. Is there any value in representing the image of genocide, (while acknowledging the ‘impossibility’ of its representation? With these issues in mind, lawyer Malte Jaguttis and artist Dierk Schmidt offer a commentary based on their project, ‘The division of the earth — Tableaux on the legal synopses of the Berlin Africa Conference’.

  19. Legal means of the energy development in the respect of the environment in French law: research on the law of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatico, L.

    2003-05-01

    The energy regulation, in France, appears autonomous compared. to the environmental law. It was necessary to seek the reality of this autonomy, which resulted in analyzing its application at both national and community level. However, the autonomy of energy regulation has been kept in perspective through the influences of both public and economic policies, along with the general framework of life. This autonomy does not prevent the interdependence with environmental law. Indeed, the energy regulation is influenced by the environmental law, which can appear from differing viewpoints as either constraints for the energy sector or as opportunities. Here, the two regulations coexist with t:he environmental law trying to integrate completely with energy regulation. This seems to take place with difficulty through sustainable development, either requiring an evolution in traditional legal instruments or by the creation of new instruments. (author)

  20. Action research in governance landscapes: partnering with city guides and gate keepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.J.; Boezeman, D.F.; Dewulf, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Buuren, A. van; Eshuis, J.; Vliet, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Action Research (AR) is proposed for solving organisational problems by step-wise social learning in closed organisations. In political science however, change is often conceptualised as the result of societal arenas conflicting over ideas and powers. To understand the effectiveness of AR in policy

  1. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  2. Experimental Designs in Sentence Processing Research: A Methodological Review and User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gregory D.; Jegerski, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of Clahsen and Felser's (2006) keynote article on grammatical processing in language learners, the online study of sentence comprehension in adult second language (L2) learners has quickly grown into a vibrant and prolific subfield of SLA. As online methods begin to establish a foothold in SLA research, it is important…

  3. Quantitative Methodology: A Guide for Emerging Physical Education and Adapted Physical Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging professionals, particularly senior-level undergraduate and graduate students in kinesiology who have an interest in physical education for individuals with and without disabilities, should understand the basic assumptions of the quantitative research paradigm. Knowledge of basic assumptions is critical for conducting, analyzing, and…

  4. Statistical Power in Evaluations That Investigate Effects on Multiple Outcomes: A Guide for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are often interested in testing the effectiveness of an intervention on multiple outcomes, for multiple subgroups, at multiple points in time, or across multiple treatment groups. The resulting multiplicity of statistical hypothesis tests can lead to spurious findings of effects. Multiple testing procedures (MTPs) are statistical…

  5. A five-year research program in one book : Reading guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kothuis, B.L.M.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Dr. Baukje Kothuis was a Postdoc in the STW-MFFD program at the Faculty of Technology, Policy & Management, TU Delft in the project ‘Integrated design’. Currently she works at the Faculty of Civil Engineering & Geosciences as a researcher in the NWO Program ‘Integral & sustainable design

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Contaminated Sediment Management Guide for NSRP Shipyards. Appendix 5: Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-22

    soils Description: OHM completed the full-scale, slurry-phase bioremediation of creosote -contaminated soil at the Southeastern Wood Preserving Site... Bioremediation - - ---.-. -~----- -... --~-_ -. ._..~~ --. -~ __ . (LEEP) Ashwarren Hydrocarbon Recycler -- Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Joule Melter...Bovar Retech Bioremediation 11 -._-_-- .._.~ .~~---.-__--. _~ _~-.- ---_ Center for Hazardous Materials Research, Acid Extraction

  7. Multivariable analysis: a practical guide for clinicians and public health researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H

    2011-01-01

    .... Numerous tables, graphs and tips help to demystify the process of performing multivariable analysis. The text is illustrated with many up-to-date examples from the medical literature on how to use multivariable analysis in clinical practice and in research"--Provided by publisher.

  8. A Scientometric Analysis of 20 Years of Research on Breast Reconstruction Surgery: A Guide for Research Design and Journal Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Moghimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast reconstruction refers to the rebuilding of a woman’s breast usingautologous tissue or prosthetic material to form a natural-looking breast. It is increasinglyoffered to women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer. However, there is no systematicanalysis available for the expanding area of research on breast reconstruction.Methods A bibliometric method was used to obtain a view of the scientific production aboutbreast reconstruction by data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI.Specific parameters were retrieved from the ISI. Articles about breast reconstruction wereanalyzed to obtain a view of the topic’s structure, history, and document relationships usingHistCite software. Trends in the most influential publications and authors were analyzed.Results The number of articles was constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles describedthe methods of flap construction in the surgery. Other highly cited articles discussed thepsychological or emotional aspects of breast reconstruction, skin sparing mastectomy, andbreast reconstruction in the irradiated breast.Conclusions This was the first breast reconstruction scientometric analysis, representing thecharacteristics of papers and the trends of scientific production. A constant increase in thenumber of breast reconstruction papers and also the increasing number of citations showsthat there is an increasing interest in this area of medical science. It seems that most of theresearch in this field is focused on the technical aspects of surgery.

  9. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  10. A new look at the WMS-III: new research to guide clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S

    2004-06-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale, Third Edition (WMS-III) was published in 1997 and marked an ambitious and substantial revision of the traditional memory scale. Since publication, however, clinical experience has led many practitioners to raise questions about the validity and clinical utility of the new subtests and new index scores. The impetus of this special issue was to address some of the questions with which clinicians have been struggling. The articles contained in this special issue present new empirical research on the WMS-III, and several include new methods and scoring techniques that go beyond what has been published in the WAIS-III-WMS-III Technical Manual (The Psychological Corporation, 1997, 2002). It is hoped that the new scores and techniques will prove useful in clinical practice and that this research will benefit future revisions of the Wechsler Memory Scale.

  11. Meaningful metrics a 21st-century librarian's guide to bibliometrics, altmetrics, and research impact

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Robin Chin

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to have meaningful metrics in today's complex higher education landscape? With a foreword by Heather Piwowar and Jason Priem, this highly engaging and activity-laden book serves to introduce readers to the fast-paced world of research metrics from the unique perspective of academic librarians and LIS practitioners. Starting with the essential histories of bibliometrics and altmetrics, and continuing with in-depth descriptions of the core tools and emerging issues at stake in the future of both fields, Meaningful Metrics is a convenient all-in-one resource that is designed to be used by a range of readers, from those with little to no background on the subject to those looking to become movers and shakers in the current scholarly metrics movement. Authors Borchardt and Roemer, offer tips, tricks, and real-world examples illustrate how librarians can support the successful adoption of research metrics, whether in their institutions or across academia as a whole.

  12. A Guide for Graduate Students Interested in Postdoctoral Positions in Biology Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Melissa L.; Corwin, Lisa A.; Andrews, Tessa C.; Couch, Brian A.; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonnell, Lisa; Trujillo, Gloriana

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral positions in biology education research (BER) are becoming increasingly common as the field grows. However, many life science graduate students are unaware of these positions or do not understand what these positions entail or the careers with which they align. In this essay, we use a backward-design approach to inform life science graduate students of postdoctoral opportunities in BER. Beginning with the end in mind, we first discuss the types of careers to which BER postdoctoral positions lead. We then discuss the different types of BER postdoctoral positions, drawing on our own experiences and those of faculty mentors. Finally, we discuss activities in which life science graduate students can engage that will help them gauge whether BER aligns with their research interests and develop skills to be competitive for BER postdoctoral positions. PMID:27856554

  13. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides practical guidance on all important aspects of developing, formulating and presenting the operational limits and conditions as well as the operating procedures for research reactors. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content, and the responsibilities of the operating organization with respect to their establishment, modification, documentation and compliance. The guidance also covers the training of operating personnel on performing periodic testing, established by the operational limits and conditions, and operating procedures

  14. A Community-Based Participatory Research Guided Model for the Dissemination of Evidence-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafield, Rebecca; Hermosura, Andrea Nacapoy; Ing, Claire Townsend; Hughes, Claire K; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Dillard, Adrienne; Kekauoha, B Puni; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Gamiao, Shari; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe

    Dissemination is a principle within community-based participatory research (CBPR); however, published research focuses on the dissemination of findings from CBPR projects but less on dissemination of interventions developed through CBPR approaches. To disseminate an evidence-based lifestyle intervention tailored for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, the PILI 'Ohana Project (POP), an 11-year CBPR initiative, developed an innovative dissemination model. The community-to-community mentoring (CCM) model described in this paper extends the application of CBPR values and principles used in intervention development to intervention dissemination. The CCM model combines a CBPR orientation with the diffusion of innovation theory, the social cognitive theory, and key concepts from community organizing and community building to address the multilevel factors that influence uptake of an evidence-based intervention (EBI). Grounding the model in CBPR principles provides benefits for intervention dissemination and integrates a focus on community benefits and capacity building. By establishing co-equal, mutually beneficial relationships at the core of the CCM model, opportunities are created for building critical consciousness, community capacity, and social capital. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this model of intervention dissemination which may enhance diffusion of CBPR interventions and empower communities in the process.

