While the daily newspapers and radio are full of articles and advertisements concerning the impending opening up of the electric industry to customer choice of supplier, little attention is being given to choice in the natural gas markets. The fact is, however, that except for California and some scattered pilot programs, retail electric markets are not yet open and even the imminent deadlines for retail access may prove to be illusory. For example, Rhode Island retail electric markets, by law, were open to competition July 1, 1997 but a month later less than a handful of customers had chosen alternative suppliers. In contrast, customers everywhere are already able to choose their own gas supplier, other than the local gas utility that had supplied all customers for so many years. With this new freedom of choice comes not only a number of benefits, but also risks. This article seeks to provide customers some guidance in obtaining such benefits and avoiding the risks. Ultimately, that is accomplished through a careful selection process, best done by means of an RFP with expert assistance, and through a negotiated gas contract. Before addressing specific contracting issues one must understand the legal and regulatory framework which governs the transportation of the natural gas
Full Text Available the article analyzes Russian and Chinese legislation on the contract of sale of goods, which contains many general provisions, but there are peculiarities due to the difference between the legal systems of Russia and China. Consistently the authors compare the legal regulation of defining the purchase and sale agreement elements which are the parties to the contract, subject, price, term, form and content of the contract. The provisions of Russian and Chinese legislation on liability for non-performance or improper performance of the purchase and sale agreement are noted.
Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Sheppard, W.J.; Nesse, R.J.
A preliminary exploration is given of the legal and economic considerations surrounding the formation and operation of some form of utility-sponsored collective buying arrangement for heliostats. Particular attention is focused on considerations of federal antitrust law surrounding collective buying and other joint operations by electric utilities. Attention is also given to considerations suggested by the economic theory of monopsony (markets with a single buyer) and oligopsony (markets with a small number of buyers). The advantages and disadvantages of such arrangements are examined from the viewpoints of the buyer and the seller. (LEW)
Davies, S; Wood, D M; Smith, G; Button, J; Ramsey, J; Archer, R; Holt, D W; Dargan, P I
The supply of recreational drugs has changed and users increasingly buy 'legal highs' over the Internet. Use of these is common and there is a potential for significant toxicity associated with their use. To determine the content of legal highs available for purchase in the UK and whether the content of these remains consistent. Twenty-six legal highs were purchased monthly from five different Internet sites over 6 months. These were analysed to determine the drugs in the products and whether there were any changes in their content over this time period. All products were supplied initially, but there was a decline in supply of products month by month. The following drug classes were detected: piperazines, cathinones, caffeine/ephedrine or products in which no psychoactive drugs were detected. Of the products supplied on more than one occasion, 15 (75%) contained the same compounds on each occasion. In three products there was a change in the piperazine detected, with 1-benzylpiperazine being substituted for 1-methyl-4-benzylpiperazine or vice versa. In two other products there was a cathinone [4-fluorophenylpiperazine (pFPP) or 3-fluromethcathinone (3FMC)] detected in products purchased in Month 1 that was not present in the products purchased in subsequent months. Whilst there was no variation in the composition of most legal highs supplied over 6 month, there was significant variation in the piperazine or cathinone content of one quarter of the products. This variation could be of clinical significance as the cathinone and piperazine products can be associated with significant toxicity.
Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Friedmann, Patricia
To assess preliminary results of the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York City. Temporal trends of pharmacy use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Brooklyn and Queens were analyzed from December 2000 through December 2001. Brooklyn and Queens, New York City. PARTIPANTS: IDUs. Attempts to purchase syringes from pharmacies and success in doing so. Of the 1,072 IDUs interviewed from December 2000 through December 2001, the majority were daily heroin injectors, but there was also substantial speedball and cocaine injection. There was a clear increase over time in both the percentage of subjects who attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies and in the percentage who successfully purchased syringes. Among IDUs interviewed 4 or more months after ESAP began, large majorities of those who attempted to purchase syringes were successful in doing so. No differences in use of ESAP by IDUs were identified in Brooklyn versus Queens: 27% of IDUs interviewed in Queens reported that they had attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies versus 28% in Brooklyn. Persons who reported injecting on a daily or more frequent basis were more likely to have attempted pharmacy purchases than persons who reported injecting less frequently, 32% versus 21%. The ESAP program has led to an increase in the use of pharmacies as sources of sterile injection equipment among IDUs in New York City. The extent to which pharmacies become an important source of sterile injection equipment and the effect of legal pharmacy sales on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain to be determined.
Brown, Jennifer; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Washington, Carmen; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Clegg Smith, Katherine
To estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). A cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased. Cigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. A total of 3240 packs were purchased (range = 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as 'legal' or 'illicit' based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp; 2468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by country, city and neighborhood socio-economic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes. The number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n India (n = 41). The difference in median price between legal and illicit packs as a percentage of the price of legal packs ranged from 32% in Philippines to 455% in Bangladesh. Median purchase price of illicit cigarette packs was higher than that of legal cigarette packs in six countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam). Median purchase price of illicit packs was lower than that of legal packs in Turkey, Ukraine and China. The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available This article analyses the problems that can arise when implementing the rights of shareholders in private limited liability companies to purchase the shares of another shareholder being for sale in priority to others and the possible legal remedies for violated rights. According to the practice of the Lithuanian Supreme Court, the rights of the buyer cannot be assigned to a private limited liability company shareholder whose pre-emption right to purchase the shares being for sale has been breached. However, in this article it is being argued that perhaps in certain exceptional cases, in order to create fair business practice and ensure a “tangible” result for the plaintiff in relation to the judgment, the court could (should take advantage of the freedom to maneuver and, by implementing justice, change the method of restitution (pertaining to the subject – assign the shares to the plaintiff (an aggrieved shareholder simultaneously creating an obligation on the same person to settle properly with the last owner of the disputed shares.
And Others; Cutler, Stephen J.
Cohort changes in attitudes about availability of legal abortions are traced over a 12-year period. Contrary to the aging-conservatism hypothesis, trends in the direction of increasingly favorable attitudes and general stability characterize all cohorts. There is no evidence of growing conservatism among the older cohorts. (Author/BEF)
Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Roodbeen, Ruud T J; Lemmens, Paul H H M
As of January 2014, the Dutch minimum legal age for the sale and purchase of all alcoholic beverages has increased from 16 to 18 years of age. The effectiveness of a minimum legal age policy in controlling the availability of alcohol for adolescents depends on the extent to which this minimum legal age is complied with in the field. The main aim of the current study is to investigate, for a country with a West-European drinking culture, whether raising the minimum legal age for the sale of alcohol has influenced compliance rates among Dutch alcohol vendors. A total of 1770 alcohol purchase attempts by 15-year-old mystery shoppers were conducted in three independent Dutch representative samples of on- and off-premise alcohol outlets in 2013 (T0), 2014 (T1), and 2016 (T2). The effect of the policy change was estimated controlling for gender and age of the vendor. Mean alcohol sellers' compliance rates significantly increased for 15-year-olds from 46.5% before to 55.7% one year and to 73.9% two years after the policy change. Two years after the policy change, alcohol vendors were up to 3 times more likely to comply with the alcohol age limit policy. After the policy change, mean alcohol compliance rates significantly increased when 15-year-olds attempted to purchase alcohol, an effect which seems to increase over time. Nevertheless, a rise in the compliance rate was already present in the years preceding the introduction of the new minimum legal age. This perhaps signifies a process in which a lowering in the general acceptability of juvenile drinking already started before the increased minimum legal age was introduced and alcohol vendors might have been anticipating this formal legal change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Munro, B J; Steele, J R
A mail survey was conducted to assess the types of household footwear currently being worn by a random sample of independently living men and women aged 65 years and older as well as their needs related to the purchase and wearing of household footwear. Questionnaires were completed by 128 people. The greatest number of respondents wore slippers all day around the home, purchasing these shoes because of their convenience and comfort. Respondents were not willing to purchase expensive shoes for household wear and infrequently replaced them, despite the fact that such footwear was worn for extended periods each day. It was concluded that further research is required to design a household shoe that fits well and accommodates a variety of foot pathologies typical of the elderly foot; the shoe should be comfortable, relatively inexpensive, and safe for typical household surfaces.
A key goal of US public health policies is to reduce costly adverse birth outcomes to which prenatal smoking is a crucial contributor. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of a minimum cigarette purchase age of 21 implemented in the state of Pennsylvania on prenatal smoking and infant health. Using a regression discontinuity method, it shows this smoking age of 21 reduces the prenatal daily cigarette consumption by 15 percent and lowers the incidence of low birth weight infants by ...
Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.
Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045
Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine
To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....
Full Text Available In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults ('N' = 9 million conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages became more supportive of legal marijuana. Among 12th graders, support for marijuana legalization was closely linked to perceptions of marijuana safety.
Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.
Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…
Otavio, Andressa Colares da Costa
Full Text Available Introduction Presbycusis is a consequence of aging. Prescription of hearing aids is part of the treatment, although the prevalence of use by elderly people is still small. Objective To verify whether or not self-assessment of hearing is a predictor for purchase of hearing aids. Methods Quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study. Participants were subjects who sought a private hearing center for selection of hearing aids. During the diagnostic interview, subjects answered the following question: “On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the worst and 10 the best, how would you rate your overall hearing ability?” After that, subjects underwent audiometry, selected a hearing aid, performed a home trial, and decided whether or not to purchase the hearing aid. The variables were associated and analyzed statistically. Results The sample was comprised of 32 subjects, both men and women, with a higher number of women. Mean age was 71.41 ± 12.14 years. Self-assessment of hearing ranged from 2 to 9 points. Overall, 71.9% of the subjects purchased hearing aids. There was no association between scores in the self-assessment and the purchase of hearing aids (p = 0.263. Among those who scored between 2 and 5 points, 64.7% purchased the device; between 6 and 7 points, 76.09% purchased the device; and between 8 and 9 points, 50% purchased the device, respectively. Conclusion There is evidence that low self-assessment scores lead to the purchase of hearing aids, although no significant association was observed in the sample.
Puangsuwan, Areekul; Phakdeesettakun, Kannapon; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Chaiyasong, Surasak
In Thailand, the 2008 Alcoholic Beverages Control Act set the minimum purchase age (MPA) at 20 years old in order to limit new drinkers as part of the overall alcohol control effort. This study aims to assess the compliance of off-premise alcohol retailers with MPA restrictions and to identify factors affecting sales to adolescents. A decoy protocol was used to quantify compliance of 417 alcohol retailers from three categories, namely grocers, modern minimarts and department stores. Multi-stage sampling was applied to obtain the samples in four provinces: Bangkok, Nakorn Sawan, Songkhla and Surin. Each alcohol retailer was visited twice by 17-19 year-old male and female adolescents who tried to buy alcohol. Information collected from focus groups and in-depth interviews with vendors and management officers were analysed for the qualitative methodology. Of all 834 buying attempts undertaken by the underage adolescent, 98.7% were successful in buying alcohol. Only 0.9% were asked for age and 0.1% were requested to show an ID card. Age and ID verifications were statistically significant to buying success as well as province, while number of vendors, gender and age of vendors and buyers, type of outlet, law cautions and advertisement signs in the outlet demonstrated no significant association. The results showed that vendors fail to comply with the law despite the fact that they know the law. Enforcement needs to be strengthened to effectively limit new drinkers.
Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R; Norberg, Karen E; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J
Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990 to 2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed, which incorporated state and birth-year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.18, p = 0.0003) and homicide (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.25, p = 0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William
Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna
Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months
van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van den Wildenberg, Esther; de Bruijn, Dorien
Purpose: Alcohol availability is an important predictor of alcohol use in adolescents and its negative consequences. Within this study, we zoomed in on availability through alcohol home delivery services (AHDS) by measuring compliance with the legal age limit in this sector. Methods: Two methods
Discusses the author's experience as a kindergarten teacher with students who have had a wide range of literacy within the home. Notes how some parents "misuse" the "Hooked on Phonics" program and their children gain no benefit from it. Proposes that educators lower "the legal reading age," providing all children--even the youngest ones--with…
This volume, the fifth in the series, contains the proceedings from the conference Custom. The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages held at the Law School at the University of Aarhus in May 2008. The volume covers topics from local case studies and studies of learned law...... to broader reflections on the development and use of the legal concept consuetudo and its connection with other sources of law, with the balance between local and regional power structures, and secular and ecclesiastical societies in medieval Europe. Combining the approaches of several historical disciplines...
Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin
The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M age in a Kosovar population.
In the face of the information age, Internet and telecommunication technologies have been widely applied in various settings. These innovational technologies have been used in the areas of e-commerce, long distance learning programs, entertainment, e-government, and so on. In recent years, the evolution of Internet technology is also pervading the health care industry. This dramatic trend may significantly alter traditional medical practice as well as the means of delivery of health care. The idea of telemedicine is to use modern information technology as a means or platform to deliver health care service in remote areas and to manage medical information in digitalized forms. The progress of developing telemedicine, however, is rather slow. The main reason for this slow progress is not technological but rather legal. Health care providers are reluctant to promote this innovation in medical service mainly due to uncertain legal consequences and ethical concerns. Although there are many legal challenges surrounding telemedicine, this note will examine major legal issues including licensure, malpractice liability, and privacy protection. Furthermore, I will discuss the potential of applying telemedicine programs in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program (hereinafter referred to as NHI).
Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten
Objective: Introduced to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), statins are now recommended for a range of other conditions, including asymptomatic individuals without cardiovascular disease or diabetes. The aim was to describe trends in Danish statin utilization according to indication...... and age during 1996-2009, and to analyse changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour during time intervals (driver periods) a priori defined by potential influential factors. Methods: A nationwide cohort (N = 4,998,580) was followed in Danish individual-level registries. Based on a hierarchy of register...
Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John
Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.
Streckbein, Philipp; Reichert, Isabelle; Verhoff, Marcel A; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Kähling, Christopher; Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Schaaf, Heidrun; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; May, Andreas
The increased number of adolescents and young adults with unknown or inaccurately given date of birth is a current issue in justice and legal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which third molar calcification stages assessed on panoramic X-rays could be useful as additional criteria for forensic age estimation in living individuals, focusing on the legally important ages 17 and 18. In a retrospective multi-center study, the developmental stage of each individual's third molar was analyzed using Demirjian's scale in 2360 cases. Additionally, sex, age and ancestry were assessed. Individuals with the lowest calcification stage of all present molars in stage H were ≥18 years with a likelihood of ≥99.05% in the female (n=388), and ≥99.24% in the male (n=482) population. The lowest calcification stage of all present third molars proved to be useful as an additional reliable criterion for the determination of an age ≥18 years. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim of the study: The paper addresses the use of dental age assessment methods based on radiographs in medico-legal practice. Different cases of practical application of the methods are presented including identification of human remains, dental age assessment in a living person and one archaeological case. Material and methods : The study material consisted of cases involving dental age assessment performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. Depending on the preliminary assessment of age, the Liversidge or the Kvaal et al. methods were applied. Dental age was estimated on the basis of available pantomograms. In the case of the living person, it was a radiograph supplied for expert evaluation. In the other cases, dental computed tomography was performed. Results : Dental age was successfully estimated in all of the cases. Various methods based on the analysis of X-ray images were applied. Dental age was shown to be correlated with skeletal age. Conclusions : The methods based on radiographs were demonstrated to be useful, and the results they yield are fully correlated with results of anthropological analyses.
Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, D; Przystańska, A; Kulczyk, T; Hyrchała, A; Bartecki, B; Kociemba, W; Glapiński, M; Łabęcka, M; Świderski, P
The paper addresses the use of dental age assessment methods based on radiographs in medico-legal practice. Different cases of practical application of the methods are presented including identification of human remains, dental age assessment in a living person and one archaeological case. The study material consisted of cases involving dental age assessment performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. Depending on the preliminary assessment of age, the Liversidge or the Kvaal et al. methods were applied. Dental age was estimated on the basis of available pantomograms. In the case of the living person, it was a radiograph supplied for expert evaluation. In the other cases, dental computed tomography was performed. Dental age was successfully estimated in all of the cases. Various methods based on the analysis of X-ray images were applied. Dental age was shown to be correlated with skeletal age. The methods based on radiographs were demonstrated to be useful, and the results they yield are fully correlated with results of anthropological analyses.
Full Text Available The paper is an empirical contribution to the intention to remain at work until legal retirement age among different age subgroups of employees. Three groups of antecedents are analyzed: health condition, professional competence, and psychosocial work conditions, among two age groups of employees: 40- to 49-year-old employees and employees 50 years of age or older. The participants are employees from the service industry who are subject to annual control by occupational medicine (n = 280. They completed the VOW/QFT (Vragenlijst Over Werkbaarheid / Questionnaire sur les Facultés de Travail, a self-report questionnaire measuring several dimensions to understand the intention to remain at work. Hierarchical regression analyses tested the hypotheses. Results show there is clearly distinctive process between employees who were 40–49 years old and those over 50 in the explanation of intention to work until the lawful retirement age. Among the first group, perceived health and increase in abilities explained the intention to remain (psychosocial aspects were not an incremental explanation; among the second, it was the possibility of participation that motivated them to work. Implications concern the management of age and career: These are not the same factors that explain the intention to remain at different stages of the career. This research clarifies the respective roles of health, professional competence, and work conditions to understand the intention to remain by studying their incremental explanations and distinguishing two subgroups of age.
AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad
Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) . This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development
- political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...... culture and of medieval history in general should find this collection of essays a useful contribution to the continuing discussion about the development of European law, legal principles and notions of justice. Contents: Preface Introduction / John G. H. Hudson (University of St Andrews) Law and custom...
Huisman, W.; Kleemans, E.R.
