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Sample records for legal minimum age

  1. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Case closed: research evidence on the positive public health impact of the age 21 minimum legal drinking age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Blanchette, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the nonprofit organization Choose Responsibility called for repealing the 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act, which had led all 50 states to establish a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 years, and allowing the states to lower their MLDA to 18 years. Two years later, the organization assembled a small group of college and university presidents (the Amethyst Initiative) to call publicly for a critical reexamination of the law. Public health and traffic safety experts responded to these efforts by generating new research on the age 21 MLDA, thus warranting an updated review of the literature. This review focuses primarily on research published since 2006, when Choose Responsibility began its public relations campaign to lower the MLDA. Recent research on the age 21 MLDA has reinforced the position that the current law has served the nation well by reducing alcohol-related traffic crashes and alcohol consumption among youths, while also protecting drinkers from long-term negative outcomes they might experience in adulthood, including alcohol and other drug dependence, adverse birth outcomes, and suicide and homicide. The age 21 law saves lives and is unlikely to be overturned. College and university leaders need to put into effect workable policies, stricter enforcement, and other evidence-based prevention efforts that have been demonstrated to reduce underage drinking and alcohol-related problems on campus and are being applied successfully at prominent academic institutions.

  3. Historical variation in young adult binge drinking trajectories and its link to historical variation in social roles and minimum legal drinking age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines historical variation in age 18–26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both level of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over three decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976–2004 were surveyed at biennial intervals between ages 18 and 26. We found that, relative to past cohorts, recent cohorts both enter the age 18–26 age band engaging in lower levels and exit the age 18–26 age band engaging in higher levels of binge drinking. The reason for this reversal is that, relative to past cohorts, binge drinking among recent cohorts accelerates more quickly across ages 18–22 and decelerates more slowly across ages 22–26. Moreover, we found that historical increases in minimum legal drinking age account for a portion of the historical decline in age 18 level, while historical variation in social role acquisition (e.g., marriage, parenthood, and employment) accounts for a portion of the historical acceleration in age 18–22 growth. We also found that historical variation in the age 18–22 and age 22–26 growth rates was strongly and positively connected, suggesting common mechanism(s) underlie historical variation of both growth rates. Findings were generally consistent across gender and indicate that historical time is an important source of individual differences in young adult binge drinking trajectories. Beyond binge drinking, historical time may also inform the developmental course of other young adult risk behaviors, highlighting the interplay of epidemiology and etiology. PMID:26010381

  4. Does our legal minimum drinking age modulate risk of first heavy drinking episode soon after drinking onset? Epidemiological evidence for the United States, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui G. Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. State-level ‘age 21’ drinking laws conform generally with the United States National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (US, and are thought to protect young people from adverse drinking experiences such as heavy episodic drinking (HED, sometimes called ‘binge drinking’. We shed light on this hypothesis while estimating the age-specific risk of transitioning from 1st full drink to 1st HED among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, with challenge to a “gender gap” hypothesis and male excess described in HED prevalence reports. Methods. The study population consisted of non-institutionalized civilians in the United States, with nine independently drawn nationally representative samples of more than 40,000 12-to-23-year-olds (2006–2014. Standardized audio computer-assisted self-interviews identified 43,000 newly incident drinkers (all with 1st HED evaluated within 12 months of drinking onset. Estimated age-specific HED risk soon after first full drink is evaluated for males and females. Results. Among 12-to-23-year-old newly incident drinkers, an estimated 20–30% of females and 35–45% of males experienced their 1st HED within 12 months after drinking onset. Before mid-adolescence, there is no male excess in such HED risk. Those who postponed drinking to age 21 are not spared (27% for ‘postponer’ females; 95% CI [24–30]; 42% for ‘postponer’ males; 95% CI [38–45]. An estimated 10–18% females and 10–28% males experienced their 1st HED in the same month of their 1st drink; peak HED risk estimates are 18% for ‘postponer’ females (95% CI [15–21] and 28% for ‘postponer’ males (95% CI [24–31]. Conclusions. In the US, one in three young new drinkers transition into HED within 12 months after first drink. Those who postpone the 1st full drink until age 21 are not protected. Furthermore, ‘postponers’ have substantial risk for very rapid transition to HED. A male excess in this transition to HED

  5. Historical Variation in Young Adult Binge Drinking Trajectories and Its Link to Historical Variation in Social Roles and Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines historical variation in age 18 to 26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both levels of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over 3 decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976 to 2004 were surveyed at…

  6. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  7. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  8. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... subject to its child labor provisions, with certain exceptions not applicable here. (b) 18-year minimum... occupation found and declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of...

  9. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and well-being (see subpart C of this part); and (ii) The Act sets an 18-year minimum age with respect... hazardous for the employment of minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being (see subpart... regulation or by order that the employment of employees between the ages of 14 and 16 years in occupations...

  10. Does postponing minimum retirement age improve healthy behaviours before retirement? Evidence from middle-aged Italian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in healthpromoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum

  11. Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine

    2012-01-01

    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....

  12. Radiometric age of granite from Campo Formoso, BA-Brazil - a minimum age for Jacobina group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.; Oliveira, M.A.F.T. de; Bartels, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Campo Formoso granite represents the magmatic phase of the remobilized Pre-Jacobina basement, located within an are defined by the Serra de Jacobina, north of Campo Formoso, Bahia. Intrusive relationships between this granite and the Jacobina Group metasediments, gradational changes in textures and compositions between the granite and basement rocks, and the general structural-topographic expression of this suggest a mantled gneiss dome model for this area. A RB/Sr whole rock isochron age of 1911 +- 13 m.y. for the Campo Formoso granite is established. This date is interpreted as the age of the development of the structure, as well as a minimum age for the Jacobina Group metasediments. K/Ar dates on muscovites from the Campo Formoso granite are concordant with the Rb/Sr isocron. It is suggested that a lower regional thermal gradient in the Campo Formoso area during Transamazonic time is the cause for a more rapid cooling environment. (Author) [pt

  13. Support for Marijuana (Cannabis Legalization: Untangling Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults ('N' = 9 million conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages became more supportive of legal marijuana. Among 12th graders, support for marijuana legalization was closely linked to perceptions of marijuana safety.

  14. Legal-Age Students' Provision of Alcohol to Underage College Students: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…

  15. Custom: The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the fifth in the series, contains the proceedings from the conference Custom. The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages held at the Law School at the University of Aarhus in May 2008. The volume covers topics from local case studies and studies of learned law...... to broader reflections on the development and use of the legal concept consuetudo and its connection with other sources of law, with the balance between local and regional power structures, and secular and ecclesiastical societies in medieval Europe. Combining the approaches of several historical disciplines...... - political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...

  16. Does postponing minimum retirement age improve healthy behaviours before retirement? Evidence from middle-aged Italian workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio; Mazzarella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    By increasing the residual working horizon of employed individuals, pension reforms that raise minimum retirement age are likely to affect the returns to investments in health-promoting behaviours before retirement, with consequences for individual health. Using the exogenous variation in minimum

  17. Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products. We have examined the ethical acceptability of Tobacco 21 laws. First, we have described ethical support for such a restriction grounded in its public health benefit. We have then offered arguments that raise doubts about the soundness of critics' objections to these regulations and described an additional ethical justification arising from concern about preventing harm to others. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that Tobacco 21 laws are ethically justifiable.

  18. [Forensic age determination in living individuals at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité): analysis of the expert reports from 2001 to 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Knüfermann, Raidun; Tsokos, Michael; Schmeling, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the age reports provided by the Institute of Legal Medicine in Berlin (Charité) in the period from 2001 to 2007. A total of 416 age estimations were carried out, 289 in criminal and 127 in civil proceedings. 357 of the examined individuals were male, 59 were female. The vast majority of the individuals came from Vietnam. In 112 cases, there were no deviations between the indicated age and the estimated minimum age, while the actual age of the individuals was partly clearly above the estimated age. In 300 cases, there were discrepancies of up to 11 years between the indicated age and the estimated age. The study demonstrates that forensic age estimation in living individuals can make an important contribution to legal certainty.

  19. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  20. 23 CFR 1208.4 - Adoption of National Minimum Drinking Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of National Minimum Drinking Age. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION... beverage by a person who is less than twenty-one years of age is lawful. [60 FR 66076, Dec. 21, 1995] ...

  1. Lowering the minimum age of criminal responsibility: Consequences for juvenile crime and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper exploits a Danish policy reform combined with population-wide administrative registers to investigate whether being above the minimum age of criminal responsibility deters juveniles from crime. We study young individuals’ tendency to commit crime as well as their likelihood of recidivi....... The latter results are consistent with labeling effects of processing in the criminal justice system....

  2. Increasing the minimum age of marriage program to improve maternal and child health in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjarwati

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the article is to review the importance of understanding the adolescent reproductive health, especially the impact of early marriage to have commitment for health maintenance by increasing the minimum age of marriage. There are countless studies describing the impact of pregnancy at a very young age, the risk that young people must understand to support the program of increasing minimum age of marriage in Indonesia. Increasing the minimum age of marriage is as one of the government programs in improving maternal and child health. It also supports the Indonesian government's program about a thousand days of life. It is required that teens understand the impact of early marriage to prepare for optimal health for future generations. The maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high because health is not optimal since the early period of pregnancy. These studies reveal that the increased number of early marriages leads to rising divorce rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality and intensifies the risk of cervical cancer. The increase in early marriage is mostly attributed to unwanted pregnancy. It is revealed that early marriage increases the rate of pregnancy at too young an age with the risk of maternal and child health in Indonesia.

  3. Age of Legal Capacity (Scotland) Act 1991. [Excerpt. 25 July 1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Section 1 of this Act provides as a general rule that persons under the age of 16 shall have no legal capacity to enter into transactions, but that persons over the age of 16 shall have such legal capacity. Section 1 also provides that this general rule does not apply to cases involving transactions entered into before the commencement of the Act, does not affect the criminal responsibility of any person or legislation in which specific ages are stipulated, and does not prevent a person under age 16 from receiving or holding any right, title, or interest or exercising parental rights with respect to his or her child. Section 2 makes further exceptions to this rule for persons under the age of 16 with respect to reasonable transactions commonly entered into by children, making a will, consenting to adoption, and consenting to medical treatment. Among other things, it provides that "a person under the age of 16 years shall have legal capacity to consent on his own behalf to any surgical, medical, or dental procedure or treatment where, in the opinion of a qualified medical practitioner attending him, he is capable of understanding the nature and possible consequences of the procedure or treatment." Further provisions of the Act authorize a court to set aside transactions made by a person between the ages of 16 and 18 that are prejudicial transactions (Section 3) and to ratify proposed transactions by persons of the same age (Section 4). This Act is applicable only to Scotland.

  4. Compliance With Legal Age Restrictions on Adolescent Alcohol Sales for Alcohol Home Delivery Services (AHDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van den Wildenberg, Esther; de Bruijn, Dorien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol availability is an important predictor of alcohol use in adolescents and its negative consequences. Within this study, we zoomed in on availability through alcohol home delivery services (AHDS) by measuring compliance with the legal age limit in this sector. Methods: Two methods

  5. Ageing prisoners' health care: analysing the legal settings in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the current health care situation and the legal rights of ageing prisoners worldwide. To date, only a few studies have investigated their rights to health care. However, elderly prisoners need special attention. The aim of this article is to critically review the health care situation of older prisoners by analysing the relevant national and international legal frameworks with a particular focus on Switzerland, England and Wales, and the United States (U.S.). Publications on legal frameworks were searched using Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, HeinOnline, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Searches utilizing combinations of keywords relating to ageing prisoners were performed. Relevant reports and policy documents were obtained in order to understand the legal settings in Switzerland, England and Wales, and the U.S. All articles, reports, and policy documents published in English and German between 1774 to June 2012 were included for analysis. Using a comparative approach, an outline was completed to distinguish positive policies in this area. Regulatory approaches were investigated through evaluations of soft laws applicable in Europe and U.S. Supreme Court judgements. Even though several documents could be interpreted as guaranteeing adequate health care for ageing prisoners, there is no specific regulation that addresses this issue completely. The Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing contributes the most by providing an in-depth analysis of the health care needs of older persons. Still, critical analysis of retrieved documents reveals the lack of specific legislation regarding the health care for ageing prisoners. No consistent regulation delineates the provision of health care for ageing prisoners. Neither national nor international institutions have enforceable laws that secure the precarious situation of older adults in prisons. To initiate a change, this work presents critical issues that must be

  6. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  7. Underage drinking: does the minimum age drinking law offer enough protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rivka; Jason, Hannah; Ganz, Debora

    2015-05-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the US. It is responsible for several thousand mortalities and fatalities each year, both among minors and other members of society. Additionally, underage alcohol consumption produces a severe economic burden in the US. Introduction to alcohol in youth poses serious long-term risks for adolescents, including occupational, educational, and psychosocial impairments, and increases the risk for developing alcohol abuse disorders in adulthood. In order to address and mitigate this problem, the US has set a minimum age drinking law of 21 in all 50 states, and has implemented several supplementary laws limiting the possession and consumption of alcohol. Though these laws have successfully reduced underage drinking, several additional strategies are noteworthy, including preventative and intervention efforts incorporating environmental, individual, communal, and parental factors. The following literature review describes these concepts as they relate to underage drinking laws in the US. Directions for future research, interventions, and ongoing challenges related to the minimum drinking age in the US are also discussed.