  15. A guide to reading and using systematic reviews of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasingly widespread policy momentum to increase patient-centred care and to improve quality of life outcomes within health services. Qualitative research methods are used to elicit in-depth and detailed insights into people's attitudes, beliefs, emotions and experiences-much of which may remain unspoken during clinical encounters. Questions about patients' beliefs and preferences for treatment can be addressed by qualitative research and inform evidence-based strategies for delivering patient-centred care. Systematic reviews of multiple primary qualitative studies bring together findings from different studies to offer new and more comprehensive understandings of social phenomena across various healthcare contexts and populations and are an emerging methodology in the literature including for care in chronic kidney disease. This article will provide a framework for the systematic review of qualitative research so readers can make sense of these study types and use them in clinical care and policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Reviews Book: Extended Project Student Guide Book: My Inventions Book: ASE Guide to Research in Science Education Classroom Video: The Science of Starlight Software: SPARKvue Book: The Geek Manifesto Ebook: A Big Ball of Fire Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Level 3 Extended Project Student Guide A non-specialist, generally useful and nicely put together guide to project work ASE Guide to Research in Science Education Few words wasted in this handy introduction and reference The Science of Starlight Slow but steady DVD covers useful ground SPARKvue Impressive software now available as an app WORTH A LOOK My Inventions and Other Writings Science, engineering, autobiography, visions and psychic phenomena mixed in a strange but revealing concoction The Geek Manifesto: Why Science Matters More enthusiasm than science, but a good motivator and interesting A Big Ball of Fire: Your questions about the Sun answered Free iTunes download made by and for students goes down well APPS Collider visualises LHC experiments ... Science Museum app enhances school trips ... useful information for the Cambridge Science Festival

  17. Guides and Guardians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Despite the scholarly and official agreement that effective legal institutions matter a great deal, there are no universally valid rules about how public administrations, including courts and the law enforcement agencies on which the execution of their verdicts rests, should be reformed. While most....... Instead, judiciaries must also assume the role of guides offering direction and reassurance to hostile societal actors about the transition process as such. As will be argued below, judges can offer such guidance much more credibly if they visibly have a grand vision for the erection of the legal edifice...

  18. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  19. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  20. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    may lead to the perception of law as ars aequi et boni. According to Viehweg, 'topica' is a technique of problem-based reasoning which is fully different from the deductive-systematic reasoning. Interpretation or construing meaning is part of 'topica' which enables flexibility of practical argumentation by expanding and reducing the catalogue of 'topoi'. In legal hermeneutics, the new quality of argumentation and topical reasoning stems from the fact that the classical methods of interpretation are substituted by a far more extensive number of arguments (Giovanni Tarello recognizes 15 legal topoi and Gerhard Struck as many as 64 legal topoi]. It ultimately points out to the creative role of the interpreter's rhetoric research and decision-making processes.

  1. Surveys of Health Professions Trainees: Prevalence, Response Rates, and Predictive Factors to Guide Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Friedman, Benjamin T; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Reddy, Shalini T; Durning, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    To establish a baseline overall response rate for surveys of health professions trainees, determine strategies associated with improved response rates, and evaluate for the presence of nonresponse bias. The authors performed a comprehensive analysis of all articles published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education, and Advances in Health Sciences Education in 2013, recording response rates. Additionally, they reviewed nonresponse bias analyses and factors suggested in other fields to affect response rate including survey delivery method, prenotification, and incentives. The search yielded 732 total articles; of these, 356 were research articles, and of these, 185 (52.0%) used at least one survey. Of these, 66 articles (35.6%) met inclusion criteria and yielded 73 unique surveys. Of the 73 surveys used, investigators reported a response rate for 63.0% of them; response rates ranged from 26.6% to 100%, mean (standard deviation) 71.3% (19.5%). Investigators reported using incentives for only 16.4% of the 73 surveys. The only survey methodology factor significantly associated with response rate was single- vs. multi-institutional surveys (respectively, 74.6% [21.2%] vs. 62.0% [12.8%], P = .022). Notably, statistical power for all analyses was limited. No articles evaluated for nonresponse bias. Approximately half of the articles evaluated used a survey as part of their methods. Limited data are available to establish a baseline response rate among health professions trainees and inform researchers which strategies are associated with higher response rates. Journals publishing survey-based health professions education research should improve reporting of response rate, nonresponse bias, and other survey factors.

  2. Swedish deep repository siting programme. Guide to the documentation of 25 years of geoscientific research (1976-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Alan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out geoscientific research and feasibility studies aimed at identifying suitable sites for deep repositories in the Precambrian basement of the Baltic Shield. The documentation of this research effort forms an extensive body of material which is exceptionally wide-ranging and which is generally little known outside the Swedish nuclear waste community. This has now been compiled in the form of a 'documentation guide' in order to make the research results more easily accessible to the scientific community at large, and to show how they relate to their 'nearest surroundings', i.e. the relevant academic scientific literature and the documentation of similar research by other institutions, in Sweden and in other countries (Finland, Canada). The documentation covers the period 1976-2000 and contains ca. 850 citations, of which about half are technical reports published by SKB and its forerunners. In the main body of the guide (Chapters 2-9), the material is arranged thematically and the scope of the documentation in each theme is described and commented in short texts, showing the interrelationships between the individual reports and scientific papers, with appropriate cross-references. Early chapters (2-5, and 7) cover general themes: bedrock geology, fracturing, glaciation and crustal dynamics, deep groundwater, and geosphere transport, each subdivided into citation groups under headings which are of particular interest to the Swedish deep repository siting programme. Later chapters (6, and 8-9) include thumbnail sketches of the Swedish study sites (Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Kamlunge, Klipperaas, Sternoe), the underground laboratory sites of Stripa and Aespoe, and comparable sites in Finland and Canada, as well as the complete documentation to the feasibility studies carried out in eight Swedish municipalities between 1993 and 2000 (Storuman

  3. Swedish deep repository siting programme. Guide to the documentation of 25 years of geoscientific research (1976-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, Alan Geoffrey

    2002-03-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out geoscientific research and feasibility studies aimed at identifying suitable sites for deep repositories in the Precambrian basement of the Baltic Shield. The documentation of this research effort forms an extensive body of material which is exceptionally wide-ranging and which is generally little known outside the Swedish nuclear waste community. This has now been compiled in the form of a 'documentation guide' in order to make the research results more easily accessible to the scientific community at large, and to show how they relate to their 'nearest surroundings', i.e. the relevant academic scientific literature and the documentation of similar research by other institutions, in Sweden and in other countries (Finland, Canada). The documentation covers the period 1976-2000 and contains ca. 850 citations, of which about half are technical reports published by SKB and its forerunners. In the main body of the guide (Chapters 2-9), the material is arranged thematically and the scope of the documentation in each theme is described and commented in short texts, showing the interrelationships between the individual reports and scientific papers, with appropriate cross-references. Early chapters (2-5, and 7) cover general themes: bedrock geology, fracturing, glaciation and crustal dynamics, deep groundwater, and geosphere transport, each subdivided into citation groups under headings which are of particular interest to the Swedish deep repository siting programme. Later chapters (6, and 8-9) include thumbnail sketches of the Swedish study sites (Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Kamlunge, Klipperaas, Sternoe), the underground laboratory sites of Stripa and Aespoe, and comparable sites in Finland and Canada, as well as the complete documentation to the feasibility studies carried out in eight Swedish municipalities between 1993 and 2000 (Storuman, Malaa, Nykoeping

  4. Engaging first-year students in meaningful library research a practical guide for teaching faculty

    CERN Document Server

    Flaspohler, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at teaching professionals working with first-year students at institutions of higher learning, this book provides practical advice and specific strategies for integrating contemporary information literacy competencies into courses intended for novice researchers. The book has two main goals - to discuss the necessity and value of incorporating information literacy into first-year curricula; and to provide a variety of practical, targeted strategies for doing so. The author will introduce and encourage teaching that follows a process-driven, constructivist framework as a way of engaging f

  5. The science of golf putting a complete guide for researchers, players and coaches

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the motor performance and biomechanics of golf putting, providing methodologies, studies and approaches to this concept. Presenting outcomes of research published over the past six years, it offers guidelines from a scientifically oriented perspective, and employs new technologies and mathematical methods to assess golf putting. The chapters cover aspects such as pendulum-like motion in sports, setting up the experimental design, and performance metrics for putting variables. Paving the way for an improved understanding of what leads to failure and success in golf putting, this book offers an invaluable reference source for sports scientists, engineers and mathematicians, as well as golfers.