In 2000, the Dutch authorities lifted the ban on brothels in the Netherlands. The essence of their approach was to regulate prostitution. People of legal age could now voluntarily sell and purchase sexual services. Brothels which complied with certain licensing conditions were legalized. This paper
Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles
This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A
The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p <.05). Results unadjusted for e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A
Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Liebman, Aliza Kate; LaFleur, Kevin; Ribisl, Kurt M
Identify the population of internet e-cigarette vendors (IEVs) and conduct content analyses of their age verification, purchase and delivery methods in 2013 and 2014. We used multiple sources to identify IEV websites, primarily complex search algorithms scanning more than 180 million websites. In 2013, we manually screened 32 446 websites, identifying 980 IEVs, selecting the 281 most popular for content analysis. This methodology yielded 31 239 websites for screening in 2014, identifying 3096 IEVs, with 283 selected for content analysis. The proportion of vendors that sold online-only, with no retail store, dropped significantly from 2013 (74.7%) to 2014 (64.3%) (pcredit cards, and about ¾ shipping via United States Postal Service, similar to the internet cigarette industry prior to federal bans. The number of IEVs grew sharply from 2013 to 2014, with poor age verification practices. New and expanded regulations for online e-cigarette sales are needed, including strict age and identity verification requirements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wetrich, J G
The various types and operational methods of purchasing groups are described, and evaluation of groups is discussed. Since group purchasing is increasing in popularity as a method of controlling drug costs, community and hospital pharmacy managers may need to evaluate various groups to determine the appropriateness of their services. Groups are categorized as independent, system based, or alliance or association based. Instead of "purchasing," some groups develop contracts for hospitals, which then purchase directly from the vendor. Aside from this basic difference between groups that purchase and groups that contract, comparisons among groups are difficult because of the wide variation in sizes and services. Competition developing from diversification among groups has led to "super groups," formed from local and regional groups. In evaluating groups, advantages and disadvantages germane to accomplishing the member's objectives must be considered. To ensure a group's success, members must be committed and support the group's philosophies; hospital pharmacists must help to establish a strong formulary system. To select vendors, groups should develop formal qualification and selection criteria and should not base a decision solely on price. The method of solicitation (bidding or negotiating), as well as the role of the prime vendor, should be studied. Legal implications of group purchasing, especially in the areas of administrative fees and drug diversion, must also be considered. The most advantageous group for each organization will include members with common missions and will be able to implement strategies for future success.
Morshed, Alexandra B; Becker, Haley V; Delnatus, Jacques Raymond; Wolff, Patricia B; Iannotti, Lora L
The primary aim was to examine the association of socio-economic factors and diet with overweight (including obesity) among school-aged children in Haiti. The secondary aim was to describe food availability and the physical activity built environment in participating schools. This cross-sectional study examined baseline data from the intervention Mamba study assessing the effectiveness of a fortified peanut butter paste in school-aged children. Logistic regression modelling was used to test hypothesized factors in association with overweight status. Six primary schools in Cap-Haitien, the second largest city in Haiti. Children (n 968) aged 3-13 years, in good health and enrolled in a participating school for the 2012/13 school year. Child age (adjusted OR (AOR); 95 % CI=0·25; 0·12, 0·56), child age squared (1·08; 1·03, 1·13), always purchasing food at school (3·52; 1·12, 11·08), mother's BMI (1·10; 1·04, 1·16) and household ownership of a bicycle (0·28; 0·11, 0·71) were significantly associated with overweight (likelihood ratio=36, Poverweight children in the binary analysis (P=0·033) and improved the fit of the model. Schools had limited time and space for physical activity and foods sold by vendors were predominantly high in sugar or fat. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine the covariates of childhood overweight or describe school food availability and physical activity built environments in Haiti. Further research is necessary to identify intervention targets and feasible, cost-effective approaches for prevention of obesity in Haiti children.
Full Text Available The study presented herein represents a field with good present and future perspectives, especially because real estate property is not under the incidence of a single normative act regarding the sale-purchase agreement of such goods, and given the fact that there are specific legal provisions with respect to various real estate categories and the localization of such property. The article deals with the sale-purchase agreement of various real estate categories, such as fields, buildings, the correspondent lots, urban area, farm, and forests fields, focusing on some particularities. A special care is attributed to examining the applicable laws with regard to the purchase agreements of field lands, the special conditions to be taken into account, the persons that may act as buyers, including foreigners, those without citizenship, and legal persons of a nationality other than Romanian. Finally, a special concern is given to the formalities required for legally exerting the pre-emptive right and the applicable sanctions in that respect.
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); P.C. Verhoef (Peter); J.C. Hoekstra (Janny)
textabstractThe authors examine the effect of relational constructs (e.g., satisfaction, trust, and affective and calculative commitment) on customer referrals and the number of services purchased, as well as the moderating effect of age of the relationship on these relationships. The research
Verhoef, PC; Franses, PH; Hoekstra, JC
The authors examine the effect of relational constructs (e.g., satisfaction, trust, and affective and calculative commitment) on customer referrals and the number of services purchased, as well as the moderating effect of age of the relationship on these relationships. The research reported, based
Molinelli, Andrea; Viale, Laura; Landolfa, Maria Celeste; De Stefano, Francesco
The current trend toward an ever increasing aging population forces society to face the problem of how to care for elderly people who are exposed to the risk of so-called "elder abuse," a phenomenon becoming increasingly widespread in Italy, as legislation does not provide a precise juridical definition of "elderly" nor does it provide for their specific protection. From a geriatric and medico-legal point of view, it is difficult to assess the cognitive performance of elderly individuals due to a number of factors, including the lack of evaluation tools with well-defined reference parameters for assessing decision-making capacities. Nonetheless, according to Italian penal code, abandoning a person incapable of self-support due to old age is considered a violation of the obligation of family assistance. Just as in the USA, which has instituted the Adult Protective Services, the Authors propose that the local health authorities provide help desks for the victims of elder abuse in Italy.
Johnson, David A; Rose, F D; Brooks, B M; Eyers, S
Despite considerable scientific evidence to the contrary, many medical practitioners maintain that children recover from brain injury better than adults. This belief, which is commonly referred to as the "Kennard Principle", has important ramifications for personal injury compensation claims in which the amount of financial damages claimed is partly based on medical experts' prognoses for recovery and long-term outcome. The present study investigated whether legal practitioners' beliefs are consistent with those of medical practitioners. Lawyers were asked to estimate their confidence in consultant neurologists' estimates of recovery in four clinically-based but fictitious case studies which differed only in the reported age of the patient. The lawyers showed more confidence in estimates which coincided with the Kennard Principle than those which did not. These results support previous findings in showing widespread belief that "younger is better" in recovery from brain injury. In consequence, it is likely that financial compensation for children with brain injury is currently being underestimated in litigation, thereby prejudicing the long-term outcome of the child.
Kypri, Kypros; Wolfenden, Luke; Hutchesson, Melinda; Langley, John; Voas, Robert
In 2005 a Bill was introduced to the New Zealand parliament to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age (MPA) from 18 to 20 years and submissions were invited from interested parties. We sought to characterise and critique the arguments tendered for and against the proposal. We used template analysis to study written submissions on the Bill from 178 people and organisations in New Zealand. Independent raters coded submissions according to the source, whether for or opposed, and the arguments employed. The most common sources of submissions were members of the public (28%), the alcohol industry (20%), and NGOs (20%). Overall, 40% opposed increasing the MPA, 40% were in favour, 4% supported a split MPA (18 years for on-premise, 20 years for off-premise), 7% were equivocal, and 8% offered no comment. The most common proponents of increasing the MPA were NGOs (36%) and members of the public (30%) and their arguments concerned the expected positive effects on public health (36%) and public disorder/property damage (16%), while 24% argued that other strategies should be used as well. The most common sources of opposition to increasing the MPA were the alcohol industry (50%) and the public (20%). It was commonly claimed that the proposed law change would be ineffective in reducing harm (22%), that other strategies should be used instead (16%), that it would infringe adult rights (15%), and that licensed premises are safe environments for young people (14%). There were noteworthy examples of NGOs and government agencies opposing the law change. The alcohol industry maximised its impact via multiple submissions appealing to individual rights while neglecting to report or accurately characterise the scientific evidence. Several health and welfare agencies presented confused logic and/or were selective in their use of scientific evidence. In contrast to the fragmented and inconsistent response from government and NGOs, the alcohol industry was organised and united, with
D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of
More than a hundred epigraphic documents on different writing materials refer to medical staff in the Roman army. This paper focuses on the identity, legal status and origin of the Roman army medical staff--a topic which until now has hardly been studied. Various titles were conferred to a large number of medical staff in every unit of the Roman army; the doctors (medici) were the most numerous and had different ranks and status. The onomastic study of the inscriptions reveals a large proportion of Roman citizens in the military medical service. Most of them are ingenui with a Latin name, but freedmen with a Greek origin are frequently attested, though less so than among civilian doctors. These results dispel some misconceptions such as the Greek origin of most military doctors, which can be explained by the legal requirements of the recruitment into the Roman army.
Block, Stephanie D; Poplin, Ashlee Burgess; Wang, Eric S; Widaman, Keith F; Runyan, Desmond K
Mandated child abuse reporters may judge specific disciplinary practices as unacceptable for young children, whereas child law professionals arbitrating allegations may be less inclusive. Do the views of these groups diverge, by child age, regarding discipline? Judgments of community norms across a wide range of children's ages were obtained from 380 medical and legal professionals. Because the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (PC-CTS) can be used to assess the epidemiology of child disciplinary behaviors and as a proxy to examine the incidence or prevalence of child abuse, the disciplinary practices described on the PC-CTS were presented as triggers for questions. Significant child age effects were found for disciplinary practices classified as "harsh." The consistencies between legal and medical professionals were striking. Both groups reflected changes in United States norms, as non-physical approaches were the most approved. We conclude that instruments estimating the prevalence of child maltreatment by parent-report should consider modifying how specific disciplinary practices are classified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The family tragedy that results from a child who dies in a road traffic accident may be exacerbated by judicial consequences for the adult/parent driving the vehicle, carrying the child, or responsible for properly immobilising the child in the safety device that was used. The author presents two court cases of the road traffic accident deaths of two children under the age of five years. The two cases are presented using a methodological approach, which integrates competencies in other fields into the medico-legal aspects. An analysis of the two cases provides the opportunity to discuss the driver's responsibility to properly use child safety seat and to analyse and evaluate the efficacy and limits of child restraint systems. In the two cases, the responsibility for the application of a child safety device was excluded. It was confirmed that child protective devices are not always sufficient to avoid lesions or death in road accidents that occur with significant speed or other specific dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
Quispe Lizarbe, Roselhy Juliana; Solís Adrianzén, Christian; Quezada-Márquez, Milushka Miroslava; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto
To compare the accuracy of Demirjian's stages (DS) and Cameriere's third molar maturity index cut-off value (I 3M age of majority on panoramic radiographs (OPTs) from the dental clinic of the Scientific University of the South (UCSUR), Lima, Peru. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the sample of 208 digital panoramic radiographs of patients aged 14-22years examined during 2015 in UCSUR. The left lower third molars were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop® CS6. An effectiveness of specific DS and I 3M stages were practical for classify adults and minors in the tested sample, while I 3M <0.08 showed the best performance in both sexes. For I 3M <0.08, the accurate classification, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.90, 0.84 and 0.95 in males and females, respectively. Values of LR+, LR- and p were 24.96, 0.04, 0.97 and 15.68, 0.17, 0.95 in males and females, respectively. The specific cut-off value of third molar maturity index (I 3M <0.08) showed to be more accurate in discriminating adults and minors in Peruvian sample when a test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costa, José; Montero, Javier; Serrano, Sarai; Albaladejo, Alberto; López-Valverde, Antonio; Bica, Isabel
This study aims to assess the accuracy of age estimation according to two cut-off points of Demirjian's developmental stages (G and H) in the wisdom teeth, using panoramic radiographs from Colombian and Mexican teenagers. The degree of maturation of the third molars was classified according to Demirjian in 8 stages (from A to H) by a blinded trained assessor. The sensitivity, specificity and efficacy of two cut-off points (G and H) were calculated for both samples. The orthopantomographies of 316 subjects, 171 Colombians (54.1%) and 145 Mexicans (45.9%), were analyzed. The stage H was found to be the best threshold for detecting juveniles (because the high specificity) in all the third molars assessed. The specificity was higher for lower third molars than for upper third molars, but no asymmetrical discrepancy was noted. The stage H is the best cut-off point for detecting the adulthood when a high-specificity test is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Schwartz, R H; Farrow, J A; Banks, B; Giesel, A E
Altered motor vehicle drivers's licenses or other falsified or counterfeit photo identification cards are widely and illegally used by teenagers to obtain beer and other alcohol beverages. We obtained information on the methods currently used by teenagers to purchase beer and wine by asking nine hundred teenagers, between 16-19 years old to complete a brief, confidential questionnaire. High school students most often obtained alcoholic beverages by requesting someone of legal age to purchase it for them. College students used borrowed, altered, or counterfeit identification (ID) more often than high school students. Photo IDs purchased through mail order from a magazine advertisement were used infrequently and when use was attempted, they were sometimes (25%) unsuccessful. Fifteen percent of high school students, 14% of college freshmen, and 24% of teenage drug abusers were able to purchase beer by the case with borrowed, altered, or fake ID. Suggestions to reduce sales of alcohol-containing beverages to minors include universal "carding" of prospective purchasers, use of two view or hologram photos on a drivers' license, requiring three different ID cards at the point of purchase, and penalties to stores that fail to make a good effort to identify underage customers.
Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael
Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to draw attention to some key rules and principles of the purchase contract. After the specification of this contract type we will deal in more details with the defective performance and the procedure of its complaint. As suggest the first assessment and reviews of the application of new legislation in its practical use and by the case law, in the achievement of the objective desired by the NCC - to increase the transparency of the procedure of complaints - the new legislation stacked in the middle of the way. The paper compares the impact of the new the previous and the current regulations, We will use the method of functional analysis as well as the method of legal formalistic comparison. It is obvious that the new rules respect the former régime of commercial contracts. The business sphere has undoubtedly welcomed this feature of the legal regime as the merchandisers are familiar with these rules. The second issue is, however, how this modification in the general regulation meets the expectations of the to provide sufficient legal certainty in the interpretation of contractual provisions and in the access to the protection of their interests by courts in the event of disputes.
Hanghøj, Astrid; Mols, Niels Peter
show that integrative, relational, innovative,and intelligence capabilities are positively related to innovation. However, relational capabilities are not found to have significant effect on purchasings contribution to supply and practice innovation, i.e. new markets, new suppliers, and new purchasing...... practices. The relationship between intelligence capabilities and purchasings contribution to product and production innovations depends on the level of innovation capabilities.......In this paper we develop a number of hypotheses relating four purchasing capabilities to two measures of purchasings contribution to innovation. The hypotheses are tested with data collected through a websurvey completed by 321 purchasing professionals in Danish production companies. Our results...
Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K
Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...
Telgen, Jan; Lamming, R.C.; Grickus, I.
Automation is finding its way in the world of purchasing. This development could evoke dramatic effects in the long term, not only on purchasing but even on the market place itself. Nowadays, EDI and CD-ROM are examples of automation applications that purchasing departments use frequently. Internet
Kunde, Lauren; McMeniman, Erin; Parker, Malcolm
Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.
To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.
Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda
Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (PGreece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model of financial capacity seems to be highly correlated with the so far use of MMSE/HMSE scores, but it gives more specific information that is of interest in the field of civil forensics for characterizing someone as legally (in) capable for large and/or small scale financial acts. Our preliminary
US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs
Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.
of technical complexity is rated higher among the Danish respondents, and market uncertainty is rated higher among the Indiana respondents. Then, we look at a number of characteristics of the purchasing function, including skills and education level of the purchasing personnel, inter-functional coordination......, and the type of supplier relationships. Finally, the formal position of purchasing in the organization is presented. Here the findings confirm the conventional wisdom that most purchasing employees are without a formal, higher education, and that most of the time is spent on routine transactions. Based...
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no significant correlation between perceived risks and online purchasing intention. Implication and limitation of this study also discussed.
Behrang Samadi; Kae Tran My Loan; Benjamin Chan Yin Fah
This study aims to examine the correlation among perceived benefits, perceived risks and perceived website quality towards online purchasing intention with one of the online store in Singapore. This study used online questionnaire survey to collect 180 completed responses of male and female Singaporean aged 20 and above. The findings showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived benefits, perceived website quality and online purchasing intention while there was no signific...
Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains a list of items in case units by category and supplier that have been purchased by the Department of Liquor Control in the past month. Update...
Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.
Full Text Available The influence of the brand on purchase decision has been and is still extensively studied by marketers, researchers, economists, manufacturers (especially the multinational companies. In the present study we aimed to find out if the brand influences the purchase decision of consumers in general (brand products/services. A survey has been conducted in September 2016 on a number of 225 people, residents of Tîrgu Mureş city, from Romania, aged between 15 and 65+. The collected data were analyzed to comply with the obiectives and also to draw conclusions. From the study it is reveal that the purchase decision of a potencial buyer is influenced by a number of factors, in particularly by the quality and price. We chose to study the influence of brand on purchase decision, a very topical subject that can never be fully exhausted.
Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein
The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Frati, Paola; Foldes-Papp, Zeno; Panici, Pierluigi B; Brunelli, Roberto; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P; Fineschi, Vittorio
Pregnancy in advanced reproductive age is nowadays part of the social and welfare scenario. The effects and assessment of the risks and complications in women over the age of 43 must still be more specifically defined. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes between spontaneous pregnancies with those induced by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in women ≥ 43 years. This retrospective observational study enrolled 114 women with an age of ≥ 43 divided as follows: 74 with spontaneous pregnancies and 40 with ART-induced pregnancy. For statistical analysis, a t-test was used to compare the parameters analyzed for quantitative variables and χ2 was used for qualitative variables. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Analysis was performed using the program SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The statistically significant differences between IVF and spontaneous pregnancy groups were respectively: gestational hypertension (30% vs 6.8%), preeclampsia (17.5% vs 2.7%), preterm delivery (47.5% vs 13.5%), IUGR (17.5% vs 4.1%), caesarian section (95% vs 70.3%), length of recovery (8.6±7.2 vs 5.9±3) and mean birth weight (2641± 695 g vs 3207±496 g). Women in advanced reproductive age (≥ 43 years) who undergo assisted fertilization procedures are at a higher risk of complications compared to women of the same age with spontaneous pregnancies.
Ganz, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Laging, Marion; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas
Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n=514], AO [n=467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=194], AO [n=231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=146], AO [n=200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data
Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms
Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.
This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…
Chinese customers and those in the rest of world share the same two principal concerns about e-commerce: inadequate information from website and inadequate legal protection for Internet purchases. This study shows that trust, information adequacy and Otakus' characteristics have a significant effect on online purchase intention. Moreover, Otakus' characteristics demonstrate an interference effect on purchasing intention online for the influential factors: information provision and trust in the website.