  8. Compliance of off-premise alcohol retailers with the minimum purchase age law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsuwan, Areekul; Phakdeesettakun, Kannapon; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Chaiyasong, Surasak

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand, the 2008 Alcoholic Beverages Control Act set the minimum purchase age (MPA) at 20 years old in order to limit new drinkers as part of the overall alcohol control effort. This study aims to assess the compliance of off-premise alcohol retailers with MPA restrictions and to identify factors affecting sales to adolescents. A decoy protocol was used to quantify compliance of 417 alcohol retailers from three categories, namely grocers, modern minimarts and department stores. Multi-stage sampling was applied to obtain the samples in four provinces: Bangkok, Nakorn Sawan, Songkhla and Surin. Each alcohol retailer was visited twice by 17-19 year-old male and female adolescents who tried to buy alcohol. Information collected from focus groups and in-depth interviews with vendors and management officers were analysed for the qualitative methodology. Of all 834 buying attempts undertaken by the underage adolescent, 98.7% were successful in buying alcohol. Only 0.9% were asked for age and 0.1% were requested to show an ID card. Age and ID verifications were statistically significant to buying success as well as province, while number of vendors, gender and age of vendors and buyers, type of outlet, law cautions and advertisement signs in the outlet demonstrated no significant association. The results showed that vendors fail to comply with the law despite the fact that they know the law. Enforcement needs to be strengthened to effectively limit new drinkers.

  9. Community reductions in youth smoking after raising the minimum tobacco sales age to 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; Buka, Stephen L; Dash, Kim; Winickoff, Jonathan P; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2016-05-01

    Raising the tobacco sales age to 21 has gained support as a promising strategy to reduce youth cigarette access, but there is little direct evidence of its impact on adolescent smoking. Using regional youth survey data, we compared youth smoking trends in Needham, Massachusetts--which raised the minimum purchase age in 2005--with those of 16 surrounding communities. The MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey is a biennial census survey of high school youth in communities west of Boston; over 16,000 students participated at each of four time points from 2006 to 2012. Using these pooled cross-section data, we used generalised estimating equation models to compare trends in current cigarette smoking and cigarette purchases in Needham relative to 16 comparison communities without similar ordinances. To determine whether trends were specific to tobacco, we also examined trends in youth alcohol use over the same time period. From 2006 to 2010, the decrease in 30-day smoking in Needham (from 13% to 7%) was significantly greater than in the comparison communities (from 15% to 12%; psales age to 21 for tobacco contributes to a greater decline in youth smoking relative to communities that did not pass this ordinance. These findings support local community-level action to raise the tobacco sales age to 21. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Estimation of legal age using calcification stages of third molars in living individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckbein, Philipp; Reichert, Isabelle; Verhoff, Marcel A; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Kähling, Christopher; Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Schaaf, Heidrun; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; May, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The increased number of adolescents and young adults with unknown or inaccurately given date of birth is a current issue in justice and legal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which third molar calcification stages assessed on panoramic X-rays could be useful as additional criteria for forensic age estimation in living individuals, focusing on the legally important ages 17 and 18. In a retrospective multi-center study, the developmental stage of each individual's third molar was analyzed using Demirjian's scale in 2360 cases. Additionally, sex, age and ancestry were assessed. Individuals with the lowest calcification stage of all present molars in stage H were ≥18 years with a likelihood of ≥99.05% in the female (n=388), and ≥99.24% in the male (n=482) population. The lowest calcification stage of all present third molars proved to be useful as an additional reliable criterion for the determination of an age ≥18 years. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of X-rays to dental age estimation in medico-legal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The paper addresses the use of dental age assessment methods based on radiographs in medico-legal practice. Different cases of practical application of the methods are presented including identification of human remains, dental age assessment in a living person and one archaeological case. Material and methods : The study material consisted of cases involving dental age assessment performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. Depending on the preliminary assessment of age, the Liversidge or the Kvaal et al. methods were applied. Dental age was estimated on the basis of available pantomograms. In the case of the living person, it was a radiograph supplied for expert evaluation. In the other cases, dental computed tomography was performed. Results : Dental age was successfully estimated in all of the cases. Various methods based on the analysis of X-ray images were applied. Dental age was shown to be correlated with skeletal age. Conclusions : The methods based on radiographs were demonstrated to be useful, and the results they yield are fully correlated with results of anthropological analyses.

  12. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) [17]. This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development

  13. The impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Dethier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum oldage pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviatingold age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension islikely to be the only alternative available. First we measure old age poverty rates for all countries.Second we discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes, means-tested or not, as wellas the disincentive effects that they are expected to have on the economic and social behavior ofhouseholds including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Third we use the household surveysto simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pensionschemes in the 18 countries. We show that a universal minimum pension would substantiallyreduce poverty among the elderly except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimumpension systems already exist and poverty rates are low. Such schemes have much tobe commended in terms of incentives, spillover effects and administrative simplicity but have ahigh fiscal cost. The latter is a function of the age at which benefits are awarded, the prevailinglongevity, the generosity of benefits, the efficacy of means testing, and naturally the fiscal capacityof the country.

  14. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Alcohol consumption among high-risk Thai youth after raising the legal drinking age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3 - Minimum age and service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3 Minimum... participation, that an employee be employed within a specified job classification. See section 410(b) and the...

  18. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey. Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics. Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

  19. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult"

  20. Information management for aged care provision in Australia: development of an aged care minimum dataset and strategies to improve quality and continuity of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; Morgans, Amee; Burgess, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Efficient information systems support the provision of multi-disciplinary aged care and a variety of organisational purposes, including quality, funding, communication and continuity of care. Agreed minimum data sets enable accurate communication across multiple care settings. However, in aged care multiple and poorly integrated data collection frameworks are commonly used for client assessment, government reporting and funding purposes. To determine key information needs in aged care settings to improve information quality, information transfer, safety, quality and continuity of care to meet the complex needs of aged care clients. Modified Delphi methods involving five stages were employed by one aged care provider in Victoria, Australia, to establish stakeholder consensus for a derived minimum data set and address barriers to data quality. Eleven different aged care programs were identified; with five related data dictionaries, three minimum data sets, five program standards or quality frameworks. The remaining data collection frameworks related to diseases classification, funding, service activity reporting, and statistical standards and classifications. A total of 170 different data items collected across seven internal information systems were consolidated to a derived set of 60 core data items and aligned with nationally consistent data collection frameworks. Barriers to data quality related to inconsistencies in data items, staff knowledge, workflow, system access and configuration. The development an internal aged care minimum data set highlighted the critical role of primary data quality in the upstream and downstream use of client information; and presents a platform to build national consistency across the sector.

  1. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? 520.200 Section 520.200... lower than the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? Section 14(a) of..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners (including...

  2. Minimum Marriage Age Laws and the Prevalence of Child Marriage and Adolescent Birth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-06-01

    The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.

  3. Age and recovery from brain injury: legal opinions, clinical beliefs and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Rose, F D; Brooks, B M; Eyers, S

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable scientific evidence to the contrary, many medical practitioners maintain that children recover from brain injury better than adults. This belief, which is commonly referred to as the "Kennard Principle", has important ramifications for personal injury compensation claims in which the amount of financial damages claimed is partly based on medical experts' prognoses for recovery and long-term outcome. The present study investigated whether legal practitioners' beliefs are consistent with those of medical practitioners. Lawyers were asked to estimate their confidence in consultant neurologists' estimates of recovery in four clinically-based but fictitious case studies which differed only in the reported age of the patient. The lawyers showed more confidence in estimates which coincided with the Kennard Principle than those which did not. These results support previous findings in showing widespread belief that "younger is better" in recovery from brain injury. In consequence, it is likely that financial compensation for children with brain injury is currently being underestimated in litigation, thereby prejudicing the long-term outcome of the child.

  4. Impacts of Canada's minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell Clarence; Sanches, Marcos; Gatley, Jodi; Cunningham, James K; Chaiton, Michael Oliver; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan; Benny, Claire

    2018-01-13

    Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014. Survey respondents aged 14-22 years (n=98 320). Current Canadian MATS laws are 18 years in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and 19 years of age in the rest of the country. Current, occasional and daily smoking status; smoking frequency and intensity; and average monthly cigarette consumption. In comparison to age groups slightly younger than the MATS, those just older had significant and abrupt increases immediately after the MATS in the prevalence of current smokers (absolute increase: 2.71%; 95% CI 0.70% to 4.80%; P=0.009) and daily smokers (absolute increase: 2.43%; 95% CI 0.74% to 4.12%; P=0.005). Average past-month cigarette consumption within age groups increased immediately following the MATS by 18% (95% CI 3% to 39%; P=0.02). There was no evidence of significant increases in smoking intensity for daily or occasional smokers after release from MATS restrictions. The study provides relevant evidence supporting the effectiveness of Canadian MATS laws for limiting smoking among tobacco-restricted youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. "First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    entitled to judicial process. Legal guidelines also provide that these adolescents have influence over their placement, access to legal counsel to challenge the conditions of their detention and regular visitation from peers, friends and family, and that all facilities be subject to frequent and periodic review by independent agencies, including community-based groups led by KPs. Controlling international law specifies that protective interventions among KPs aged 10-17 must not only include low-threshold, voluntary services but also "protect" adolescent KPs from the harms attendant to law-enforcement-based interventions. Going forward, health practitioners must honour the right to health by adjusting programmes according to principles of minimum intervention, due process and proportionality, and duly limit juvenile justice and child protection involvement as a measure of last resort, if any.

  6. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  7. Economic Situation of the Minimum Pension of Age: a Local Analysis in Two Age Woman Groups in the Municipality Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Estrada−Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic security in the age is measured by the dimensions of environments, situation and economic position, linked to the triad: security and sufficiency of sources of revenues; the basic attention of health and the social services, with the purpose of to reduce the breaches of social protection and to improve the quality of life according to gender. Hence this work, is focused in determining the economic situation of two age woman groups than 60-74 years and 75-89 years that perceive minimum pension of age in the municipality Santiago from Cuba. By means of polls to experts, following the outline of diagnosis of the methodology of the logical mark, the social necessary actors are defined to replace the informative lacks. With the support of econometric technical socioeconomic the sample is characterized by age group, the equations of lineal multiple regression settle down according to expense departures, necessary to measure this dimension.

  8. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  9. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  10. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  11. Demirjian's stages and Cameriere's third molar maturity index to estimate legal adult age in Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Lizarbe, Roselhy Juliana; Solís Adrianzén, Christian; Quezada-Márquez, Milushka Miroslava; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Demirjian's stages (DS) and Cameriere's third molar maturity index cut-off value (I 3M age of majority on panoramic radiographs (OPTs) from the dental clinic of the Scientific University of the South (UCSUR), Lima, Peru. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the sample of 208 digital panoramic radiographs of patients aged 14-22years examined during 2015 in UCSUR. The left lower third molars were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop® CS6. An effectiveness of specific DS and I 3M third molar maturity index (I 3M <0.08) showed to be more accurate in discriminating adults and minors in Peruvian sample when a test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Accuracy in the legal age estimation according to the third molars mineralization among Mexicans and Columbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José; Montero, Javier; Serrano, Sarai; Albaladejo, Alberto; López-Valverde, Antonio; Bica, Isabel

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to assess the accuracy of age estimation according to two cut-off points of Demirjian's developmental stages (G and H) in the wisdom teeth, using panoramic radiographs from Colombian and Mexican teenagers. The degree of maturation of the third molars was classified according to Demirjian in 8 stages (from A to H) by a blinded trained assessor. The sensitivity, specificity and efficacy of two cut-off points (G and H) were calculated for both samples. The orthopantomographies of 316 subjects, 171 Colombians (54.1%) and 145 Mexicans (45.9%), were analyzed. The stage H was found to be the best threshold for detecting juveniles (because the high specificity) in all the third molars assessed. The specificity was higher for lower third molars than for upper third molars, but no asymmetrical discrepancy was noted. The stage H is the best cut-off point for detecting the adulthood when a high-specificity test is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A minimum age for Llullaillaco south flow from cosmogenic 3He: Much older than 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermann, S.; Althau, T.; Hahne, K

    2001-01-01

    introduces a large uncertainty to the abundance of excess 3He produced by cosmic rays. For these reasons the present study can only give minimum ages for the lava flows studied; however, in the case of Llullaillaco south flow a surprising result was attained nevertheless (au)

  14. Public, official, and industry submissions on a Bill to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age: A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wolfenden, Luke; Hutchesson, Melinda; Langley, John; Voas, Robert