  6. Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Green, Melanie C; Cappella, Joseph N; Slater, Michael D; Wise, Meg E; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie M; O'Keefe, Daniel J; Erwin, Deborah O; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie J; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra

    2007-06-01

    Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged.

  7. A guided tour of current research in synovial joints with reference to wavelet methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ruchi; Salimath, C. S.; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-10-01

    Main aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of biomechanical aspects of synovial joints of human body. This can be considered as a part of continued research work carried out by various authors over a period of time. Almost every person once in life time has suffered from joint disease; this has triggered intensive investigation into various biomechanical aspects of synovial joints. This has also resulted into an increase of arthroplasty with introduction to various clinical trials. From last few decades new improvements and ideas for new technologies have been introduced to decrease the incidence of joint problem. In this paper a literature survey of recent advances, developments and recognition of wear and tear of human joint is presented. Wavelet method in Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is relatively a new research field. This review aims to provide a glimpse of wavelet methodology in CFD. Wavelets methodology has played a vital role in the solution of governing equation of synovial fluid flow in the synovial joints represented by Reynolds equation and its modified version.

  8. ODaCCI: Ontology-guided Data Curation for Multisite Clinical Research Data Integration in the NINDS Center for SUDEP Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Licong; Huang, Yan; Tao, Shiqiang; Lhatoo, Samden D; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading mode of epilepsy-related death. The Center for SUDEP Research (CSR) is an NINDS-funded Center Without Wall's initiative aimed at prospectively creating a comprehensive clinical research resource for SUDEP. This resource consists of a growing set of data and biological samples of a statistically significant cohort of patients at an elevated risk, best represented by the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) patient population. The Informatics and Data Analytics Core (IDAC) of CSR has developed a state-of-the- art informatics infrastructure, to integrate patient data captured in multiple EMU's at a greatly accelerated pace. Data quality assurance is a priority of IDAC. This paper reports our approach, Ontology-guided Data Curation for Multisite Clinical Research Data Integration (ODaCCI), to address the challenging task of centralized data curation while new data is continuously generated and integrated from distributed sites. ODaCCI leverages the Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology not only for upstream data capture, but also for supporting a range of quality assurance tasks such as data quality monitoring, data update, and data reports. Between October 2014 and February 2016, ODaCCI has integrated phenotypic and electroencephalogram signal data of 629 patients from 7 clinical sites, while supporting continuous and asynchronous data quality enhancement overtime.

  9. The legal mentality and the succession of the law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rybakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 340Subject. The peculiarities of the legal mentality and succession of law, their correlation and communication.The purpose of the article is to identify the relationship of the legal mentality and development of the law.Methodology. The research is based on the method of legal analysis, formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The legal mentality and continuity in the law are linked and have common features. They are based on national law, are a reflection of him.Continuity in the law is objectively existing relationship between the various stages of its development, aimed at ensuring the continuity of national rights, preserving the past in the present.The basis of the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are objective factors. These phenomena are associated with the past, with the history of their own, caused by it. The development of law and legal awareness is provided not only in the change process, but in the process of preservation. The legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law are genetic in nature. Communication legal mentality with continuity in the development of the law can clearly be seen in its functions: maintain the continuity of the existence of a particular community (homeostasis function, communication, preservation (protection, stabilization and preservation of justice, regulatory.Conclusions. There is an interaction between the legal mentality and continuity in the development of the law. Mentality as a historically formed and stable matrix typification of behavior and thinking through the lawmaking process predetermines the preservation and use of the original legal material is proven to be effective. The stability of the legal positions, legal thinking, passed down from generation to generation are the basis of the continuity law. Stability of legal views, legal thinking, transferred from generation to generation are the basis succession of law. 

  10. Reassessing Occupational Licensing Of Tour Guides (Opinion Piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir SHANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is conventionally held that to protect tourists from incompetent and/or unscrupulous tour guides, governments should require guides to be licensed in order to legally practice their profession. Despite the implementation of such regulatory statutes in many countries, it is argued in this opinion paper that the severe drawbacks of licensing demands should be re-evaluated by both policy-makers and tourism scholars. The licensing of guides is not only an ineffective means of quality assurance, with negative consequences for many of those involved, but it also undermines the ethical foundations of a free society. Furthermore, licensing is an archaic practice for ensuring standardization among the members of a profession in a way that is no longer suitable for addressing the challenges of the tourism industry in the 21st century, in which a wide variety of specialized and innovative guided tours are offered to tourists. Although this commentary presents a firm stand against the compulsory licensing of tour guides, it should be seen as an invitation for open discussion among tourism researchers regarding the necessity of licensing tour guides in particular, and of government tourism regulation in general. Moreover, further research is needed to clarify key points on the issue of the professional licensing of tour guides.

  11. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  12. Situational judgement tests in medical education and training: Research, theory and practice: AMEE Guide No. 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Ashworth, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Why use SJTs? Traditionally, selection into medical education professions has focused primarily upon academic ability alone. This approach has been questioned more recently, as although academic attainment predicts performance early in training, research shows it has less predictive power for demonstrating competence in postgraduate clinical practice. Such evidence, coupled with an increasing focus on individuals working in healthcare roles displaying the core values of compassionate care, benevolence and respect, illustrates that individuals should be selected on attributes other than academic ability alone. Moreover, there are mounting calls to widen access to medicine, to ensure that selection methods do not unfairly disadvantage individuals from specific groups (e.g. regarding ethnicity or socio-economic status), so that the future workforce adequately represents society as a whole. These drivers necessitate a method of assessment that allows individuals to be selected on important non-academic attributes that are desirable in healthcare professionals, in a fair, reliable and valid way. What are SJTs? Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are tests used to assess individuals' reactions to a number of hypothetical role-relevant scenarios, which reflect situations candidates are likely to encounter in the target role. These scenarios are based on a detailed analysis of the role and should be developed in collaboration with subject matter experts, in order to accurately assess the key attributes that are associated with competent performance. From a theoretical perspective, SJTs are believed to measure prosocial Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs), which are shaped by socialisation processes that teach the utility of expressing certain traits in different settings such as agreeable expressions (e.g. helping others in need), or disagreeable actions (e.g. advancing ones own interest at others, expense). Are SJTs reliable, valid and fair? Several studies, including good

  13. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a South African perspective. A Dhai, J Moodley, D J McQuoid-Mason, C Rodeck. Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological ...

  15. How to Assess Your CURE: A Practical Guide for Instructors of Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Shortlidge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating research experiences into undergraduate life sciences curricula in the form of course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs can meet national calls for education reform by giving students the chance to “do science.” In this article, we provide a step-by-step practical guide to help instructors assess their CUREs using best practices in assessment. We recommend that instructors first identify their anticipated CURE learning outcomes, then work to identify an assessment instrument that aligns to those learning outcomes and critically evaluate the results from their course assessment. To aid instructors in becoming aware of what instruments have been developed, we have also synthesized a table of “off-the-shelf” assessment instruments that instructors could use to assess their own CUREs. However, we acknowledge that each CURE is unique and instructors may expect specific learning outcomes that cannot be assessed using existing assessment instruments, so we recommend that instructors consider developing their own assessments that are tightly aligned to the context of their CURE.

  16. Research into the usage of integrated jamming of IR weakening and smoke-screen resisting the IR imaging guided missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Ming-shan

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the anti-ship missle with the capability of infrared imaging guidance, the traditional single jamming measures, because of the jamming mechanism and technical flaws or unsuitable use, greatly reduced the survival probability of the war-ship in the future naval battle. Intergrated jamming of IR weakening + smoke-screen Can not only make jamming to the search and tracking of IR imaging guidance system , but also has feasibility in conjunction, besides , which also make the best jamming effect. The research conclusion has important realistic meaning for raising the antimissile ability of surface ships. With the development of guidance technology, infrared guidance system has expanded by ir point-source homing guidance to infrared imaging guidance, Infrared imaging guidance has made breakthrough progress, Infrared imaging guidance system can use two-dimensional infrared image information of the target, achieve the precise tracking. Which has Higher guidance precision, better concealment, stronger anti-interference ability and could Target the key parts. The traditional single infrared smoke screen jamming or infrared decoy flare interference cannot be imposed effective interference. So, Research how to effectively fight against infrared imaging guided weapons threat measures and means, improving the surface ship antimissile ability is an urgent need to solve.

  17. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyk, Kelly A.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, C.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric V.; Gustafson, L.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress.