Cameriere, Roberto; Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco; Cingolani, Mariano; Galić, Ivan; Ferrante, Luigi
The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical structures in development available for estimating the age of individuals in the late adolescence. This study tests the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in an Albanian sample. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 286 living subjects (152 female and 134 male) aged between 15 and 22 years was analyzed. Intra-rater and inter-raters agreement of I3M were 0.998 and 0.998, respectively and Cohen Kappa for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement in decision on adult or minor was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The mean age of females is higher than that of males when I3M is between 0.04 and 0.08. Sensitivity test for males was 94.1%, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 85.6-98.4%, and specificity was 90.9% (95%CI 81.3-96.6%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.5%, with a 95%CI of (86.7%, 96.4%). For females, the sensitivity test was 75.4%, with a 95%CI of (63.1%, 85.2%) and specificity was 96.6%, with a 95%CI of (90.3%, 99.3%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 87.5%, with a 95%CI of (81.2%, 92.3%). The results indicate that Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M=0.08) is useful in discriminating between Albanian adults and juveniles, and encourage us to test its suitability for determining the adult age in individuals from other populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A course was developed to provide data to buyers of new bicycles so they could make an informed decision about their purchases. The instructional systems design process (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) was used to analyze the need for a training course on buying and fitting a bicycle. Information was collected…
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Guerriero, C.
A key question in comparative law is why different legal systems provide different legal solutions for the same problem. To answer this question, we use novel comparative evidence on how the conflict between the dispossessed original owner and the bona fide purchaser of a stolen good is resolved in
Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David
The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... constraints such as capacity limits, reserve requirements and sulphur content. Contracts are often used for bunker purchasing, ensuring supply and often giving a discounted price. A contract can supply any vessel in a period and port, and is thus a shared resource between vessels, which must be distributed...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
Full Text Available The volume of corporate social responsibility (CSR activities is increasing worldwide; the European Union considers CSR to be one of the ways to achieve the most competitive economy and CSR awareness is also rising among companies in the Czech Republic, their customers, and the public. Bearing this in mind, Fairtrade goods, a subset of CSR and sustainable development, is an attractive step for vendors to take towards their customers. In this paper, we try to learn who the buyers of Fairtrade products are and what their motivation is in order to help Fairtrade dealers know their target group better, while at the same time helping expand this target group for organizations such as Fairtrade Czech Republic. We utilize an empirical survey and employ both univariate and bivariate statistical analyses (descriptives, associations, correlations for this purpose. While some previous findings were confirmed, such as (the influence of age and education on Fairtrade purchasing behavior, moral principles and quality of the product being stated as the most important motives to buy Fairtrade products, the significance of the Fairtrade logo and certificate for the buyers’ awareness one was disproved. According to the gathered data, the economic situation of a household does not affect Fairtrade purchasing behavior.
Kimball, Suzanne H.
An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…
Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris
In July 2013 New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) to establish the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ("legal highs"). To critically analyse the implementation of the PSA. Synthesis of findings from interviews with 30 key informants (i.e. politicians, civil servants, legal high industry actors, toxicologists, NGO representatives and drug policy academics), analysis of relevant laws and policy documents, and a review of academic and grey literature on the PSA. Key challenges experienced during the implementation of the PSA included the harmfulness of interim approved products, the slowness in withdrawing products which caused adverse effects, enforcing retail restrictions, price competition by retailers, judicial challenges by the "legal high" industry, and growing opposition to the regime from local communities and key stakeholders (including local councils). The PSA lacks a tax on products and restrictions on retail opening hours which likely contributed to the problems above. The implementation of the PSA also appeared to suffer from a rushed legislative process and resource constraints on the regulatory agency which led to delays in the development of the full regulatory framework, including the product testing requirements, and issues with enforcing retail regulation, such as the minimum age of purchase. The decline in public support for the PSA regime reflected problems with communicating the aims of the policy to the general public. The troubled implementation of the PSA underlines a number of important lessons for consideration when developing a regulated legal drug market, including advanced development of regulatory systems, ensuring the sale of low risk products, adequately resourcing regulatory agencies and related enforcement activity, detailed regulation of retail outlets, establishing price controls, and ongoing engagement with stakeholders and the general public. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B
Santiago, Bianca Marques; Almeida, Leopoldina; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Maia, Lucianne Cople
The age estimation is a complex procedure required in the daily practice of legal medicine. The maturity of third molars stands out by the age of 18 because these teeth are still in development. This systematic review aimed to assess the accuracy of the third molar maturity index (I 3M ), proposed by Cameriere et al. (2008), in discriminating whether an individual is under or over 18 years. Seven electronic databases were screened: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SIGLE, and CAPES. Eligible studies included an assessment of I 3M accuracy at the 0.08 cut-off value. The quality assessment was performed by using QUADAS 2. Three meta-analyses (MA) were accomplished: overall, one for males and another for females. From 2397 articles identified, 16 met the eligibility criteria. Of these, two showed high risk of bias, one in the reference standard domain and the other in the flow and timing domain. The percentage of individuals correctly classified ranged from 72.4 to 96.0%. The overall MA showed pooled sensitivity of 0.86 (0.84 to 0.87; p = 0.0000) and pooled specificity of 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94; p = 0.0000). The AUC (area under the summary receiver operator characteristics curve) and DOR (diagnostic odds ratio) values were, respectively, 0.9652 and 104.68, indicating an overall high discrimination effect. Separately, better results of accuracy were found for males. High heterogeneity was achieved for both sensibility (94.6%) and specificity (88.8%). We conclude that the I 3M is a suitable and useful method for estimating adulthood regarding forensic purposes, regardless of gender.
purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...
Emre S. Ozmen
Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
Atkinson, Louise F; Palmer, Michelle A
Nutritionally promoted foods are now available at fast-food establishments. Little is known about their popularity, who is purchasing them, or their impact on dietary intake. Our study aimed to determine: how often nutritionally promoted fast foods were purchased; the demographic characteristics of people purchasing these foods; and if purchasing these foods resulted in reduced energy, and increased vegetable, content of lunches compared with those who purchased traditional fast foods. A survey collecting lunchtime fast-food purchases and demographic details was administered over two months. Nutritionally promoted products included the McDonalds' 'Heart Foundation Tick Approved' range and Subway's 'Six grams of fat or less' range. Energy and vegetable contents were estimated using information from fast-food companies' websites. Differences in demographics, energy and vegetable contents between individuals purchasing nutritionally promoted and traditional lunches were assessed using χ2 and t tests. Queensland, Australia. Lunchtime diners aged over 16 years at Subway and McDonalds. Surveys were collected from 927 respondents (58 % male, median age 25 (range 16-84) years; 73 % response rate). Only 3 % (n 24/910) of respondents who ordered a main option had purchased a nutritionally promoted item. Purchasers of nutritionally promoted foods were ∼13 years older, predominantly female (79 %), and more often reported involvement in a health-related profession (29 % v. 11 %) than purchasers of traditional foods (P foods ordered 1·5 fewer megajoules and 0·6 more vegetable servings than purchasers of traditional foods (P foods may reduce lunchtime energy content, however these foods were infrequently chosen.
The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)
Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)
Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.
This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)
Full Text Available AIM – The legal gambling age in Finland was raised from 15 to 18 years in 2010, but slot machines were given a transition period that ended with the full law coming into effect on 1 July 2011. The widespread accessibility of slot machines and their popularity among youth led us to consider how age limit was enforced in the Finnish gambling monopoly system and to analyse how underage gambling on slot machines changed after the raising of the minimum age.
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Cansu Tor Kadioglu
Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.
Full Text Available Government spending and the procedures for making them can be examined on the basis of many of public regulations, which are the legal grounds for these expenditure. The procedures of government spending can be studied in the field of personal expenditure of the state budget (including salaries, pensions and social benefits. Appropriate procedures are related to expenditure for purchases of goods and services and for making of public investments (e.g. public roads and buildings. An extensive area of expenditure is in the form of grants. There are special legal ways for transferring the budget grants to different legal organizations and entities. The state expenditure are fixed in the Budget Act. The implementation of the budgetary expenditure needs to take up, by state authorities and agencies, thousands of individual and concrete actions (e.g. the contracts, administrative decisions, other activities. That is, in the Budget Act fixed expenditure have, in principle, normative act features.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J
Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316
Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J
Federal law prohibits firearm possession by felons and certain others. Little is known about criminal activity resulting in new ineligibility to possess firearms among persons who have previously purchased them. Cohort study of handgun purchasers ages 21 to 49 in California in 1991, 2,761 with a non-prohibiting criminal history at the time of purchase and 4,495 with no prior criminal record, followed for up to 5 years. The primary outcome measures were the incidence and relative risk of conviction for a felony or violent misdemeanor resulting in ineligibility to possess firearms under (a) California law or (b) federal law. Secondary measures were the incidence and relative risk of conviction for murder, forcible rape, robbery, or aggravated assault; and of arrest for any crime. A new conviction for a felony or violent misdemeanor leading to ineligibility to possess firearms under federal law was identified for 0.9% of subjects with no prior criminal history and 4.5% of those with 1 or more prior convictions (hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-7.7). Risk was related inversely to age and directly to the extent of the prior criminal history; incidence rates varied by a factor of 200 or more among subgroups based on these characteristics. Among legal purchasers of handguns, the incidence of new felonious and violent criminal activity resulting in ineligibility to possess firearms is low for those with no prior criminal history but is substantially higher for those with a prior criminal record and is affected by demographic characteristics.
To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) is part of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) long-standing effort to link Medicares payment system to a...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media. Whilst being able to bring about positive effects, they can also bring about a range of harmful unintended side effects. This include economic harms produced by incorrect information and a range of social harms that can be fuelled by myths and rumours, worsening negative phenomena such as stigmatisation and discrimination. Given the potential for such harms, one might expect that affected or potentially affected individuals would be able to challenge such measures before courts or administrative tribunals. As this paper demonstrates however this is not the case. More often than not seemingly applicable legal approaches are unlikely to be able to engage such methods. This is often because such measures represent activities that are purely expressive in nature and therefore not capable of imposing any binding legal or corporeal changes on individuals. Whilst some forms of soft law may pose requirements for public officials involved in such activities (e.g. codes of conduct or of professional ethics), they are not likely to offer potentially harmed individuals the chance to to challenge particular communication strategies before courts or legal tribunals. The result is that public authorities largely have a free reign to communicate how they wish and do not have to have to comply with a range of requirements (e.g. relating to form and substantive) content) that would in general apply to most forms of official administrative act.
Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE
... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time of closing on the purchase of the home; (b) The person must certify to his/her good faith intention... Next Door Sales Program § 291.515 Purchaser qualifications. To qualify to purchase a home through the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure that all purchased or otherwise received product and...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
Tao, Lin; Guan, Bing; Liu, Shan
There were some features of purchase system in developed nation, such as clear purchase objectives flexible methods, standard programming, emphasis on competition and open process. The measures suggested include playing the role of competition purchasing; establishing the e-business modern purchasing information system; establishing legislation system; and completing business purchasing.
Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Allwright, S.; Mons, U.; McNeill, A.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; Siahpush, M.; Joossens, L.; Fong, G.T.; de Vries, H.; Willemsen, M.C.
BACKGROUND: Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and country
Layland, Eric K; Calhoun, Brian H; Russell, Michael A; Maggs, Jennifer L
College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al. (Prevention Science, 11, 155-162, 2010), who found that students drank less on weekend nights they attended LateNight Penn State (LNPS) activities during their first semester of college. Here, daily diary and longitudinal data on college students' daily lives and risk behaviors were collected from 730 students on 19,506 person-days across seven semesters at a large university in the Northeastern United States. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate alcohol and illegal substance use on weekend days as a function of LNPS attendance, gender, legal drinking status (≥ 21 years), and day of the weekend. Across college, students who attended LNPS used alcohol and illegal substances less in general and less on days they participated compared to themselves on days they did not participate. Legal drinking status moderated the association between LNPS attendance and alcohol and illegal substance use such that levels of use were lowest for students under 21 years old on weekend days they attended LNPS. Our findings provide support for campus-led alcohol-free programming as a potential harm reduction strategy on college campuses.
Waltmans, Björn; Reunis, Marc R.B.; Schotanus, Fredo; Santema, Sicco C.
Group purchasing cooperation can be beneficial for all parties involved. The gains are, however, not always fairly distributed amongst the participants. This puts a strain on the relationships within some forms of cooperation. Schotanus and Telgen (2005) have developed a classification model, the
Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten
or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....
Mansel, Charlotte; Davies, Sharon
There are currently over 250,000 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years who have their genetic information stored on the National DNA Database. This paper explores the legal and ethical issues surrounding this controversial subject, with particular focus on juvenile capacity and the potential results of criminalizing young children and adolescents. The implications of the adverse legal judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in S and Marper v UK (2008) and the violation of Article 8 of the Convention are discussed. The authors have considered the requirement to balance the rights of the individual, particularly those of minors, against the need to protect the public and have compared the position in Scotland to that of the rest of the UK. The authors conclude that a more ethically acceptable alternative could be the creation of a separate forensic database for children aged 10-18 years, set up to safeguard the interests of those who have not been convicted of any crime.
Cory, K.; Canavan, B.; Koenig, R.
This fact sheet provides information and guidance on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power purchase agreement (PPA), which is a financing mechanism that state and local government entities can use to acquire clean, renewable energy. It addressed the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing a PPA, but we do not examine the technical details?those can be discussed later with the developer/contractor. This fact sheet is written to support decision makers in U.S. state and local governments who are aware of solar PPAs and may have a cursory knowledge of their structure but they still require further information before committing to a particular project.
... assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card..., intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit-enhancing...
School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…
The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas
Darling, H; Kerr, V; Lynn, D
While managed care organizations may select a variety of strategies toward customer service, the most successful will be adapting their approach to the expectation and requirements of major purchasers. In order to better understand the perspective of the individuals who are responsible for policy decisions at that level, Managed Care Quarterly (MCQ) conducted interviews with three highly respected representatives.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA
Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...
Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad
The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.
Full Text Available The use of new technologies has brought many changes into consumer behaviour, especially into purchasing process. The aim of the article is to uncover the attitudes of different generations towards usage of new technologies in purchasing process and determine if the diffusion of innovative purchasing process is significantly different among different generations. The article presents the results of authors´ research of usage of new technologies in purchasing process, as well as attitudes towards it, among different age groups - Generation X, Y, Z and seniors. Results of hybrid research carried out by semi-structured interviews with 551 respondents show, that there are significant generational differences in all three components of attitude towards online purchase, which can be - due to its characteristics- considered the most complex use of new technologies in purchasing process. Results prove that the diffusion of innovation in the purchasing process is significantly influenced by the age group. With age the number of Innovators significantly drops and the percentage of Laggards rises. The ratio of those adopting “early” and “late” significantly changes according to age group as well. Majority of younger respondents are accepting the new technologies into purchasing process early (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority. Middle-aged consumers accept the innovations proportionally - copying the Roger´s curve. Among seniors, the majority is “late” (Late Majority and Laggards.
Purchasing is one of the important aspects to ensure the safety and quality of the nuclear power plant. This paper, combining the purchasing peculiarity and purchasing process of Haiyang nuclear power project, summarizes experiences of Haiyang nuclear power project in promoting its purchasing management level in aspects of purchasing method choosing, purchasing plan management, purchasing process optimization, purchasing contract implementation and purchasing surveillance, etc. (author)
Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea
Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank in which it is a member in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1 percent...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchasing policy. 601.100 Section 601.100 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal...
This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…
Muhammet Ali TİLTAY
Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest
Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Viva, S; Carbone, D; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A
The discovery of reliable means to determine the age of an individual is a fundamental objective in forensic medicine, in consideration of the constant increase of illegal immigration into the European community. In 2008 Cameriere et al. developed a method based on the relationship between age and the third molar index (I3m), which assesses the degree of maturation of the third molar through measurements made on orthopantomography. The purpose of this work was to test the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off for I3m as a tool to assess full age (18) on a new sample of living subjects. Orthopantomographs of 287 Italian living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years have been randomly selected and included in the study. Identification number, gender, date of birth and date of execution of the radiograph were recorded for each patient on a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet. Radiographs were digitalized and analyzed using a computerized image-processing program (Adobe® Photoshop® CS4). The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 84.1% and the specificity was 92.5%. The estimated post-test probability was 90.1%, with a confidence interval of 95% (83.6%, 95.2%). Thus, the probability that a person being positive to the test has 18 or more years of age was 90.1%. The results highlight the contribution of Cameriere's cut-off value for the I3m in the assessment of full age, always remembering that the simultaneous employment of previously introduced complementary methods is essential for the purpose.
Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Carter, O B J; Mills, B W; Donovan, R J
To assess the influence of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette displays on unplanned purchases. Intercept interviews were conducted with customers observed purchasing cigarettes from retail outlets featuring POS cigarette displays. Measures included intention to purchase cigarettes prior to entering the store, unprompted and prompted salience of POS tobacco displays, urge to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the POS display, brand switching and support for a ban on POS cigarette displays. In total, 206 daily smokers aged 18-76 years (90 male, 116 female) were interviewed. Unplanned cigarette purchases were made by 22% of participants. POS displays influenced nearly four times as many unplanned purchases as planned purchases (47% vs 12%, ppurchases, play an important role in brand selection and tempt smokers trying to quit. This justifies removing POS tobacco displays from line of sight-something that very few smokers in our sample would object to.
Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are becoming a mature infrastructure in many organizations. Organizations purchase these systems to integrate, improve internal business processes, serve their customers better and fulfill their needs. The buying process of these systems is more complicated and it requires a lot more consideration as it can have long term effects and consequences for the organization as well as for its stakeholders. Acquisition (purchasing of ERP systems is a complex behavior for organizations and has a lot to consider, from motives all the way to goals being pursued. Buying organizations consider several components that make up its business entity: like vendors, consumers, competitors, and regulations (Harris, 2013. Importance and relevance should be given to each one of these components as they all play key essential roles in sales organizations and their success. Typical organizations treat the purchasing process as a problem solving situation and rely on consultants or sometimes miss out on systematic buying process and the success factors to be considered vary from technicality, price, risk aversion, reputation, all the way to ethical decisions and legal regulations (Bellizzi, 2009. This research paper describe the current acquisition processes, critical success factors literature and propose integrated ERP systems acquisition model for organizations interested in buying similar systems in future.
... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...