    2014-07-01

    In 2005 a Bill was introduced to the New Zealand parliament to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age (MPA) from 18 to 20 years and submissions were invited from interested parties. We sought to characterise and critique the arguments tendered for and against the proposal. We used template analysis to study written submissions on the Bill from 178 people and organisations in New Zealand. Independent raters coded submissions according to the source, whether for or opposed, and the arguments employed. The most common sources of submissions were members of the public (28%), the alcohol industry (20%), and NGOs (20%). Overall, 40% opposed increasing the MPA, 40% were in favour, 4% supported a split MPA (18 years for on-premise, 20 years for off-premise), 7% were equivocal, and 8% offered no comment. The most common proponents of increasing the MPA were NGOs (36%) and members of the public (30%) and their arguments concerned the expected positive effects on public health (36%) and public disorder/property damage (16%), while 24% argued that other strategies should be used as well. The most common sources of opposition to increasing the MPA were the alcohol industry (50%) and the public (20%). It was commonly claimed that the proposed law change would be ineffective in reducing harm (22%), that other strategies should be used instead (16%), that it would infringe adult rights (15%), and that licensed premises are safe environments for young people (14%). There were noteworthy examples of NGOs and government agencies opposing the law change. The alcohol industry maximised its impact via multiple submissions appealing to individual rights while neglecting to report or accurately characterise the scientific evidence. Several health and welfare agencies presented confused logic and/or were selective in their use of scientific evidence. In contrast to the fragmented and inconsistent response from government and NGOs, the alcohol industry was organised and united, with

  15. Minimum income protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its

  16. Clinical photography in dermatology: ethical and medico-legal considerations in the age of digital and smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Lauren; McMeniman, Erin; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  18. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  19. Effect of ranibizumab on high-speed indocyanine green angiography and minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography findings in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Benjamin P; Nigam, Divya; Toy, Brian; Stetson, Paul F; Agrón, Elvira; Jacobs-El, Naima; Cunningham, Denise; Cukras, Catherine; Wong, Wai; Wiley, Henry; Chew, Emily; Ferris, Frederick; Meyerle, Catherine B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to investigate how induction/pro re nata ranibizumab intravitreal treatment of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration affects the anatomy of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the overlying outer retinal tissue. High-speed indocyanine green (HS-ICG) angiography measurements provided quantification of the CNV size in 60 patients followed for 1 year. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography (MinIP OCT), a novel algorithm assessing minimum optical intensity between the internal limiting membrane and retinal pigment epithelium, measured the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV. Fluorescein angiography was also assessed to evaluate late retinal leakage. After 1 year, the mean area of CNV measured with indocyanine green angiography decreased by 5.8%. The mean area of MinIP OCT of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV decreased by 4.2%. Mean area of fluorescein angiography leakage decreased by 6.3%. Both the area of outer retinal disruption measured with MinIP OCT and the area of leakage on fluorescein angiography typically exceeded the area of CNV on indocyanine green angiography at baseline and 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization treated with induction/pro re nata intravitreal ranibizumab for 1 year essentially remained static. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography suggests that the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV may be greater than the CNV itself and often correlates with the leakage area on fluorescein angiography. Additionally, there was minimal change in the area of outer retinal disruption on MinIP OCT even when fluid resolved. Measurements of the extent of CNV lesions based on indocyanine green angiography and MinIP OCT may provide useful outcome variables to help assess the CNV complex longitudinally and warrant further validation.

  20. From diets to foods: using linear programming to formulate a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Irene Stuart Torrié; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Dejmek, Petr; Håkansson, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Linear programming has been used extensively as a tool for nutritional recommendations. Extending the methodology to food formulation presents new challenges, since not all combinations of nutritious ingredients will produce an acceptable food. Furthermore, it would help in implementation and in ensuring the feasibility of the suggested recommendations. To extend the previously used linear programming methodology from diet optimization to food formulation using consistency constraints. In addition, to exemplify usability using the case of a porridge mix formulation for emergency situations in rural Mozambique. The linear programming method was extended with a consistency constraint based on previously published empirical studies on swelling of starch in soft porridges. The new method was exemplified using the formulation of a nutritious, minimum-cost porridge mix for children aged 1 to 2 years for use as a complete relief food, based primarily on local ingredients, in rural Mozambique. A nutritious porridge fulfilling the consistency constraints was found; however, the minimum cost was unfeasible with local ingredients only. This illustrates the challenges in formulating nutritious yet economically feasible foods from local ingredients. The high cost was caused by the high cost of mineral-rich foods. A nutritious, low-cost porridge that fulfills the consistency constraints was obtained by including supplements of zinc and calcium salts as ingredients. The optimizations were successful in fulfilling all constraints and provided a feasible porridge, showing that the extended constrained linear programming methodology provides a systematic tool for designing nutritious foods.

  1. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  2. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  3. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  4. Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal drinking age: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Laging, Marion; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n=514], AO [n=467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=194], AO [n=231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=146], AO [n=200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  6. Assessment of legal adult age of 18 by measurement of open apices of the third molars: Study on the Albanian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, Roberto; Santoro, Valeria; Roca, Roberta; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco; Cingolani, Mariano; Galić, Ivan; Ferrante, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical structures in development available for estimating the age of individuals in the late adolescence. This study tests the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in an Albanian sample. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 286 living subjects (152 female and 134 male) aged between 15 and 22 years was analyzed. Intra-rater and inter-raters agreement of I3M were 0.998 and 0.998, respectively and Cohen Kappa for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement in decision on adult or minor was 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The mean age of females is higher than that of males when I3M is between 0.04 and 0.08. Sensitivity test for males was 94.1%, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 85.6-98.4%, and specificity was 90.9% (95%CI 81.3-96.6%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.5%, with a 95%CI of (86.7%, 96.4%). For females, the sensitivity test was 75.4%, with a 95%CI of (63.1%, 85.2%) and specificity was 96.6%, with a 95%CI of (90.3%, 99.3%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 87.5%, with a 95%CI of (81.2%, 92.3%). The results indicate that Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M=0.08) is useful in discriminating between Albanian adults and juveniles, and encourage us to test its suitability for determining the adult age in individuals from other populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.

  8. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  9. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  10. Accuracy of the third molar maturity index in assessing the legal age of 18 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Bianca Marques; Almeida, Leopoldina; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2017-12-22

    The age estimation is a complex procedure required in the daily practice of legal medicine. The maturity of third molars stands out by the age of 18 because these teeth are still in development. This systematic review aimed to assess the accuracy of the third molar maturity index (I 3M ), proposed by Cameriere et al. (2008), in discriminating whether an individual is under or over 18 years. Seven electronic databases were screened: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SIGLE, and CAPES. Eligible studies included an assessment of I 3M accuracy at the 0.08 cut-off value. The quality assessment was performed by using QUADAS 2. Three meta-analyses (MA) were accomplished: overall, one for males and another for females. From 2397 articles identified, 16 met the eligibility criteria. Of these, two showed high risk of bias, one in the reference standard domain and the other in the flow and timing domain. The percentage of individuals correctly classified ranged from 72.4 to 96.0%. The overall MA showed pooled sensitivity of 0.86 (0.84 to 0.87; p = 0.0000) and pooled specificity of 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94; p = 0.0000). The AUC (area under the summary receiver operator characteristics curve) and DOR (diagnostic odds ratio) values were, respectively, 0.9652 and 104.68, indicating an overall high discrimination effect. Separately, better results of accuracy were found for males. High heterogeneity was achieved for both sensibility (94.6%) and specificity (88.8%). We conclude that the I 3M is a suitable and useful method for estimating adulthood regarding forensic purposes, regardless of gender.

  11. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.

    1981-01-01

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  12. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L. de

    1986-01-01

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  14. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  15. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  16. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  17. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  18. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  19. Crisis Communication in Public Health Emergencies: The Limits of 'Legal Control' and the Risks for Harmful Outcomes in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2018-02-06

    Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media. Whilst being able to bring about positive effects, they can also bring about a range of harmful unintended side effects. This include economic harms produced by incorrect information and a range of social harms that can be fuelled by myths and rumours, worsening negative phenomena such as stigmatisation and discrimination. Given the potential for such harms, one might expect that affected or potentially affected individuals would be able to challenge such measures before courts or administrative tribunals. As this paper demonstrates however this is not the case. More often than not seemingly applicable legal approaches are unlikely to be able to engage such methods. This is often because such measures represent activities that are purely expressive in nature and therefore not capable of imposing any binding legal or corporeal changes on individuals. Whilst some forms of soft law may pose requirements for public officials involved in such activities (e.g. codes of conduct or of professional ethics), they are not likely to offer potentially harmed individuals the chance to to challenge particular communication strategies before courts or legal tribunals. The result is that public authorities largely have a free reign to communicate how they wish and do not have to have to comply with a range of requirements (e.g. relating to form and substantive) content) that would in general apply to most forms of official administrative act.

  20. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  1. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  2. Spondylolysis of C-2 in children 3 years of age or younger: clinical presentation, radiographic findings, management, and outcomes with a minimum 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressot, Loyola V; Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Hwang, Steven W; Fulkerson, Daniel H; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition that results from a pars interarticularis defect. The C-6 level is the most frequently involved site in the cervical spine. Its clinical presentations range from incidental radiographic findings to neck pain and, rarely, neurological deficits. Although 150 patients with subaxial cervical spondylolysis have been reported, a mere 24 adult and pediatric patients with C-2 spondylolysis have been described. The long-term outcomes of very young children with bilateral C-2 spondylolysis are of great interest, yet only a few longitudinal studies exist. The authors retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of bilateral C-2 spondylolysis at Texas Children's Hospital and Riley Children's Hospital; these were combined with 5 other cases in the literature, yielding a total of 10 patients. Data regarding the patients' age, sex, C2-3 angulation and displacement, associated spine anomalies, neurological deficits, treatment, and most recent follow-up were recorded. The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 36 months (mean 12.9 months). There were 6 boys and 4 girls. The C2-3 angulation, displacement, and width of pars defect were measured when available. The mean C2-3 angulation was 9.5° (range 1-34°), the mean C2-3 displacement was 4.78 mm (range 1.1-10.8 mm), and the mean width of the pars defect was 4.16 mm (range 0.9-7 mm). One patient developed myelopathy and spinal cord injury. All 10 of the patients were treated initially with conservative therapy: 3 with close observation alone, 1 with a rigid cervical collar, 4 with a Minerva jacket, 1 with a sternal-occipital-mandibular immobilizer, and 1 with a halo vest. Three patients ultimately underwent surgery for internal fixation due to progressive instability or development of neurological symptoms. All patients were neurologically intact at the last follow-up (mean 44.3 months, range 14-120 months). Based on the literature and the authors' own experience, they conclude that most very young children

  3. Unequal before the Law : Measuring Legal Gender Disparities across the World

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Sarah; Islam, Asif; Ramalho, Rita; Sakhonchik, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Several economies have laws that treat women differently from men. This study explores the degree of such legal gender disparities across 167 economies around the world. This is achieved by constructing a simple measure of legal gender disparities to evaluate how countries perform. The average number of overall legal gender disparities across 167 economies is 17, ranging from a minimum of ...

  4. The Legal Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied

  5. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  6. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  7. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  8. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...

  9. Medico legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.

  10. [Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C

    2008-02-01

    In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the

  11. Adult or not? Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age for legal purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Viva, S; Carbone, D; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of reliable means to determine the age of an individual is a fundamental objective in forensic medicine, in consideration of the constant increase of illegal immigration into the European community. In 2008 Cameriere et al. developed a method based on the relationship between age and the third molar index (I3m), which assesses the degree of maturation of the third molar through measurements made on orthopantomography. The purpose of this work was to test the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off for I3m as a tool to assess full age (18) on a new sample of living subjects. Orthopantomographs of 287 Italian living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years have been randomly selected and included in the study. Identification number, gender, date of birth and date of execution of the radiograph were recorded for each patient on a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet. Radiographs were digitalized and analyzed using a computerized image-processing program (Adobe® Photoshop® CS4). The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 84.1% and the specificity was 92.5%. The estimated post-test probability was 90.1%, with a confidence interval of 95% (83.6%, 95.2%). Thus, the probability that a person being positive to the test has 18 or more years of age was 90.1%. The results highlight the contribution of Cameriere's cut-off value for the I3m in the assessment of full age, always remembering that the simultaneous employment of previously introduced complementary methods is essential for the purpose.

  12. Breaking The Link Between Legal Access To Alcohol And Motor Vehicle Accidents: Evidence From New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M; Siminski, Peter; Yerokhin, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    A large literature has documented significant public health benefits associated with the minimum legal drinking age in the USA, particularly because of the resulting effects on motor vehicle accidents. These benefits form the primary basis for continued efforts to restrict youth access to alcohol. It is important to keep in mind that policymakers have a wide variety of alcohol-control options available to them, and understanding how these policies may complement or substitute for one another can improve policy making moving forward. Towards this end, we propose that investigating the causal effects of the minimum legal drinking age in New South Wales, Australia, provides a particularly informative case study, because Australian states are among the world leaders in their efforts against drunk driving. Using an age-based regression discontinuity design applied to restricted-use data from several sources, we find no evidence that legal access to alcohol has effects on motor vehicle accidents of any type in New South Wales, despite having large effects on drinking and on hospitalizations due to alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Akibat Hukum Bagi Bank Bila Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Tidak Terpenuhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Retno Aryatie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As an implementation of the Indonesian Banking Architecture policy, the government issues Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 9/16/ PBI/2007 on Minimum Tier One Capital that increases the minimum capital to 100 billion rupiah. This writing discusses the legal complication that a bank will face should it fail to fulfil the minimum ratio. Sebagai tindak lanjut dari kebijakan Arsitektur Perbankan Indonesia, pemerintah mengeluarkan Peraturan Bank Indonesia 9/16/PBI/2007 tentang Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Bank yang menaikkan modal inti minimum bank umum menjadi 100 miliar rupiah. Tulisan ini membahas akibat hukum yang akan dialami bank bila kewajiban modal minimum tersebut gagal dipenuhi.