  18. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: a guide to research and management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyk, Kelly A; Duncan, Colleen; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, Christian; Laidre, Kristin; Obbard, Martyn; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric; Gustafson, Lori L; Atwood, Todd

    2015-05-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Climate Data Guide - Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard; Bosilovich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) is a global atmospheric reanalysis produced by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). It spans the satellite observing era from 1980 to the present. The goals of MERRA-2 are to provide a regularly-gridded, homogeneous record of the global atmosphere, and to incorporate additional aspects of the climate system including trace gas constituents (stratospheric ozone), and improved land surface representation, and cryospheric processes. MERRA-2 is also the first satellite-era global reanalysis to assimilate space-based observations of aerosols and represent their interactions with other physical processes in the climate system. The inclusion of these additional components are consistent with the overall objectives of an Integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA). MERRA-2 is intended to replace the original MERRA product, and reflects recent advances in atmospheric modeling and data assimilation. Modern hyperspectral radiance and microwave observations, along with GPS-Radio Occultation and NASA ozone datasets are now assimilated in MERRA-2. Much of the structure of the data files remains the same in MERRA-2. While the original MERRA data format was HDF-EOS, the MERRA-2 supplied binary data format is now NetCDF4 (with lossy compression to save space).

  20. The organizational attraction of nursing graduates: using research to guide employer branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Julie; Bourhis, Anne; Stachura, Michal

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the global nursing shortage, only the most attractive employers are able to recruit a sufficient number of nurses to maintain high quality of care and ensure positive patient outcomes. It is important for health care organizations to align their practices and their employer marketing strategies with attraction factors important to nurses. This article presents the results of a survey of 666 nursing students graduating in the spring of 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Hypotheses were tested using repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Consistent with hypotheses, the results showed that quality of care, type of work, compensation, and employer branding are organizational attraction factors that nursing graduates perceived as important, with quality of care being the most important one. These findings were later used by a Canadian university teaching hospital to optimize its employer branding and attraction strategy that resulted in an increase in the hiring of university-trained nurses. Further research is needed to examine organizational attractiveness for new nurses over time, across generations, and within various cultural contexts.

  1. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship. Adaptation typically emerges organically among m

  2. The Educator's Guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Patricia A.

    This guide was written to acquaint educators with their legal responsibility in providing all individuals with disabilities--whether they be students, job applicants, employees, parents, or members of the community--with the same access and opportunities that are available to others. The guide explains legal requirements under the Americans with…

  3. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  4. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  5. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  6. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  7. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  8. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  10. Project ACHIEVE - using implementation research to guide the evaluation of transitional care effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Brock, Jane; Jack, Brian; Mittman, Brian; Naylor, Mary; Sorra, Joanna; Mays, Glen; Williams, Mark V

    2016-02-19

    Poorly managed hospital discharges and care transitions between health care facilities can cause poor outcomes for both patients and their caregivers. Unfortunately, the usual approach to health care delivery does not support continuity and coordination across the settings of hospital, doctors' offices, home or nursing homes. Though complex efforts with multiple components can improve patient outcomes and reduce 30-day readmissions, research has not identified which components are necessary. Also we do not know how delivery of core components may need to be adjusted based on patient, caregiver, setting or characteristics of the community, or how system redesign can be accelerated. Project ACHIEVE focuses on diverse Medicare populations such as individuals with multiple chronic diseases, patients with low health literacy/numeracy and limited English proficiency, racial and ethnic minority groups, low-income groups, residents of rural areas, and individuals with disabilities. During the first phase, we will use focus groups to identify the transitional care outcomes and components that matter most to patients and caregivers to inform development and validation of assessment instruments. During the second phase, we will evaluate the comparative effectiveness of multi-component care transitions programs occurring across the U.S. Using a mixed-methods approach for this evaluation, we will study historical (retrospective) and current and future (prospective) groups of patients, caregivers and providers using site visits, surveys, and clinical and claims data. In this natural experiment observational study, we use a fractional factorial study design to specify comparators and estimate the individual and combined effects of key transitional care components. Our study will determine which evidence-based transitional care components and/or clusters most effectively produce patient and caregiver desired outcomes overall and among diverse patient and caregiver populations in

  11. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  12. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  13. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VI, workplace and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VI is to describe record series pertaining to workplace and environmental monitoring activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of workplace and environmental monitoring practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to workplace and environmental monitoring policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, and employee health. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire. A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  14. So You Are Doing Research! An Annotated Guide to Library Materials in Political Science and Related Fields. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ollye G., Comp.

    The third edition of an annotated guide to library materials is designed and intended for students majoring in political science; however, it would also be useful for instructors and students in the other social science disciplines. This handbook is divided into two sections: General Reference Books in the Social Sciences, and Guides and…

  15. Corporate customers’ needs and expectations for legal services

    OpenAIRE

    Lappi, Arttu

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need for companies that provide legal services to corporate clients to better understand the future business models in order to customize their service offering, marketing and strategies. This study examines the needs and the expectations of potential corporate customers for legal services. The research was conducted in order to collect legal services business specific information on consumer behavior and to confirm known and reveal prospective unknown patterns for purch...

  16. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  17. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls

  18. Legal aspects of storing CO2. Update and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-21

    CO2 emissions from energy production and consumption are a major contributor to climate change. Thus, stabilising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing these emissions is an increasingly urgent international necessity. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) represents one of the most promising potential solutions to contain emissions resulting from continued use of coal and other fossil fuels. However, challenges such as a lack of legal and regulatory frameworks to guide near-term demonstration projects and long-term technology expansion must be addressed to facilitate the expanded use of CCS. In October 2006, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) convened with legal experts,to discuss the range of legal issues associated with expanded use of CCS and to identify ways to facilitate further CCS development and implementation Participants examined gaps and barriers to the deployment of CCS and identified recommendations to guide further development of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks. This publication provides policymakers with a detailed summary of the main legal issues surrounding the CCS debate, including up-to-date background information, case studies and conclusions on the best legal and regulatory approaches to advance CCS. These strategies can be used to enable further development, deployment and demonstration of CCS technology, potentially an essential element in global efforts to mitigate climate change.

  19. Legal Drama and Audiovisual Translation: The Role of Legal English in the Construction of Stereotyped Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zottola Angela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overwhelming amount of media products that we are subjected to in the 21st century and the way in which those inevitably influence our perception of reality, this research pays specific attention to the role of the media in the construction and enhancement of stereotypes in everyday life, via the language or, more specifically, specialized languages. In particular, this paper aims to investigate an American legal TV series in order to analyze the way in which legal English is used in dialogues. The major research questions are: to what extent such a kind of specialized discourse may be really understood by the greater audience? How does legal drama participate in the shaping of stereotypes relating to the legal environment in the country where it is produced, and cross-culturally, bearing in mind the prominence of “made in the USA” products in the television programming across the world? Ultimately, in the light of the previous questions, should the growing field of research in audiovisual translation extend its investigation into the area of legal English? Taking into consideration the seminal work of Pedersen (2008 and Diaz Cintas (2008 in the field of Audiovisual Translation (AVT, the study will examine the subtitling techniques employed for this atypical genre. Through the analysis of a corpus comprising several dialogues from a collection of episodes of the legal show Reckless, the paper will mostly focus on gender representations and their most common linguistically enhanced stereotypes.

  20. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  1. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Leveraging Educational, Research and Facility Expertise to Improve Global Seismic Monitoring: Preparing a Guide on Sustainable Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybade, A.; Aster, R.; Beck, S.; Ekstrom, G.; Fischer, K.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Meltzer, A.; Sandvol, E.; Willemann, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Building a sustainable earthquake monitoring system requires well-informed cooperation between commercial companies that manufacture components or deliver complete systems and the government or other agencies that will be responsible for operating them. Many nations or regions with significant earthquake hazard lack the financial, technical, and human resources to establish and sustain permanent observatory networks required to return the data needed for hazard mitigation. Government agencies may not be well- informed about the short-term and long-term challenges of managing technologically advanced monitoring systems, much less the details of how they are built and operated. On the relatively compressed time scale of disaster recovery efforts, it can be difficult to find a reliable, disinterested source of information, without which government agencies may be dependent on partial information. If system delivery fails to include sufficient development of indigenous expertise, the performance of local and regional networks may decline quickly, and even data collected during an early high-performance period may be degraded or lost. Drawing on unsurpassed educational capabilities of its members working in close cooperation with its facility staff, IRIS is well prepared to contribute to sustainability through a wide variety of training and service activities that further promote standards for network installation, data exchange protocols, and free and open access to data. Members of the Consortium and staff of its Core Programs together could write a guide on decisions about network design, installation and operation. The intended primary audience would be government officials seeking to understand system requirements, the acquisition and installation process, and the expertise needed operate a system. The guide would cover network design, procurement, set-up, data use and archiving. Chapters could include advice on network data processing, archiving data (including

  3. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  4. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  6. Legal nature of affatomia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...