Andersen, Laura Mørch
Using a unique data set where an unbalanced panel of more than 1,000 households have reported their purchases of groceries in great detail over a period of six months it is shown that consumption of organic milk increases significantly with level of education, urbanisation and income. Age...... and presence of children in the household have no significant effects. Combining the purchase data with a questionnaire about attitudes towards organic production issued to the same panel shows that 51 per cent believes that organic production has a positive effect on the environment and 41 per cent believes...
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines historical variation in age 18 to 26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both levels of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over 3 decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976 to 2004 were surveyed at…
Hui G. Cheng
Full Text Available Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US, and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’. We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014. Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset. Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]. An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21] and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]. Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age.
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
The importance of understanding the expectations of an energy customer was discussed with particular emphasis on the following topics: credit and risk management, the buyers' and sellers' opportunity, service providers in transition, energy-industry noise, the uncertain buyer of electricity. Energy savings methods include new unbundled electricity purchase methods and new energy efficiency efforts. In addition, purchase options like fixed price, index, spot, and contract terms were examined. Risk management strategies for gas and power were dealt with, followed by an evaluation of energy proposals, especially concerning electricity. Some advice of how to select an energy consultant was offered, and the legal aspects of electricity contracting were discussed. figs
Update of the body armour purchase and replacement protocol Final project report Christopher Withnall Biokinetics and Associates Ltd...years to investigate the performance of aged soft body armour used by Canadian police forces. The original aim of this work was originally to inform...police about the suitability of in-service armour , but it became rapidly clear that any system of checking aged armour would require starting with
Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey
this challenge, a comprehensive contingency framework of PSO structures is presented. The framework is based on existing literature on PSO contingency factors as well as analysis of two case companies. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective for understanding the PSO....... From a theoretical perspective, the contingency framework opens up insights that can be leveraged in future studies in the fields of hybrid PSOs, global sourcing organizations, and International Purchasing Offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies...
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
Background: How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2–5 y of age. Objectives: We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. Methods: We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009–2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Results: Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Conclusions: Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. PMID:26063069
Ford, Christopher N; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
How beverage taxes might influence purchases of foods and beverages among households with preschool children is unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between beverage taxes and food and beverage purchases among US households with a child 2-5 y of age. We examined how a potential tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), or SSBs and >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk, would influence household food and beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. We aimed to identify the lowest tax rate associated with meaningful changes in purchases. We used household food and beverage purchase data from households with a single child who participated in the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel. A 2-part, multilevel panel model was used to examine the relation between beverage prices and food and beverage purchases. Logistic regression was used in the first part of the model to estimate the probability of a food/beverage being purchased, whereas the second part of the model used log-linear regression to estimate predicted changes in purchases among reporting households. Estimates from both parts were combined, and bootstrapping was performed to obtain corrected SEs. In separate models, prices of SSBs, or SSBs and >1% and/or high-sugar milk, were perturbed by +10%, +15%, and +20%. Predicted changes in food and beverage purchases were compared across models. Price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% on SSBs were associated with fewer purchases of juice drinks, whereas price increases of 10%, 15%, and 20% simulated on both SSBs plus >1% fat and/or high-sugar milk (combined tax) were associated with fewer kilocalories purchased from >1% fat, low-sugar milk, and meat, poultry, fish, and mixed meat dishes. Our study provides further evidence that a tax on beverages high in sugar and/or fat may be associated with favorable changes in beverage purchases among US households with a preschool child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig
Karan Singh Thagunna
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the various dimensions of buying behavior of Nepalese women while making purchasing decisions. A total of 100 women of different background were surveyed through a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions related to the buying behavior. Various factors such as Value Identification, Customer Service and Lifestyle are most influential for Nepalese women’s purchasing decisions. So, by providing, at affordable price, high value product that match the personality of the targeted women and by providing superior customer care, Nepalese women can be attracted easily. Besides these, price, brand awareness and accurate information also influence their buying behavior to a certain extent. Age also plays a role in the purchasing decisions she makes, since women of different age group behave differently while purchasing items for their homes, for their offices or for personal use. Difference in the demographic factors such as personal status, religious belief, occupation and income level however do not bring difference in the buying behavior of Nepalese women, in general.
Kuriakose, K.K.; Subramani, M.G.
The details of a computer-based purchase management system developed to meet the specific requirements of Madras Regional Purchase Unit (MRPU) is given. Howe ver it can be easily modified to meet the requirements of any other purchase department. It covers various operations of MRPU starting from indent processing to preparation of purchase orders and reminders. In order to enable timely management action and control facilities are provided to generate the necessary management information reports. The scope for further work is also discussed. The system is completely menu driven and user friendly. Appendix A and B contains the menu implemented and the sample outputs respectively. (author)
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Important considerations involved in structuring agreements for ore sale or other disposition are discussed. Payment provisions in ore purchase agreements and custom milling agreement provisions are considered. Proposed forms of Ore Purchase Agreement and Custom Milling Agreement are included as appendices
Chen, Weiwei; Messonnier, Mark; Zhou, Fangjun
While vaccination remains as one of the most cost-effective preventive strategies, the cost of fully immunizing a child has grown considerably over the last few decades. This study examines trends in non-influenza childhood vaccine purchase costs in the public sector from 1996 to 2014. Non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 through 18years was calculated based on public-sector purchase prices. Purchase cost changes were then decomposed into changes attributable to recommendation updates and changes attributable to price variation. The study analyzed the growth rate of combination vaccine prices separately and compared these prices with the sum of prices of component vaccines. It is found that the average annual growth rate of non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child during 1996-2014 was 12.6%. The growth rate attributable to price changes was 1.0% on average. Combination vaccine prices showed greater variation. The study concludes that vaccine price variation was one but a minor reason for purchase cost changes. Recommendation updates, particularly the introduction of new vaccines, played a much larger role in raising the purchase costs. If the 12.6% annual growth rate found during 1996-2014 in the study continues to apply, the purchase costs of childhood vaccines may more than double by 2020. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cutler, Stephen J.; And Others
Cohort changes in attitudes about the availability of legal abortions are traced over a 12-year period using data from seven national surveys. Contrary to the aging-conservatism hypothesis, trends in the direction of increasingly favorable attitudes between 1965 and 1973 and general stability thereafter characterize all cohorts. On this issue,…
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Kruisbergen, E.W.; Kleemans, E.R.; Kouwenberg, R.F.
This article uses empirical data from the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the choices organized crime offenders make when they invest their money in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1196 individual investments, light is shed on what kind of assets offenders purchase and
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
Forman, J B
Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun
Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.
Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko
The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs
Vesimaeki, P.; Lampinen, J.
Models, designed for planning and optimisation of the purchase of energy, combined with high-quality expertise have an impact on the costs of energy companies. Optimisation has a significant role in power plant investments and in planning the power distribution of wholesale electric power. After the liberation of the electricity markets, the planning of the electricity purchase and the optimisation have obtained totally new roles in estimating the cost effects of present and new customers. Electrowatt-Ekono has developed a windows-based COPSIM software for planning of electric power purchase. The software is in active use in Electrowatt-Ekono. The energy purchase is optimised on yearly basis or on a shorter period by one hour steps based on hourly variation of energy purchase, power plant characteristics, power consumption rates and the prices of the fuels, power and heat. COPSIM takes the effect of external temperature on the power generation of backpressure and gas turbine plants into account. The software optimises also the power distribution of wholesale power. By the software it is possible to model different types of power plants, purchase of power, power sales, different power plant shares, thermal power stations, purchase and sales of heat, heat storage and heat transfer between different heating networks
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system. ...
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Leal, Ingrid; Luttges, Carolina; Troncoso, Paulina; Leyton, Carolina; Molina, Temistocles; Eguiguren, Pamela
There are legal regulations about sexual and reproductive rights of adolescents. However, this legal framework (LF) may have contradictory elements: there are laws assuring confidentiality and access to contraception at any age but there are other laws that consider any sexual contact with an adolescent younger than 14 a sexual assault, whose report to the legal authorities in mandatory. To explore the knowledge and clinical practice of primary health care (PHC) providers regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy. Qualitative study collecting data using semi-structured interviews made to midwives and directors of PHC centers. Analysis of the data was based on Grounded Theory. There is a differentiated clinical care for pregnancy prevention among adolescents if they are over 14 years old. This is due to the LF, specifically to the sexual crimes law (19,927) and the law about regulation of the fertility (20,418). The differences affect health care, access and counseling about contraception and confidentiality. Healthcare of teenagers under the age of 14 is perceived as problematic for providers, due to the possible legal implications. The LF causes insecurity on health care providers and derives in a differentiated clinical approach according to the patient´s age. This is a barrier to provide timely and confidential access to counseling and contraception.
Hasegawa, T K; Lange, B; Bower, C F; Purtilo, R B
Perplexing ethical and legal concerns cross health professions and reach into many professions and vocations. Confidentiality is crucial not only to the health professional and the patient, but also to the lawyer and client, and the investigative reporter and the source. Reporting poor work or whistleblowing is a dilemma not only for dentists and other health care professionals, but also for the engineer, architect, and federal employee, among others. This survey of the ethical or legal perceptions of the dental practitioner supports two conclusions: perplexing situations are perceived as predominantly ethical rather than legal problems and the factor of age (number of years in practice) might affect this trend toward the ethical consideration of complicated issues. Understanding the nature of these and other perplexing situations requires that dental practitioners step beyond the confines of their practice and the boundaries of the dental profession to search for more effective ways of dealing with, and therefore living with, the realities of their practice.
Dubas, Sebastian; Nowotarski, Piotr; Milwicz, Roman
Formal and legal aspects of buying flats and their reception is very current topic and touches wide group of buyers. Annually in Poland great amount of flats is being sold and put to use. However, the case of housing purchase requires knowledge of both the construction and the legal aspects each buyer has to encounter. The paper faces the subject of formal and legal aspects, and analyses accompanying procedure of purchase and reception of housing in Poland. The article presents principles associated with the acquisition of a dwelling, process of works reception, removal of detected faults, fault-free reception, transfer of ownership, warranties, guarantees and possibilities of their enforcement. Contracting parties of the developer agreement were revealed. In addition, the entities present in the course of works such as general contractor were mentioned, due to the fact of his direct influence on the results of a contract terms between developer and buyer. Logical connection between three parties (buyer-developer-general contractor) were shown and direct and indirect dependencies were revealed. Existing laws and regulations that govern the relationship between the developer and the buyer of a dwelling were determined showing basic rights and responsibilities of each. The article also presents problems resulting from delaying the completion of works by developer’s fault and indicates possible legal paths to follow in order claim their rights. Due to the fact, that many of discussed formal and legal aspects in this subject have their origin connected to construction works and design issues, author suggests increased quality control and efficient work organization in order to solve problems before appearance.
Tamara M. Matović
Full Text Available Byzantine, Graeco-Roman, law is the organic continuation of Roman law. However, the legal system itself, and many legal institutions in it, had gone through certain evolution. In this article, by researching Greek acts conserved in various monastic arhives, and confronting them with stipulations in the Byzantine law codes, we question the issues of consensuality of a contract, form of a legal deed, and acquisation of a real right in Byzantine private law. The nature of contracts in Byzantine law has not been sufficiently studied. Richful theoretical studies had been written in regards to the contract of purchase in Roman and Justinians law, however various and sometimes confronting information from the later Greek codes did not give definite answers to this question. Byzantine codices on this theme encompass already familiar stipulations and legal institutes. The attention of the lawgiver was on the notary system, on the mechanism which produced a written instrument. We believe that the issue of the παράδοσις δι̉ ἐγγράφου was not sufficiently highlighted in the field of Byzantine studies mostly due to the lack of information in the sources. However, when regarding the Athonite documents, it can be seen that the formulae describing the act of law transfer could be concidered as a relevant material to comment on this legal institute.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...
Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P
To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...
Ras, Rouyanne T; Trautwein, Elke A
A variety of foods with added phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols, PS) known to lower elevated blood cholesterol is available on the European market. This paper reports findings from a 2015 post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added PS in UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium and Greece. Data from 80,825 households were included. Households were divided into categories depending on number of purchases, household size, age of primary shopper and presence of children <5 years. Penetration rates of households purchasing foods with added PS ranged between 3 and 34%. Of households purchasing PS, 34-61% purchased infrequently (≤2 times/year), 29-36% occasionally (
Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi
Mugurusi, Godfrey; Bals, Lydia
which impact offshoring has on the organization’s purchasing and supply operations. This paper is about the changes in the purchasing and supply organization (PSO) as the process of offshoring production occurs. How new purchasing structures and practices emerge and (how) the old purchasing structures...... and practices are discarded. The paper draws from an empirical in-depth case study of a global engineering company. The company’s offshoring process is longitudinally reconstructed using both historical and current data, and then changes within its PSO are mapped from series of semi-structured interviews......, observations and archival analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that the PSO changes dramatically when the company relocates production activities through the captive offshoring mode. However, these structural changes are somewhat intermittent but deterministically influenced partly by the offshoring...
J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)
textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands
Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy
In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...
Zhang, C.; Glen, C.; Jenden, K.
Any agency proposing to connect a windfarm to the power grid must first arrange a power purchase contract involving a power purchase price (PPP). This paper reviews methods of determining the initial PPP and of establishing the mechanism for subsequent annual PPP reviews, both as two separate functions and as combined elements in an optimisation procedure. Various strategies for dealing with the PPP and its annual review are discussed. (Author)
MATTHYSSENS, Paul; QUINTENS, Lieven; FAES, Wouter
Inward internationalisation has received more and more attention in recent literature. This article contributes to this developing domain by providing a holistic description of the underlying processes of global purchasing. By means of case study research, carried out in eight companies, drivers and inhibitors of globalisation are highlighted. Conditions that could make global purchasing more efficient and effective are suggested. Attention is drawn to key factors on which companies strategie...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...
Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M
We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.
Colchero, M Arantxa; Popkin, Barry M; Rivera, Juan A; Ng, Shu Wen
What has been the effect on purchases of beverages from stores in Mexico one year after implementation of the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages? In this observational study the authors used data on the purchase of beverages in Mexico from January 2012 to December 2014 from an unbalanced panel of 6253 households providing 205 112 observations in 53 cities with more than 50 000 inhabitants. To test whether the post-tax trend in purchases was significantly different from the pretax trend, the authors used a difference in difference fixed effects model, which adjusts for both macroeconomic variables that can affect the purchase of beverages over time, and pre-existing trends. The variables used in the analysis included demographic information on household composition (age and sex of household members) and socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high). The authors compared the predicted volumes (mL/capita/day) of taxed and untaxed beverages purchased in 2014-the observed post-tax period-with the estimated volumes that would have been purchased if the tax had not been implemented (counterfactual) based on pretax trends. Relative to the counterfactual in 2014, purchases of taxed beverages decreased by an average of 6% (-12 mL/capita/day), and decreased at an increasing rate up to a 12% decline by December 2014. All three socioeconomic groups reduced purchases of taxed beverages, but reductions were higher among the households of low socioeconomic status, averaging a 9% decline during 2014, and up to a 17% decrease by December 2014 compared with pretax trends. Purchases of untaxed beverages were 4% (36 mL/capita/day) higher than the counterfactual, mainly driven by an increase in purchases of bottled plain water. The tax on sugar sweetened beverages was associated with reductions in purchases of taxed beverages and increases in purchases of untaxed beverages. Continued monitoring is needed to understand purchases longer term, potential substitutions, and health
DESSEMELHANÇA E EXPURGO DO OUTRO NO DEBATE ACERCA DO REBAIXAMENTO DA MAIORIDADE PENAL NO BRASIL: UMA ANÁLISE DISCURSIVA CRÍTICA (1930-1976 DISSIMILARITY AND PURGE OF THE OTHER IN THE DEBATE ON DECREASING THE LEGAL AGE IN BRAZIL: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Viviane de Melo Resende
Full Text Available No Brasil, eventos de violência envolvendo adolescentes e jovens têm pautado o debate acerca do rebaixamento da maioridade penal. Em fevereiro de 2007, assistimos ao desfecho de um roubo de carro que resultou no assassinato brutal de uma criança. Em um contexto de comoção pública frente à violência urbana, a mídia brasileira assumiu um posicionamento claramente favorável ao discurso do rebaixamento. Neste artigo, proponho uma análise discursiva crítica de recortes de um chat com um deputado reconhecidamente favorável ao rebaixamento da maioridade penal.In Brazil, violent events involving young people have guided the debate about decreasing the legal age. In February 2007, a car theft resulted in the brutal murder of a child, and in a context of public emotion against urban violence, Brazilian media took a clear position in favor of the decrease of legal age. In this paper, I propose a critical discourse analysis of excerpts from a chat with a deputy admittedly favorable to the legal age decrease.
Paul, Madanjit K.
Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…
Goldman, N; Pebley, A R
In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik
The general legal framework covering economic transactions has been created long before the creation of electronic commerce. Therefore most regulation more or less explicitly assumes that goods have a physical appearance and that all contractual issues are settled either orally or by use of paper....... Electronic Commerce mediated via the telecommunications network has enabled electronic ordering, electronic purchase and electronic payments. In addition digital goods such as software have no physical appearance and can be subject to electronic distribution. Not all parts of the existing legislation fit...
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and the...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related purchasing...
Lee, Joseph G L; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M
Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012. They made no effort to buy counterfeit or untaxed cigarettes. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the presence, tax authority, and type (low-tech thermal vs. encrypted) of cigarette pack tax stamps; concordance of tax stamps with where the pack was purchased; and, for Marlboro cigarettes, publicly available visible indicators of counterfeiting. We purchased 2147 packs of which 2033 had tax stamps. Packs missing stamps were in states that do not require them. We found very limited discordance between store location and tax stamp(s) (tax stamps (13%). This occurred entirely with low-tech tax stamps and was not identified with encrypted tax stamps. We found no clear evidence of counterfeit products. Almost all tax stamps matched the location of purchase. Litter studies may be picking up legal tax avoidance instead of illegal tax evasion or, alternatively, purchase of illicit products requires special request by the purchaser.
Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre
The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
Bastani, Peivand; Dinarvand, Rasoul; SamadBeik, Mahnaz; Pourmohammadi, Kimia
Pharmaceutical access for the poor is an essential factor in developing countries that can be improved through strategic purchasing. This study was conducted to identify the elements affecting price in order to enable insurance organizations to put strategic purchasing into practice. This was a qualitative study conducted through content analysis with an inductive approach applying a five-stage framework analysis (familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, mapping, and interpretation). Data analysis was started right after transcribing each interview applying ATLAS.ti. Data were saturated after 32 semi-structured interviews by experts. These key informants were selected purposefully and through snowball sampling. Findings showed that there are four main themes as Pharmaceutical Strategic Purchasing Requirements in Iran as follows essential and structural factors, international factors, economical factors, and legal factors. Moreover, totally 14 related sub-themes were extracted in this area as the main effective variables. It seems that paying adequate attention to the four present themes and 14 sub-themes affecting price can enable health system policy-makers of developing countries like Iran to make the best decisions through strategic purchasing of drugs by the main insurers in order to improve access and health in the country.