  14. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  15. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  16. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  17. Increased production of cosmogenic 10Be recorded in oceanic sediment sequences: Information on the age, duration, and amplitude of the geomagnetic dipole moment minimum over the Matuyama-Brunhes transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L.; Bassinot, Franck; Savranskaia, Tatiana; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Aster Team

    2018-05-01

    New high-resolution authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio (Be-ratio) records covering the last geomagnetic reversal, i.e. the Matuyama-Brunhes transition (MBT), have been obtained and set on a time scale using benthic δ18O (Cibicides wuellerstorfi) records. The geographic distribution of the four studied sites allows global comparison between the North Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. All Be-ratio records contain a two-fold increase triggered by the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) collapse associated with the MBT. The stratigraphic position of the Be-ratio spike, relative to marine isotope stages, allows establishment of a robust astrochronological framework for the MBT, anchoring its age between 778 and 766 ka (average mid-peaks at 772 ka), which is consistent with all other available 10Be-proxy records from marine, ice and loess archives. The global 10Be atmospheric production doubling represents an increase of more than 300 atoms m-2 s-1 that is compatible with the increased magnitude of atmospheric 10Be production obtained by simulations between the present GDM and a null-GDM. The minimum 10Be-derived GDM average computed for the 776-771 ka interval is 1.7 ± 0.4 ×1022 Am2, in agreement with model simulations and absolute paleointensities of transitional lava flows.

  18. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  19. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  20. "They're legal so they're safe, right?" What did the legal status of BZP-party pills mean to young people in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Butler, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    The legislation on psychoactive substances has a role to play with regard to shaping social values and influencing the normalisation of drug use. In New Zealand from 2005 to 2008, benzylpiperazine-containing 'legal' party pills (BZP-party pills) were legally available for purchase, subject to controls around a minimum purchase age of 18 years, and prohibitions on free of charge distribution and advertising in certain media. This paper explores what their legal status communicated to young users. Interviews and group discussions with young people (n=58) who had used BZP-party pills in the preceding 6 months. Data were collected between June and December 2006 via a series of interviews with individuals, 'friendship' pairs, and groups comprised of participants known to each other. Young people saw BZP-party pills as 'safe' and of good quality as they were legal/government sanctioned, but also thus of inferior strength, suggesting they could take more of them. However, after using them they often reviewed their view of their safety and quality due to varied experiences. Being legal for some people meant they could use the substances without breaking the law, or having to go to 'dealers'. Their legal status also meant they were easily accessible and were seen to be 'socially acceptable', with some young people indicating they would be happy to discuss their use with their parents. However, social acceptability was, for some, a reason not to use them. These data provide a unique insight into the tension between positive and negative harm reduction messages relating to the legal nature of psychoactive drugs and as such begin to fill an information void in this area. The legal status of these 'party pills' conveys mixed messages to young people and whilst being seen as potentially safe and of good quality, this often leads to higher than 'recommended' doses being used. Nevertheless, not breaking the law or having to access BZP-party pills from 'dealers', and being able to

  1. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  2. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  3. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  4. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  5. Measurement Error, Reliability, and Minimum Detectable Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Color Trails Test among Community Living Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Joanne; Savva, George M; O'Regan, Claire; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda; Cronin, Hilary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2016-05-31

    Knowing the reliability of cognitive tests, particularly those commonly used in clinical practice, is important in order to interpret the clinical significance of a change in performance or a low score on a single test. To report the intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC) for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Color Trails Test (CTT) among community dwelling older adults. 130 participants aged 55 and older without severe cognitive impairment underwent two cognitive assessments between two and four months apart. Half the group changed rater between assessments and half changed time of day. Mean (standard deviation) MMSE was 28.1 (2.1) at baseline and 28.4 (2.1) at repeat. Mean (SD) MoCA increased from 24.8 (3.6) to 25.2 (3.6). There was a rater effect on CTT, but not on the MMSE or MoCA. The SEM of the MMSE was 1.0, leading to an MDC (based on a 95% confidence interval) of 3 points. The SEM of the MoCA was 1.5, implying an MDC95 of 4 points. MoCA (ICC = 0.81) was more reliable than MMSE (ICC = 0.75), but all tests examined showed substantial within-patient variation. An individual's score would have to change by greater than or equal to 3 points on the MMSE and 4 points on the MoCA for the rater to be confident that the change was not due to measurement error. This has important implications for epidemiologists and clinicians in dementia screening and diagnosis.

  6. State-level minimum wage and heart disease death rates in the United States, 1980-2015: A novel application of marginal structural modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Komro, Kelli A; Shah, Monica P; Livingston, Melvin D; Kramer, Michael R

    2018-07-01

    Despite substantial declines since the 1960's, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States (US) and geographic disparities in heart disease mortality have grown. State-level socioeconomic factors might be important contributors to geographic differences in heart disease mortality. This study examined the association between state-level minimum wage increases above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates from 1980 to 2015 among 'working age' individuals aged 35-64 years in the US. Annual, inflation-adjusted state and federal minimum wage data were extracted from legal databases and annual state-level heart disease death rates were obtained from CDC Wonder. Although most minimum wage and health studies to date use conventional regression models, we employed marginal structural models to account for possible time-varying confounding. Quasi-experimental, marginal structural models accounting for state, year, and state × year fixed effects estimated the association between increases in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates. In models of 'working age' adults (35-64 years old), a $1 increase in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage was on average associated with ~6 fewer heart disease deaths per 100,000 (95% CI: -10.4, -1.99), or a state-level heart disease death rate that was 3.5% lower per year. In contrast, for older adults (65+ years old) a $1 increase was on average associated with a 1.1% lower state-level heart disease death rate per year (b = -28.9 per 100,000, 95% CI: -71.1, 13.3). State-level economic policies are important targets for population health research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  8. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  9. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  10. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  11. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  12. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  13. Legal highs - legal aspects and legislative solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

  14. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  16. Legal issues in cash balance pension plan conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J B

    2001-01-01

    Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.

  17. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  18. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  20. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  2. New generation of ''legal'' dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s research at the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK proved the feasibility of using solid state electronics in an entirely new dosimetry technology - capable of reaching right down into the low energy photon ranges, and able to detect beta radiation. In 1988 the NRPB undertook a joint venture with Siemens Plessey Controls to develop a marketable personal dosemeter meeting full Health and Safety Executive approval as a ''legal'' instrument. The Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was thus conceived, and will reach the pre-production stage early this year. The EPD makes use of state-of-the-art silicon integrated circuit technology, with a custom amplifier and microprocessor system. The liquid crystal display continuously shows the accumulated short-term penetrating dose in terms of the Hp (10) unit, and can also show superficial dose and dose rates. Because the EPD must be continuously powered, the custom lithium battery was commissioned to ensure a minimum service interval of 12 months. The EPD is the size and weight of a small pocket pager. Although dose data can be read directly from the EPD, a comprehensive data management system is needed to effect real-life use in industry. The EPD thus communicates by infra-red link to a reader unit which interfaces an IBM-compatible PC, allowing authorized personnel to read the dose memories and perform dose alarm threshold settings. (author)

  3. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  4. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  5. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  6. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  7. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  8. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  9. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  10. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  11. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  12. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  13. DESSEMELHANÇA E EXPURGO DO OUTRO NO DEBATE ACERCA DO REBAIXAMENTO DA MAIORIDADE PENAL NO BRASIL: UMA ANÁLISE DISCURSIVA CRÍTICA (1930-1976 DISSIMILARITY AND PURGE OF THE OTHER IN THE DEBATE ON DECREASING THE LEGAL AGE IN BRAZIL: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Melo Resende

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, eventos de violência envolvendo adolescentes e jovens têm pautado o debate acerca do rebaixamento da maioridade penal. Em fevereiro de 2007, assistimos ao desfecho de um roubo de carro que resultou no assassinato brutal de uma criança. Em um contexto de comoção pública frente à violência urbana, a mídia brasileira assumiu um posicionamento claramente favorável ao discurso do rebaixamento. Neste artigo, proponho uma análise discursiva crítica de recortes de um chat com um deputado reconhecidamente favorável ao rebaixamento da maioridade penal.In Brazil, violent events involving young people have guided the debate about decreasing the legal age. In February 2007, a car theft resulted in the brutal murder of a child, and in a context of public emotion against urban violence, Brazilian media took a clear position in favor of the decrease of legal age. In this paper, I propose a critical discourse analysis of excerpts from a chat with a deputy admittedly favorable to the legal age decrease.

  14. Comparative Attitudes of University Students and School Teachers on the Use and Legalization of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Madanjit K.

    1977-01-01

    Explored use of marijuana and attitudes toward its legalization among university students and school teachers in Alberta. Students had more permissive attitudes toward marijuana use and its legalization as compared to teachers. Significant relationships were found between drug use and age and legalization of marijuana and sex and religiosity.…

  15. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  16. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.

    1997-01-01

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de

  17. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, 𔃺 le. ~~rt n the

  18. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  20. Legal knowledge, needs, and assistance seeking among HIV positive and negative women in Umlazi, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2016-01-22

    The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.

  1. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  2. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  3. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  4. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  5. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  6. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  7. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...

  8. Legal capital: an outdated concept

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...

  9. [Acute scrotal pain in childhood: legal pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Pia; Hugemann, Christoph; Frohneberg, Detlef

    2017-12-01

    Acute scrotal pain in childhood is an emergency.Sudden scrotal pain may be caused by a variety of diseases. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the specific medical history and possible differential diagnoses in each case for fast and decisive action (e. g. in case of testicular torsion). As minors lack the capacity for consent, it is absolutely necessary to obtain consent from their legal guardian. However, obtaining consent in the available time frame can cause organisational challenges in an acute emergency, which may lead to situations in the daily routine where a therapeutic decision needs to be taken (including surgery) without legal security based on consent by the guardian. In some cases, the child's consent also needs to be taken into account, depending on its age and development.For the physician and surgeon in charge, the legal evaluation of the case at hand and therewith the obtainment of legal security are of great significance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Abortion legalization and childbearing in Mexico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Vazquez, Edith Y.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we examine metropolitan area differences in overall and parity-specific, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to more precisely isolate the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends, though the influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the greater Mexico City metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  11. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  12. The legacy of legal culture and Serbia's European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Slaviša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the EU integration, it is certainly insufficient to harmonize only the positive law and the institutional regulatory framework. In order to provide for the implementation and application of the positive law, the political and legal culture must be congruent with the legal tradition of the European Union. The 'implantation' of legal institutes is a fashionable trend common to all transition countries, which fail to recognize a significant and inevitable fact that law is created and applied in the country-specific traditional, cultural and social context. Legal norms achieve their intended purpose only when they are reinforced by a number of other traditional, cultural, political, economic, and social circumstances. Hence, there is a specific functional and structural relation between law and social culture: on the one hand, law is the product of society; on the other hand, law is also the creator of social norms. Consequently, instead of 'copying' the legal norms of the European Union, it is necessary to create a social framework for the implementation of applicable, effective and equitable EU law. In addition to nomotechnics, scientific research on the 'harmonization of Serbian law with the EU law shall include the analysis of other factors, which are only apparently outside the legal framework but which are important for the general outcome of this process. Our legal culture is largely authoritarian, which is evident in the prevalence of power in the process of making and applying the law and in the dependence of the judicial system from the executive branch of government. Law is an instrument of political power of the legally unaccountable executive branch of government. The authoritarian legal rules are not an expression of reason, prudence, wisdom and general public interest but a temporary constellation of interests of power-holders while the normative activity is a short-term tactics for accomplishing these interests. As

  13. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  14. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  15. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  16. Recreational marijuana legalization and college student use: Early evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Austin M; Rosenman, Robert; Cowan, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.

  17. Recreational marijuana legalization and college student use: Early evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin M. Miller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze marijuana use by college undergraduates before and after legalization of recreational marijuana. Using survey data from the National College Health Assessment, we show that students at Washington State University experienced a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization. This increase is larger than would be predicted by national trends. The change is strongest among females, Black students, and Hispanic students. The increase for underage students is as much as for legal-age students. We find no corresponding changes in the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.

  18. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  19. Minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge - Towards a water reuse regulatory instrument at EU level Réédition

    OpenAIRE

    ALCALDE SANZ LAURA; GAWLIK BERND

    2017-01-01

    As an input to the design of a Legal Instrument on Water Reuse in Europe, this report recommends minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge based on a risk management approach.

  20. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  1. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  2. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  3. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  4. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  5. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  6. A comparison of the responsible drinking dimensions among underage and legal drinkers: examining differences in beliefs, motives, self-efficacy, barriers and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Stellefson, Michael L; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2014-01-22

    To date, scholarly discourse over the Amethyst Initiative has primarily debated the relative effectiveness of the 21 year-old Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA). Unfortunately, this discourse has failed to account for the Amethyst Initiative's central tenet/mission: facilitating responsible drinking among college students. This investigation seeks to help fill this gap by quantitatively determining whether a random sample of underage (n = 158) and legal (n = 298) drinkers differed with regard to their alcohol-related behaviors, responsible drinking behaviors, and responsible drinking beliefs. Compared to legal drinkers, underage drinkers reported: (a) significantly less confidence to perform responsible drinking behaviors during their next drinking episode [t(446) = -2.97, p responsible drinking [t(388) = 3.44, p responsible drinking behaviors the next time they consumed alcohol [t(437) = -3.45, p students both above and below the 21 year-old MLDA have similar beliefs regarding what constitutes responsible drinking, students below the current MLDA have less intention to drink responsibly regardless of their behavioral beliefs and/or motives. College/university administrators should consider the negative repercussions that are possible if underage students who are less confident in their ability to drink responsibly are given the legal right to drink on campus.

  7. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  8. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  9. Impact of HIPAA's minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Jarvik, Gail P

    2018-04-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule's minimum necessary standard, which applies to sharing of genomic data, particularly clinical data, following 2013 Privacy Rule revisions. This research used the Thomson Reuters Westlaw database and law library resources in its legal analysis of the HIPAA privacy tiers and the impact of the minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing. We considered relevant example cases of genomic data-sharing needs. In a climate of stepped-up HIPAA enforcement, this standard is of concern to laboratories that generate, use, and share genomic information. How data-sharing activities are characterized-whether for research, public health, or clinical interpretation and medical practice support-affects how the minimum necessary standard applies and its overall impact on data access and use. There is no clear regulatory guidance on how to apply HIPAA's minimum necessary standard when considering the sharing of information in the data-rich environment of genomic testing. Laboratories that perform genomic testing should engage with policy makers to foster sound, well-informed policies and appropriate characterization of data-sharing activities to minimize adverse impacts on day-to-day workflows.

  10. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  11. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  12. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  13. Medico-legal documentation of rape or sexual assault: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L Fouché

    Background: Following upon two-year internship, community-service doctors make mistakes when they deal with evidence of medico-legal examinations in various settings. These mistakes .... the participants were doing/had done their community service were obtained. Age and gender distribution. The average age of the ...

  14. Legal regulation of home births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.

  15. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  16. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.

  17. Prerequisites for Correctness in Legal Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackuvienė, Eglė

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...

  18. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  19. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  20. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  1. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  2. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  3. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  4. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  5. The importance of legal counsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Fisher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.

  6. Legal aspects of some internet marketing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet and sophisticated search engines such as e.g. Google together with the spread of social networks have introduced new marketing possibilities of addressing potential clients with offer of goods and services. Unlike most traditional marketing procedures, these instruments allow for targeting the business information directly at concrete individuals, taking into consideration their age, sex, education, hobbies. All this is based on their choice of words keyed into the search engines. This is the targeted advertising where consumer response can be accurately measured, e.i. the so called context advertising.The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legal aspects of some of the above mentioned internet marketing instruments, as even in this sphere legal regulation clearly lags behind the dynamically developing possibilities of the Internet as a means of communication. These marketing methods being viewed from the perspective of valid laws, several problem areas may be detected, which concern the right of privacy protection of natural person, intellectual property, or legal regulation of implied or unsolicited advertising.This paper concentrates on the summary of rules of law which regulate internet users privacy protection with respect to the Czech and Community laws, assessment of their efficiency and de lege ferenda discretion.

  7. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  8. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  9. The Politics of Legal Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....

  10. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-01-01

    Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...

  11. Medico-legal issues in breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purushothaman, H.N., E-mail: hema.purushothaman@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wilson, R. [Department of Radiology, The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Michell, M.J. [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To identify medico-legal issues that occur in the diagnosis and radiological management of breast disease and to propose measures to reduce the risk of patient complaints and legal action in breast radiology and diagnosis. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was not applicable for this study. A retrospective study was undertaken and records of 120 medico-legal investigations over a 10 year period were examined. The reports were compiled by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The mean age of the patients represented in this study was 48.3 years. The main complaint in this series was a delay in diagnosis (92%) followed by inappropriate or inadequate treatment (8%). 81% of cases were patients who had presented to the symptomatic clinic. The main presenting symptom was a palpable lump (65%). Substandard care was cited in 49/120 cases (41%). The mean average delay in diagnosis was 15.6 months. Of the cases cited as substandard care, 61% were considered the fault of the radiologist and 14% considered the fault of the breast surgeon. Of the cases where the radiologist was considered to be at fault, microcalcification was the most common mammographic sign to be missed or misinterpreted (12/26 cases, 46%). Conclusion: The most common complaint in this series was delay in diagnosis with microcalcification being the main mammographic sign that was either not seen or misinterpreted by the radiologist. Clear and precise written protocols are recommended for all breast imaging practice to ensure that medico-legal investigations will be greatly reduced.

  12. Medico-legal issues in breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushothaman, H.N.; Wilson, R.; Michell, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify medico-legal issues that occur in the diagnosis and radiological management of breast disease and to propose measures to reduce the risk of patient complaints and legal action in breast radiology and diagnosis. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was not applicable for this study. A retrospective study was undertaken and records of 120 medico-legal investigations over a 10 year period were examined. The reports were compiled by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The mean age of the patients represented in this study was 48.3 years. The main complaint in this series was a delay in diagnosis (92%) followed by inappropriate or inadequate treatment (8%). 81% of cases were patients who had presented to the symptomatic clinic. The main presenting symptom was a palpable lump (65%). Substandard care was cited in 49/120 cases (41%). The mean average delay in diagnosis was 15.6 months. Of the cases cited as substandard care, 61% were considered the fault of the radiologist and 14% considered the fault of the breast surgeon. Of the cases where the radiologist was considered to be at fault, microcalcification was the most common mammographic sign to be missed or misinterpreted (12/26 cases, 46%). Conclusion: The most common complaint in this series was delay in diagnosis with microcalcification being the main mammographic sign that was either not seen or misinterpreted by the radiologist. Clear and precise written protocols are recommended for all breast imaging practice to ensure that medico-legal investigations will be greatly reduced.

  13. Support for Marijuana Legalization and Predictors of Intentions to Use Marijuana More Often in Response to Legalization Among U.S. Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Rose, Shyanika W; Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-01-28

    As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Data were from Wave 7 (weighted N = 3532) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of men and women aged 18-34. We assessed demographics, past 30-day substance (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drug use), depression and anxiety, social smoking, marijuana harm perceptions (relative to cigarettes), and state-level marijuana policies as correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana more often if it were legalized. Multivariable models of correlates of support for legalization and intentions to use marijuana were conducted separately for the full sample and for nonmarijuana users. Weighted estimates showed that 39% of the full sample and 9% of nonmarijuana users supported marijuana legalization. Multivariable models showed that lower marijuana harm perceptions and lifetime and past 30-day tobacco use were common predictors of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana among non-users of marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: Over a third of the sample supported marijuana legalization. Tobacco use and perceptions that marijuana is less harmful than cigarettes were robust risk correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use more frequently among nonusers. Public health campaigns should target these factors to deter marijuana-related harm in susceptible young adults.

  14. IS THERE AN ALTERNATIVE TO LEGAL MARRIAGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sinelnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to sociological surveys in Russia found that a pairs of cohabitants, consisting of “unregistered marriage”, occupy an intermediate position between legally married and unmarried males and females. The so-called “unregistered marriage” can not be considered equal to legitimate marriage. The average number of children ever born to unmarried couples by the end of the reproductive age of women (40–45 years old is much less than the average number of children among married women of the same age and considerably below the level of simple reproduction of generations. At all ages cohabitants are much more likely to feel lonely than legitimate spouses. The tendency to reduce the number of legitimate married couples and increasing numbers of unmarried couples is not a transition from traditional to modern form of family. It is a destruction of the family as a social institution. 

  15. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  16. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  17. Assessing Minimum Competencies of Beginning Teachers: Instrumentation, Measurement Issues, Legal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.

    An overview is presented of a performance-based assessment system, Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI), developed by the Teacher Assessment Project at the University of Georgia to measure competencies of beginning teachers for initial professional certification. To clearly separate the preparation and certification functions within…

  18. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  19. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  20. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  1. Parents Representations of the Legal Socialization of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children

  2. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  3. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  4. Piercing and Tattoos in Adolescents: Legal and Medico-legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Bin, Paola; Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Terracciano, Lucia; Piras, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one's own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents. In Italy, several regions have therefore issued acts aimed at regulating the activities of tattoo and piercing also in reference to minors. Discussion. With regard to minors, the rules taken into account set precise limits in relation to the age criterion and subordinate the implementation of such practices to the provision of consent by legal representatives. If such practices are of an aesthetic nature, we cannot avoid considering the implications they have on health protection, and then adopt appropriate measures to protect the person who intends to undergo them, particularly in the case of minors.

  5. Piercing and Tattoos in Adolescents: Legal and Medico-legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Bin, Paola; Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Terracciano, Lucia; Piras, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Non-therapeutic body modification interventions are permitted within the limits of the use of one’s own body that can be specified in the legal system. The authors take into consideration Italian regulation on tattooing and piercing, in particular in relation to adolescents. Results In Italy, several regions have therefore issued acts aimed at regulating the activities of tattoo and piercing also in reference to minors. Discussion. With regard to minors, the rules taken into account set precise limits in relation to the age criterion and subordinate the implementation of such practices to the provision of consent by legal representatives. Conclusion If such practices are of an aesthetic nature, we cannot avoid considering the implications they have on health protection, and then adopt appropriate measures to protect the person who intends to undergo them, particularly in the case of minors. PMID:29675481

  6. Legal Education: Critical of Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor  of  law  schools;  The  educational  legislation  Questions  of  legal  education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences  about  the  teaching  of  law,  the  methodological  approach  and  the  didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.

  7. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  8. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  9. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  10. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  11. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  12. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  13. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  14. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  15. Competitive Legal Professionals' use of Technology in Legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...

  16. Legal termination of pregnancy among teenagers and older women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Legal termination of pregnancy (TOP) was introduced in South Africa in 1996. No data are available to relate the numbers of TOPs to the total number of pregnancies in specific health regions. The level of use of TOPs by women of different age groups is not known. Objective. To determine the proportion of ...

  17. Social Media and Professional School Counselors: Ethical and Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…

  18. A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2011-01-01

    the EEAS be drawn into proceedings before the Court of Justice? In answering those questions, this article then examines to which extent the legal-institutional choices on the structure of the EU External Action Service reflects the age-old tension entrenched in EU external relations law: the EU’s nature...

  19. Charter Schools and Students with Disabilities: Legal and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2018-01-01

    As of the 2013-2014 school year, about 2.5 million school-age students attended charter schools nationwide. Because charter schools are publicly funded entities, they are required to adhere to all federal nondiscriminatory laws as well as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. This legal brief provides an overview of charter schools,…

  20. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  1. The challenges of fighting sex trafficking in the legalized prostitution market of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; Kleemans, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2000, the Dutch authorities lifted the ban on brothels in the Netherlands. The essence of their approach was to regulate prostitution. People of legal age could now voluntarily sell and purchase sexual services. Brothels which complied with certain licensing conditions were legalized. This paper

  2. Legalization of Cannabis in the USA : A System Dynamics Approach to Drug Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, R.; Thompson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Colorado and Washington State have made history by approving measures to make marijuana sale and use legal for people over the age of 21, in direct opposition to federal law. While there is a sizable discussion of the actual repercussions that legal marijuana would entail, no one knows what will

  3. Lessons learned after three years of legalized, recreational marijuana: The Colorado experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tista S; Vigil, Daniel I; Maffey, Ali; Tolliver, Rickey; Van Dyke, Mike; Kattari, Leonardo; Krug, Heather; Reed, Jack K; Wolk, Larry

    2017-11-01

    In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  5. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  6. Virtual Reality and Legal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiskinov, Vihar

    2014-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"

  7. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...

  8. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  9. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  10. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  11. Towards a Legal Recommender System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,

  12. PLEDGES OF A LEGAL ACADEMIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...

  13. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  14. Citizen Access to Legal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Kay L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…

  15. Neuromarketing from a Legal Perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  16. The legal reasoning skills. Theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisett D. Páez Cuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.

  17. The Concept of Method for Determining the Minimum Level of Airport Business Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Michał

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of determining the minimum acceptable level of products and services of airport business continuity. Conducted a study of legal requirements and operational needs. Characterized components of BCMS (ISO 22301. Determined the relationship between measures of the reliability and capacity in the airport BCMS. On this basis, presented a concept of use the reliability gamma-percent resource measure and RCM methods in the airport BCMS.

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. REGULATION OF A RIGHT TO A SALARY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ILO AND UN AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  20. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  1. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...

  2. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  3. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  4. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  5. A computerized legal information management system | Ohiagu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.

  6. Senior Legal Counsel | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...

  7. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  8. Legal technique: approaches to section on types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Д. Шутак

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.

  10. Abortion Legalization and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr

    2006-01-01

    We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...

  11. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF LEGAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...

  13. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    governmental actions during emergency situations. At a minimum, the courts have shown a high degree of deference and provided immunity protection for discretionary governmental actions. For example, government organizations are often protected from legal redress for making basic policy decisions such as whether or not to implement an early warning system for emergency actions. Some national and state governments, however, have gone further to provide a legal shield of immunity through specific statutory enactments. Statutory protections generally extend to both the governmental organizations and the decision makers therein. In contrast, these protections are not always extended to third parties such as private businesses, which are often part of the chain of people and organizations that are critical for providing emergency notifications to the public. These businesses include the warning devices manufacturers, the communications systems installers, the software developers, and many other non-governmental parties essential to notifying the public. It can be argued that the legal risk in providing these private sector products or services serves to ensure their quality. But these businesses' real or perceived risk of liability could dissuade their participation in the notification system, or at least chill their innovation. Those involved in designing, developing, implementing, and operating emergency notification systems must consider how their unique situation will be impacted and potentially altered by the legal environment, or in some cases how they should affect change to that legal environment in order to have successful warning systems.

  14. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  15. The interface of legal and esthetic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...

  16. Legal Coordinator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...

  17. Terrorism as a Social and Legal Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…

  18. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  19. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  20. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  1. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  2. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  3. 18 CFR 3b.5 - Legal guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...

  4. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  5. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  6. Against a Systemic Legal History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.

  7. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  8. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  9. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  10. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  11. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  12. Chernobyl and no legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzel, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de

  13. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  14. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  15. Legal Parameters of Space Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2004-01-01

    The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...

  16. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  17. Serrano Cheese: a cultural, quality and legal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Nardi Pretto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.

  18. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  19. Legal protection of informed consent of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    One of the pillars of healthcare provision is respect for the autonomy of the patient's wishes, which is given substance by the process of obtaining informed consent. Minors deserve special protection, entitled to basic rights and increasingly autonomous as they develop. In certain situations, minors are deemed matures and able to consent to treatment without the involvement of a parent or guardian. The assessment of competence would be based on the child's functional ability, not on age or outcome of the decision. This manuscript includes a brief analysis of legal perspectives on informed consent of minors, and minors' capacities to make medical decisions. Remaining questions of how to evaluate capacity and balance parental and minor autonomy are explored. Considerations on informed consent in different situations as refusing treatment and termination of pregnancy by female children are analyzed.

  20. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  1. LEGAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.

  2. Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths. An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 1954-86, including the 1980s period of relative decline in the value of the minimum wage, a study found that a 10 percent increase in minimum wage reduced teen unemployment by less than 1 percent. In addition, no apparent effect on employment of adults aged 20-24 was found, and minimal differences appeared for sex and race. (SK)

  3. Minimum Wages and School Enrollment of Teenagers: A Look at the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Duncan D.; Turner, Mark D.; Pape, Andreas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates the effects of higher minimum wages on school enrollment using the Common Core of Data. Controlling for local labor market conditions and state and year fixed effects, finds some evidence that higher minimum wages reduce teen school enrollment in states where students drop out before age 18. (23 references) (Author/PKP)

  4. Legal Regimes of Official Information in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.

  5. [Women's opinion on abortion legalization in a middle size county in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, J A; Gomes, G; Horta, B L; de Oliveira, A K; Saraiva, A K; Pardo, D O; Silva, L M; Rodghiero, C L; Gross, M R

    1997-12-01

    Induced abortion is the main cause of maternal death in Brazil. Question of its legalization has been the subject of frequent discussion. In order to assess the influence of the variables affecting the opinion of women of reproductive age, a population-based systematic sample in the county of Rio Grande (Southern Brazil) was examined. Of a total of 1,456 interviews 30% endorsed the legalization, whatever the circumstances; this percentage was directly associated with age, schooling, family income and previous induced abortion (p abortion on favourable opinion. Schooling and previous induced abortion were the main determinants of women's favorable opinions regarding abortion legalization.

  6. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  7. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  8. PENAFSIRAN HAKIM TERHADAP KETENTUAN PIDANA MINIMUM KHUSUS DALAM UNDANG-UNDANG TINDAK PIDANA KORUPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Rumadan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Semangat penegakan hukum terhadap tindak pidana korupsi yang ditengarai sebagai kejahatan luar biasa yang berakibat pada terjadinya kesenjangan sosial, ekonomi, hilangnya kepercayaan kepada pemerintah dan berbagai permasalahan lainnya yang mendorong lahirnya Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 jo Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2001 Tentang Tindak Pidana Korupsi. Hal yang menarik dari pembentukan UU Tipikor ini adalah adanya ketentuan pidana minimum khusus di dalam rumusan deliknya terhadap pelaku tindak pidana korupsi. Hal ini tentu berbeda dengan ketentuan pidana pada umumnya dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP yang lebih mengenal ketentuan pidana maksimum. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa ketentuan pinadana minimum khusus dalam undang-undang tindak pidana korupsi dapat saja diterobos asalkan hakim memiliki legal reseningatau ratio residentiyang tepat terhadap suatu kasus korupsi dengan melihat skala besar kecilnya kasus korupsi tersebut dengan pertimbangan dan pola penafsiran dari perpektif, social-justice,  moraljustice, dan keadilan masyarakat untuk menjatuhkan putusan di bawa batas minimum pemidanaan. Penjatuhan pidana di bawah ketentuan pidana minimum khusus dalam beberapa putusan pengadilan dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa kriteria yang menjadi pertimbangan hakim menyimpangi ketentuan pidana minimum tersebut, kriteria adanya unsur kerugian keuangan negara atau perekonomian negara sebagai akibat perbuatan tiundak pidana korupsi tersebut dan kriteria peran dan kedudukan terdakwa dalam perbuatan tindak pidana korupsi. The spirit of the rule of law against corruption which is considered as an extraordinary crime that resulted in the occurrence of social inequality , the economy , the loss of faith in government and a variety of other problems that led to the birth of Law No. 31 of 1999 in conjunction with the Law No. 20 Year 2001 About Follow Corruption. The interesting thing about the formation of the AntiCorruption Act is a criminal

  9. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  10. Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero

  11. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...

  12. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  13. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  14. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  16. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  17. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  18. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt

  19. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  20. [General legal conditions for prioritisation within the scope of the German Statutory Health Insurance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, Felix

    2009-01-01

    In setting health care priorities the law, and in particular the constitution, has to be obeyed. The social constitutional state must guarantee minimum access to health care. Members of the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) shall have access to health care services protecting their life and ensuring their participation in society. They shall not be discriminated according to gender, race and ethnic origin, language, disability, age and sexual orientation. Essential decisions will have to be made by the legislator. Within the EC the right to access health care services in another EC member state may be an obstacle to prioritisation on the national level, e.g., to waiting lists. The exclusion of health care services on the basis of the social security law may be too simplistic an approach. Administrative discretion needs priorities, but it is unclear whether these are set to meet political priorities and real needs. The decisions of the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss) are sophisticated enough but have to respect the rule of law. There are deficits in research on the prioritisation effects of health care law. Diminishing these deficits is a prerequisite for turning political priorities into effective legal provisions.

  1. Operating pumps on minimum flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.; Li, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff issued Information Notice (IN) 87-59 to alert all licensees to two miniflow design concerns identified by Westinghouse. The first potential problem discussed in this IN involves parallel pump operation. If the head/capacity curve of one of the parallel pumps is greater than the other, the weaker pump may be dead-headed when the pumps are operating at low-flow conditions. The other problem related to potential pump damage as a result of hydraulic instability during low-flow operation. In NRC Bulletin 88-04, dated May 5, 1988, the staff requested all licensees to investigate and correct, as applicable, the two miniflow design concerns. The staff also developed a Temporary Instruction, Tl 2515/105, dated January 29, 1990 to inspect for the adequacy of licensee response and follow-up actions to NRC Bulletin 88-04. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reviewed utility responses to Bulletin 88-04 under auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, and participated in several NRC inspections. Examples of actions that have been taken, an assessment of the overall industry response, and resultant conclusions and recommendations are presented

  2. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  3. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei

    2015-01-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)

  4. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  5. Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...

  6. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  7. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  8. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Ronkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.

  9. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  10. Age discrimination: the new Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sprack, John

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the principal changes introduced by the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 as they came into effect in England and Wales. Extracts from the Regulations follow the commentary. Article by John Sprack (Barrister, part-time Chairman of Employment Tribunals and author of Tottel's Guide to the Age Discrimination Regulations 2006) published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by ...

  11. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  12. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  13. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  14. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  16. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  17. Visions of the Future of (Legal) Education

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.

  18. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  19. Crime and the Legalization of Recreational Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...

  20. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  1. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  2. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  3. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  4. Determining minimum lubrication film for machine parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1978-01-01

    Formula predicts minimum film thickness required for fully-flooded ball bearings, gears, and cams. Formula is result of study to determine complete theoretical solution of isothermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of fully-flooded elliptical contacts.

  5. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  6. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  7. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  8. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  9. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, A.V.D.L.

    1984-01-01

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  10. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  11. LEGAL DRAFTING IN CROATIA - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Đerđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of legal drafting and its essential elements, which has not drawn a lot of attention in the Republic of Croatia so far. The paper emphasises the importance of proportionality in the simplicity and legal distinctness of a legal text in the process of drafting for the purpose of its clarity. The paper also presents objective requirements necessary for quality legal drafting, as well as subjective qualities of the drafters. With the purpose of drawing attention to imperfections in the legal drafting in Croatia, some defi ciencies are presented in the process of drafting and amending of the Utility Services Act. The process of drafting and amending of this Act is a good example of the way how legal drafting should not be done. It contains a lot of defi ciencies and failures that are the result of legal drafting mistakes. At the end, authors expect that the adoption of the Uniform methodology and nomotechnical rules for the drafting of acts enacted by Parliament should contribute to the higher quality of legal texts and to their full adjustment to the general requirements of legal certainty and rule of law.

  12. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Raluca ONIŞOR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the legal effects of mergers and acquisitions from the Romanian Company Law perspective, underlining certain general principles, the procedure of annulment of such a legal transformation of companies and the protection of the employees of companies participating in the merger according to the Law no. 67/2006. These consequences of mergers and acquisions are to be seen in the broader light of the most important purpose of this legal instrument, maximizing financial and organizational efficiencies, thus legal certainty is a desirable goal to be assumed by any merger regulation.

  13. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  14. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  15. Legal-Ware: Contract and Copyright in the Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg, which enforced a shrinkwrap license for computer software, has encouraged the expansion of the shrinkwrap form beyond computer programs, forward, onto the Internet, and backward, toward such traditional works as books and magazines. Authors and publishers are using that case to advance norms of information use that exclude, practically and conceptually, a robust public domain and a meaningful doctrine of fair use. Contesting such efforts by focusing on the contractu...

  16. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  17. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  18. Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna

    2017-05-08

    State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.

  19. Defining Legal Writing: An Empirical Analysis of the Legal Memorandum. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.

    This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…

  20. Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of microdose clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2011-06-19

    A "microdose clinical trial" (microdosing) is one kind of early phase exploratory clinical trial, administering the compound at doses estimated to have no pharmacological or toxicological effects, aimed at screening candidates for further clinical development. This article's objective is to clarify the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of such an exploratory minimum-risk human trial. The definition and non-clinical study requirements for microdosing have been harmonized among the European Union (EU), United States (US), and Japan. Being conducted according to these regulations, microdosing seems to be ethically well justified in terms of respect for persons, beneficence, justice, human dignity, and animal welfare. Three big projects have been demonstrating the predictability of therapeutic dose pharmacokinetics from microdosing. The article offers suggestions as how microdosing can become a more useful and socially accepted strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bargaining for Equality. A Guide to Legal and Collective Bargaining Solutions for Workplace Problems that Particularly Affect Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Mary; Ross, Diane

    This is a guide to legal and collective bargaining solutions for workplace problems that particularly affect women. The first section of the guide presents a survey of legal remedies for discrimination including information on: (1) Title VII; (2) Equal Pay Act; (3) Executive Order 11246; (4) Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (5) State Fair…

  2. Legal Information Sources: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ronald C.

    This 25-page annotated bibliography describes the legal reference materials in the special collection of a medium-sized public library. Sources are listed in 12 categories: cases, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, forms, references for the lay person, general, indexes, laws and legislation, legal research aids, periodicals, and specialized…

  3. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment ...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements.......Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area...

  4. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  5. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any...

  6. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims...

  7. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  8. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of

  9. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  10. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect of...

  11. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...

  12. The Reach and Limits of Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Murray L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of the state of legal education and the practice of law are criticized, and legal education is found to be healthy. Practical and professional responsibility training is recommended for post-law school training rather than in the classical curriculum. (MSE)

  13. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  14. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  15. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  16. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  17. Legal Frame of Non-Social Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the

  18. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  19. Reproduction, women, and the workplace: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, J E

    1986-01-01

    Legal conflict has marked the effort to protect workers against reproductive injury, and legal activity in the management of occupational risks reflects a much broader range of important social issues, such as sexual discrimination in the workplace. This article describes the evolving law related to reproductive hazards that concern men, women and children.

  20. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in

  1. Death with Dignity: A Tripartite Legal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblang, Theodore Raymond

    1978-01-01

    This article provides a descriptive overview of the legal problems that attend medical treatment of the terminally ill patient as well as a careful analysis of the legal vehicles that have been offered in response to these problems--the living will, the antidysthanasia contract, and right to die legislation. (Author)

  2. Constitutionalising the Right Legal Representation at CCMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...

  3. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  4. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  5. Rule of law and legal epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Feteris, Eveline; Kloosterhuis, Harm; Plug, José; Smith, Carel

    2016-01-01

    In the positivistic conception of law, sources of law (statute, precedent) are strictly distinguished from other legal materials such as doctrine. Courts as well as academia are, however, beginning to recognise the legal relevance of doctrine and case law of lower courts. This acceptance of such

  6. Southern African Development Community (SADC) trade legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...

  7. Teaching the Legal Aspects of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Jules

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)

  8. Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.

  9. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.

  10. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. The International Legal Personality of the Individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    This book scrutinizes the relationship between the concept of international legal personality as a theoretical construct and the position of the individual as a matter of positive international law. By testing four main theoretical conceptions of international legal personality against historical...... to transform during the second half of the twentieth century so as to include individuals as its subjects. Rather, the answer to the question of individual rights and obligations under international law is—and always was—solely contingent upon the interpretation of international legal norms. It follows......, of course, that the entities governed by a particular norm tell us nothing about the legal system to which that norm belongs. Instead, the distinction between international and national legal norms turns exclusively on the nature of their respective sources. Against the background of these insights...

  12. Air and noise pollution lower than the legal minimum. What are the benefits?; Lucht en geluid beter dan het wettelijk minimum. Wat levert het op?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donners, P.W.H.J.; Kok, A.; Op den Camp, C. [DGMR, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    Inclusion of health effects in large infrastructure projects and urban developments can result in benefits for health and a wider support. To find out if these benefits can be observed in practice, three standard situations were examined. [Dutch] Het meenemen van gezondheidseffecten bij grote infrastructurele projecten en stedenbouwkundige ontwikkelingen kan gezondheidswinst en groter draagvlak opleveren. Om na te gaan of de voordelen in de praktijk zijn terug te vinden, zijn drie standaardsituaties onderzocht.

  13. Responsive Legal Approach to Law of Human Trafficking in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana

    2018-01-01

    Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…

  14. Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals

  15. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  16. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  17. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  19. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  20. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  1. The need to reconcile the habitability regulations with the acoustic rehabilitation of the minimum dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Daumal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no scientific literature on the interaction between the correction processes of acoustic pathologies and the habitability conditions in housing buildings. In this paper, the authors deduce the main interferences caused by the acoustic refurbishment of minimum dwellings in their habitability conditions from more than one hundred cases of legal claims in Catalonia. An analysis of the degree of interference is performed using as a case study the social housing of Aragon from the period 1939-1975 before and after a theoretical acoustic refurbishment. It is verified that the acoustic refurbishment solutions can have inopportune consequences in the habitability parameters of the dwellings. In addition, some of these dwellings before a hypothetical intervention are already deficient in this sense, raising the need for a revision of the habitability regulations for the minimum housing stock.

  2. Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .

  3. Health Insurance Disparities among Immigrants: Are Some Legal Immigrants More Vulnerable than Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-01-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…

  4. MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…

  5. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  6. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1...

  7. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  8. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  9. Minimum maintenance solar pump | Assefa | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A minimum maintenance solar pump (MMSP), Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed. To increase the performance of the solar pump, by trapping the long-wave ...

  10. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  11. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  12. Minimum impact house prototype for sustainable building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, E.; Klenner, K.; Lantelme, M.; Mohn, A.; Sauter, S.; Thöne, J.; Zellmann, E.; Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Minihouse is a prototupe for a sustainable townhouse. On a site of only 29 sqm it offers 154 sqm of urban life. The project 'Minimum Impact House' adresses two important questions: How do we provide living space in the cities without distroying the landscape? How to improve sustainably the

  13. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...

  14. Computing nonsimple polygons of minimum perimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, S.P.; Haas, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Kostitsyna, I.; Krupke, D.; Maurer, F.; Mitchell, J.S.B.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, C.; Troegel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Minimum Perimeter Polygon Problem (MP3): for a given set V of points in the plane, find a polygon P with holes that has vertex set V , such that the total boundary length is smallest possible. The MP3 can be considered a natural geometric generalization of the Traveling Salesman

  15. Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus

  16. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  17. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  18. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  19. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  20. Asymptotics for the minimum covariance determinant estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, R.W.; Davies, P.L.; Jhun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Consistency is shown for the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimators of multivariate location and scale and asymptotic normality is shown for the former. The proofs are made possible by showing a separating ellipsoid property for the MCD subset of observations. An analogous property is shown

  1. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  2. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  3. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  4. Legal briefing: home birth and midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Fisch, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving home birth and midwifery in the United States. Specifically, we focus on new legislative, regulatory, and judicial acts that impact women's' access to direct entry (non-nurse) midwives. We categorize these legal developments into the following 12 categories. 1. Background and History 2. Certified Nurse-Midwives 3. Direct Entry Midwives 4. Prohibition of Direct Entry Midwives 5. Enforcement of Prohibition 6. Challenges to Prohibition 7. Forbearance without License 8. Voluntary Licensure 9. Unclear and Uncertain Status 10. Growth of DEM Licensure 11. Licensure Restrictions 12. Medicaid Coverage

  5. The latitude of logic in legal hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi

  6. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    . These parameters focus on the degree to which the use of explicitation and implicitation is considered to influence meaning transfer, authentic English legal language and style, and the informative function of the translation in a defined translational situation. Based on Chesterman’s categorization of norms...... perceived norms influence the use of explicitation and implicitation. The findings are based on experiments involving Danish translators and legal experts who were asked to evaluate three different translations into English of the same Danish legal source text on a set of defined parameters...

  7. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.

  8. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  10. Medical legal aspects of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Terry J.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed

  11. Laws of Language and Legal Language: A Study of Legal Language in Some Indonesian Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidarta Shidarta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal language must follow the laws of language (grammar that widely known and commonly used by the public, including groups of the scientist. Legal language on the other hand also recognizes specific terminologies. These terminologies were introduced by jurists or by legislative power holders. Accordingly, legal language became the product of legal doctrines or political decisions. The problems arose when a number of compositions and legal terms turned out to be elusive, convoluted, and ambiguous due to the pattern of writing that was once done and because of certain considerations. This article proposed reviewing the factors that result in problems. The author presented a solution to observe using hermeneutic methods of law and legal reasoning. The author argued that the text of the law was not neutral since it was trapped not only by the laws of language but also by the perspective of the interpreters as they believed such a perspective was based on the guidance of legal science. By using legal hermeneutics can be checked the depth of the meaning of the law; while over the legal reasoning can be seen its rationale according to legal science.

  12. A sense of self-suspicion: global legal pluralism and the claim to legal authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Croce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism has become common currency in many contemporary debates on law and globalization. Its main claim is that a form of global legal pluralism represents both the most accurate description of law in times of globalization and the best normative option. On the descriptive level, global legal pluralism is considered more reliable than state-based accounts. On the normative level, global legal pluralism is understood as a possibility to open up the legal realm to previously unheard voices. This article assesses these claims against the background of classic legal-pluralist scholarship. After reconstructing the emergence of global legal pluralism and then examining its epistemic and normative versions, the last two sections identify the shortcoming of this approach by underlining the absence of what the authors call ‘a sense of self-suspicion’ in drawing the map of legalities in the global sphere. The main argument put forward is that global legal pluralism is oblivious of a few key insights offered by the founding fathers of classic legal pluralism.

  13. Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test

  14. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  15. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  16. Medical negligence: Indian legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic knowledge of how judicial forums deal with the cases relating to medical negligence is of absolute necessity for doctors. The need for such knowledge is more now than before in light of higher premium being placed by the Indian forums on the value of human life and suffering, and perhaps rightly so. Judicial forums, while seeking to identify delinquents and delinquency in the cases of medical negligence, actually aim at striking a careful balance between the autonomy of a doctor to make judgments and the rights of a patient to be dealt with fairly. In the process of adjudication, the judicial forums tend to give sufficient leeway to doctors and expressly recognize the complexity of the human body, inexactness of medical science, the inherent subjectivity of the process, genuine scope for error of judgment, and the importance of the autonomy of the doctors. The law does not prescribe the limits of high standards that can be adopted but only the minimum standard below which the patients cannot be dealt with. Judicial forums have also signaled an increased need of the doctors to engage with the patients during treatment, especially when the line of treatment is contested, has serious side effects and alternative treatments exist.

  17. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  18. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  19. Heidbreder to head Office of Legal Counsel

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Kay Heidbreder of Blacksburg, has been appointed University Counsel by the Virginia Attorney General and will head the university's legal office. Heidbreder, who holds the position of assistant attorney general, has been associate general counsel at Virginia Tech since 1985.

  20. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system. ...

  1. Radiologic protection: technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiologic units are described with the aim to decodify the technical dosimetric language. The legal aspect of radiologic protection in Brazil is reported. Information about help in case of radiation accident is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    Legal Framework for Implementation of m-Government in Ethiopia: Best. Practices and Lessons ... opportunity to government and businesses to provide enhanced mobile .... provide effective governance, offer increased service delivery and ...

  3. Legal terminology in African languages | Alberts | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various aspects regarding the present project (such as financing, time-schedule, training and terminological problems encountered) are treated. Keywords: legal terminology, sociolinguistic factors, terminology development, african languages, indigenous languages, multilingualism, subject fields, terminology, translation, ...

  4. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  5. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  6. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  7. Legal protection in French environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromont, M.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents a comparison of the French and the Federal German legal provisions providing for preliminary legal protection in connection with proceedings where protection of the environment is involved. The author also discusses proceedings in contentious administrative matters in connection with the licensing of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the protection of the laws in subject matters concerning airborne pollution control and environmental protection in general. One of the most outstanding different features is the fact that in legal proceedings on administrative matters in France, protection of the existing legal system is the main issue rather than the protection of individual rights, as is the case in the Fed. Republic of Germany. (HP) [de

  8. Health Law as a Legal Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Bødker

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....

  9. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  10. Research Notes -- Openness and Evolvability -- Legal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    against obsolescence in place?............................... 6 2.1.13 Is compliance with shared infrastructures legally enforceable? ....... 6 2.1.14 Is...bundling acceptance criteria and milestone delivery schedules . This may hide the possibility of unpublished coupling being incorporated between bundled...2.1.12 Is legal protection against obsolescence in place? If the standards used by support tools are not open, determine whether contract or similar

  11. A legal version of the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  12. The Legal Road To Replicating Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2004-01-01

    Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...

  13. Legal Thinking Inside and Outside the Box

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Walker, Neil Walker

    2014-01-01

    This paper commends Lindahl for his expansive and fluid conception of the defining and therefore delimiting terms of legal jurisdiction, as encompassing not only spatial, but al-so temporal, material and subjective criteria. It proceeds to challenge Lindahl to develop his philosophical insight in such a way thst allows for the intensified porosity of the con-temporary postnational or ‘globalising’ legal condition of late modernity to be adequate-ly distinguished from the State-centred Westpha...

  14. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  15. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A. (Ali); Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  16. Religious legal systems: challenges of the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Лук’янов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.

  17. Development of legal environment for Rosatom Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'fimova, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The scope of legal and regulatory work within the Corporation Rosatom is characterized with the large number of legal acts that have been developed and adopted under the initiative of the Corporation Rosatom that aim to address objectives associated with the advancement of the nuclear energy of Russia. The rapidly expanding industry requires their continuous development and improvement. The tasks and problems of legislation pertaining to use of nuclear energy and safety regulation are discussed in the paper [ru

  18. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  19. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  20. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  1. Using Comics to Communicate Legal Contract Cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Botes

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...

  2. " Canvas " and the Legal Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2016-01-01

    There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strateg...

  3. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-01-01

    The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant infl...

  4. THEORETICAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON CERTAIN TYPES OF LEGAL LIABILITY IN CRYPTOCURRENCY RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksii Drozd; Yaroslav Lazur; Ruslan Serbin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the theoretical, methodological, and legal possibilities of application of certain types of legal responsibility to the relations, which are connected with cryptocurrency (bitcoin). Some types of liability in the field of cryptocurrency relations make the subject of the study. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of legal regulation of the sphere of cryptocurrency in Ukraine and in foreign countries. Advantages and disadvantages of different m...

  5. One World? One Law? One Global Legal System? Modern Law and Socio-Legal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Krawietz

    2014-01-01

    In the present article the author considers the issues connected with globalization and structural changes in the contemporary societies. In author’s opinion, development of legal regulation encompasses not only the practical and theoretical argumentation in the law. It also includes the informative and communicative perspectives of our analytical and conceptual legal thinking and of our legal world-outlook which is formed accordingly to the social world of law. The author stresses that there...

  6. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  7. Legal Aspects In Stroke Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hajmanouchehri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing the cases of complaint from therapeutic staff, referred to Legal Medicine decided to mention a few examples of these actions and by reviewing them, we want to do something even nothing to prevention. Three cases were given and discussed in this article. 1. Patient is a 68-year-old woman complaining of weakness of her left side and speech disturbance that started about 2 hours earlier, was admitted to hospital at 8 am. Patient with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke in progress is placed in antiplatelet therapy (Plavix 4 initial dose and one per day and an 80 mg aspirin per day and anti-Coagulation Heparin (initial dose of 6000 units and 1000 units per hour.Patient conflicts with loss of consciousness at 17:45. By doing CT, they have found a large hemorrhage in the right parietal Frontó with severe shift from midline, IVH, SAH. Currently, patient has movement disorders and several cerebral complications. 2. The patient took under angiography because of chest pain. Patient had an unpleasant feeling in organs at the time of angiography and the symptoms have been intensified in the afternoon of that day and conflicted with headache and blurred vision. The next day, he also afflicted with weakness of organs and at 8 am neurology consultation is requested, and according to a neurologist takes MRI. The patient was suffered from speech impairment and right hemiparesis. MRI indicates stroke. Two days later, intravenous heparin begins. The Patient discharged on 31/4/ … . 3. The patient hospitalized because of headache and weakness of right organs and with a presumptive diagnosis of stroke. Headache had progressive trend. There were not seen certain lesions on the initial CT. 5000 units of heparin with 1000 units of infusion in an hour starts with telephone orders at 8 am. The morning 1/8 /..., he afflicted with loss of consciousness, and transferred to the ICU. In morning experiment, patient’s platelet is reported low (47000.The patient

  8. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  9. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  10. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  11. Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  12. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  13. Protocol for the verification of minimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggiano, M.; Spiccia, P.; Gaetano Arnetta, P.