  7. Legal Office Procedures: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education. Review Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in a course on legal office procedures. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for legal office procedures. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives,…

  8. Research and experience report 2008. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2008. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reviews research into regulatory safety and the work done during 2008. In the area of reactor safety, research - in addition to research into materials - was concentrated primarily on safety and reliability analyses. ENSI supports projects looking at ageing mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, embrittlement and the development of cracks under a range of environmental conditions. Topics such as the interaction between core meltdown and water and concrete as well as the development of methods and computer codes are covered. In the area of transport and waste management, ENSI is focussing its efforts on research into the geological strata suitable for the final storage of highly radioactive, long-lived waste. Human and organisational factors and safety culture now account for an increasing part of the work of this regulatory body. Appendices present an overview of work done, international activities, publications and the basic principles of the new ENSI guidelines.

  9. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  10. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  11. Atypical real estate objects: legal regime and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal concept of immovable things raises controversy in legal practice. Determining and understanding the definition of real estate, the complexity and diversity of these objects, a growing appearance of so-called atypical properties (such as sport stadiums, roads, boreholes, analyzing legislation and judicial practice of this field – all these issues call for a deep study of this topic. There is a conflicting arbitration practice, the subject of which is the learning of the legal nature of atypical real estate (for instance, asphalt playgrounds, car parks, fences, wells. The object of the research is the learning of the legal status of atypical real estate.

  12. EXPORTING LAW OR THE USE OF LEGAL TRANSPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA-CRISTIANA SPATARU-NEGURA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From the general theory of law, we are aware of the migration of legal concepts, practices and institutions. We believe that there are no legal system anywhere in the developed world that has not used legal transplants, that has not borrowed from another country’s laws. This paper intends to explore the concept of “legal transplants”. Why are they used? Where do they come from? Is their assimilation uncomplicated? Why are they rejected in some cases? A transplanted law should be comported with the host state in order to be accepted? Should be discussed the relationship between law and culture when contemplating a study of legal transplants? What forces propel those borrowings? However, this paper does not claim to offer definite answers to the above mentioned questions. Its goal is more modest. In understanding the phenomenon of legal transplants, we underline the fast growing importance of using the comparative research.

  13. Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, Jurisprudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyedeh Leila; Mehrabani, Davood; Vahedi, Zabihallah; Manafi, Farzad

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful. Of course, it should be taken into accounts that all are possible if the religion orders human cloning in the view of jurisprudence and is considered as permission. In other words, although the religious order on human cloning can be an absolute permission based on the strong principle of permission, it is not unlikely that in the future, corruption is proved to be real for them, Jurists rule it as secondary sanctity and even as primary one. If it is proved, the phenomenon is considered as example of required affairs based on creation of ethical, social and medical disorders, religious and ethical rulings cannot be as permission for it, and it seems that it is a point that only one case can be a response to it and it needs nothing but time.

  14. Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, Jurisprudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyedeh Leila; Mehrabani, Davood; Vahedi, Zabihallah; Manafi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers. Thus to prevent such consequences, the attempts should be made to create an appropriate legal-ethical system and an approved comprehensive law. In this review we concluded that the right method is guiding and controlling the cloning technology and banning the technique is not always fruitful. Of course, it should be taken into accounts that all are possible if the religion orders human cloning in the view of jurisprudence and is considered as permission. In other words, although the religious order on human cloning can be an absolute permission based on the strong principle of permission, it is not unlikely that in the future, corruption is proved to be real for them, Jurists rule it as secondary sanctity and even as primary one. If it is proved, the phenomenon is considered as example of required affairs based on creation of ethical, social and medical disorders, religious and ethical rulings cannot be as permission for it, and it seems that it is a point that only one case can be a response to it and it needs nothing but time. PMID:27853684

  15. Development Methodology for an Integrated Legal Cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanha, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis describes the research process followed in order to achieve a development methodology applicable to the reform of cadastral systems with a legal basis. It was motivated by the author’s participation in one of the first surveying and mapping operations for a digital cadastre in Portugal,

  16. Do ethics committees need a legal framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The question "do ethics committees need a legal framework" may then raise fundamental discussion in the case of developing countries: will an ethical framework bring them a better capacity to assume their task? And what should this task be if we consider the particularities of clinical research conducted in developing countries?

  17. The legal status of engineering companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    It is assumed that the carrying out of research, also in the nuclear field should be entrusted to engineering companies, especially when dealing with the setting up of technological structures. This paper considers the problems of the legal status of such companies under Italian legislation. (NEA) [fr

  18. Content and legal nature of the concept of good administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the analysis of the content and legal nature of the concept of good administration, perceived as an 'amalgam' of legal and non-legal principles guiding the activities of the European Union administration and administrations of its Member States. After providing a brief overview on the origins and historical development of the concept of good administration, the author focuses on the main elements of its content. In this regard, particular account shall be taken to illuminate the important components of the concept of good administration: legality, expediency, regularity, justice, equity, as well as morality. The legal nature of the concept of good administration will be discussed by casting more light on its legal aspect while acknowledging the existence of non-legal elements. In brief, the following text attempts to explain the inner meaning of the 'European' concept of good administration and to underscore its significance in the context of administrative activities of the European Union institutions, Member States and potential member states of this unique community of European states.

  19. Political and legal approach to contemporary local democracies collisions` studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Burya

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that heuristic potential of political and legal approach in political science research is based on the possibility to solve genuine issues that contain the means of the legal provision of political institutions and the impact of these institutions on the normative context.

  20. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  1. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  2. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  3. Research and experience report 2012. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2012. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) acts upon the basis of the latest developments in science and technology. ENSI supports and coordinates safety research, the results of which influence directly its Guidelines, individual decisions and resources. Research projects also serve training purposes and maintain competence within ENSI and its experts. The research in fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the graded approach to barriers used for the confinement of radioactive materials. Based on test results from accidents involving a loss of coolant ENSI instructed the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants to review whether they were relevant to their own facilities. Ageing mechanisms affecting structural materials are crucial to the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. Specialised thematic databases are being created in order to facilitate a systematic analysis of relevant operating experience from numerous countries. In addition to damage that may result from events within nuclear power plants, the safety analyses also reflect external events. ENSI supports international projects conducting complex experiments and simulations of aircraft accidents and earthquakes. It is involved in some projects relating to flood risks. The effect of operator behaviour on accidents in nuclear power plants is the focus point of research into human factors which identifies and analyses certain operator errors influencing negatively the course of an accident. Proposals to improve accident procedures were developed. This research area also focuses on the influence of the control room layout on the performance of operating staff. System behaviour and accident sequences in nuclear power plants are analysed in conditions ranging from normal operations through to accidents resulting in core melt-down. The results are used for the quantitative evaluation of the plant risk in probabilistic safety analyses. Applied research in radiological protection ranges

  4. Research and experience report 2007. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2007. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reviews the aims, duties and responsibilities of the inspectorate and the work done during 2007. In the area of reactor safety, the research covered materials and the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of incidents and their consequences. In the area of radiation protection, the protection of persons and the environment in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from ionising radiation is addressed. In this area, accurate metrology and research to improve dosimetry and radiation analysis is discussed. In the area of transport and waste management, the HSK is focussing its efforts on research into the geological strata suitable for the final storage of highly radioactive, long-lived waste. Human factors, organisation and safety culture are quoted as playing a major role in nuclear safety. According to the report, greater attention is being given to these factors by those bodies responsible for nuclear regulation. Appendices present an overview of work done, international activities and publications along with the ENSI's guidelines.