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan
Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan
While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund
This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....
Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim
Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.
Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi
This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....
Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana
appropriate management of the relationships, expertise and guidance in simplifying procedures and effective management of the purchasing group. Customer alignment is facilitated by buyers’ understating of the vendor’s design options, which are moderated by the vendor’s design strategies. Research limitations...... the needs of the buyers within the purchasing group) and customer alignment (i.e. aligning buyers’ needs with the vendors offering strategies) and investigate how they manifest in the case of CP of complex technology in the Danish National Healthcare System. Findings: – Shareholder alignment requires....../implications: – The findings and generalizations from a single case study are limited to the complexity of the purchased technology and the specific cultural context. However the paper represents the first explorative study that poses the attention on the relevance of shareholder and customer alignment in CP. Practical...
The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...
Atrash, H K; Cheek, T G; Hogue, C J
Legal abortion-related mortality as reported to the Centers for Disease Control declined eightfold between 1972 and 1981. However, the causes of legal abortion mortality have changed over time. We reviewed all legal abortion-related deaths that occurred between 1972 and 1985 in the United States. We found that, although the absolute number of legal abortion-related deaths caused by general anesthesia complications did not increase, the proportion of such deaths increased significantly, from 7.7% between 1972 and 1975 to 29.4% between 1980 and 1985. Women who died of general anesthesia complications did not differ by age, presence of preexisting medical conditions, or type of facility from women who died of other causes. However, the proportion of deaths from general anesthesia complications was significantly higher among women of black and other races, women obtaining abortions during the first trimester, and women obtaining abortions in the Northeast. Our results indicate that at least 23 of the 27 deaths were due to hypoventilation and/or loss of airway resulting in hypoxia. Persons administering general anesthesia for abortion must be skilled in airway management as well as the provision of general anesthesia.
Đapović Lasta S.
Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.
data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...
Zawilska, Jolanta B
During the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as "legal highs," across the world. They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess, and use, often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Based on the spectrum of their actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behavior, "legal highs" can be classified into four basis categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), hallucinogenic/dissociative, and opioid-like compounds. NPS may, however, exhibit a combination of these actions due to their designed chemical structure. Although the prevalence and pattern of NPS use differ between various countries, the most popular groups are SCs and psychostimulants, described in this chapter. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these substances. However, the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is constantly increasing, providing evidence that negative health and social consequences may indeed seriously affect recreational and chronic users. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Wills, Wendy J; Masson, Lindsey F; Craig, Leone C A; Bromley, Catherine; McNeill, Geraldine
Food and drink purchasing habits of pupils out of school at lunchtime may be contributing to poor dietary intakes and overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify the places from which purchases were made, types of food and drinks purchased and, the reasons for purchasing food or drinks out of school. A survey of the food and drinks purchasing habits of secondary school pupils (11-16 yrs) out of school at lunchtime was conducted in Scotland in 2010. A face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire was designed to identify the food outlets used at lunchtime, types of food and drinks purchased and pupils' reasons for purchasing food or drinks out of school. Height and weight were measured and BMI centiles used to classify pupils as normal weight, overweight or obese. Results were compared by age group, sex, BMI group and level of socio-economic deprivation. Of the 612 pupils who completed the survey, 97 % reported having access to places selling food or drinks out of school at lunchtime, and of these 63 % made purchases. A higher proportion of pupils from more deprived areas reported purchasing food or drinks out of school, but the proportion making purchases did not differ significantly by sex or BMI group. Supermarkets were the outlets from which pupils reported most often making purchases, with fewer purchasing food or drinks from fast food takeaways, and this did not differ significantly by socio-economic deprivation. Reasons for making purchases included availability of preferred food and drinks, some of which are restricted for sale in schools, and social reasons, such as wanting to be with friends. Sandwiches and non-diet soft drinks were items most commonly purchased, followed by confectionery and diet soft drinks. However, less than 10 % of all the secondary school pupils reported purchasing these foods every day. Supermarkets, not just fast food outlets, should be considered when developing strategies to improve the dietary
Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Murphy, James G; Henley, Amy J; Reed, Florence D DiGennaro; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R
Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant. However, inconsistencies in purchase task methodology between studies exist, even within APT studies, and, to date, none have assessed the influence of experimental economic constraints on responding. This study examined changes in Q0 (reported consumption when drinks are free), breakpoint (price that suppresses consumption), and α (rate of change in demand elasticity) in the presence of different hypothetical durations of access to alcohol in an APT. One hundred seventy-nine participants (94 males, 85 females) from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed 3 APTs that varied in the duration of time at a party (i.e., access to alcoholic beverages) as described in the APT instructions (i.e., vignette). The 3 durations included 5-hr (used by Murphy et al., 2013), 1-hr, and 9-hr time frames. We found that hypothetical duration of access was significantly related to Q0 and breakpoint at the individual level. Additionally, group-level mean α decreased significantly with increases in duration of access, thus indicating relatively higher demand for alcohol with longer durations of access. We discuss implications for conducting hypothetical purchase task research and alcohol misuse prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Christoph H. Glock
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future research. The intention of the review is to a synthesize prior research, b provide researchers with a structural framework on which future research on the organization of purchasing may be oriented, and c suggest promising areas for future research.
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України
In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...
Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine L; Saelens, Brian E; Ta, Myduc L; Solet, David; Fleming, David W
The federal menu labeling law will require chain restaurants to post caloric information on menus, but the impact of labeling is uncertain. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of menu labeling on calories purchased, and secondarily, to assess self-reported awareness and use of labels. Single-community pre-post-post cross-sectional study. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011-2012. 50 sites from 10 chain restaurants in King County, Washington, selected through stratified, two-stage cluster random sampling. A total of 7325 customers participated. Eligibility criteria were: being an English speaker, aged ≥ 14 years, and having an itemized receipt. The study population was 59% male, 76% white non-Hispanic, and 53% agedcalorie information on menus or menu boards was implemented. Mean number of calories purchased. No significant changes occurred between baseline and 4-6 months postregulation. Mean calories per purchase decreased from 908.5 to 870.4 at 18 months post-implementation (38 kcal, 95% CI=-76.9, 0.8, p=0.06) in food chains and from 154.3 to 132.1 (22 kcal, 95% CI=-35.8, -8.5, p=0.002) in coffee chains. Calories decreased in taco and coffee chains, but not in burger and sandwich establishments. They decreased more among women than men in coffee chains. Awareness of labels increased from 18.8% to 61.7% in food chains and from 4.4% to 30.0% in coffee chains (both pcalorie information, the proportion using it (about one third) did not change substantially over time. After implementation, food chain customers using information purchased on average fewer calories compared to those seeing but not using (difference=143.2 kcal, pcalories per purchase decreased 18 months after implementation of menu labeling in some restaurant chains and among women but not men. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Linda Martić Kuran
Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to define factors which influence the purchase intention involving organic food among Croatian consumers. In order to create a theoretical base, this research adopted the theory of planned behavior. The model examines the impact of several independent variables on the intention to purchase organic foods. The study was conducted on a sample of 331 respondents in the territory of Republic of Croatia. Research results indicate that consumer attitudes towards organic food, subjective norms, perceived financial situation, health awareness and knowledge about organic food have a significant impact on the intention involving the purchase of organic food, with subjective norms, attitudes and health awareness being the best predictors of the purchase intention. On the other hand, the relationship between the perceived availability of organic food and the intention to buy organic food was statistically significant. Considering the demographic characteristics of respondents and their correlation with the purchase intention, marital status, age and household income were found to significantly affect the intention to buy organic food, while other demographic variables had no significant impact on the purchase intention. Therefore, the respondents who are married, between 46 and 55 years old and with household incomes of more than 16,000 kuna show a greater intention to buy organic food in comparison with other respondents. The research results have important implications for marketing practice, primarily for advertising.
Van Vooren, Bart
This article provides a legal perspective on the new European External Action Service (EEAS), and positions this new body in the reshuffled institutional balance of EU external relations. Towards that end, the paper examines the EEAS’ legal nature as compared to that of Council, Commission...... the EEAS be drawn into proceedings before the Court of Justice? In answering those questions, this article then examines to which extent the legal-institutional choices on the structure of the EU External Action Service reflects the age-old tension entrenched in EU external relations law: the EU’s nature...
Miller, Austin M; Rosenman, Robert; Cowan, Benjamin W
We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.
Austin M. Miller
Full Text Available We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.
Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie
Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...
... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C
In 2012, voters in Washington state approved Initiative 502 (I-502) which legalized recreational marijuana use at the state level. This study examines the relationship between demographics, marijuana and alcohol use, and voting outcomes, as well as how these variables relate to (i) whether voters would still vote the same way (a reflection of satisfaction with the new policy) and (ii) the likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal retail stores. The sample consists of 2,007 adult Washington state residents recruited through Random Digit Dial between January and October 2014. Bivariate tests and multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Less than five percent of those who voted for marijuana legalization would change their votes, whereas 14% of those who voted against legalization would change their votes. In multivariable models controlling for demographics, substance use, and marijuana-related opinions, those who voted for legalization had half the odds of changing their votes than those who voted against it. Among past-year non-marijuana users, almost 10% were somewhat/very likely to use marijuana if they could buy it from a legal store. Past marijuana use, the belief that adults should be allowed to grow marijuana for personal use, and the belief that marijuana is not very risky for health were all related to increased likelihood of using marijuana purchased from legal stores. Since November 2012, support for marijuana legalization in Washington state has increased; accounting for the proportion of voters who would change their votes suggests that I-502 would pass today with even more votes in favor.
Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau
In 2014 the legislature of Vermont, USA passed a law requiring the Secretary of Administration to report on the consequences of legalizing marijuana. The RAND Corporation was commissioned to write that report. This paper summarizes insights from that analysis that are germane to other jurisdictions. Translation of key findings from the RAND Corporation report to the broader policy debate. Marijuana legalization encompasses a wide range of possible regimes, distinguished along at least four dimensions: which organizations are allowed to produce and supply the drug, the regulations under which they operate, the nature of the products that can be distributed and taxes and prices. Vermont's decriminalization had already cut its costs of enforcing marijuana prohibition against adults to about $1 per resident per year. That is probably less than the cost of regulating a legal market. Revenues from taxing residents' purchases after legalization could be many times that amount, so the main fiscal cost of prohibition after decriminalization relative to outright legalization may be foregone tax revenues, not enforcement costs. Approximately 40 times as many users live within 200 miles of Vermont's borders as live within the state; drug tourism and associated tax revenues will be important considerations, as will be the response of other states. Indeed, if another state legalized with lower taxes, that could undermine the ability to collect taxes on even Vermont residents' purchases. Analysis of possible outcomes if Vermont, USA, legalized marijuana reveal that choices about how, and not just whether, to legalize a drug can have profound consequences for the effects on health and social wellbeing, and the choices of one jurisdiction can affect the options and incentives available to other jurisdictions. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mulder, M.; Wesselink, R.; Bruijstens, H.Chr.J.
The study reported in this article is based on theories about job and competence analysis and a project in which job profiles were developed that were aimed at providing a framework of reference for evaluating in-service training programmes for purchasing professionals (professional buyers of goods
service contracts (e.g., grounds maintenance) and multi-year purchase contracts for expendable commodities (e.g., aspirin ) will be considered to be...of refined petroleum products to DoD users throughout the world. This program is a good example of the lease versus buy option. In 1982, the Navy
Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.
Robinson, Ray; Jakubowski, Elke; Figueras, Josep
... as they formulate purchasing strategies so that they can increase effectiveness and improve performance in their own national context An assessment of the intersecting roles of citizens, the government and the providers * * * Written by leading health policy analysts, this book is essential reading for health policy makers, planners and managers as well as resear...
Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..
Loef, J.; Antonides, G.; van Raaij, W.F.
textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands informational advertising is more effective than transformational advertising. Likewise, for hedonic brands transformational advertising is more effective than informational advertising. These recommendations ...
Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan
This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.
Hallett, Andrew Hughes
liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...
Schotanus, Fredo; Calvi, R.; Merminod, N.
To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs,
Gregory, M M
Based on the preceding factors, a profile can be made for each light. The profile should include the following information: product literature with detailed information about the light, the average score from each of the six categories on the questionnaire, a summary of positive and negative comments from the questionnaire (recurring comments can identify significant factors), recommendations from other hospitals using the light, warranty and service information and any pertinent information about the vendor and manufacturer, information or comments from the clinical engineer, the purchasing agent, and the architect/engineer, and information about possible purchase agreements. Once the profiles of the lights are finished, present them to the OR committee or group charged with making the final decision. The information will enable the group to compare the lights and will serve as a basis for either the final purchase or a detailed bid specification. If cost is a major factor in the decision, the evaluation results can be used to justify purchasing lights that are more expensive but that the users believe are clearly superior. This constitutes the "professional justification" that some government institutions require to circumvent regulations that require buying the low-bid product. Although the result of this selection process is clearly a subjective decision, it is an informed subjective decision. Once the lights are installed, the staff members' satisfaction with the lights will not be based on objective criteria but on the same subjective opinions that were used to justify the selection.
Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi
illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...
effort assessing product information and comparing products before deciding which one to purchase.4 They report .... interviews were conducted in a consistent fashion by the researcher herself; that there was standardisation in the ..... findings of this study revealed similar trends. The external factors. (i.e. processing outside ...
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...
Full Text Available The article presents issues connected with production companies generating savings in purchasing. The Kraljic Matrix has been analysed and shown as an example of a tool assisting not only in decision-making with regard to purchasing but also in planning purchasing strategies for a specific company. Additionally, the article presents the MSU Model by professor Monczka, which explains how organizations can improve their processes in order to achieve purchasing excellence. This paper also mentions concepts such as the role of purchasing in a production company and in the organization as well as the importance of purchasing stategy.
Machín, Leandro; Arrúa, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two front-of-pack nutrition information schemes (traffic-light system and Chilean warning system) on consumer purchase of ultra-processed foods in a simulated online grocery store. Following a between-subjects design, participants completed a simulated weekly food purchase in an online grocery store under one of three experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no nutrition information, (ii) a traffic-light system and (iii) the Chilean warning system. Information about energy (calories), sugar, saturated fats and salt content was included in the nutrition information schemes. Participants were recruited from a consumer database and a Facebook advertisement. People from Montevideo (Uruguay), aged 18-77 years (n 437; 75 % female), participated in the study. All participants were in charge of food purchase in the household, at least occasionally. No significant differences between experimental conditions were found in the mean share of ultra-processed foods purchased by participants, both in terms of number of products and expenditure, or in the mean energy, sugar, saturated fat and salt content of the purchased items. However, the Chilean warning system decreased intended purchase of sweets and desserts. Results from this online simulation provided little evidence to suggest that the traffic-light system or the Chilean warning system in isolation could be effective in reducing purchase of ultra-processed foods or improving the nutritional composition of the purchased products.
Ilana Nogueira Bezerra
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to describe the places of purchase of food consumed outside the home, characterize consumers according to the places of consumption, and identify the food purchased by place of consumption in Brazil. METHODS We have used data from the Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (Household Budget Survey of 2008-2009 with a sample of 152,895 subjects over 10 years of age. The purchase of food outside the home was collected from the records of all expenditures made in seven days. The places of purchase were grouped according to their characteristics: supermarket, bakery, street food, restaurant, snack bar, fruit shop, and other places. The types of food were grouped into nine categories, considering the nutritional aspects and the marketing characteristics of the item. We have estimated the frequency of purchase in the seven groups of places in Brazil and according to gender and type of food purchased per place. We have calculated the average age, income and years of education, as well as the per capita expenditure according to places of purchase of food consumed outside the home. RESULTS The purchase of food outside the home was reported by 41.2% of the subjects, being it greater among men than women (44% versus 38.5%. Adults had a higher frequency (46% than teenagers (37.7% and older adults (24.2%. The highest frequency of places of purchase were snack bar (16.9% and restaurant (16.4%, while the fruit shop (1.2% presented the lowest frequency. Sweets, snack chips and soft drinks were the most purchased items in most places. Average expenditure was higher for restaurant (R$33.20 and lower for fruit shop (R$4.10 and street food (R$5.00. CONCLUSIONS The highest percentage of food consumed outside the home comes from snack bars and restaurants, pointing to important places for the development of public policies focused on promoting healthy eating.
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Full Text Available The present study investigates how the interaction of materialism and money attitude affects individuals choice of car price range in recent purchases (i.e., within the past six months. Car purchase behavior in terms of car price range has also been tested for different income groups, age groups and gender in National Capital Region (India. The data was collected through judgment sampling from 164 respondents, who recently purchased a new car for their personal use. The findings revealed that there is a significant association between materialism and different attitudes regarding the amount of money used by the respondents to purchase a car during the last six months. Level of materialism varies across different income levels and money attitude differs between males and females. Income was found to be the only variable that had significant association with choice of car price range. Age and gender did not seem to affect the car purchase behavior. This research has implications for the automobile industry and organizations in allied business activities, policy makers and marketers.
Rahim, Roslin Abdul; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Arif, Mohd Shoki Mohd; Hamid, Mohd Hakim Abdul
Nowadays, green products are getting popular in their acceptance by the Malaysian consumers. Due to the advancement of the Internet technologies and the wide spread of electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), consumers seem to be more influenced in purchasing the green products. In this study, consumers’ demographic profiles, such as age, gender, income, education background, and occupation are being explored to investigate their influences on consumers’ green product purchase intention. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the results of the differences between several demographic profile groups on green product purchase intention using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and independent sample T-Test. T-test results showed that there is a statistically significant difference between gender on consumers’ green product purchase intention. Meanwhile, the results generated by ANOVA indicated that there are no significant differences between age, income, education background and occupation on consumers’ green product purchase intention. These results shed light on the potential market segment that should be targeted by marketers and producers of green products in Malaysia.