    2014-01-01

    This Protocol has been prepared with reference to the provisions of article 8 of the Legislative Decree of May 26, 2000 No. 187. Quality controls of radiological equipment fit within the larger 'quality assurance Program' and are intended to ensure the correct operation of the same and the maintenance of that State. The pursuit of this objective guarantees that the radiological equipment subjected to those controls also meets the minimum criteria of acceptability set out in annex V of the aforementioned legislative decree establishing the conditions necessary to allow the functions to which each radiological equipment was designed, built and for which it is used. The Protocol is established for the purpose of quality control of radiological equipment of Cone Beam Computer Tomography type and reference document, in the sense that compliance with stated tolerances also ensures the subsistence minimum acceptability requirements, where applicable.

  14. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  15. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  16. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment

  17. Legal Problems of the Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.; And Others

    The three talks included here treat aspects of the law--tort liability, student records, and the age of majority--as they relate to the principal. Specifically, the talk on torts deals with the consequences of principal negligence in the event of injuries to students. Assurance is given that a reasonable and prudent principal will have a minimum…

  18. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  20. ''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs

  1. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  2. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  3. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  4. Postmortem sperm procurement: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, S E; Seftel, A D; Resnick, M I

    1999-06-01

    Postmortem sperm procurement with subsequent artificial insemination has become a technically feasible method for posthumous conception. A variety of legal questions exist involving the rights and relationships of the deceased, his family and his issue. We addressed these questions and designed a workable protocol for postmortem sperm procurement. MEDLINE, WESTLAW and LEXIS medical literature, and case law searches were conducted. United States and international case law, United States (federal and state) statutes, Uniform Law Commissions Acts, and law review commentaries and articles were reviewed. While postmortem sperm procurement is being requested throughout the United States, no standard protocol or procedural guidelines have been established by federal or state statute. Furthermore, the courts have not yet addressed this specific scenario in reported case law. Statutes and case law do address related factual scenarios and issues, including property rights in human bodies, rules governing transplantation of human organs/body parts, rights of parties in in vivo sperm bank donations and responsibilities of parents to the conceptus of artificial insemination. A workable protocol can be established by analyzing case law and statutes addressing factually similar scenarios. Urologists must focus on the express intent of the decedent and limit any postmortem sperm retrieval to the specific requests made by the decedent. Decedent requests should be documented in writing. The decedent must be competent and of majority age. In the absence of decedent expressed affirmative directive calling for sperm retrieval, no other relative or guardian may authorize this retrieval. Issues regarding the legitimacy and inheritance rights of the conceptus will most consistently be addressed when explicitly provided for in the will of the decedent.

  5. 5 CFR 582.202 - Service of legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of legal process. 582.202 Section... GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Service of Legal Process § 582.202 Service of legal process. (a) A... agency as a garnishee. (b) Service of legal process may be accomplished by certified or registered mail...

  6. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...

  7. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  8. Building the South African Nation through Legal Deposit: The Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legal deposit of and preservation of digital materials depends on the proper legislative framework and implementation of the Legal Deposit Act. This article examines the challenges related to legal instruments affecting the legal deposit of digital materials in South Africa. Two main objectives of the study upon which this ...

  9. LKIF Core: principled ontology development for the legal domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Di Bello, M.; Boer, A.; Breuker, J.; Casanovas, P.; Klein, M.C.A.; Francesconi, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a legal core ontology that is part of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: a knowledge representation formalism that enables the translation of legal knowledge bases written in different representation formats and formalisms. A legal (core) ontology can play an important

  10. 42 CFR 57.1511 - Opinion of legal counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indebtedness to the lender, stating that the credit and security instruments executed by the applicant are duly... memorandum or opinion of legal counsel with respect to the legality of any proposed note issue, the legal authority of the applicant to issue the note and secure it by the proposed collateral, and the legality of...

  11. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the tre...

  12. Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Casalini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right.

  13. La Medicina Legal en Antioquia: primera parte Legal medicine in Antioquia: first part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escobar Gónima

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe aspectos históricos de la Medicina legal en Antioquia, con énfasis en las personas que fueron importantes para su desarrollo inicial. THIS WORK DESCRIBES HISTORICAL aspects of legal medicine in Antioquia, Colombia. Emphasis is done on people who were important in its initial development.

  14. medico-legal an overview of some of the key legal developments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    equipped to admit a child with HIV as none of its teachers ... Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg ... once they have certified that the test or treatment is in the.

  15. Platform economy in legal profession : An empirical study on online legal service providers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Platform economy breaks into the legal profession by pooling lawyers with different specializations into a simple user-friendly platform, consolidating the lower-tier supply side of the legal market and generating economy of scale. This paper is the very first empirical piece looking into China’s

  16. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  17. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  18. Indonesian legal framework to support innovation sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    The successful economy in a country can be measured by the number of commercializing intellectual property rights (IPR). To pursue IPR growth, triple helix component becomes a backbone to weave academia, business and government to collaborate with each other. Generally, collaborations move from their common interest, but within triple helix the collaboration can be run structurally and sustain. Depart from the arguments; the question arises: How is the condition of Indonesia Innovation System? Through legal approach, this paper will explain current legal condition and legal structure of the Indonesian innovation system. The reason to review the law is to relate with the government’s target to create 1000 digital start-ups alike as in Silicon Valley level size. Therefore, legal framework review becomes useful to explain the condition of the law as a supporting system. In this sense, the legal prescription can be generated to confirm Indonesian laws, whether supported the national innovation system or conversely. Within law perspective, Indonesian government categorizes the innovative industry as a creative industry. However, there is still no resolute concept to follow. Therefore, some of law adjustment is needed to support the government’s plan to pursue commercialized innovation.

  19. Modern Questions Of The Legal Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Torgashev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author considers fundamental problems of law connected with equality, justice and freedom. Author proves that philosophy and law as forms of public consciousness carry out the important closely interconnected among themselves functions of the social life judgment. In the article author noted that among other forms of public consciousness law is one of difficult objects of knowledge, because law is connected with such forms of consciousness as philosophy, morals, religion, policy. The legal philosophy is the philosophical discipline having the subject the general regularities of law functioning, taken in their historical and sociocultural development, definition and the sense of legal judgment and its fundamental concepts. Law represents a set of obligatory rules of conduct (norms established by the authorized or the state. Diverse spiritual life of the society assumes a variety in the nature of law. The typology of philosophical concepts of the law and how the legal philosophy interprets legal reality is researched, various philosophical and legal concepts which are caused by two main types of rights – natural and positive are allocated. Author gives opinions of scientists, and explains own views of the author.

  20. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  1. "Only God decides": young children's perceptions of divorce and the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, K D; Pruett, M K

    1999-12-01

    To describe research on perceptions of children aged 6 and younger from 21 families of their parents' divorce, of its impact on their families, and of legal officials. Semistructured play interviews were conducted during home visits as parents were conjointly interviewed as part of a larger study on divorce in legal context. Children had much mis-information about divorce as an event and process. What they did know was often inappropriate, frightening, and confusing. They resented how the process "ruined their parents' being friends any more" and proposed reforms based on their wishes and observations. Greater awareness is needed of the child's desire to be heard during the process, to feel safe and less lonely, and to stay in touch with both parents and extended families. Age-appropriate explanations of psychological and legal aspects of the divorce process are likely to support children's positive adjustment and mental health.

  2. €œLegal Boundaries of Online Advertising"

    OpenAIRE

    Gürkaynak, Gönenç; Yılmaz, İlay; Yeşilaltay, Burak

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the legal framework of online advertising and common legal issues pertaining thereto. This paper also addresses the implementation of general legal provisions to online advertising issues in different jurisdictions and the diversity of approaches. It provides the legal boundaries that are specifically applicable to online advertising. The paper then provides a legal analysis on online advertising with a focus on Turkish laws and practice. In the conclusion, there a...

  3. Unaccompanied & Denied: Regional Legal Framework for Unaccompanied Minors Asylum Seekers (UMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaida Nordin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers are vulnerable and thus, provided special international law protections. However, in reality, they are being mistreated as illegal immigrants and on thereceiving end of ethnic violence, discrimination, restrictions in enjoyment of their rights duly recognised by international human rights law. This article identifies legislative, policy and supportmechanisms which encompass the minimum UMAS guardianship standards at international law and which are evidence-based from best practice models for the provision of guardians for UMASinternationally. It presents situation of UMAS in relation to human rights violations with emphasis on the legal framework and practices in Australia and five ASEAN State Members. This article also highlights the various stands taken by various countries providing better legal framework and practices regarding the terms for protection and enforcement of human rights for UMAS. Finally, this article provides recommendations for Australia and ASEAN Member States to adopt in order to realise the international human rights of UMAS with respect to guardianship.

  4. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student’s belief – a belief encompassing his/her foun-dational perspective(s on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student’s belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philo-sophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student’s foundational belief can be attained.

  6. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  7. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  8. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  9. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  10. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (pautopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (pautopsy according to legislation, but did not. The high proportion of positive toxicological findings among fatalities examined at medico-legal autopsy implies that toxicology screening should be routine in major trauma patients, in order to improve treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  12. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

    2013-11-01

    A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  15. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    1995-01-01

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  16. Legal problems brought about by technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In almost all sectors of public or private life, advances in the natural sciences and the progress of technology provoke changes that have to be managed by society. Our legal system is far from being left untouched by such changes, and frequently has to cope with new and complex legal problems in all fields of law. The book in hand collects eleven lectures presented within the framework of the Studium Generale at Heidelberg University, dealing with significant developments and their effects on the law, as e.g.: Risk acceptance in the wake of new technologies, in vitro fertilisation, early diagnosis of embryonic malformation, protection of animals in the context of medical research, information technologies and data protection, accidents in space and liability problems, transfrontier air pollution, protection of the environment. The legal aspects and the social aspects are discussed in detail by the lectures. Three of the contributions have been separately analysed for the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. EMERGING LEGAL ISSUES REGARDING CIVILIAN DRONE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned vehicles are becoming a common sighting in our day-to-day life and are soon going to become an important economic drive in creating workspaces and help achieve new milestones in human activities. As such, the technology revolving around the unmanned vehicles will push itself as much as it’s needed but with each achievement in the field of robotics a legal issue arises around how to use the newly acquired piece of technology in a public or private space and whether or not should such a technology be placed under a strict governmental control. As the saying by Prof. Henry W. Haynes (1879 goes “The possession of great powers and capacity for good implies equally great responsibilities in their employment. Where so much has been given much is required.” so does an unmanned vehicle and its operator must follow a degree of legal guidelines on how to properly use the gadget and to also to understand the legal limitations when interacting with other entities. This paper will focus on identifying and answering some legal issues regarding what is required for a drone to fly over an identifiable space, but also if the operator must have a document that was conferred by a state to acknowledge the skills of the pilot or should a software limitation be in place for national security safeguards. The paper will also tackle the issue of identifying legal documents from different states that can be applied to drone flight operations and also if different states have adopted sanctions to persons who did not abide to said legal norms.

  18. MEDICAL ERROR: CIVIL AND LEGAL ASPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletsa, S; Drozd, O; Yunin, O; Mohilevskyi, L

    2018-03-01

    The scientific article is focused on the research of the notion of medical error, medical and legal aspects of this notion have been considered. The necessity of the legislative consolidation of the notion of «medical error» and criteria of its legal estimation have been grounded. In the process of writing a scientific article, we used the empirical method, general scientific and comparative legal methods. A comparison of the concept of medical error in civil and legal aspects was made from the point of view of Ukrainian, European and American scientists. It has been marked that the problem of medical errors is known since ancient times and in the whole world, in fact without regard to the level of development of medicine, there is no country, where doctors never make errors. According to the statistics, medical errors in the world are included in the first five reasons of death rate. At the same time the grant of medical services practically concerns all people. As a man and his life, health in Ukraine are acknowledged by a higher social value, medical services must be of high-quality and effective. The grant of not quality medical services causes harm to the health, and sometimes the lives of people; it may result in injury or even death. The right to the health protection is one of the fundamental human rights assured by the Constitution of Ukraine; therefore the issue of medical errors and liability for them is extremely relevant. The authors make conclusions, that the definition of the notion of «medical error» must get the legal consolidation. Besides, the legal estimation of medical errors must be based on the single principles enshrined in the legislation and confirmed by judicial practice.

  19. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Methods Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N = 4,101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Results Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%–67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%–81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months’ passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Conclusions Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. PMID:28448904

  20. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.