  5. Legality of Tawarruq in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yuhanis Bt Ismon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic finance has been established as an alternative to the conventional banking system which is made up component not permitted under Shariah. Tawarruq is one of the Islamic finance products which commonly used in Islamic banks. This research assesses two important areas which include the principle of Tawarruq in Fiqh perspective and the practical aspect of such principle in Islamic banks in Malaysia.Method – The method used for this research is comparative analysis.Result – This research begins to explore the different views of the proponent and opponents toward the legality of Tawarruq in Fiqh . Instead of considering the basic condition of the valid sale, the other aspect has to be pondered by the contemporary scholars to render Tawarruq is valid sale according to Shariah. The legality of Tawarruq has been debate by some scholars. Due to that, there are different resolution and rulings from Islamic countries on legality of of Tawarruq . In the practical aspect, Tawarruq has been used in Malaysia by Bursa Malaysia Suq Al Sila' as a trading platform and it uses Crude Palm Oil (CPO as the commodity in Tawarruq transaction. While, in the Middle East, it uses London Metal Exchange (LME in dealing with commodity transaction through Tawarruq principle.Conclusion – Based on the legal argument on the permissibility of Tawarruq , it can be summarized that Tawarruq is permissible but subject to certain condition. Provided that genuine Tawarruq is permissible than organized Tawarruq in Tawarruq transaction.Keywords: Tawarruq, Murabahah

  6. Developing Analytic Rating Guides for "TOEFL iBT"® Integrated Speaking Tasks. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report, TOEFL iBT-20. ETS Research Report. RR-13-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Joan; Poonpon, Kornwipa

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of a new type of scoring rubric for the integrated speaking tasks of "TOEFL iBT"® are described. These "analytic rating guides" could be helpful if tasks modeled after those in TOEFL iBT were used for formative assessment, a purpose which is different from TOEFL iBT's primary use for admission…

  7. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  8. German Legal History: National Traditions and Transnational Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I review select institutional and analytical traditions of Legal History in 20th century Germany, in order to put forth some recommendations for the future development of our discipline. A careful examination of the evolution of Legal History in Germany in the last twenty-five years, in particular, reveals radical transformations in the research framework: Within the study of law, there has been a shift in the internal reference points for Legal History. While the discipline is opening up to new understandings of law and to its neighboring disciplines, its institutional position at the law departments has become precarious. Research funding is being allocated in new ways and the German academic system is witnessing ever more internal differentiation. Internationally, German contributions and analytic traditions are receiving less attention and are being marginalized as new regions enter into a global dialogue on law and its history. The German tradition of research in Legal History had for long been setting benchmarks internationally; now it has to reflect upon and react to new global knowledge systems that have emerged in light of the digital revolution and the transnationalization of legal and academic systems. If legal historians in Germany accept the challenge these changing conditions pose, thrilling new intellectual and also institutional opportunities emerge. Especially the transnationalization of law and the need for a transnational legal scholarship offers fascinating perspectives for Legal History.

  9. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  10. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  11. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  12. Research and experience report 2010 - Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2010 - Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) in the year 2010. The inspectorate's fields of activity - fuels and materials, significant internal and external events and occurrences, human factors, system behaviour and accident sequences, radiological protection and waste disposal - are reviewed. Information on incidents in Swiss nuclear facilities are reviewed in the ENSI Surveillance Report. The Research and Experience Report also provides information on a selection of particularly instructive incidents in nuclear facilities outside Switzerland. Incidents are analysed with a view to identifying any potential relevance to Swiss nuclear facilities. International co-operation is mentioned and current changes and developments related to plant surveillance are noted. Organisational aspects are discussed and various guidelines and directives are presented and discussed

  13. Research on the Lift-off Effect of Receiving Longitudinal Mode Guided Waves in Pipes Based on the Villari Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiang; Sun, Yong; Zhou, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    The magnetostrictive guided wave technology as a non-contact measurement can generate and receive guided waves with a large lift-off distance up to tens of millimeters. However, the lift-off distance of the receiving coil would affect the coupling efficiency from the elastic energy to the electromagnetic energy. In the existing magnetomechanical models, the change of the magnetic field in the air gap was ignored since the permeability of the rod is much greater than that of air. The lift-off ...

  14. Development of a Novel Preclinical Pancreatic Cancer Research Model: Bioluminescence Image-Guided Focal Irradiation and Tumor Monitoring of Orthotopic Xenografts1

    OpenAIRE

    Tuli, Richard; Surmak, Andrew; Reyes, Juvenal; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Armour, Michael; Leubner, Ashley; Blackford, Amanda; Tryggestad, Erik; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L; Herman, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report on a novel preclinical pancreatic cancer research model that uses bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided irradiation of orthotopic xenograft tumors, sparing of surrounding normal tissues, and quantitative, noninvasive longitudinal assessment of treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Luciferase-expressing MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were orthotopically injected in nude mice. BLI was compared to pathologic tumor volume, and photon emission was assessed over time. B...

  15. Research and experience report 2014. Developments in the technical and legal areas of nuclear monitoring; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2014. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    The research into regulatory safety carried out by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) serves to develop the tools that ENSI requires for the fulfilment of its responsibilities. The programme is divided into seven areas: 1) research on fuels and materials covers the reactor core and the multiple successive barriers used for the containment of radioactive materials. It is concentrated on high burn-ups and safety criteria. Research into structural materials is focused on ageing mechanisms. The SAFE Project has been investigating the formation and growth of cracks in materials used in reactor cooling circuits. The researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) obtained results on how the hydrogen present in hot water as well as the sequence of mechanical stresses affect crack development; 2) the OECD Projects on internal events and damage encourage international exchange of experience on incidents. Specific data bases facilitate the analysis of relevant operating experience from many countries. The ICDE Project, which is looking at common-cause failures in the components used in nuclear power plants, published an overview report on heat exchangers; 3) ENSI supports research projects on external events such as aircraft crashes, flooding and earthquakes. The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) published a report on ground motion attenuation as a function of increasing distance to the earthquake's source. By incorporating data from countries with high seismic activity, the SED has improved the attenuation model for Switzerland. The international SMART project has been looking at the impact of severe earthquakes on nuclear power plant buildings in order to represent the dynamic behaviour and vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures; 4) as far as human factors are concerned, the Halden Reactor Project completed informative simulation studies. A comparative study of 10 operator groups revealed marked variability in the way unforeseen situations

  16. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in a broad range of activities involving the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The amounts of waste generated from these activities are often limited in volume and activity. However, they have to be managed as radioactive waste. While the principles and safety requirements are the same for managing any amount of radioactive waste, a number of issues have to be considered specifically in organizations conducting activities in which only small amounts of waste are generated. This is the case in particular in respect of spent and disused sealed radioactive sources. For activities involving the generation and management of small amounts of radioactive waste, the types of facilities concerned and the arrangements for waste management vary considerably. Furthermore, the types of radioactive waste differ from facility to facility. The safe management of small amounts of radioactive waste should therefore be given specific consideration. The nature of the radioactive waste generated in the various activities under consideration also varies greatly. It may be in the form of discrete sealed or unsealed radiation sources or process materials or consumable materials. Waste arises as a result of many activities, including: diagnostic, therapeutic and research applications in medicine. Process control and measurement in industry. And numerous uses of radioactive material in agriculture, geological exploration, construction and other fields. The radioactive waste under consideration can be in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Solid waste can include: spent or disused sealed sources. Contaminated equipment, glassware, gloves and paper. And animal carcasses, excreta and other biological waste. Liquid waste can include: aqueous and organic solutions resulting from research and production processes. Excreta. Liquids arising from the decontamination of laboratory equipment or facilities. And liquids from

  17. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in a broad range of activities involving the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The amounts of waste generated from these activities are often limited in volume and activity. However, they have to be managed as radioactive waste. While the principles and safety requirements are the same for managing any amount of radioactive waste, a number of issues have to be considered specifically in organizations conducting activities in which only small amounts of waste are generated. This is the case in particular in respect of spent and disused sealed radioactive sources. For activities involving the generation and management of small amounts of radioactive waste, the types of facilities concerned and the arrangements for waste management vary considerably. Furthermore, the types of radioactive waste differ from facility to facility. The safe management of small amounts of radioactive waste should therefore be given specific consideration. The nature of the radioactive waste generated in the various activities under consideration also varies greatly. It may be in the form of discrete sealed or unsealed radiation sources or process materials or consumable materials. Waste arises as a result of many activities, including: diagnostic, therapeutic and research applications in medicine. Process control and measurement in industry. And numerous uses of radioactive material in agriculture, geological exploration, construction and other fields. The radioactive waste under consideration can be in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Solid waste can include: spent or disused sealed sources. Contaminated equipment, glassware, gloves and paper. And animal carcasses, excreta and other biological waste. Liquid waste can include: aqueous and organic solutions resulting from research and production processes. Excreta. Liquids arising from the decontamination of laboratory equipment or facilities. And liquids from

  18. The legal standards for the radioactive or non radioactive drugs research and approval in the European Community and in Germany after the thalidomide catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, Michael; Otte, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The drug thalidomide was contained in the blockbuster Contergan, which has been used as a non- prescription sedative drug and a potent treatment for occurring morning sickness in pregnant women during the 1950s and the early 1960s. This therapeutic use has led to one of the most prominent disasters in the history of drug development due to peripheral neuritis and malformations, e.g. phocomelia, in babies whose mothers had taken thalidomide within their pregnancies. Moreover, this catastrophe initiated a change of paradigm in Germany as well as in Europe with regard to drug safety and the regulatory setting. This article describes the history of the use of thalidomide and the regulatory framework of drug approval at that time as well as changes after the Contergan disaster including considerations to radiopharmaceuticals. Additionally, aspects of drug safety in the different development phases of pharmaceuticals as well as radiopharmaceuticals, i.e. pre-clinical and clinical phases, are characterised. However, many drugs have been withdrawn from the market after approval due to changes with regard of their risk-benefit balance after the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Thus, pharmacovigilance activities are also mentioned in this review article. Last, obstacles and future perspectives in the arena of drug research and development also considering the use of radiopharmaceuticals are delineated.

  19. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  20. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii Drozd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin. Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different modes of cryptocurrency turnover are determined: from direct prohibition to granting the status of the official payment system. It is made on the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the circulation of virtual money in Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, China, the Russian Federation, Bolivia, Ecuador, Thailand, Vietnam, the USA, Japan, Spain, and some other countries. On the basis of the comparative legal study of certain provisions of the civil, administrative, tort, and criminal legislation of Ukraine, the possibilities and limits of the application of certain types of legal responsibility to violations in the field of cryptocurrency are determined. The results of the comparative legal study have shown that, unlike most foreign countries, in Ukraine, there is no legislative consolidation of the legal status of the virtual currency. In this regard, today in the national legislation, there are no direct rules that would predict the occurrence of administrative, criminal or civil liability for the offenses in the field of cryptocurrency relations. Practical impact. Since guarantees of compulsory restoration or protection of violated law play an important role in the legal regulation of any social relations, the proper legislative regulation of public relations in the sphere of crypto currency circulation is an urgent problem today, including with the help of establishing liability for the offenses in this field

  1. Ethics and medico legal aspects of "Not for Resuscitation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sulakshan Salins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not for resuscitation in India still remains an abstract concept with no clear guidelines or legal frame work. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a complex medical intervention which is often used inappropriately in hospitalized patients and usually guided by medical decision making rather than patient-directed choices. Patient autonomy still remains a weak concept and relatives are expected to make this big decision in a short time and at a time of great emotional distress. This article outlines concepts around ethics and medico legal aspects of not for resuscitation, especially in Indian setting.

  2. A Research-Inspired and Computer-Guided Clinical Interview for Mathematics Assessment: Introduction, Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Lee, Young-Sun; Pappas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment involves the gathering of information that can guide the teaching of individual or groups of children. This approach requires a sound understanding of children's thinking and learning, as well as an effective method for gaining the information. We propose that formative assessment should employ a version of clinical…

  3. Research on the Lift-off Effect of Receiving Longitudinal Mode Guided Waves in Pipes Based on the Villari Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetostrictive guided wave technology as a non-contact measurement can generate and receive guided waves with a large lift-off distance up to tens of millimeters. However, the lift-off distance of the receiving coil would affect the coupling efficiency from the elastic energy to the electromagnetic energy. In the existing magnetomechanical models, the change of the magnetic field in the air gap was ignored since the permeability of the rod is much greater than that of air. The lift-off distance of the receiving coil will not affect the receiving signals based on these models. However, the experimental phenomenon is in contradiction with these models. To solve the contradiction, the lift-off effect of receiving the longitudinal mode guided waves in pipes is investigated based on the Villari effect. A finite element model of receiving longitudinal guided waves in pipes is obtained based on the Villari effect, which takes into account the magnetic field in the pipe wall and the air zone at the same time. The relation between the amplitude of the induced signals and the radius (lift-off distance of the receiving coil is obtained, which is verified by experiment. The coupling efficiency of the receiver is a monotonic decline with the lift-off distance increasing. The decay rate of the low frequency wave is slower than the high frequency wave. Additionally, the results show that the rate of change of the magnetic flux in the air zone and in the pipe wall is the same order of magnitude, but opposite. However, the experimental results show that the error of the model in the large lift-off distance is obvious due to the diffusion of the magnetic field in the air, especially for the high frequency guided waves.

  4. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  5. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  6. A guide to introducing burnup credit, preliminary version (English translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Ryufuku, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    There is an ongoing discussion on the application of burnup credit to the criticality safety controls of facilities that treat spent fuels. With regard to such application of burnup credit in Japan, this document summarizes the current technical status of the prediction of the isotopic composition and criticality of spent fuels, as well as safety evaluation concerns and the current status of legal affairs. This report is an English translation of A Guide to Introducing Burnup Credit, Preliminary Version, originally published in Japanese as JAERI-Tech 2001-055 by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Committee. (author)

  7. Legal entities as subjects administrative responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України

    2016-01-01

    In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...

  8. The World Bank Legal Review : Law, Equity, and Development, Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank legal review: law, equity, and development, volume two, is a publication for policy makers and their advisers, attorneys, and other professionals engaged in the field of international development. It offers a combination of legal scholarship, lessons from experience, legal developments, and recent research on the many ways in which the application of law and the improvement ...

  9. The Challenge of Designing Optimum Legal Services for Disabled People: The New Zealand Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeld, K.; McLean, M.; Phelan, T.; Patston, P.; Miller-Burgering, W.; Vickery, R.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 New Zealand signalled its intention to reform legal services by contracting research on disabled people's priorities in Auckland. The Legal Services Agency reported that because many disabled people do not have access to necessary legal services in New Zealand their priorities should be identified. This article suggests that the social…

  10. Legalization: A High-Risk Alternative in the War on Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, James A.; McBride, Duane C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the major proposals for drug legalization and discusses the possible consequences of these efforts if successful. Argues that the legalization of drugs would be an extremely complex undertaking and that most calls for such action do not offer specific proposals. Points out research that supports arguments against legalization of drugs.…

  11. Applying Legal Socialization to the Child Welfare System: Do Youths' Perceptions of Caseworkers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M.; Shook, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Heath C.; Goodkind, Sara; Fusco, Rachel; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legal socialization is the process through which young people develop beliefs in the legitimacy of the law and legal system. Research has examined how perceptions of interactions with authority figures influence beliefs regarding the legitimacy of laws and legal system, thereby shaping compliance with the law (Fagan and Tyler in…

  12. Safety and utility of image-guided research biopsies in relapsed high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma-experience of the BriTROC consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranova, T; Ennis, D; Piskorz, A M; Macintyre, G; Lewsley, L A; Stobo, J; Wilson, C; Kay, D; Glasspool, R M; Lockley, M; Brockbank, E; Montes, A; Walther, A; Sundar, S; Edmondson, R; Hall, G D; Clamp, A; Gourley, C; Hall, M; Fotopoulou, C; Gabra, H; Freeman, S; Moore, L; Jimenez-Linan, M; Paul, J; Brenton, J D; McNeish, I A

    2017-05-09

    Investigating tumour evolution and acquired chemotherapy resistance requires analysis of sequential tumour material. We describe the feasibility of obtaining research biopsies in women with relapsed ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Women with relapsed ovarian HGSC underwent either image-guided biopsy or intra-operative biopsy during secondary debulking, and samples were fixed in methanol-based fixative. Tagged-amplicon sequencing was performed on biopsy DNA. We screened 519 patients in order to enrol 220. Two hundred and two patients underwent successful biopsy, 118 of which were image-guided. There were 22 study-related adverse events (AE) in the image-guided biopsies, all grades 1 and 2; pain was the commonest AE. There were pre-specified significant AE in 3/118 biopsies (2.5%). 87% biopsies were fit-for-purpose for genomic analyses. Median DNA yield was 2.87 μg, and was higher in biopsies utilising 14 G or 16 G needles compared to 18 G. TP53 mutations were identified in 94.4% patients. Obtaining tumour biopsies for research in relapsed HGSC is safe and feasible. Adverse events are rare. The large majority of biopsies yield sufficient DNA for genomic analyses-we recommend use of larger gauge needles and methanol fixation for such biopsies, as DNA yields are higher but with no increase in AEs.

  13. Rhetoric by Avistotel: a Legal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kh. Rekosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of any phenomenon, which is far from the researcher for thousands years, in the light of this or that department of knowledge, highlights one and obscures another, prefers one over another. It happened to the rhetoric which was snatched by philology and neglected by lawyers. Although nowadays it is natural that the same phenomena are studied by different Sciences, the ancient rhetoric is looked at by most researchers as the art of philology. But the approach by Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, was legal rather than linguistic. Among the Aristotle's 4 requirements concerning good style (correctness, clarity, relevance and eloquence eloquence is only % and the % are closer to the law. Rhetoric has incorporated all the features of linguistic mechanisms and gave them to the law. The law perceived moral and ethical ideas: the good justice, virtue, ritual, law and techniques of philology and persuasion, among which the main one is syllogism already used in the dialectic, the main logic principle of legal reasoning. Towards the past, rhetoric is parallel to dialectic, but dialectic is focused on one person or on the speaker, and rhetoric aims at the audience, the first one tries to convince himself and the second tries to convince the audience and in this role rhetoric is linked with the law. As far as the evolution of law is concerned, instead of legal technique there was rhetoric (especially in its methodological form, defined by Aristotle, which can be considered as a step towards creating the law as a design in ancient Greece. It is proved by a comparison of the ancient institution of judicial process and judicial speeches with modern legal technicalities, which shows that the legal machinery embraced the principles of "rhetorical" technique. The methodological nature of the rhetoric by Aristotle is usually overlooked by linguists and lawyers.

  14. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  15. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit III. Research: Innerspace Explorers = Humedo y Salvaje. Tercera Unidad. La Investigacion Cientifica: Exploradores del Espacio Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to oceanographic research (innerspace exploration) are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into six sections (labeled A through F). The first five sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate…

  16. Legal Cynicism and Parental Appraisals of Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which the law is viewed as illegitimate and ineffective—encourages violence to maintain personal safety when legal recourse is unreliable. But no study has tested the impact of legal cynicism on appraisals of violence. Drawing from symbolic interaction theory and cultural sociology, we tested whether neighbourhood legal cynicism alters the extent to which parents appraise their children’s violence as indicative of aggressive or impulsive temperaments using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We find that legal cynicism attenuates the positive association between adolescent violence and parental assessments of aggression and impulsivity. Our study advances the understanding of micro-level processes through which prevailing cultural frames in the neighbourhood shape violence appraisals. PMID:24932013

  17. THE ELITISM OF LEGAL LANGUAGE AND THE NEED OF SIMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Escandiel de Souza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the research project entitled “Simplification of legal language: a study on the view of the academic community of the University of Cruz Alta”. It is a qualitative nature study on simplifying the legal language as a means of democratizing/pluralize access to justice, in the view of scholars and Law Course teachers. There is great difficulty by society in the understanding of legal terms, which hinders access to justice. Similarly, the legal field is not far, of their traditional formalities, which indicates the existence of a parallel where, on one hand, is society, with its problems of understanding, and the other the law, its inherent and intrinsic procedures. However, the company may not have access to the judiciary hampered on account of formalities arising from the law and its flowery language. Preliminary results indicate simplification of legal language as essential to real democratization of access to Law/Justice.

  18. Addressing Social Determinants Of Health Through Medical-Legal Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenstein, Marsha; Trott, Jennifer; Williamson, Alanna; Theiss, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    The US health care system needs effective tools to address complex social and environmental issues that perpetuate health inequities, such as food insecurity, education and employment barriers, and substandard housing conditions. The medical-legal partnership is a collaborative intervention that embeds civil legal aid professionals in health care settings to address seemingly intractable social problems that contribute to poor health outcomes and health disparities. More than three hundred health care organizations are home to medical-legal partnerships. This article draws upon national survey data and field research to identify three models of the medical-legal partnership that health care organizations have adopted and the core elements of infrastructure that they share. Financing and commitment from health care organizations are key considerations for sustaining and scaling up the medical-legal partnership as a health equity intervention.

  19. Resource allocation on the frontlines of public health preparedness and response: report of a summit on legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Taylor, Holly A; Hodge, James G; Links, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    In the face of all-hazards preparedness challenges, local and state health department personnel have to date lacked a discrete set of legally and ethically informed public health principles to guide the distribution of scarce resources in crisis settings. To help address this gap, we convened a Summit of academic and practice experts to develop a set of principles for legally and ethically sound public health resource triage decision-making in emergencies. The invitation-only Summit, held in Washington, D.C., on June 29, 2006, assembled 20 experts from a combination of academic institutions and nonacademic leadership, policy, and practice settings. The Summit featured a tabletop exercise designed to highlight resource scarcity challenges in a public health infectious disease emergency. This exercise served as a springboard for Summit participants' subsequent identification of 10 public health emergency resource allocation principles through an iterative process. The final product of the Summit was a set of 10 principles to guide allocation decisions involving scarce resources in public health emergencies. The principles are grouped into three categories: obligations to community; balancing personal autonomy and community well-being/benefit; and good preparedness practice. The 10 Summit-derived principles represent an attempt to link law, ethics, and real-world public health emergency resource allocation practices, and can serve as a useful starting framework to guide further systematic approaches and future research on addressing public health resource scarcity in an all-hazards context.

  20. Enabling the Contextualization of Legal Rules in Responsive Strategies to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen van Rijswick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of adaptive governance is paramount in policy discourses on the mitigation and adaptation strategies of climate change. Adaptability, resilience, and cooperative approaches are promoted as the appropriate vehicles to meet the contemporary conditions of uncertainty and complexity. We claim that the legitimacy and effectiveness of these responsive strategies might be augmented via the use of legal perspectives. Rather than the instrumental use of command and control type of regulation, the legal perspectives should focus on establishing principal norms that enable the search for different solutions in different contexts. From these assumptions, the concept of legal obligation is explored as embodying the meaning of legality, and at the same time conditioning and committing the probing of different ways of purposeful action in different local circumstances. We explore the innovative potential of legal norms and demonstrate how responsive strategies to climate change can be guided by the contextualization of legal norms.

  1. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  2. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  3. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...

  4. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  5. Legalizing Farmworkers: The 2002 Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)

  6. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  7. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  8. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  9. Legal assessment tool (LAT): an interactive tool to address privacy and data protection issues for data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Krauth, Christian; Bergmann, René; Karakoyun, Töresin; Woollard, Astrid; Schluender, Irene; Braasch, Benjamin; Eckert, Martin; Ohmann, Christian

    2016-07-07

    In an unprecedented rate data in the life sciences is generated and stored in many different databases. An ever increasing part of this data is human health data and therefore falls under data protected by legal regulations. As part of the BioMedBridges project, which created infrastructures that connect more than 10 ESFRI research infrastructures (RI), the legal and ethical prerequisites of data sharing were examined employing a novel and pragmatic approach. We employed concepts from computer science to create legal requirement clusters that enable legal interoperability between databases for the areas of data protection, data security, Intellectual Property (IP) and security of biosample data. We analysed and extracted access rules and constraints from all data providers (databases) involved in the building of data bridges covering many of Europe's most important databases. These requirement clusters were applied to five usage scenarios representing the data flow in different data bridges: Image bridge, Phenotype data bridge, Personalised medicine data bridge, Structural data bridge, and Biosample data bridge. A matrix was built to relate the important concepts from data protection regulations (e.g. pseudonymisation, identifyability, access control, consent management) with the results of the requirement clusters. An interactive user interface for querying the matrix for requirements necessary for compliant data sharing was created. To guide researchers without the need for legal expert knowledge through legal requirements, an interactive tool, the Legal Assessment Tool (LAT), was developed. LAT provides researchers interactively with a selection process to characterise the involved types of data and databases and provides suitable requirements and recommendations for concrete data access and sharing situations. The results provided by LAT are based on an analysis of the data access and sharing conditions for different kinds of data of major databases in Europe

  10. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771, 14% (209 of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31 of adults and 7% (44 of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22 of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-18.13, p = 0.003. In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14-34.3, p = 0

  11. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  12. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  13. Systematically reviewing and synthesizing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research to inform healthcare communication practice and policy: an illustrated guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Ruth H; Land, Victoria

    2013-05-30

    Healthcare delivery is largely accomplished in and through conversations between people, and healthcare quality and effectiveness depend enormously upon the communication practices employed within these conversations. An important body of evidence about these practices has been generated by conversation analysis and related discourse analytic approaches, but there has been very little systematic reviewing of this evidence. We developed an approach to reviewing evidence from conversation analytic and related discursive research through the following procedures: • reviewing existing systematic review methods and our own prior experience of applying these • clarifying distinctive features of conversation analytic and related discursive work which must be taken into account when reviewing • holding discussions within a review advisory team that included members with expertise in healthcare research, conversation analytic research, and systematic reviewing • attempting and then refining procedures through conducting an actual review which examined evidence about how people talk about difficult future issues including illness progression and dying We produced a step-by-step guide which we describe here in terms of eight stages, and which we illustrate from our 'Review of Future Talk'. The guide incorporates both established procedures for systematic reviewing, and new techniques designed for working with conversation analytic evidence. The guide is designed to inform systematic reviews of conversation analytic and related discursive evidence on specific domains and topics. Whilst we designed it for reviews that aim at informing healthcare practice and policy, it is flexible and could be used for reviews with other aims, for instance those aiming to underpin research programmes and projects. We advocate systematically reviewing conversation analytic and related discursive findings using this approach in order to translate them into a form that is credible and

  14. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Of Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2014-01-01

    Can computers, or artificial intelligence, reason by analogy? This essay urges that they cannot, because they are unable to engage in the crucial task of identifying the normative principle that links or separates cases. Current claims, about the ability of artificial intelligence to reason analogically, rest on an inadequate picture of what legal reasoning actually is. For the most part, artificial intelligence now operates as a kind of advanced version of LEXIS, offering research assistance...

  16. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  17. The analysis and evaluation of legal argumentation: approaches from legal theory and argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  20. Legal protection of land from pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zdravko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.