Full Text Available The study assesses post-purchase advertisement readership behaviour and repeat purchase intentions of motor vehicle consumers. The aim is to determine the prevalence of selective exposure, and the impact of motor vehicle features and dissonance respectively. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers The results indicate that the majority of consumers do not engage in post-purchase selective advertisement readership behaviour. Furthermore, whilst motor vehicle features (make, model, dealership, month of purchases/ time lapse after purchases do not influence consumers' repeat purchase intentions, reported dissonance and the magnitude of cognitive dissonance experienced have a significant impact. Opsomming Hierdie studie evalueer die reaksie van verbruikers op advertensies nadat hulle n voertuig aangekoop het. Die doel was om vas te stel in watter n mate verbruikers selektiefis met advertensies en watter effek voertuig-eienskappe en dissonansie op die moontlikheid het om weer dieselfde voertuig te koop. Die empiriese anahse is mtgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eicnaars van nuwe voertuie. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die meerderheid van verbruikers me advertensies selektief lees nan aankoop me.Verder blyk dit dat die eienskappe vann motorvoertmg fabnkaat, model handelaar, maand van aankoop/tydsverloop na aankoop nie n verbruiker beinvloed om dieselfde voertuig weer te koop nie. Gerapporteerde dissonansie en die omvang van kognitiewe dissonansie na n aankoop, blyk tog 'n betekenisvolle impak te he.
Cantrell, Jennifer; Hung, Dorothy; Fahs, Marianne C; Shelley, Donna
Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective policy interventions to reduce tobacco use. Tax avoidance, however, lessens the public health benefits of higher-priced cigarettes. Few studies examine responses to cigarette tax policies, particularly among high-risk minority populations. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of tax avoidance and changes in smoking behaviors among Chinese American smokers in New York City after a large tax increase. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data for 614 male smokers from in-person and telephone interviews using a comprehensive household-based survey of 2,537 adults aged 18-74 years. Interviews were conducted in multiple Chinese dialects. A total of 54.7% of respondents reported engaging in at least one low- or no-tax strategy after the New York City and New York State tax increases. The more common strategies for tax avoidance were purchasing cigarettes from a private supplier/importer and purchasing duty free/overseas. Higher consumption, younger age, and number of years in the U.S. were consistently associated with engaging in tax avoidance. Younger and heavier continuing smokers were less likely to make a change in smoking behavior in response to the tax increase. Despite high levels of tax avoidance and varying prices, nearly half of continuing smokers made a positive change in smoking behavior after the tax increase. Expanded legislation and enforcement must be directed toward minimizing the availability of legal and illegal low- or no-tax cigarette outlets. Public education and cessation assistance customized for the Chinese American community is key to maximizing the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in this population.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
.... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...
The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.
This table lists the purchase prices concerning the electricity produced by biogas, wind energy, geothermal energy, photovoltaic energy and hydro energy and gives the purchase conditions. These prices are valid in France beyond the first of september 2010
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
Moital, Miguel; Vaughan, Roger; Edwards, Jonathan; Peres, Rita
More than 10 years on since the launch of the Internet, there are clear differential levels of adoption of the Internet for purchasing leisure travel across countries. In some countries, such as Portugal, only a minority of travel purchasing is conducted over the Internet. This paper aims to contribute to a greater understanding of adoption of purchasing over the Internet by evaluating the determinants of intention to adopt the Internet for purchasing leisure travel. A number of variables are...
Hallett, Andrew Hughes
Large-scale asset purchase programmes are a form of monetary policy in which market interest rates are reduced by different amounts at different maturities – and lower them at the long rates that affect investment and consumption decisions. They are designed to stimulate spending by increasing...... that can be used (itself a risk reducing measure that reduces the pressure on reserves); and make it easier to steer economic performance by reducing risk premia, that is sectoral or regional interest spreads. That not only reduces average borrowing costs; it delivers better economic performance where...... liquidity, raising asset prices, creating wealth effects, lowering borrowing costs and increasing investment. Corporate bond purchases (CSPP) are complementary to, not an alternative to standard QE policies. They increase the impact of QE policies; widen the pool of (potentially) high quality assets...
Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.
Holekamp, Kara; Fletcher, Rose
The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project acquires science data from commercial sources. It is a demonstration project to test a new way of doing business, tap new sources of data, support Earth science research, and support the commercial remote sensing industry. Phase I of the project reviews simulated/prototypical data sets from 10 companies. Phase II of the project is a 3 year purchase/distribution of select data from 5 companies. The status of several SDP projects is reviewed in this viewgraph presentation, as is the SDP process of tasking, verification, validation, and data archiving. The presentation also lists SDP results for turnaround time, metrics, customers, data use, science research, applications research, and user feedback.
The impact of electricity deregulation on the manner in which gas is purchased for consumption at power plants affected by deregulation, was discussed. An overview of deregulation in the electric power industry as it has occurred in Alberta, was provided, since Alberta has set the standard as the only operational power pool and deregulated marketplace for new power generation in North America. Ultimately, electricity deregulation will have a significant effect on many gas producers in Alberta. How the gas industry responds to the new challenges will determine what role gas will play in the electric marketplace. It can be safely predicted that the gas purchaser for a power producer will attempt to retain the least cost, most flexible gas supply available
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts
McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio
Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick－Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...
The TS – AB* - AT* Purchasing Offices and the Purchasing Pool have moved to Building 5 – 2nd and *3rd floors. The phone and fax numbers are unchanged. We apologize for any inconvenience caused by the move. Thank you for your understanding. Finance Department – Purchasing Service.
... eligibility requirement. (a) Limitations. Eligibility to purchase Farm Credit Investment Bonds shall be... beneficiaries of a pension or retirement program of the Farm Credit banks or associations, and to retired... purchase investment bonds from any of the institutions in the district which offer the purchase program...
Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970.4403 insert the following clause: Contractor Purchasing System (AUG 2009) (a) General. The Contractor...
This paper analyzes credit purchase practices in Gaborone, Botswana. Adopting a survey and a disguised interview technique, data was collected and analyzed on the usage rate of credit purchases. The hire purchase, which was the most popular form of credit, was examined in greater detail with respect to the costs of hire ...
Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…
Purchasing management is a relatively new scientific research field, partly due to the fact that purchasing has only recently been recognized as a factor of strategic importance to an organization. In this thesis, the author focuses on a selection of strategic and tactical purchasing decision
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13... PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...
Lith, Jan; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Matos Castano, Julieta; Vos, Bart
Purpose – Prime contractors spent a substantial part of their turnover on purchasing. The management of the purchasing function therefore has a large influence on the overall performance of a prime contractor. The more developed the purchasing function is, the greater its contribution to success of
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...
... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 13.301... Governmentwide commercial purchase card may be used to— (1) Make micro-purchases; (2) Place a task or delivery order (if authorized in the basic contract, basic ordering agreement, or blanket purchase agreement); or...
... purchase plan must conform to the definition of a pension plan in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of § 1.401-1, or the.... Accordingly, even though a qualified bond purchase plan is designed as a pension plan, it need not provide... apply in a nondiscriminatory manner. (ii) A qualified bond purchase plan which is designed as a pension...
Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José
Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables. PMID:28282401
Full Text Available Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate. We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626 examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.
Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José
Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 416.919k Section 416.919k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards...
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
. The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...
Dewi Sri Rejeki
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.
Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D
The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rowlands, I. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies; Scott, D. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Group; Parker, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography
Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs.
Full Text Available Management has a fundamental task to identify and direct primary and specific processes within purchasing function, applying the up-to-date information infrastructure. ISO 9001:2000 defines a process as a number of interrelated or interactive activities transforming inputs and outputs, and the "process approach" as a systematic identification in management processes employed with the organization and particularly - relationships among the processes. To direct a quality management system using process approach, the organization is to determine the map of its general (basic processes. Primary processes are determined on the grounds of their interrelationship and impact on satisfying customers' needs. To make a proper choice of general business processes, it is necessary to determine the entire business flow, beginning with the customer demand up to the delivery of products or service provided. In the next step the process model is to be converted into data model which is essential for implementation of the information system enabling automation, monitoring, measuring, inspection, analysis and improvement of key purchase processes. In this paper are given methodology and some results of investigation of development of IS for purchasing process from aspects of quality.
Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.
Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.
Rowlands, I.; Scott, D.; Parker, P.
Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs
Shook Mei Chan
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as communication tools in a business-to-business context. It also examines the indirect effects of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on Internet adoption mediated by perceived communication convenience. Method: A structured questionnaire was developed to carry out a cross-sectional survey. A business-to-business company’s database consists of its current and potential customers was selected as the sampling frame. A total of 139 responses was collected and Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM 3.0 was utilized in data processing and hypotheses testing. Results: The findings of the study indicate that perceived Internet skills and supplier support have a significant effect on perceived communication convenience. Subsequently, perceived communication convenience have a direct impact on industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of the Internet for business purchasing related activities. Perceived communication convenience significantly mediates the effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on business Internet adoption. Conclusion: This study contributes towards identifying significant predictors and mediator of adopting Internet for business purchasing related activities among purchasing personnel. Practitioners need to emphasize on Internet skills and support in order to enhance communication convenience, thus encourages industrial buyers to adopt the Internet in purchasing activities.
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso
The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.
Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit
Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite
Marília Cruz Guttier
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4–64.9. The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03–1.14, age of 20–39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02–1.20, low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03–1.28, and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89–7.52. Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93–2.41. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.
Full Text Available The development of the Internet and sophisticated search engines such as e.g. Google together with the spread of social networks have introduced new marketing possibilities of addressing potential clients with offer of goods and services. Unlike most traditional marketing procedures, these instruments allow for targeting the business information directly at concrete individuals, taking into consideration their age, sex, education, hobbies. All this is based on their choice of words keyed into the search engines. This is the targeted advertising where consumer response can be accurately measured, e.i. the so called context advertising.The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legal aspects of some of the above mentioned internet marketing instruments, as even in this sphere legal regulation clearly lags behind the dynamically developing possibilities of the Internet as a means of communication. These marketing methods being viewed from the perspective of valid laws, several problem areas may be detected, which concern the right of privacy protection of natural person, intellectual property, or legal regulation of implied or unsolicited advertising.This paper concentrates on the summary of rules of law which regulate internet users privacy protection with respect to the Czech and Community laws, assessment of their efficiency and de lege ferenda discretion.
Freitag, Lutz; Gördes, Martin; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Franzen, Daniel; Funke, Faustina; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Dutau, Hervé
Stent placement has been established as a standard procedure for treating airway obstructions. Other indications are localized malacias and fistulas. Though many different stents with various diameters and lengths are available, the shapes are hardly ever ideal because of the distorted anatomy in patients with diseased airways. There are technical and legal limitations for customizing purchased airway stents. Individually tailored stents would be preferable. New techniques of additive manufacturing such as 3D printing make it possible to produce optimized stents for a particular patient. Using CT data and bronchoscopic images, stents can be constructed that match a particular anatomical situation and apply the optimized expansion force. We give an overview of the currently available manufacturing techniques for polymeric stents and report about our own experience. Direct on-site printing of polyurethane stents in a hospital and printing individual extrusion molds for silicone stents in a certified cleanroom are both feasible. Furthermore, there are promising attempts of combining mechanically customized stents with surface modifications, drug-eluting features, biodegradability, and time-dependent adaptation (4D printing). Truly optimized airway stents with the potential of solving the well-known stent problems such as granulation tissue formation, remodeling, mucostasis, and infections are in reach. The technical hurdles are probably easier to overcome than the legal constraints. The legal situations are discussed from a physician's and a manufacturer's perspective. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available If demographics refers to external characteristics, including age, gender, annual income or educational attainment, psychographics manages to break the external barrier and provides insight of consumers’ lifestyles, values, attitudes, interests or opinions. In comparison, demographics has the benefit of understanding “who” buys the product or the service, while psychographics is responsible for understanding “why” they buy it. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the psychographic factors that influence the consumer’s green purchase intention. In order to achieve this, the questionnaire proposed by Sandu (2015, based on the study of relevant and recent literature and adapted to the Romanian environment, was applied online to potential consumers and effective consumers of ecological products of Iaşi city. A number of 98 answers were collected and analyzed with the help of SPSS 20.0 software. Results show that, from the four selected psychographic factors, perceived consumer effectiveness and health consciousness have an influence on consumer’s green purchase intention. The significance of the study consists in a better understanding of the green consumer’s behavior and a starting point for marketing people in targeting consumers and building strategies to increase the market share of ecological products.
Ford, Christopher N.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.
Background US dietary studies from 2003–2010 show decreases in children’s caloric intake. We examine purchases of consumer-packaged foods/beverages in the US between 2000- and 2011 among households with children ages 2–5y. Objectives Describe changes in consumer-packaged goods purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for economic indicators, and explore differences by race, education, and household income level. Methods Consumer-packaged goods purchases data were obtained for 42,753 US households with ≥1 child aged 2–5y using the Nielsen Homescan Panel. Top sources of calories purchased were grouped, and random effects regression was used to model the relationship between calories purchased from each food/beverage group and race, female head of household education, and household income. Models adjusted for household composition, market-level unemployment rate, prices, and quarter. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Results Between 2000 and 2011, adjusted total calories purchased from foods (−182 kcal/d) and beverages (−100 kcal/d) declined significantly. Decreases in purchases of milk (−40 kcal), soft drinks (−27 kcal/d), juice and juice drinks (−24 kcal/d), grain-based desserts (−24 kcal/d), savory snacks (−17 kcal/d), and sweet snacks and candy (−13 kcal/d) were among the major changes observed. There were significant differences by race, female head of household education, and household income for changes in consumer-packaged food and beverage purchases between 2000 and 2011. Conclusions Trends in consumer-packaged goods purchases suggest that solid fats and added sugars are decreasing in the food ply of US preschool children. Yet, pronounced differences by race, education, and household income persist. PMID:25049217
Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Lee, Joseph G L; Kennedy, Sara; Banks, Asha; Sharapova, Saida; Agaku, Israel
Tobacco products are ubiquitous in most U.S. retail environments. Given that data on preferred point-of-sale purchase locations among U.S. adult tobacco users are limited, an enhanced understanding of tobacco purchase locations can help inform tobacco control policy, planning, and practice. We investigated prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with cigarette purchase location among U.S. adult smokers. Pooled data came from the 2012-2013 (N=60,192) and 2013-2014 (N=75,233) National Adult Tobacco Surveys. Current cigarette smokers (n=18,005) aged ≥18 were asked if they purchased cigarettes within the previous 30days (n=15,182) and, if so, where they last purchased cigarettes. In 2016, logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education level and annual household income was used to assess characteristics associated with purchase location. Among current smokers, 90.2% reported purchasing cigarettes in the past 30days. The most common purchase locations were convenience stores/gas stations (69.1%), tobacco discount stores (9.9%), drug stores (5.0%), supermarkets (4.9%), and liquor stores (3.6%). The odds of purchasing cigarettes at convenience stores/gas stations were higher among men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-1.5) than women; and among adults aged 18-24 (AOR=3.1; 95% CI=2.4-3.9), 25-44 (AOR=3.1; 95% CI=2.7-3.7), and 45-64years (AOR=1.8 95% CI=1.6-2.1) than adults aged ≥65years. Over two-thirds of U.S. smokers last purchased cigarettes from convenience stores/gas stations. Understanding the relationship between purchase location and smoker characteristics may inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Purushothaman, H.N.; Wilson, R.; Michell, M.J.
Aim: To identify medico-legal issues that occur in the diagnosis and radiological management of breast disease and to propose measures to reduce the risk of patient complaints and legal action in breast radiology and diagnosis. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was not applicable for this study. A retrospective study was undertaken and records of 120 medico-legal investigations over a 10 year period were examined. The reports were compiled by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The mean age of the patients represented in this study was 48.3 years. The main complaint in this series was a delay in diagnosis (92%) followed by inappropriate or inadequate treatment (8%). 81% of cases were patients who had presented to the symptomatic clinic. The main presenting symptom was a palpable lump (65%). Substandard care was cited in 49/120 cases (41%). The mean average delay in diagnosis was 15.6 months. Of the cases cited as substandard care, 61% were considered the fault of the radiologist and 14% considered the fault of the breast surgeon. Of the cases where the radiologist was considered to be at fault, microcalcification was the most common mammographic sign to be missed or misinterpreted (12/26 cases, 46%). Conclusion: The most common complaint in this series was delay in diagnosis with microcalcification being the main mammographic sign that was either not seen or misinterpreted by the radiologist. Clear and precise written protocols are recommended for all breast imaging practice to ensure that medico-legal investigations will be greatly reduced.
Jakovljević, Branislava; Segedi, Dimitrije; Mujović-Zornić, Hajrija
Understanding the lawful implementations of surgical procedures, such as hysterectomy, raises practical questions concerning legal relations between a doctor and his patient, and consequences of this relationship, which may be legally relevant. The modern legal theory and practice consider doctors and patients to be partners. Medical practitioners performing surgical procedures are obliged to obtain informed consent. They are also required to inform their patients about indications, course of the operative procedure, postoperative treatment, possible complications during and after the procedure, and quality of life after the operation. Informed conversation should take into account the age, mental status and patient's intellectual abilities. Legal consequences ofsurgical procedures Malpractice litigation mostly concers medical error and negligence. Medical errors should not be confused with ineffective outcome, or complicated postoperative course. Even if the surgical procedure was followed correctly and uneventful outcome took place, there might be some problems. A patient has a right to receive complete information from a physician about the specific nature of a proposed treatment. A physician has an obligation to elucidate and justify, treatment he proposes. Certain codification of all operative procedures may facilitate this task. Codification instructions about procedures, in this case hysterectomy, must include indications for a certain type of hysterectomy (subtotal, total, radical), as well as for the operative technique (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic). Patient information brochures should be available in print, and include information about indications and potential risks associated with the proposed surgical procedure. In this way, it is possible to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from insufficient knowledge and information about surgical procedures.
Smed, Sinne; Tetens, Inge; Bøker Lund, Thomas; Holm, Lotte; Ljungdalh Nielsen, Annemette
To explore and describe quantitatively the effect over time of unemployment on food purchase behaviour and diet composition. Longitudinal data from 2008-2012, with monthly food purchase data aligned with register data on unemployment measured as a dichotomous indicator as well as a trend accounting for the duration. A household panel which registers daily food purchases combined with detailed nutritional information and registration of the duration of unemployment at individual level. The structure of the data set facilitates the detection of effects or associations between duration of unemployment and diet composition, purchase behaviour in terms of food expenditure, and share of food purchased on offer and in discounters while controlling for important confounding factors. Danish households of working age (n 3440) adjusted to household equivalents. We use fixed-effects econometric methods to control for unobserved heterogeneity. In the short run, unemployment led to substitution in favour of discount stores and increases in food expenditure and in consumption of saturated fat, total fat and protein due to increased consumption of animal-based foods. In the medium run food expenditure declined together with consumption of fresh animal-based foods and saturated fat, total fat and protein. In the even longer run these nutrients were substituted by carbohydrates and added sugar. Unemployment has a substantial influence on diet composition, but effects vary with duration of the unemployment period, which may have potential health implications. This ought to be taken into consideration in evaluations of existing reforms and in future reforms of welfare systems.
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
Full Text Available Steganography has long been regarded as a tool used for illicit and destructive purposes such as crime and warfare. Currently, digital tools are widely available to ordinary computer users also. Steganography software allows both illicit and legitimate users to hide messages so that they will not be detected in transit. This article provides a brief history of steganography, discusses the current status in the computer age, and relates this to forensic, security, and legal issues. The paper concludes with recommendations for digital forensics investigators, IT staff, individual users, and other stakeholders.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about accounts for minors who have not had a legal guardian appointed by a court? 363.27 Section 363.27 Money and... minors who have not had a legal guardian appointed by a court? (a) We do not permit a minor to purchase...
Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Rose, Shyanika W; Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C
As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Data were from Wave 7 (weighted N = 3532) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of men and women aged 18-34. We assessed demographics, past 30-day substance (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drug use), depression and anxiety, social smoking, marijuana harm perceptions (relative to cigarettes), and state-level marijuana policies as correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana more often if it were legalized. Multivariable models of correlates of support for legalization and intentions to use marijuana were conducted separately for the full sample and for nonmarijuana users. Weighted estimates showed that 39% of the full sample and 9% of nonmarijuana users supported marijuana legalization. Multivariable models showed that lower marijuana harm perceptions and lifetime and past 30-day tobacco use were common predictors of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana among non-users of marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: Over a third of the sample supported marijuana legalization. Tobacco use and perceptions that marijuana is less harmful than cigarettes were robust risk correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use more frequently among nonusers. Public health campaigns should target these factors to deter marijuana-related harm in susceptible young adults.
Smed, Sinne; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Koch-Hansen, Pia
Purpose The aim of this paper is to determine how the typical purchasers of products with nutrition symbols differ from other purchasers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. Furthermore we examine if the typical purchaser is similar across six product types in Denmark...... with information about labelling status. Other product and purchase characteristics, such as store-type and organic, are controlled for. Findings Households with children tend to have a lower probability of purchasing labelled products compared to other household types, while urbanity increases the probability....... This holds both across countries and across products. In Denmark education is positively correlated with label purchase, while in the Netherlands it is income. Generally, the observable characteristics of the consumers are poor in explaining the probability of purchasing labelled products which suggests...
Full Text Available Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling in a sample of 483 respondents in Thailand. The findings of this model indicated that consumer attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have significant positive influences on the purchase intention for green products. Furthermore, our results indicated that environmental concerns have a significant effect on attitude, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention for green products, but subjective norm. Moreover, environmental knowledge had no significant effect on the purchase intention for green products. Instead, it had a distinct indirect effect through attitude towards purchasing green products, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. The findings from this study contribute to improving the understanding of intention to purchase green products, which could play a major role towards sustainable consumption.
Goudie, Andrew J; Sumnall, Harry R; Field, Matt; Clayton, Hannah; Cole, Jon C
Behavioural economic models of substance use describe the relationship between changes in unit price and consumption. However, these models rarely take account of the perceived quality (i.e. potency) of controlled drugs. Therefore we investigated the effects of both price and quality on the decision to purchase controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers. Forty current polysubstance misusers (29 males, 11 females; mean age 23.8) were recruited into the study. Participants were asked to hypothetically purchase drugs from a price list of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy at different levels of quality and price (i.e. better quality drugs cost more money). The disposable income available for those purchases was systematically varied in order to determine the impact of income on the decision to purchase drugs. Demand for both normal and strong alcohol was income inelastic. Demand for both poor and average quality cannabis and ecstasy was income inelastic, but demand for good quality cannabis and ecstasy was income elastic. The demand for poor quality cocaine was income inelastic, with the demand for both average and good quality cocaine being income elastic. Participants reported too few purchases of amphetamine, which precluded behavioural economic analysis. These results suggest that, like other goods, controlled drugs are purchased based upon the consumer's interpretations of their relative value. Therefore, it is probable that the purchase and subsequent use of controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers will be heavily influenced by the economic environment.
Wang, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Dongxue
Incentive policies are always used to sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products by many countries or regions. So the effectiveness of such subsidies has been of much concern to scholars. This research focused on whether, or not, subsidy policies have guided people's intentions and behaviours. We investigated 436 urban residents from 22 provinces in China, covering the seven major geographic regions, and made an empirical analysis of the factors influencing Chinese urban residents’ purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances based on the structural equation model. On theoretical aspect, we developed the theory of planned behaviour. Our results show that the variable “POLICY” is insignificant which indicates that policy environment and media propaganda in China do not have significant effect on Chinese residents’ willingness to pay for energy-efficient appliances. While, the residents’ environmental awareness, past purchasing experiences, social relationships, age, and level of education all exert a significant influence on Chinese residents’ purchasing intentions. Finally, based on the above research results, the corresponding policy suggestions which mainly focus on the time of subsidy, the object of subsidy and the method of subsidy are offered for policy makers. - Highlights: • We researched people’s behaviour combined with a policy implementation background. • We found that the subsidy policy didn’t change people’s purchase intentions. • Past purchasing experiences significantly influence consumers’ purchase intentions. • We proposed policy advices about the time, types and methods of incentive policies.
A. B. Sinelnikov
Full Text Available According to sociological surveys in Russia found that a pairs of cohabitants, consisting of “unregistered marriage”, occupy an intermediate position between legally married and unmarried males and females. The so-called “unregistered marriage” can not be considered equal to legitimate marriage. The average number of children ever born to unmarried couples by the end of the reproductive age of women (40–45 years old is much less than the average number of children among married women of the same age and considerably below the level of simple reproduction of generations. At all ages cohabitants are much more likely to feel lonely than legitimate spouses. The tendency to reduce the number of legitimate married couples and increasing numbers of unmarried couples is not a transition from traditional to modern form of family. It is a destruction of the family as a social institution.
Berlingher Remus Daniel
Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
Preker, Alexander S; Langenbrunner, John C
In this article the authors review the core messages on getting value for public money spent on healthcare presented in a recent World Bank publication, Spending Wisely: Buying Health Services for the Poor, edited by the same authors. The authors discuss how interest of the poor would often be better served through a fundamental shift in the way public money is spent on the health services--notably by moving away from passive budgeting within the public sector towards strategic purchasing or contracting of services from non-governmental providers. The shift from hiring staff in the public sector and producing services "in house" to strategic purchasing of non governmental providers--outsourcing--has been at the centre of a lively debate on collective financing of healthcare during recent years. Its underlying premise is that it is necessary to separate the functions of financing from the production services to improve performance and accountability. Promoting good health and confronting disease challenges of course requires action across a broad range of activities in the health system. This includes improvements in the policymaking and stewardship role of governments, better access to human resources, drugs, medical equipment and consumables, and a greater engagement of both public and private providers of services. Managing scarce resources and healthcare effectively and efficiently in the hospital sector through more strategic purchasing is an important part of this story. This is the second in series of articles on the economics of hospital care. In the first article on the "Economics of organizational reform" the authors, Alexander S. Preker and April Harding, examined the role of economic incentives to good governance and performance in the hospital sector. A more detailed discussion on this topic can be found in the World Bank publication Innovations in Health Care: The Corporatization of Public Hospitals, 2003, edited by the same authors.
The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite purchasing process accurately. This will enable efficient and focused use of information related to the purchasing phase and to each individual bentonite batch. This work continues from the work started in the report by Ahonen et al. (2008), Quality Assurance of the Bentonite Material, Posiva Working Report 2008-33. The current work includes a short enquiry for all relevant and at the time known producers or re-sellers of bentonite. Questions about relevant products suitable for civil engineering use, more specifically nuclear waste disposal site use, were asked together with test methods, typical test results and test standards. The following aspects and opinions have been processed from the results that were obtained during the project. Each seller/producer has a quality management system, QMS (typically ISO 9001), and ability to perform the basic tests, but there is not an established common set of properties to be tested. Some producers are willing to test according to customers' specifications. Posiva could arrange a network of capable laboratories to carry out tests according to its selected standards. This activity should then be accredited with a reasonable testing volume. Before starting the purchase of bentonite at a large scale, Posiva should go through negotiations and audits with each seller in order to make sure that both parties are testing with the same methods and both understand the range where the values of key parameters may lie. A database is needed for gathering statistically relevant information from the bentonite material parameters over the long run. This is needed for determining the limits within which the material parameters should remain in order to be acceptable. Posiva is encouraged to create a process to optimize the test types and the amount of tests should be identified for immediate and long term use. This process ensures the required quality and costs involved. (orig.)
Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael
Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features
Full Text Available The purpose of article is to analyze the evolution of legal regulation of higher education in Russia since the beginning up to the beginning of reform in modern conditions.Characteristics of the problem field. Higher education is studied in various aspects (sociological, cultural, historical, economic. An independent institute of educational law is distinguished in the legal science. Serious transformations of higher education in the Russian Federation have actualized the need for understanding the domestic experience of legal regu-lation. The state policy in the sphere of higher education and the evolution of educational legislation are studied in historical and legal studies.The methodology. The narrative method is the method of description. It is necessary for the reconstruction of past events and phenomena. The narrative method is supplemented by a chronological method. The formal legal method is applied to the interpretation of norms. The sociological method establishes the links between state policy, regulatory legal regulations and the social result achieved. The comparative method is used fragmentarily.Results. Higher education is a relatively new social institution. In the European tradition it took shape during the Middle Ages. The completed model was formed in the XIX century in Germany.The Russian Empire used the German model. Higher education was regulated by the state. The main regulations governing educational relations at the university were the General Charters. These Charters reflected the autonomy of universities.Three stages are identified in the legal and regulatory framework of higher education in the Soviet period: 1917 – the first floor 1930s; second floor 1930s – the first floor 1950s; second floor 1950s – 1980s.At the first stage the state regulated only politically and ideologically important educational relations. Many questions were not regulated centrally. In the 1930s the state impact on higher education was
Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children
The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...
Full Text Available In building companies process of product and service purchase is one of the main processes of quality management system . Because ofshort time-limits of contract realization, high specialization of works, necessity of fulfillment of high quality requirements and assurance of profitable financial effects the management of purchase process becomes very important element of work of the building company. The serious problem in creating and keeping the efficient system of purchase management is special type of purchase in building companies. Particular investments are realized in different country regions, objects are built based on the individual design documentations and each building becomes independent organization unit that organize purchase necessary for investment realization.An example of the management system of purchase process in building company is described in the paper. Just In Time system is widelyused during the realization of building investment. This system is especially useful in buildings because some investments, especially inbig cities, are characterized by restriction in building site. This makes impossible storing the products. In such cases close synchronization between times of delivery and requirements of purchase schedule and schedule of building realization is very important. Criteria of supplier selection as well as the methods of choosing the supplier are also presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to necessity of valuation of the purchase efficiency and the purchase risk. Basic coefficients of purchase efficiency are also described in the paper.
Conti, Adelaide; Bin, Paola; Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Terracciano, Lucia; Piras, Mauro
Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one's own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents. In Italy, several regions have therefore issued acts aimed at regulating the activities of tattoo and piercing also in reference to minors. Discussion. With regard to minors, the rules taken into account set precise limits in relation to the age criterion and subordinate the implementation of such practices to the provision of consent by legal representatives. If such practices are of an aesthetic nature, we cannot avoid considering the implications they have on health protection, and then adopt appropriate measures to protect the person who intends to undergo them, particularly in the case of minors.
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted
Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...
Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B
Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehden, P. von der.
The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor
Purchasing management is often approached as a qualitative art. Experience, insight and managerial qualities may indeed make useful contributions. However, in addition to this, the possibilities of an approach based on hard data and figures should not be underestimated. This does not only apply to
and limited learning outcomes from one project to another. Furthermore, the study reveals the importance of a more holistic approach to project purchasing practices by focusing on the entire life cycle of a project. Managerially it helps selling companies to understand the peculiar buying phases...
Smith, Rachel A; Zhu, Xun; Shartle, Kaitlin; Glick, Lydia; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M
Extending the effectiveness of media-based campaigns into interpersonal networks has been a long concern for studies on persuasive messages, yet there is much to understand about why people attempt to persuade others to engage in health-related behaviors. This study investigated two alternative predictors of interpersonal persuasion: psychosocial determinants of behavior and homophily. We used the integrated model of behavior (IMB) to predict consumers' intentions to purchase antibiotic-free meat, and extended the model to predict consumers' intentions to encourage important others to do so. IMB variables predicted 44% of future purchasing intentions and 40% of future persuasion intentions. The findings support a homophily explanation for persuasion: people intend to persuade important others to do what they do. In addition, a person-centered analysis identified three audience segments based on antibiotic-resistance-related behaviors, cognitions, and experiences: Purchasers, Resisters, and New Adopters. The covariate analysis revealed that people who had more topic awareness of antibiotic use in animal husbandry, knowledge of someone with an antibiotic-resistant infection, and health mavenism were more likely to be Purchasers than Resisters or New Adopters. Anxiety, however, was highest among New Adopters and lowest among Resisters. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Soones, Tacara; Ahalt, Cyrus; Garrigues, Sarah; Faigman, David; Williams, Brie A
With the number of older adult arrestees and prisoners increasing rapidly, legal professionals increasingly provide front-line identification and response to age-related health conditions (including cognitive and physical impairments) that may affect legal outcomes, such as the ability to participate in one's defense or stay safe in jail. The goals of this study were to assess the ability of legal professionals to recognize and respond to age-related conditions that could affect legal outcomes and to identify recommendations to address important knowledge gaps. This was a mixed quantitative-qualitative study. Legal professionals (N = 72) in the criminal justice system were surveyed to describe their demographic characteristics, expertise, and prior aging-related training and to inform the qualitative interview guide. Those surveyed included attorneys (district attorneys (25%), public defenders and legal advocates (58%)), judges (6%), and court-affiliated social workers (11%). In-depth qualitative interviews were then conducted with a subset of 10 legal professionals who worked with older adults at least weekly. Results from the surveys and interviews revealed knowledge deficits in four important areas: age-related health, identification of cognitive impairment, assessment of safety risk, and optimization of services upon release from jail. Four recommendations to close these gaps emerged: educate legal professionals about age-related health, train professionals to identify cognitive and sensory impairment, develop checklists to identify those at risk of poor health or safety, and improve knowledge of and access to transitional services for older adults. These findings suggest that geriatrics knowledge gaps of legal professionals exist that may contribute to adverse medical or legal outcomes for older adults involved in the criminal justice system and that partnerships between healthcare and legal professionals are needed to address these challenges. © Published
Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær
Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....
Abashidze, A Kh; Malichenko, V S
Aging of the population is one of the dominant trends in the XXI century. It is expected that by 2050, more than a quarter of the world's population (27%) will be 65 years or older. Increase of older persons' proportion in the population of most countries entails a change in the scale and structure of morbidity requiring higher costs for medical care, social security, including pensions. Ageing appears on the international agenda for more than 30 years. The Human Rights treaty bodies rank the elderly as a vulnerable group, who are more susceptible to various forms of discrimination. However, there is currently no any international legal instrument specifically dedicated to the problems of protection of the elderly at a time when their discrimination and stigmatization is a very common phenomenon.
Users of CERN's Purchasing Service are encouraged to visit the new Purchasing Service web page, accessible from the CERN homepage or directly at: http://spl-purchasing.web.cern.ch/spl-purchasing/ There, you will find answers to questions such as: Who are the buyers? What do I need to know before creating a DAI? How many offers do I need? Where shall I send the offer I received? I know the amount of my future requirement, how do I proceed? How are contracts adjudicated at CERN? Which exhibitions and visits of Member State companies are foreseen in the future? A company I know is interested in making a presentation at CERN, who should they contact? Additionally, you will find information concerning: The Purchasing procedures Market Surveys and Invitations to Tender The Industrial Liaison Officers appointed in each Member State The Purchasing Broker at CERN
Full Text Available Studies examining the factors that affect the online purchasing behavior of consumers are rare, despite the prospective advance of e-commerce in Malaysia. The present study examines particular factors that influence the attitude of potential consumers to purchase online by using the attributes from the diffusion of innovations theory of Rogers, the attribute of perception of risk, and the subjective norms toward online purchasing. Consumers’ perceived risks of online shopping have become a vital subject in research because they directly influence users’ attitude toward online purchasing. The structural equation modeling method was used to analyze the data gathered on students using e-commerce, and, thus, to validate the model. According to the results, consumers’ attitude toward online purchasing affects the intention toward online purchasing. The other influential factors are compatibility, relative advantage, and subjective norm.
Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.
The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…
Background. Legal termination of pregnancy (TOP) was introduced in South Africa in 1996. No data are available to relate the numbers of TOPs to the total number of pregnancies in specific health regions. The level of use of TOPs by women of different age groups is not known. Objective. To determine the proportion of ...
Dunn, Michelle E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.
As of the 2013-2014 school year, about 2.5 million school-age students attended charter schools nationwide. Because charter schools are publicly funded entities, they are required to adhere to all federal nondiscriminatory laws as well as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. This legal brief provides an overview of charter schools,…
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery
Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.
In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,
Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…
Macdonald, R. St. J.
Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís
The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.
Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)
MArcio Gomes Pinto Garcia
Unlike common wisdom, sterilized FX purchases under inflation targeting, i.e., those that keep the interest rate at the level targeted by the central bank, generally increase aggregate demand. We resort to a simple model with a credit channel to argue that FX purchases, by funding bank credit, end up increasing aggregate and money demand, while expanding loans and reducing the loan interest rate. Therefore, restoring the interest rate to the level previous to the FX purchase may not be suffic...
Purchasing as a firm part of each company is an important department considerably influencing functioning of a firm. I confirm this fact and describe possible positions of purchasing department in the organizational structure of a company and internal organization of the department. I describe purchasing strategies and procedures with a focus on the modern trends and procedures, which are used in today's world. The second part is about the consignment stock, which is one way of lowering the s...
Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.
Purchase patterns for two types of snack foods--pretzels and popcorn, and potato, corn, and tortilla chips--were analyzed using the data from a national survey. The study examined the effect of socio-economic and lifestyle factors including nutritional awareness and exercise habits of household respondents on snack-food purchase. A geometric-hurdle count-data model that distinguished between market-participation and purchase-frequency decisions revealed that the decision to participate in the...
Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi
As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...... by allocating internal resources to more value-adding activities. The case illustrates how an activity-based organizational design of PSM can support outsourcing of some parts of the purchasing process....
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.
... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits; Period of Disability Child's Benefits § 404.356 Who is the insured's legally adopted child? You may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is the insured's legally adopted child...
Results: : A total of 144 respondents were interviewed; 75 clients, 54 health workers and 15 legal practitioners. The most common medico-legal issues identified in the Study are road traffic accidents, rape, homicidal injury and suicide, question of paternity, age determination, abortion, medical record asked by court, ...
Van Staveren, R.; Thompson, A.W.
Colorado and Washington State have made history by approving measures to make marijuana sale and use legal for people over the age of 21, in direct opposition to federal law. While there is a sizable discussion of the actual repercussions that legal marijuana would entail, no one knows what will
Ghosh, Tista S; Vigil, Daniel I; Maffey, Ali; Tolliver, Rickey; Van Dyke, Mike; Kattari, Leonardo; Krug, Heather; Reed, Jack K; Wolk, Larry
In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article examines the valuable role of group purchasing organizations (GPOs) in hospital purchasing in the United States. For over 100 years old GPOs have helped hospitals and other health care providers realize savings and create contracting efficiencies by aggregating purchasing volume to negotiate discounts with manufacturers, distributors and other vendors. The US has recently enacted a series of healthcare reforms to correct some of the historical concerns regarding cost, quality and access. GPOs are expected to continue to play a critical role in the business of hospital purchasing and may potential export that other countries may wish to examine.
Klasa, Katarzyna; Greer, Scott L; van Ginneken, Ewout
Strategic purchasing of health care services is widely recommended as a policy instrument. We conducted a review of literature of material drawn from the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Health Systems in Transition series, other European Observatory databases, and selected country-specific literature to augment the comparative analysis by providing the most recent healthcare trends in ten selected countries. There is little evidence of purchasing being strategic according to any of the established definitions. There is little or no literature suggesting that existing purchasing mechanisms in Europe deliver improved population health, citizen empowerment, stronger governance and stewardship, or develop purchaser organization and capacity. Strategic purchasing has not generally been implemented. Policymakers considering adopting strategic purchasing policies should be aware of this systemic implementation problem. Policymakers in systems with strategic purchasing built into policy should not assume that a purchasing system is strategic or that it is delivering any expected objectives. However, there are individual components of strategic purchasing that are worth pursuing and can provide benefits to health systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.
Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.
Anton Agus Setyawan
Full Text Available This study explores purchase intention of Syariah financial product. The purpose of the study is to identify factors of consumer’s intention to use Syariah financial product. Framework of the study is TRA model proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980. The design of this study is qualitative approach. This study employs focus group discussion and in depth interview in data collection. Focus group discussion in this study involves 6 Syariah financial products. In depth interview has been accomplished with 3 different managers from Syariah financial institutions. Findings in this study are consumers evaluate Syariah financial product by comparing benefits of the product with conventional financial products. The concept of non economic benefit and religious aspect is also discussed in this study.
Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."
Nisbet, A; Ward, A
Against a background of increasing demand for radiotherapy equipment, this study was undertaken to investigate options for equipment procurement, in particular to compare purchase with lease. The perceived advantages of lease are that equipment can be acquired within budget and cashflow constraints, with relatively low amounts of cash leaving the NHS in the first year, avoiding the necessity of capitalizing the equipment and providing protection against the risk of obsolescence associated with high technology equipment. The perceived disadvantages of leasing are that the Trust does not own the equipment, leasing can be more expensive in revenue terms, the tender process is extended and there may be lease conditions to be met, which may be costly and/or restrictive. There are also a number of technical considerations involved in the leasing of radiotherapy equipment that influence the financial analysis and practical operation of the radiotherapy service. The technical considerations include servicing and planned preventative maintenance, upgrades, spare parts, subsequent purchase of "add ons", modification of equipment, research and development work, commencement of the lease period, return of equipment at the end of the lease period and negotiations at the end of the lease period. A study from Raigmore Hospital, Inverness is described, which involves the procurement of new, state-of-the-art radiotherapy equipment. This provides an overview of the procurement process, including a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of leasing, with the figures from the financial analysis presented and explained. In addition, a detailed description is given of the technical considerations to be taken into account in the financial analysis and negotiation of any lease contract.
Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.
The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
The advent of extraoral radiology in general dental practice has become more widespread since 2000, particularly with digital systems. With this comes a range of medico-legal risks for dentists not adverted to previously. These risks include a higher than expected radiation dose for some surveys, and the risk of a 'loss of a chance' for a patient whereby the images may disclose pathology not diagnosed by general dental practitioners using OPG and CBVT radiology. Practitioners need to apply relevant legal principles in deciding which surveys to order and record, and also need to explain to patients the dosages of the radiation that they will likely receive. Practitioners also need to assess whether the resultant survey ought to be interpreted by a radiologist to diagnose any wider pathology with which a general practitioner may not be familiar. Extra caution needs to be used in ordering high dose radiology in paediatric patients. Dentists should not assume patients fully understand the nature of CBVT and MCT, and its risks and benefits. Consideration ought to be given to the volume of CBVT ordered dependent on factors such as patient age, symptoms, history and procedural intent. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.
Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M
The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.
Sosa, Erica T; Biediger-Friedman, Lesli; Banda, Martha
Restaurant initiatives provide an efficient opportunity to impact large numbers of patrons. The purpose of this study is to measure patron purchasing behaviors during the ¡Por Vida! menu designation initiative. This study used a cross-sectional design and survey data to assess 23 restaurants throughout Bexar County and 152 restaurant patrons. The Patron Awareness Questionnaire assessed if patrons noticed the logo; believed nutrition, cost, and taste were important in making purchasing decisions; and purchased a ¡Por Vida! item. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Most (93.4%) patrons considered taste very important when deciding what to eat. Cost was very important to 63.8% and nutrition was very important to 55.9% of the sample. The strongest predictors of purchasing a ¡Por Vida! item were the patrons' ages being between 18 and 35 years (odds ratio = 1.474; confidence interval = 0.017, 0.812; p behaviors among a segment of the population when the logo is visible.
Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Nadine L; Lozano, Paula; Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Krieger, James; Saelens, Brian E
Nutrition labeling of menus has been promoted as a means for helping consumers make healthier food choices at restaurants. As part of national health reform, chain restaurants will be required to post nutrition information at point-of-purchase, but more evidence regarding the impact of these regulations, particularly in children, is needed. To determine whether nutrition labeling on restaurant menus results in a lower number of calories purchased by children and their parents. A prospective cohort study compared restaurant receipts of those aged 6-11 years and their parents before and after a menu-labeling regulation in Seattle/King County (S/KC) (n=75), with those from a comparison sample in nonregulated San Diego County (SDC) (n=58). Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 and analyzed in 2010. In S/KC, there was a significant increase from pre- to post-regulation (44% vs 87%) in parents seeing nutrition information, with no change in SDC (40% vs 34%). Average calories purchased for children did not change in either county (823 vs 822 in S/KC, 984 vs 949 in SDC). There was an approximately 100-calorie decrease for the parents postregulation in both counties (823 vs 720 in S/KC, 895 vs 789 in SDC), but no difference between counties. A restaurant menu-labeling regulation increased parents' nutrition information awareness but did not decrease calories purchased for either children or parents. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.
99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...
Elena Codruta BADEA
In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.
Saeideh Sharifi fard
Full Text Available This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI through social networking sites (SNSs in Malaysia. As for moderating influences of gender and age, the results showed that gender significantly moderated purposed association between these four elements and the online PI, while the moderating effect of age was only recognized in PE. Findings of this research offer practitioners with better insights that would aid them in developing effective online marketing strategies to attract online purchasing users through SNSs.
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...
Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A
To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina
This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...
The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.
M. Bodig (Matyas)
textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid
Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...
The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...
Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.
Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...
Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang
Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.
Schotanus, Fredo; Bakker, Elmer; Walker, Helen; Eßig, Michael
This paper deals with the evolution of relatively young purchasing groups. Although previous research focussed on macro-evolutionary phases of purchasing groups, no attention has yet been paid to the intra-phase developments, the so-called ‘micro-evolutions’. Insight into micro-evolutions is crucial
Schotanus, Fredo; Telgen, Jan; de Boer, L.
In this article, we identify success factors for managing small and intensive purchasing groups by comparing successful and unsuccessful Dutch purchasing groups in a large-scale survey. Transaction costs economics and social exchange theory are used as theoretical frameworks for our broad empirical
This exploratory study attempts to examine consumer-purchasing motives in cellular-phone markets. The study surveyed 297 Nigerian consumers to identify their motives for purchasing new mobile phones on one hand, and factors affecting operator choice on the other. The results indicate that price and properties were the ...
... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 601 Purchasing of Property and Services AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is revising its regulations governing the supplier... persons; and to develop further the basis for the Postal Service's purchasing decisions and the...
The purpose of this study was to find out factors that influence University students' purchasing preferences for sports shoes. Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have been identified as influencing university students to purchase sports shoes. A sample (N=120) of ...
van der Heijden, J.G.M.; Verhagen, T.
This paper explores factors that influence consumer's intentions to purchase online at an electronic commerce website. Specifically, we investigate online purchase intention using two different perspectives: a technology-oriented perspective and a trust-oriented perspective. We summarise and review
R.D. van Oest (Rutger); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractWe propose a consistent utility-based framework to jointly explain a household's decisions on purchase incidence, brand choice and purchase quantity. The approach differs from other approaches, currently available in the literature, as it is able to take into account consumption
Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Ample experimental research has demonstrated the impact of peer influence on food intake in adolescents and adults. However, none of these studies focused social modeling effects on food purchases in supermarkets. This study investigated whether the food purchase behavior of a confederate peer would
One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers buying merchandise for resale, selecting vendors, bargaining for prices, and purchasing supplies for commercial food and beverage service establishments. The course is comprised of two units: (1) Merchandise Buying and (2) Food and Beverage Purchasing.…
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management purchase requirements. 760.104 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.104 Risk management purchase requirements. (a) To be eligible... available from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA)) obtained catastrophic coverage or better under a...
Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V
In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.
This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.
Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W
Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.
Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty
Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie
around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share...
Full Text Available Nowadays, meat consuming level is an indicator of development of countries. The reason for this is the importance of animal proteins such as meat, milk and egg in human nutrition. People in Turkey do not get enough animal protein. Increase of meat and meat related product prices is effective on this. The purpose of this study is to bring up the purchase and consume behavior of consumers. Surveys completed in urban areas around city of Ankara are used primarily. Using Main Mass Ratio Based Simple Occurrence Probability Sampling method 338 families were interviewed. Completed surveys were separated into 3 groups; high, middle, low. As a result of the research, expense for food in total income is around %34. This ratio for families with low income is %53, for families with middle income is %35 and for families with high income is %33. It is found that as income levels of consumers raised, food expenses raise as well. But it shows that as income level increases, expense ratio for food decreases. Food reliability is the most effective factor on consumers’ decision of purchase. Studies show doubts of consumers about food reliability. It is understood that legal adjustments are not applied enough. Especially tight food inspections would be positive on consumer behavior.
Full Text Available The trade of imitation products is increasing rapidly in global scale due to some reasons such as globalization and branding, advancing production technology, high-profit, low risk and low legal sanctions. Manufacturers of imitation products use the advantages of the brand name they produce without a budget of development and promotion activities. Tourists are among consumer group of imitation products. In Fethiye where this study was conducted, it was observed that the number of stores and markets in which imitation products were sold increased with the beginning of holiday season and this number decreased with the end of the season. This observation led to the thought that the target group of dealers of imitation products was foreign tThis study was carried out with 109 British tourists taking their holiday in Fethiye, to examine their purchase behavior towards imitation products. The research data was collected by a questionnaire. According to the study results, it was determined that price was an important factor in tourists’ purchasing imitation products; more than half of the tourists thought imitation products would contribute to the economy of Turkey; that they approved trade of imitation products and they were satisfied with the quality of imitation products
This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...
Hansen, Benjamin; Waddell, Glen R
Previous research has found strong evidence that legal access to alcohol is associated with sizable increases in criminality. We revisit this relationship using the census of judicial records on criminal charges filed in Oregon Courts, the ability to separately track crimes involving firearms, and to track individuals over time. We find that crime increases at age 21, with increases mostly due to assaults that lack premeditation, and alcohol-related nuisance crimes. We find no evident increases in rape or robbery. Among those with no prior criminal records, increases in crime are 50% larger-still larger for the most socially costly crimes of assault and drunk driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Law guide for photovoltaic installations: Array installation; Connecting the grid; Financing; The new legal regime implemented in 2011; Is green taxing still so green?; Which judge will bring the light?: Reactions of actors
Ferracci, Vanina; Vandervorst, Alain; Tixier, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Christophe; Cloche-Dubois, Celine; Tenailleau, Francois; Rubio, Aurore-Emmanuelle; Pechamat, Olivier; Gandet, Stephanie; Deharbe, David; Rousset, Alain; Boedec, Morgan; Joffre, Andre; Blosseville, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane; Maincent, Guillaume
The authors discuss legal issues and aspects regarding photovoltaic installations in France: the array installation (constraints related to urban planning: rules, authorizations and competencies when setting up on the ground or on buildings, urban taxes, estate issues), the connection to the grid, the financing (electricity prices, partnership contract), the new legal regime implemented in 2011, the question whether green taxing is still sufficiently attractive, the dispute about the mandatory purchase mechanism, and the attitude of the different actors (notably local communities, and industries) in front of the decrease of purchase prices
Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.
Bell, D.R.; Corsten, D.; Knox, G.A.H.
Many retailers believe that a majority of purchases are unplanned, so they spend heavily on in-store marketing to stimulate these types of purchases. At the same time, the effects of “preshopping” factors—the shoppers' overall trip goals, store-specific shopping objectives, and prior marketing
The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...
Obremskey, William T; Dail, Teresa; Jahangir, A Alex
Health care in the United States is known for its continued innovation and production of new devices and techniques. While the intention of these devices is to improve the delivery and outcome of patient care, they do not always achieve this goal. As new technologies enter the market, hospitals and physicians must determine which of these new devices to incorporate into practice, and it is important these devices bring value to patient care. We provide a model of a physician-engaged process to decrease cost and increase review of physician preference items. We describe the challenges, implementation, and outcomes of cost reduction and product stabilization of a value-based process for purchasing medical devices at a major academic medical center. We implemented a physician-driven committee that standardized and utilized evidence-based, clinically sound, and financially responsible methods for introducing or consolidating new supplies, devices, and technology for patient care. This committee worked with institutional finance and administrative leaders to accomplish its goals. Utilizing this physician-driven committee, we provided access to new products, standardized some products, decreased costs of physician preference items 11% to 26% across service lines, and achieved savings of greater than $8 million per year. The implementation of a facility-based technology assessment committee that critically evaluates new technology can decrease hospital costs on implants and standardize some product lines.
Gajewski, Patrick D.; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael
Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making. PMID:27551258
Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...
César, J A; Gomes, G; Horta, B L; de Oliveira, A K; Saraiva, A K; Pardo, D O; Silva, L M; Rodghiero, C L; Gross, M R
Induced abortion is the main cause of maternal death in Brazil. Question of its legalization has been the subject of frequent discussion. In order to assess the influence of the variables affecting the opinion of women of reproductive age, a population-based systematic sample in the county of Rio Grande (Southern Brazil) was examined. Of a total of 1,456 interviews 30% endorsed the legalization, whatever the circumstances; this percentage was directly associated with age, schooling, family income and previous induced abortion (p opinion. Schooling and previous induced abortion were the main determinants of women's favorable opinions regarding abortion legalization.
Chaumont, Claire; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Calva, Juan José; Bahena-González, Roberto Isaac; Sánchez-Juárez, Gerda Hitz; González de Araujo-Muriel, Arturo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
This study examines the antiretroviral (ARV) market characteristics for drugs procured and prescribed to Mexico's Social Protection System in Health beneficiaries between 2008 and 2013, and compares them with international data. Procurement information from the National Center for the Prevention and the Control of HIV/AIDS was analyzed to estimate volumes and prices of key ARV. Annual costs were compared with data from the World Health Organization's Global Price Reporting Mechanism for similar countries. Finally, regimens reported in the ARV Drug Management, Logistics and Surveillance System database were reviewed to identify prescription trends and model ARV expenditures until 2018. Results show that the first-line ARV market is concentrated among a small number of patented treatments, in which prescription is clinically adequate, but which prices are higher than those paid by similar countries. The current set of legal and structural options available to policy makers to bring prices down is extremely limited. Different negotiation policies were not successful to decrease ARV high prices in the public health market. The closed list approach had a good impact on prescription quality but was ineffective in reducing prices. The Coordinating Commission for Negotiating the Price of Medicines and other Health Supplies also failed to obtain adequate prices. To maximize purchase efficiency, policy makers should focus on finding long-term legal and political safeguards to counter the high prices imposed by pharmaceutical companies.
de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim
Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John
This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.
Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta
Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad
The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad
The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.
Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.
The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...
Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.
Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...
Kierski, W S
Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.
Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...
Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.
The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt
Cloney, T J
This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.
Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
.... Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization Program... refresher purchase card training. Not applicable Prospective/newly appointed Agency/Organization Program.../Organization Program Coordinators Yearly refresher purchase card training (attendance at GSA's annual training...
...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A notice... Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods: Regulations...
...; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following methods...
Full Text Available The conclusion of a sale contract is often preceded by several agreements or temporary contracts taking several forms in the Romanian contemporary law, such as: the preference pact, the option pact, the unilateral and bilateral promise of sale. The current study regards the unilateral promise of sale/purchase which will be analyzed in the context of its legal acknowledgement by means of the Civil Code. The originality of this institution resides in its constitution elements, evolution and purpose, all of them composing an autonomous mechanism, completely different from the sale contract and the other contract meant to shape the latter.
Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.
This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…
As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause