WorldWideScience

Sample records for legacy enormous

  1. Collapsing Enormous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    One of the big puzzles in astrophysics is how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) managed to grow to the large sizes weve observed in the very early universe. In a recent study, a team of researchers examines the possibility that they were formed by the direct collapse of supermassive stars.Formation MysterySMBHs billions of times as massive as the Sun have been observed at a time when the universe was less than a billion years old. But thats not enough time for a stellar-mass black hole to grow to SMBH-size by accreting material so another theory is needed to explain the presence of these monsters so early in the universes history. A new study, led by Tatsuya Matsumoto (Kyoto University, Japan), poses the following question: what if supermassive stars in the early universe collapsed directly into black holes?Previous studies of star formation in the early universe have suggested that, in the hot environment of these primordial times, stars might have been able to build up mass much faster than they can today. This could result in early supermassive stars roughly 100,000 times more massive than the Sun. But if these early stars end their lives by collapsing to become massive black holes in the same way that we believe massive stars can collapse to form stellar-mass black holes today this should result in enormously violent explosions. Matusmoto and collaborators set out to model this process, to determine what we would expect to see when it happens!Energetic BurstsThe authors modeled the supermassive stars prior to collapse and then calculated whether a jet, created as the black hole grows at the center of the collapsing star, would be able to punch out of the stellar envelope. They demonstrated that the process would work much like the widely-accepted collapsar model of massive-star death, in which a jet successfully punches out of a collapsing star, violently releasing energy in the form of a long gamma-ray burst (GRB).Because the length of a long GRB is thought to

  2. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and problems of rural power situation in India. Writing books of science for children is his major preoccupation now. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla. 2. AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. Electrical power supply has grown enormously during this century. In 1950 the total capacity of generators producing.

  3. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  4. Legacies of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  5. Lead-Free Metamaterials with Enormous Apparent Piezoelectric Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanfeng; Chen, Pan; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Xiaotong; Chu, Baojin

    2015-11-04

    Lead-free flexoelectric piezoelectric metamaterials are created by applying an asymmetric chemical reduction to Na1/2 Bi1/2 TiO3 -BaTiO3 ceramics. The reduction induces two gradient-generating mechanisms, curvature structure and chemical inhomogeneity, and enhances the flexoelectric effect. The ceramics behave like piezoelectric materials, exhibiting an enormous and high-temperature stable apparent piezoelectric response, outperforming existing lead-oxide-based piezoelectrics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  7. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  8. Altmetrics, Legacy Scholarship, and Scholarly Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When using alternative metrics (altmetrics to investigate the impact of a scholar’s work, researchers and librarians are typically cautioned that altmetrics will be less useful for older works of scholarship. This is because it is difficult to collect social media and other attention retroactively, and the numbers will be lower if the work was published before social media marketing and promotion were widely accepted in a field. In this article, we argue that altmetrics can provide useful information about older works in the form of documenting renewed attention to past scholarship as part of a scholar’s legacy. Using the altmetrics profile of the late Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, often referred to as “the father of modern transplantation”, we describe two cases where altmetrics provided information about renewed interest in his works: a controversy about race and genetics that shows the ongoing impact of a particular work, and posthumous remembrances by colleagues which reveal his scholarly legacy.

  9. Creating legacy through evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Lynghøj, Hanne; Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    is how to stimulate cultural legacy in certain directions through the emphasis of specific values in the strategic objectives and evaluation criteria. Another perspective is how, to whom and for what purpose evaluation results are reported and implemented, and thus how evaluation may affect design, aims...

  10. Revisiting Legacy Software System Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Legacy software systems are those that significantly resist modification and evolution while still being valuable to its stakeholders to the extent that their failure has a detrimental impact on business. Despite several drawbacks of legacy software systems, they are still being extensively used in

  11. Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kasahara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.

  12. Rescisión por lesión enorme: el problema del origen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix Chamie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo plantea una revisión histórica del problema de la génesis del conocido instituto de la rescisión por lesión enorme, mediante una interpretación crítica de la concepción tradicional que ubica su reconocimiento en época justinianea, tomando partido por el origen dioclecianeo de la figura. La búsqueda del significado del efecto rescisorio y su posible relación con la excepción de dolo general, indican la complejidad de la

  13. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  14. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  15. Rescisión por lesión enorme: el problema del origen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix Chamie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo plantea una revisión histórica del problema de la génesis del conocido instituto de la rescisión por lesión enorme, mediante una interpretación crítica de la concepción tradicional que ubica su reconocimiento en época justinianea, tomando partido por el origen dioclecianeo de la figura. La búsqueda del significado del efecto rescisorio y su posible relación con la excepción de dolo general, indican la complejidad de la reconstrucción histórica; en esa dificultad, el autor se ciñe rigurosamente al método histórico, y de la mano de la exégesis de las fuentes, nos revela los detalles de la problemática exegética en torno a la formación del instituto rescisorio de la lesión enorme.

  16. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  17. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  18. COMPARISON OF SPATIOTEMPORAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES FOR ENORMOUS ETL AND EXPLOITATION PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deiotte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano’s 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer’s and Usher’s techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

  19. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Mapping Techniques for Enormous Etl and Exploitation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiotte, R.; La Valley, R.

    2017-10-01

    The need to extract, transform, and exploit enormous volumes of spatiotemporal data has exploded with the rise of social media, advanced military sensors, wearables, automotive tracking, etc. However, current methods of spatiotemporal encoding and exploitation simultaneously limit the use of that information and increase computing complexity. Current spatiotemporal encoding methods from Niemeyer and Usher rely on a Z-order space filling curve, a relative of Peano's 1890 space filling curve, for spatial hashing and interleaving temporal hashes to generate a spatiotemporal encoding. However, there exist other space-filling curves, and that provide different manifold coverings that could promote better hashing techniques for spatial data and have the potential to map spatiotemporal data without interleaving. The concatenation of Niemeyer's and Usher's techniques provide a highly efficient space-time index. However, other methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding computational cost, efficiency, and utility. This paper explores the several methods using a range of sizes of data sets from 1K to 10M observations and provides a comparison of the methods.

  20. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on

  1. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  2. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  3. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 69-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  5. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - The AC System that he Helped to Usher in. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 54-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. The Legacy of S Chandrasekhar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 4. The Legacy of S. Chandrasekhar Remembering a Giant of Our Times. Kameshwar C Wali. General Article Volume 2 Issue 4 April 1997 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. From Event Planning to Legacy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The importance of legacy and legacy planning is increasing in the event industry. Mega-events are becoming so expensive to host that the opportunity costs decreases the amount of potential future hosts. The events aim to surpass the costs by creating positive legacies, impacts that last longer than the event itself. Small-events can also have legacies and the positive affects can be even more significant than with the mega-events. Event planning must change to legacy planning in the future, b...

  8. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  9. An Approach to Peabody's Gifts and Legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One in a collection of papers on self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist George Peabody offers a listing of his gifts and legacies, which fall into the categories of libraries, lyceums, athenaeum, art, music; science; model housing; education; exploration; patriotic causes; historical societies; hospitals; churches; legacies; and…

  10. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed

  11. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  12. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  13. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  15. Assisted Emulation for Legacy Executables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Emulation is frequently discussed as a failsafe preservation strategy for born-digital documents that depend on contemporaneous software for access (Rothenberg, 2000. Yet little has been written about the contextual knowledge required to successfully use such software. The approach we advocate is to preserve necessary contextual information through scripts designed to control the legacy environment, and created during the preservation workflow. We describe software designed to minimize dependence on this knowledge by offering automated configuration and execution of emulated environments. We demonstrate that even simple scripts can reduce impediments to casual use of the digital objects being preserved. We describe tools to automate the remote use of preserved objects on local emulation environments.  This can help eliminate both a dependence on physical reference workstations at preservation institutions, and provide users accessing materials over the web with simplified, easy-to-use environments. Our implementation is applied to examples from an existing collection of over 4,000 virtual CD-ROM images containing thousands of custom binary executables.

  16. Legacy material work-off project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T.J.; Baker, D.H. IV

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation's (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory

  17. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  18. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  19. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch - Founder of Medical Microbiology. Jaya S Tyagi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 20-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  1. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  2. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  3. Asutosh Mukhopadhyay and his Mathematical Legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this article, we describe the life and career of the versatile genius, Asutosh Mukhopadhyay. The article offers a few glimpses of his mathe- matical talent and contributions to mathemat- ics, and of his efforts to propagate and foster the study of and research in mathematics. 1. Introduction. The legacy of Asutosh ...

  4. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-01-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  5. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B Cameron

    2015-01-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future. (invited comment)

  6. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2015-08-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future.

  7. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  8. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perricos, Demetrius

    2001-01-01

    of Iraq was a case of late detection of undeclared activities, the case of DPRK was a case of prompt detection of discrepancies in the initial declaration through implementation of modem detection techniques, such as environmental sampling, and access to information. Access to the Security Council became important in view of the protracted process of non-compliance. The Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) agreed in 1997 incorporates the results of the efforts to strengthen the safeguards system and as such provides the possibility for more transparency by the States and more access to locations by the inspectors on the basis of information. It does not provide the broad and intrusive access rights as in the case of Iraq, since such rights are unprecedented and the result of a cease-fire arrangement involving the Security Council. But the expectations are that the broad implementation of the Additional Protocol will result in an effective and efficient safeguards verification system for the future. The on-site verification systems on a national, regional or multinational basis that have been put into operation in the past or are being discussed by States for the implementation of disarmament and non-proliferation conventions related to weapons of mass destruction whether nuclear, chemical or biological, have benefited and will benefit in the future from the guiding experience - both from the strengths and weaknesses -of the IAEA verification system. This is hopefully a legacy for the future of verification

  9. Risk-Based Ranking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of government agencies in the United States have faced increasing public scrutiny for their efforts to address the wide range of potential environmental issues related to Cold War legacies. Risk-based ranking was selected as a means of defining the relative importance of issues. Ambitious facility-wide risk-based ranking applications were undertaken. However, although facility-wide risk-based ranking efforts can build invaluable understanding of the potential issues related to Cold War legacies, conducting such efforts is difficult because of the potentially enormous scope and the potentially strong institutional barriers. The U.S. experience is that such efforts are worth undertaking to start building a knowledge base and infrastructure that are based on a thorough understanding of risk. In both the East and the West, the legacy of the Cold War includes a wide range of potential environmental issues associated with large industrial complexes of weapon production facilities. The responsible agencies or ministries are required to make decisions that could benefit greatly from information on the relative importance of these potential issues. Facility-wide risk-based ranking of potential health and environmental issues is one means to help these decision makers. The initial U.S. risk-based ranking applications described in this chapter were ''ground-breaking'' in that they defined new methodologies and approaches to meet the challenges. Many of these approaches fit the designation of a population-centered risk assessment. These U.S. activities parallel efforts that are just beginning for similar facilities in the countries of the former Soviet Union. As described below, conducting a facility-wide risk-based ranking has special challenges and potential pitfalls. Little guidance exists to conduct major risk-based rankings. For those considering undertaking such efforts, the material contained in this chapter should be useful

  10. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the issues associated with the treatment of legacy materials linked to research into tritium over many years and also of materials used to contain or store tritium. The aim of the work is to recover tritium where practicable, and to leave the residual materials passively safe, either for disposal or for continued storage. A number of materials are currently stored at AWE which either contain tritium or have been used in tritium processing. It is essential that these materials are characterised such that a strategy may be developed for their safe stewardship, and ultimately for their treatment and disposal. Treatment processes for such materials are determined by the application of best practicable means (BPM) studies in accordance with the requirements of the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Clearly, it is necessary to understand the objectives of legacy material treatment / processing and the technical options available before a definitive BPM study is implemented. The majority of tritium legacy materials with which we are concerned originate from the decommissioning of a facility that was operational from the late 1950's through to the late 1990's when, on post-operative clear-out (POCO), the entire removable and transportable tritium inventory was moved to new, purpose built facilities. One of the principle tasks to be undertaken in the new facilities is the treatment of the legacy materials to recover tritium wherever practicable, and render the residual materials passively safe for disposal or continued storage. Where tritium recovery was not reasonably or technically feasible, then a means to assure continued safe storage was to be devised and implemented. The legacy materials are in the following forms: - Uranium beds which may or may not contain adsorbed tritium gas; - Tritium gas stored in containers; - Tritide targets for neutron generation; - Tritides of a broad spectrum of metals manufactured for research / long

  11. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes, generally done with the most recent software releases. The trigger response simulation is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities and should be done with the same software release with which data were recorded. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulation scheme within the ATLAS software framework were examined and a proof-of-concept simulation chain has been successfully implemented. One of the greatest challenges was the choice of a data format which promises long term compatibility with old and new software releases. Over the time periods envisaged, data...

  12. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  13. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  14. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  15. Requalification of Legacy Radioactive Waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Paulina; Spicher, Gottfried; Filss, Martin; Schauer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • Large stocks of legacy radioactive waste exist, which do not comply with the requirements of the Konrad repository. • Requalification campaigns with thousands of waste packages have successfully been carried out. • Quality assurance plans contain all necessary steps of specific (requalification) campaigns and optimize the procedures for each campaign in advance. • When sophisticated measurement equipment was needed an iterative procedure was adopted. Repeated evaluations of the nondestructive res. destructive measurements limited the measures to the necessary limit.

  16. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  17. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  18. The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most critics of high-stakes testing do not talk about that culture, however. They typically focus on the practice legacy of testing, the ways in which testing creates perverse incentives against good teaching. More important may be the political legacy, or how testing defines legitimate discussion about school politics. The consequence of statistical accountability systems will be the narrowing of purpose for schools, impatience with reform, and the continuing erosion of political support for publicly funded schools. Dissent from the high-stakes accountability regime that has developed around standardized testing, including proposals for professionalism and performance assessment, commonly fails to consider these political legacies. Alternatives to standardized testing which do not also connect schooling with the public at large will not be politically viable.

  19. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions

  20. Quantitative evaluation of legacy phosphorus and its spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hezhen; Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Shi, Liuhua; Wang, Yue; Ren, Xiaoyu; Bai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    A phosphorus resource crisis threatens the security of global crop production, especially in developing countries like China and Brazil. Legacy phosphorus (legacy-P), which is left behind in agricultural soil by over-fertilization, can help address this issue as a new resource in the soil phosphorus pool. However, issues involved with calculating and defining the spatial distribution of legacy-P hinder its future utilization. To resolve these issues, this study applied remote sensing and ecohydrological modeling to precisely quantify legacy-P and define its spatial distribution in China's Sanjiang Plain from 2000 to 2014. The total legacy-P in the study area was calculated as 579,090 t with an annual average of 38,600 t; this comprises 51.83% of the phosphorus fertilizer applied annually. From 2000 to 2014, the annual amount of legacy-P increased by more than 3.42-fold, equivalent to a 2460-ton increase each year. The spatial distribution of legacy-P showed heterogeneity and agglomeration in this area, with peaks in cultivated land experiencing long-term agricultural development. This study supplies a new approach to finding legacy-P in soil as a precondition for future utilization. Once its spatial distribution is known, legacy-P can be better utilized in agriculture to help alleviate the phosphorus resource crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL

    1999-01-01

    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  2. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  3. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.

    2017-10-01

    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  4. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  5. Legacy Nitrate Impacts on Groundwater and Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Juckem, P. F.; Miller, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Decades of recharge of high-nitrate groundwater have created a legacy—a mass of high-nitrate groundwater—that has implications for future nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in streams. In the United States, inorganic nitrogen fertilizer applications to the land surface have increased ten-fold since 1950, resulting in sharp increases in nitrate concentrations in recharging groundwater, which pose a risk to deeper groundwater and streams. This study assesses the factors that control time lags and eventual concentrations of legacy nitrate in groundwater and streams. Results from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project are presented which elucidate nitrate trends in recharging groundwater, delineate redox zones and assess groundwater and stream vulnerability to legacy nitrate sources on a regional scale. This study evaluated trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals based on groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams at 20 study sites across the United States. Median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years, from 4 to 7.5 mg N/L. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the redox zones encountered along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams. Delineating redox zones on a regional scale is complicated by the spatial variability of reaction rates. To overcome this limitation, we applied logistic regression and machine learning techniques to predict the probability of a specific redox condition in groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo study area in Wisconsin. By relating redox-active constituent concentrations in groundwater samples to indicators of residence time and/or electron donor availability, we were able to delineate redox zones on a regional scale

  6. Radioactive legacies from medicine and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, R.; Rodriguez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the unintended disposal of radioactive legacies (waste from medicine, industry or private persons) radioactive material occasionally enters the disposal ways of conventional waste. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and the Swiss accident Insurance Fund (Swiss) are the licensing authorities and regulatory agencies of the handling with radioactive materials for non-nuclear use. The aim is to avoid such incidents with concrete measures and so to preserve men and environment from the negative effect of not correctly disposed radioactive waste. (orig.)

  7. Eventscapes and the creation of event legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G.; Lee, I.S.; King, Katherine; Shipway, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Attention is directed to the difference in event legacies created by mega-events which often cause dramatic physical changes in urban environments and those which accompany events which leave very little imprint on the landscape where they are held. The Tour Down Under cycle race, which is held annually in South Australia, is examined as an example of the latter. The spatial pattern of the event and the range of settings which support it are presented as an eventscape by drawing on concepts s...

  8. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise

  9. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  10. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  11. Legacy management: An old challenge with a new focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; ); Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2017-01-01

    The NEA Expert Group on Legacy Management (EGLM) aims to promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations. NEA member countries share their experiences and approaches on legacy management and have submitted case studies to the EGLM that illustrate the common challenges and approaches of many countries. The first report of the expert group will be based on these case studies and will be released in late 2017. A new, broader focus on decommissioning and legacy management issues within the NEA is expected to take shape in early 2018, carrying forward the mission to develop and promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations

  12. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  13. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  14. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  15. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  16. Cassini: The Journey and the Legacy

    KAUST Repository

    Porco, Carolyn

    2018-01-15

    An international mission to explore, in depth, the Saturnian system ヨthe planet Saturn and its magnetosphere, glorious rings, and many moons- begun over 27 years ago. After seven years of development, the Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997, spent seven years trekking to Saturn, and finally entered Saturn orbit in the summer of 2004. In the course of its 13 years orbiting this ring world, Cassini returned over 450 thousand images, 635GB of data, and invaluable insights on the solar systemメs most splendid and scientifically rich planetary system. In this lecture, Carolyn Porco, the leader of the imaging science team on NASA\\'s Cassini mission, will delight her audience with a retrospective look at what has been learned from this profoundly successful mission and what its final legacy is likely to be.

  17. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  18. The Phenomenal Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Kushari Dyson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to a generation of Bengalis who received Tagore as an acknowledged classic of their tradition, I grew up reading his books, listening to his music, watching his dance-dramas, and writing poetry under the inspiration of his words. This youthful appreciation of Tagore eventually led to a deeper understanding of his stature as an artist and thinker, but it was only when I entered Tagore studies in a more formal manner that I realized how truly spectacular his achievements were from an international perspective. Tagore was fortunate in that his time, place, and circumstances allowed him to give a good run to the natural versatility and fecundity of his genius. He has thereby secured a rich and diverse legacy for us, which tends to mean different things to different groups of people.

  19. Could Freemium Models Work for Legacy Newspapers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has ...... not secured the revenues that industry players hoped for. This article discusses a number of the main principles of the freemium strategy and tactics, and highlights the critical points for legacy newspaper organisations.......The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has...

  20. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  1. Pulse shaping in the presence of enormous second-order dispersion in Al:ZnO/ZnO epsilon-near-zero metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Priscilla; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2018-04-01

    A numerical study of the ultra-short pulse propagation in the aluminum-doped zinc oxide multi-layered metamaterial at the epsilon-near-zero spectral point is presented. The Drude model for dielectric permittivity and comparison with recent experimental data predict that damping frequency γD has the highest impact on the material losses and results in enormous second-order dispersion. Numerical simulations using both, the finite-difference time domain algorithm and the split-step Fourier method, show that variations of group velocity across the pulse at the epsilon-near-zero point results in a unique "soliton-like" propagation regime without nonlinearity for the propagation lengths of up to 300 nm.

  2. Legacy Interventions With Patients with Co-Occurring Disorders: Legacy Definitions, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Felina C; Cheung, Monit

    2017-12-06

    Individuals with co-occurring disorders tend to avoid interaction with others. To instill hope, legacy intervention aims to highlight past experiences while managing life stressors for a positive outlook. Participants take part in legacy activities-crafting tangible projects and recording one's life events-in order to actualize a personal sense of legacy. This pre-posttest research tested whether legacy intervention in a partial hospital program (PHP) on reframing past experiences through creative activities could increase life satisfaction and self-efficacy among adults with co-occurring substance misuse and mental health symptoms. Eighty consented patients with co-occurring disorders were randomly assigned to two groups with 62 participants continuing: 37 in legacy intervention (LI) and 25 in partial hospital program only (PHP-only). LI participants were engaged in both PHP and legacy activities. Ten group sessions were held over the course of five weeks for cohorts of 10-15 adult patients in each intervention. Sense of legacy was measured to ensure that LI patients received the appropriate legacy dosage. With RANOVA analyses between and among three time points, life satisfaction was significantly higher in the LI group with group interaction effect over time. In terms of self-efficacy, both groups showed positive changes but no significant difference could be found between the two groups over time and the interaction (time X group) effect was not significant. The legacy definitions gathered from the LI group were consistent with existing literature and showed three additional themes: children's involvement, concreteness, and life continuation after death.

  3. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  4. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  5. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    of AMD is felt well beyond the mining district and the costs of prevention and remediation were found to be significant. Apart from environmental legacies, the mine also left a number of socio-economic legacies including: limited access to non-polluted water that results in San Sebastian residents...... devoting a high proportion of their income in obtaining water, lost opportunities due to the cessation of mining, uncertain land tenure situation and increasing growth of ASGM activities that exacerbate already existing environmental pollution due to use of mercury. The study also found that the state......The study seeks to enrich the growing literature on mine legacies by examining a case study of a small abandoned mine in Latin America. Using a combination of Rapid Rural Appraisal and secondary source analysis, this study assessed some of the most damaging legacies of the San Sebastian mine...

  6. Legacy System Wrapping for Department of Defense Information System Modernization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    This document explains the activities, benefits, problems, and issues in using the object-oriented technique of software wrapping to support the migration from legacy information systems to modernized systems...

  7. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  8. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  9. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  10. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  11. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  12. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nuraini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  13. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  14. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  15. A voz do Brasil: Miguel Pereira e o discurso sobre o "imenso hospital" The voice of Brazil: Miguel Pereira and his speech on the "enormous hospital"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominichi Miranda de Sá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho reproduz e comenta importante fonte primária muito citada nos estudos em história da saúde no Brasil, mas pouco conhecida em sua integralidade. Trata-se do discurso do médico Miguel Pereira, proferido em outubro de 1916, e no qual se referiu à zona rural do país como 'um imenso hospital'. A interpretação consagrada dessa fonte é a de que sua repercussão teve persistente e decisiva influência em políticas públicas de saúde na primeira metade do século XX. Neste texto, aprofundo o conhecimento das circunstâncias históricas que geraram a elaboração dessa expressão-síntese dos 'males do Brasil', sobretudo no que se refere às discussões, então em curso, a respeito do recrutamento militar obrigatório e do Exército como 'escola de civismo'.The article reproduces and comments on an important primary source that is often cited in studies on Brazil's history of health but which few are familiar with in its entirety: the October 1916 speech by physician Miguel Pereira, in which he referred to rural Brazil as an "enormous hospital." The standard interpretation is that this source had a steady, decisive influence on public health policies in the first half of the twentieth century. In this text, I endeavor to deepen our knowledge of the historical circumstances which produced this expression that synthesized the 'evils of Brazil', especially in regard to the era's discussion of mandatory military recruitment and of the army as a 'civics school'.

  16. John Dewey’s Feminist Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vaamonde Gamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how feminism welcomed and was influenced by the pragmatism of John Dewey. While in real terms his impact on European feminism has been minimal, this was not the case in contemporary America. In this article we study both how Dewey’s ideas were received amongst American feminists, as well as certain aspects of his thinking that could be enormously useful in present-day debates between critical and postmodern feminists. We compare the Deweyan and feminist arguments against the traditional dualisms that acted as philosophical support for social inequality, paying particular attention to mind–body dualism, and the consequent undervaluation of physical and emotional wellbeing. We also show that John Dewey’s proposals were, in fact, more radical than those of the feminists of the day. Indeed, democracy has to be understood as a way of life that affects every dimension of experience, and is crucial to the personal and social growth that enables the unjust social inequalities between men and women to be overcome.

  17. The scientific legacy of Howard Vincent Malmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Howard Malmstadt was a true giant of Analytical Chemistry and clearly one of the most influential analytical chemists of the last 50 years. Howard, through his own work and that of his students (first generation) and their students (second generation) and their students' students (third generation) changed the course of Analytical Chemistry. His research interests were broad and ranged from analytical solution chemistry (titrimetry and reaction rates) and electrochemistry to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chemical instrumentation, clinical chemistry and automation. Howard was also one of the most innovative and influential educators of our time. He changed forever the analytical curriculum through his many books on Electronics for Scientists, most written in conjunction with Chris Enke and Stan Crouch. Their texts and short courses went from pioneering the application of tube-based analog electronics (servo systems and operational amplifiers) in scientific measurements to the impact that integrated circuits and digital electronics would have on laboratory measurements. He strongly believed in the importance of 'hands-on' in education. To this end, he expended considerable personal effort and time to see not only the development and commercialization of an effective laboratory infrastructure to support education in analog and digital electronics, but also oversaw the development of modular instrumentation for spectroscopy. Over the years he received many awards from the Analytical Chemistry community for his outstanding efforts and contributions to teaching and research. Many of Howard's students went on into academia. They and their students now represent the ongoing legacy for analytical chemistry that evolved from Howard's laboratory at Illinois. A remarkable diversity of research programs are underway in their laboratories. Topics range from atomic, laser, mass, and Raman spectroscopy to detection technology, analytical education, micro

  18. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  20. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K

    2017-04-01

    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  1. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh

    2006-01-01

    challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components.......We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...

  2. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh

    2006-01-01

    We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components....

  3. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  4. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  5. Ecological and evolutionary legacy of megafauna extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetti, Mauro; Moleón, Marcos; Jordano, Pedro; Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo R; Pape, Thomas; Nichols, Elizabeth; Hansen, Dennis; Olesen, Jens M; Munk, Michael; de Mattos, Jacqueline S; Schweiger, Andreas H; Owen-Smith, Norman; Johnson, Christopher N; Marquis, Robert J; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-10-09

    wave of co-extinctions due to the enormous diversity of key ecological interactions and functional roles provided by the megafauna. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. New Media, Legacy Media and Misperceptions Regarding Sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Diel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource dependence theory and related theories of management suggest online-only news media may displace legacy news media, but until that happens the two systems are likely to be dependent on the same resource: news. This quantitative content analysis finds that the systems exist as parallel but distinctly separate entities. Websites associated with legacy news media such as newspapers publish mostly hard news or news analysis in the form of original work. New, online-only news media publish mostly unoriginal features, but the origins of much of the content published by onlineonly media are unclear.

  7. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  8. After the Fall: The RHESSI Legacy Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2017-08-01

    Launched in 2002 the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) continues to observe the Sun with a nearly 50% duty cycle. During that time the instrument has recorded ~100,000 solar flares in energies from 4 keV to over 10 MeV.with durations of 10s to 1000s of seconds. However, for the reasons of the decline of the solar cycle, possible failure of the instrument, or the absence of funding, our operational phase will end someday. We describe here our plans to continue to serve this dataset in raw, processed, and analyzed forms to the worldwide solar community to continue our legacy of a stream of rich scientific results.We have and are providing a stream of quicklook lightcurves, spectra, and images that we mainly serve through a web interface as well as the data in raw form to be fully analyzed within our own branch of Solar Software written in IDL. We are in the process of creating higher quality images for flares in multiple energy bands on relevant timescales for those whose needs can be met without further processing. For users with IDL licenses we expect this software to be available far into the unknowable future. Together with a database of AIA cutouts during all SDO-era flares, along with software to recover saturated images by using the AIA diffraction fringes, these will be a highly used resource.We also are developing additional tools and databases that will increase the utility of RHESSI data to members of the community with and without either IDL licenses or full access to the RHESSI database. We will provide a database of RHESSI x-ray visibilities obtained during flares at a >4 second cadence over a broad range of detectable energies. With our IDL software those can be rendered as images for times and energies of nearly the analysts's choosing. And going beyond that we are converting our imaging procedures to the Python language to eliminate the need for an IDL license. We are also developing methods to allow the customization of these

  9. Nuclear legacy: Students of two atomic cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Battelle Memorial Institute operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Within PNNL is the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) assigned to work on improving the safe operations of 67 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in nine countries. One major mission of this program has been Chernobyl NPP activities, both for the operating plant, and for the Chernobyl Shelter. In conjunction with the activities at Chernobyl, several Battelle staff members have been living in Slavutych (the city closest to Chernobyl) for periods of up to two years. Through these personal relationships, Battelle began to take personal interest in students in Slavutych. In 1999 Battelle used private funding to support 20 students from Slavutych, Ukraine; and 20 students from Richland, Washington, U.S.A., in authoring a book called Nuclear Legacy: Students of Two Atomic Cities. This hard-bound book was researched, and written, entirely by these 40 13-to-15-year-old students. It is an amazing book, which describes the past, the present, and the future of two nuclear cities - Slavutych near Chernobyl, and Richland, near Hanford. It was written in two languages, with every article translated into both English and Ukrainian. It was published in June, 2000, and has now sold more than 2,600 copies in 14 countries. The book is primarily an educational publication designed to teach students how to write and publish a book on a sensitive subject - nuclear. It is not a political statement. However, the student researched and written articles do discuss politically sensitive nuclear topics in straightforward detail. The moving first hand accounts through the eyes of these young people of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, and interviews with scientists and engineers who worked on the 1940's Manhattan Project in the United States, make the book a unique collaboration on two nuclear cultures. What started as a one-semester project took a full

  10. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  11. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (a...

  12. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  13. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, ...

  14. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTACT: The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of. Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain,.

  15. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  16. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  17. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  18. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  19. Bridging the gap between legacy services and Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissyandé, Tegawendé; Réveillère, Laurent; Bromberg, Yérom-David

    2010-01-01

    itself. In this paper, we introduce a generative language based approach for constructing wrappers to facilitate the migration of legacy service functionalities to Web Services. To this end, we have designed the Janus domain-specific language, which provides developers with a high-level way to describe...

  20. Forging Links between the Web and Legacy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Noleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses why information technology managers are exploring the economic and strategic advantages of Web technology and finding that legacy systems still have an important role. Presents benefits: centralized management, reduced cost of ownership, wide user access; models of Web-to-host access; the Citrix thin client model; and future of…

  1. BOKO HARAM IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A MAUDUDIAN LEGACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    colonialism and slavery” (2010, 168). Without question, colonial legacy contributed to the ... is the nature and mode of Shari'a implementation that is the issue. (2003, 144). This alludes to the influence of .... Syria, Iraq, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria,. South Africa, Kenya as well as elsewhere (2003, 533 ...

  2. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security. EC Perry, A Chunderduth, C Potgieter. Abstract. The trepidation over crime and safety concerns emerged as one of the main issues in relation to South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, prominent in the ...

  3. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  4. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  5. The Kemper History Project: From Historical Narrative to Institutional Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    An "institutional legacy" can be understood as knowledge, values, and shared experiences transmitted by or received from a college or university for the benefit of all who have taught, served, researched, and/or learned there. This article describes a year-long, collaborative writing project carried out by one university to chronicle two…

  6. An object-oriented framework for managing cooperating legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H; de Brock, EO

    2003-01-01

    We describe a general semantic framework for precise specification of so-called database federations. A database federation provides for tight coupling of a collection of heterogeneous legacy databases into a global integrated system. Our approach to database federation is based on the UML/OCL data

  7. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  8. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  9. Increasing the sensitivity of the Kepler legacy archive to transiting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    All legacy light curves archived by the Kepler project are available to the community. They are based upon simple aperture extractions from time-tagged pixel data. We demonstrate that this photometry method works well for the bright end of the Kepler target sample yet there is enormous scope for further gains in sensitivity to planet transits of faint stars in the sample. To this end, all pixel data have been made available in the archive. Methods for the user community to optimize aperture photometry and exploit point spread function modeling are being developed. Exploiting existing Kepler planet candidates, we showcase the signal-to-noise to be gained by these methods. We argue that at the faintest end of the candidate distribution, optimization provides a factor two improvement in sensitivity to transits, reaching the signal-to-noise promised by the eight year mission, curtailed by reaction wheel failure after four years. These methods can provide potentially significant improvement to a number of facets of the Kepler mission: 1. Sensitivity to new planet candidates residing currently below the signal-to-noise detection threshold; 2. Characterizing known transit profiles to higher precision; 3. Identifying contamination from nearby sources and removing contamination bias from transit depths; 4. Mitigating focus and pointing systematics within the Kepler data, and 5. Allowing the direct characterization of time-dependent physical and detector biases within the image background. With exisiting focal plane calibrations, the number of targets that currently benefit from optimized photometry is relatively small, limited to sources of magnitude Kp > 16. However, with additional refinement of the focal plane calibration, improvement in light curve quality for objects 14 < Kp < 16 can be anticipated, impacting 50% of the Kepler target sample. These methods are equally applicable to data from the upcoming TESS mission and are potentially a critical component to the

  10. Increasing the Sensitivity of the Kepler Legacy Archive to Habitable Zone Planets and Earth Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, M.

    2014-04-01

    All legacy light curves archived by the Kepler project are available to the community. They are based upon simple aperture extractions from time-tagged pixel data. We demonstrate that this photometry method works well for the bright end of the Kepler target sample yet there is enormous scope for further gains in sensitivity to planet transits of faint stars in the sample. To this end, all pixel data have been made available in the archive. Methods for the user community to optimize aperture photometry and exploit point spread function modeling are being developed. Exploiting existing Kepler planet candidates, we showcase the signal-to-noise to be gained by these methods. We argue that at the faintest end of the candidate distribution, optimization provides a factor two improvement in sensitivity to transits, reaching beyond the signal-to-noise promised by the eight year mission, curtailed by reaction wheel failure after four years. These methods can provide potentially significant improvement to a number of facets of the Kepler mission: 1. Sensitivity to new planet candidates residing currently below the signal-to-noise detection threshold; 2. Characterizing known transit profiles to higher precision; 3. Identifying contamination from nearby sources and removing contamination bias from transit depths; 4. Mitigating focus and pointing systematics within the Kepler data, and 5. Allowing the direct characterization of time-dependent physical and detector biases within the image background. With exisiting focal plane calibrations, the number of targets that currently benefit from optimized photometry is relatively small, limited to sources of magnitude Kp > 16. However, with additional refinement of the focal plane calibration, improvement in light curve quality for objects 14 < Kp < 16 can be anticipated, impacting 50% of the Kepler target sample. These methods are equally applicable to data from the upcoming TESS mission and are potentially a critical component to

  11. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  12. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  13. (Resurveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witcher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Legacy data have always been important for Mediterranean archaeologists. Over the past decade, one specific category of legacy data, that deriving from regional survey, has become particularly important. Not only has the scale of research questions become larger (requiring greater reliance on others' data, but the surface archaeological record is deteriorating (diminishing the ability to recover good data. The legacy data from many individual surveys have now been subject to digitisation and GIS analysis, successfully redeploying data collected for one purpose within new theoretical and interpretive frameworks. However, a key research focus is now comparative survey - using the results of many different Mediterranean surveys side-by-side to identify regional variability in settlement organisation, economy and demography. In order to overcome the significant methodological differences between these surveys, attention has focused on the documentation of metadata. Yet, many legacy data lack vital information about their creation and hence how they might be (reinterpreted and compared. GIS has been advanced as an environment in which to contain, order and analyse the data necessary for comparative survey. However, there is a danger that the technology will facilitate inappropriate use of these datasets in a way that fails to acknowledge and understand the very real differences between them. Here, emphasis is placed upon the use of GIS as a space for exploratory data analysis: a process that encompasses and emphasises the integral processes of digitisation, visualisation and simple analysis for the characterisation of datasets in order to derive an alternative form of metadata. Particular emphasis is placed upon the interaction of past human behaviour (e.g. in the Roman period and archaeological recovery (i.e. the behaviour of archaeologists in the present, or recent past; these two sets of 'social action' combine to create distinctive archaeological

  14. Two tales of legacy effects on stream nutrient behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, M.; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to large-scale land use conversion, shortening of flow pathways and increased loads of nutrients in streams. This legacy results in gradual build-up of nutrients in agricultural catchments: in soil for phosphorus (biogeochemical legacy) and in the unsaturated zone for nitrate (hydrologic legacy), controlling the water quality in the long-term. Here we investigate these effects on phosphorus and nitrate stream concentrations using high-frequency (10-5 - 100 Hz) sampling with in situ wet-chemistry analysers and optical sensors. Based on our 5 year study, we observe that storm flow responses differ for both nutrients: phosphorus shows rapid increases (up to 3 orders of magnitude) in concentrations with stream flow, whereas nitrate shows both dilution and concentration effects with increasing flow. However, the range of nitrate concentrations change is narrow (up to 2 times the mean) and reflects chemostatic behaviour. We link these nutrient responses with their dominant sources and flow pathways in the catchment. Nitrate from agriculture (with the peak loading in 1983) is stored in the unsaturated zone of the Penrith Sandstone, which can reach up to 70 m depth. Thus nitrate legacy is related to a hydrologic time lag with long travel times in the unsaturated zone. Phosphorus is mainly sorbed to soil particles, therefore it is mobilised rapidly during rainfall events (biogeochemical legacy). The phosphorus stream response will however depend on how well connected is the stream to the catchment sources (driven by soil moisture distribution) and biogeochemical activity (driven by temperature), leading to both chemostatic and non-chemostatic responses, alternating on a storm-to-storm and seasonal basis. Our results also show that transient within-channel storage is playing an important role in delivery of phosphorus, providing an additional time lag component. These results show, that consistent agricultural legacy in the catchment (high

  15. Geometry, mechanics, and dynamics the legacy of Jerry Marsden

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl; Patrick, George; Ratiu, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the broad range of Jerry Marsden’s mathematical legacy in areas of geometry, mechanics, and dynamics, from very pure mathematics to very applied, but always with a geometric perspective. Each contribution develops its material from the viewpoint of geometric mechanics beginning at the very foundations, introducing readers to modern issues via illustrations in a wide range of topics. The twenty refereed papers contained in this volume are based on lectures and research performed during the month of July 2012 at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, in a program in honor of Marsden's legacy. The unified treatment of the wide breadth of topics treated in this book will be of interest to both experts and novices in geometric mechanics. Experts will recognize applications of their own familiar concepts and methods in a wide variety of fields, some of which they may never have approached from a geometric viewpoint. Novices may choose topics that interest them among the ...

  16. Georges Lema\\^itre: Life, Science and Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitton, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper celebrates the remarkable life, science and legacy of Abb\\'e Georges Lema\\^itre, the Belgian cleric and professor of physics; he was the architect of the fireworks model for the origin of the universe. He died half a century ago, three days after learning that Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had discovered the cosmic microwave background. Despite being gravely ill from leukaemia, Lema\\^itre lucidly praised this news, which confirmed the explosive genesis of our universe.

  17. Legacy Radioactive Waste Management Program in the Netherlands: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ménard, Gaël

    2016-01-01

    Petten site legacy waste: • sorted on waste streams, from the less to the more heterogeneous; • footprint reduction by sorting according to activity; • first two waste streams: limited number of material; • characterized using gamma measurements and computational nuclide vectors. •Waste acceptance criteria: modus vivendi with the storage facility and third parties (based on characterization results); • More heterogeneous waste: more complex by definition → optimization, development and adaptation of the characterization

  18. The Legacy of the High Reliability Organizations Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrier, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    This article looks back over two decades of work pioneered by Todd LaPorte and colleagues, under the banner of High Reliability Theory (HRT). The article revisits the American roots of the Berkeley-based group and comments on its early and decisive fieldwork choices. It revisits some of the elements that emerged through the controversy around findings and implications of HRT. It discusses the legacy of HRT and the ethnographical impetus given to "normal operations" studies. The use of ethnogr...

  19. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  20. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, David

    2018-05-01

    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of marketing scholarship's legacy on nonprofit marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Wymer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...

  2. The Roman Empire legacy of Galen (129-200 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Ghabili, Kamyar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Balch, Margaret Wood; Cuceu, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Galen of Pergamum was the physician of Roman Emperors and contributed to our early understanding of medicine and anatomy. Herein, we present a short biography of Galen and review his multiple contributions to medicine and anatomy. Although it has been almost 2,000 years since Galen walked the streets of the Roman Empire, his legacy continues via multiple eponyms that bare his name.

  3. Architecture-driven Migration of Legacy Systems to Cloud-enabled Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread adoption of cloud computing, an increasing number of organizations view it as an important business strategy to evolve their legacy applications to cloud-enabled infrastructures. We present a framework, named Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe, for supporting the migration...... of legacy systems to cloud computing. The framework leverages the software reengineering concepts that aim to recover the architecture from legacy source code. Then the framework exploits the software evolution concepts to support architecture-driven migration of legacy systems to cloud-based architectures....... The Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe comprises of four processes: (i) architecture migration planning, (ii) architecture recovery and consistency, (iii) architecture transformation and (iv) architecture-based development of cloud-enabled software. We aim to discover, document and apply the migration...

  4. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Coakley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport mega-events (SMEs involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  5. Creating a career legacy map to help assure meaningful work in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Britton, Dorienda R; Coleman, Lael; Engh, Eileen; Humbel, Tina Kunze; Keller, Susan; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Menard, Johanna; Lee, Marlene A; Roberts-Turner, Renee; Walczak, Dory

    2015-01-01

    When nurses declare a professional legacy (or what they intend to be better in health care because of their efforts), they are likely to maintain a focus on achieving their legacy and to experience meaning in the process. We depict the legacy and involved steps in creating a legacy map, which is a concrete guide forward to intended career outcomes. Informed by the "meaningful work" literature, we describe a legacy map, its function, the process to create one, and the application of a legacy map to guide careers. We also describe an administrative benefit of the legacy map-the map can be used by team leaders and members to secure needed resources and opportunities to support the desired legacy of team members. Legacy mapping can be a self-use career guidance tool for nurses and other health care professionals or a tool that links the career efforts of a team member with the career support efforts of a team leader. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. WORLD CUP LEGACY AND PERTAINING IMPACTS ON SÃO PAULO CITY´S FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legacies – structures that are built for events and which remain after the same - are one of the major positive aspects paraded by mega sporting events organizers. This study´s purpose is to analyze the current situation of legacies promised by the many governmental instances for the city of São Paulo - host city of Fifa´s 2014 World Cup – and prospect which legacies will become effective in the city. Preliminary assessments may raise construction concerns, alert the public to keep an eye on undertaken obligations and encourage official actions (Mangan, 2008, p. 1,871. Data was obtained from National Audit Court (TCU reports, Ministry and United Nations documents, in addition to testimonials and information gathered from some of Brazil´s major press media. Data analysis was conducted by classifying legacies according to tangible and intangible legacy concepts (Kaplanidou and Karadakis, 2010 followed by an analysis of promised legacies versus current status during the period of analysis. Finally, discussions as to most probable to come about legacies were presented. Results indicate that a portion of promised legacies stand a fair chance of achievement. On the other hand, other projects lag behind schedule or have been cancelled. Preliminary surveys suggest full completion of promised legacies is not possible, there has been an overuse of public resources as opposed to that planned, and provide indicatives as to the investment´s high opportunity cost.

  7. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  8. The Own Education: Between Catholic Legacies and Ethnical Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel González Terreros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper points a proposal of own education which is implemented in the department of Cauca, in Colombia, which was born from the intention of strengthening the Indian movement and recuperating its culture, which is submerged in a traditional, confessional model of education. These conflicting perspectives –ethnical/confessional- in the mere way they are analyzed in the study, are part of a social-cultural conflict that underlies own education, in which also merge different sectors, stories, legacies and proposals.

  9. Software exorcism a handbook for debugging and optimizing legacy code

    CERN Document Server

    Blunden, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Software Exorcism: A Handbook for Debugging and Optimizing Legacy Code takes an unflinching, no bulls and look at behavioral problems in the software engineering industry, shedding much-needed light on the social forces that make it difficult for programmers to do their job. Do you have a co-worker who perpetually writes bad code that you are forced to clean up? This is your book. While there are plenty of books on the market that cover debugging and short-term workarounds for bad code, Reverend Bill Blunden takes a revolutionary step beyond them by bringing our atten

  10. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.

  11. The legacy of the Olympics: economic burden or boon?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Wolla, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Competition, sportsmanship, and national pride are the foundations of the Olympics, but how much do the Olympics cost the host city and country? What are some of the economic benefits and costs? Is the investment in the Olympics worth it in the end? Read about previous host experiences with the economic side of the Olympics in this month's Page One Economics Newsletter “The Legacy of the Olympics: Economic Burden or Boon?” (see related graph: "Olympics-Related Temporary Increase in Employment...

  12. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  13. Resident Archive Services of the Yohkoh Legacy Data Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Takeda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yohkoh Legacy Data Archive (YLA is one of the first group of Resident Archives (RAs selected for funding for NASA's Virtual Observatories for the Heliophysics Data program. YLA provides the best corrected data set of solar X-ray images and spectra from the Yohkoh satellite with a user-friendly web interface. As a RA, we take responsibility to keep our products well maintained and easily accessible. In addition, we have launched the 'E-consultant service', an e-mail based support to individual users regarding data handling to bolster access and use from a wide range of communities.

  14. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing. PMID:25147455

  15. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810-1871).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The little that remains of Motschoulsky's myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow's Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  16. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    and suspended sediment samples exceeded safety thresholds in 50% of the samples and the average contribution of legacy pesticides to the SumTUC.riparius was >90%. Our results suggest that legacy pesticides can be highly significant contributors to the current toxic exposure of stream biota, especially...

  17. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. - Highlights: • Findings comprised a range of contemporary and banned legacy pesticides in streams. • Groundwater is a significant pathway for some herbicides entering streams. • Legacy pesticides increased predicted aquatic toxicity by four orders of magnitude. • Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for ecotoxicity. • Stream monitoring programs should include legacy pesticides to assess impacts. - Legacy pesticides, particularly sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity impacting benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams

  18. Stakeholder reflections of the tourism and nation-branding legacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past decade there has been a growing awareness of the significant impact that hosting mega sport events can have on a nation's brand. This paper discusses the context of nation-branding as a tourism legacy and the role of mega sport events in generating a tourism and nation-branding legacy in relation to the ...

  19. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela's Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Abrehet; Joshi, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after South Africa's democratisation, Nelson Mandela's passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela's thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic…

  20. Educational legacies of mega-sport events for Africa | Burnett | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... engagement (international to national and local) by stakeholders, form different configurations to allow space within physical education and school sport practices for sport mega-event educational legacy programmes. Keywords: Educational legacy; Olympic Games; Olympism; Sport-for-development; Physical education.

  1. Past as Prologue: Educational Psychology's Legacy and Progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2018-01-01

    On the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association, the legacies and progenies of the discipline of educational psychology are explored. To capture those legacies, transformational and influential contributions by educational psychologists to schools and society are described as key themes. Those themes entail: the…

  2. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  3. Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perring, Michael P.; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Baeten, Lander; Midolo, Gabriele; Blondeel, Haben; Depauw, Leen; Landuyt, Dries; Maes, Sybryn L.; Lombaerde, De Emiel; Carón, Maria Mercedes; Vellend, Mark; Brunet, Jörg; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dörfler, Inken; Durak, Tomasz; Frenne, De Pieter; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hommel, Patrick; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kirby, Keith J.; Kopecký, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan; Li, Daijiang; Máliš, František; Mitchell, Fraser J.G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Petřík, Petr; Reczyńska, Kamila; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Calster, Van Hans; Vild, Ondřej; Wagner, Eva Rosa; Wulf, Monika; Verheyen, Kris

    2018-01-01

    The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental

  4. A Heuristic for Improving Legacy Software Quality during Maintenance: An Empirical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Michael John

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations depend on the functionality of mission-critical legacy software and the continued maintenance of this software is vital. Legacy software is defined here as software that contains no testing suite, is often foreign to the developer performing the maintenance, lacks meaningful documentation, and over time, has become difficult to…

  5. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Goldfus, Haim; Meir, Isaac A.; Poch, Rosa M.; Throop, Heather L.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-01-01

    A legacy effect refers to the impacts that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Legacies have been recognized by many disciplines, from physiology and ecology to anthropology and geology. Within the context of climatic change, ecological legacies in drylands (eg vegetative patterns) result from feedbacks between biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude of the original phenomenon, (2) the time since the occurrence of the phenomenon, and (3) the sensitivity of the ecological–soil–geomorphic system to change. Here we present a conceptual framework for legacy effects at short-term (days to months), medium-term (years to decades), and long-term (centuries to millennia) timescales, which reveals the ubiquity of such effects in drylands across research disciplines.

  6. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  7. The Public Health Legacy of Polio Eradication in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Allen S; Haydarov, Rustam; O'Malley, Helena; Galway, Michael; Dao, Halima; Ngongo, Ngashi; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Naqvi, Savita; Abid, Nima S; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy

    2017-07-01

    The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  9. The Midwifery Legacies Project: history, progress, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Davis, Tonia L; McGee, Karen B; Moore, Elaine M; Paine, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    The Midwifery Legacies Project, formerly known as the OnGoing Group, was founded as an annual greeting card outreach aimed at maintaining contact with midwives as they approached retirement and beyond. In 2009, the importance of documenting personal and professional stories of midwives arose out of a bequest by a midwife who was relatively unknown outside of the community she served. The result has been the evolution of a robust collection of stories, which are known as the 20th Century Midwife Story Collection. Between 2009 and 2014, more than 120 US midwives aged 65 years or older were interviewed by a midwife, a student midwife, or a professional filmmaker. Collectively, these midwives' stories offer an intimate snapshot of the social, political, and cultural influences that have shaped US midwifery during the past half century. Individually, the stories honor and recognize midwives' contributions to the profession and the women they have served. This article details the development, progress, and future directions of the Midwifery Legacies Project. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  11. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...... the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at http://califa.caha.es/DR1.......We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 ... on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. The galaxies in DR1 already cover a wide range of properties in color-magnitude space, morphological type, stellar mass, and gas ionization conditions. This offers the potential to tackle a variety of open questions in galaxy evolution using spatially...

  12. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM's goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and information

  13. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-03-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM’s goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and

  14. On the ergodic capacity of legacy systems in the presence of next generation interference

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2011-11-01

    Next generation wireless systems facilitating better utilization of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate in the radio spectrum of existing legacy systems; yet unwanted interference at the legacy receivers is unavoidable. In order to design efficient next generation systems and to minimize their harmful consequences, it is necessary to realize their impact on the performance of legacy systems. In this work, a generalized framework for the ergodic capacity analysis of such legacy systems in the presence of interference from next generation systems is presented. The analysis is built around a model developed for the statistical representation of the interference at the legacy receivers, which is then used to evaluate the ergodic capacity of the legacy system. Moreover, this analysis is not limited to the context of legacy systems, and is in fact applicaple to any interference limited system. Findings of analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. A fitting LEGACY – modelling Kepler's best stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarslev Magnus J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEGACY sample represents the best solar-like stars observed in the Kepler mission[5, 8]. The 66 stars in the sample are all on the main sequence or only slightly more evolved. They each have more than one year's observation data in short cadence, allowing for precise extraction of individual frequencies. Here we present model fits using a modified ASTFIT procedure employing two different near-surface-effect corrections, one by Christensen-Dalsgaard[4] and a newer correction proposed by Ball & Gizon[1]. We then compare the results obtained using the different corrections. We find that using the latter correction yields lower masses and significantly lower χ2 values for a large part of the sample.

  16. Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents

  17. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  18. The Legacy of Seligman's "Phobias and Preparedness" (1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Seligman's (1971) classic article, "Phobias and Preparedness," marked a break from traditional conditioning theories of the etiology of phobias, inspiring a line of research integrating evolutionary theory with learning theory. In this article, I briefly sketch the context motivating the preparedness theory of phobias before summarizing the initial wave of laboratory conditioning experiments pioneered by Öhman and conducted by his team and by others to test predictions derived from Seligman's theory. Finally, I review the legacy of Seligman's article, including theoretical developments embodied in Öhman and Mineka's fear module approach as well as alternatives for explaining "preparedness" phenomena, including the selective sensitization, expectancy, and nonassociative theories. Although Seligman himself soon moved on to other topics, his seminal article in Behavior Therapy continues to inspire research more than four decades later that has deepened our understanding of the etiology of phobias. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  20. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  1. Historical Legacies, Information and Contemporary Water Science and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Vörösmarty

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years. However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1 How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2 Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America provide a suitable restoration target? and (3 How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  2. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  3. Ultracool dwarf legacy science with ESA's Euclid mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Euclid is an medium-class ESA mission that will carry out a 5 year survey of the extragalactic sky. The science drivers for the survey are cosmological and extragalactic. Nevertheless, the unprecedented depth over such a large area and the diffraction limited spatial resolution of the Euclid survey will have a long lasting impact in many fields of Astrophysics. This paper outlines the legacy science that will come out from Euclid in the field of ultracool dwarfs. In particular, it is foreseen that Euclid will increase the number of resolved ultracool binaries by more than an order of magnitude, and hence it will provide a stringent constraint on models of formation of very low-mass objects. Euclid can also find significant number of rare objects such as young free-floating planets or population III ultracool dwarfs.

  4. An investigation of biomarkers derived from legacy microarray data for their utility in the RNA-seq era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenqiang; Fang, Hong; Hong, Huixiao; Shi, Leming; Zhang, Wenqian; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Yanyan; Dong, Zirui; Lancashire, Lee J; Bessarabova, Marina; Yang, Xi; Ning, Baitang; Gong, Binsheng; Meehan, Joe; Xu, Joshua; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Fischer, Matthias; Tong, Weida

    2014-12-03

    Gene expression microarray has been the primary biomarker platform ubiquitously applied in biomedical research, resulting in enormous data, predictive models, and biomarkers accrued. Recently, RNA-seq has looked likely to replace microarrays, but there will be a period where both technologies co-exist. This raises two important questions: Can microarray-based models and biomarkers be directly applied to RNA-seq data? Can future RNA-seq-based predictive models and biomarkers be applied to microarray data to leverage past investment? We systematically evaluated the transferability of predictive models and signature genes between microarray and RNA-seq using two large clinical data sets. The complexity of cross-platform sequence correspondence was considered in the analysis and examined using three human and two rat data sets, and three levels of mapping complexity were revealed. Three algorithms representing different modeling complexity were applied to the three levels of mappings for each of the eight binary endpoints and Cox regression was used to model survival times with expression data. In total, 240,096 predictive models were examined. Signature genes of predictive models are reciprocally transferable between microarray and RNA-seq data for model development, and microarray-based models can accurately predict RNA-seq-profiled samples; while RNA-seq-based models are less accurate in predicting microarray-profiled samples and are affected both by the choice of modeling algorithm and the gene mapping complexity. The results suggest continued usefulness of legacy microarray data and established microarray biomarkers and predictive models in the forthcoming RNA-seq era.

  5. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.

    2017-05-01

    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  6. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE DURING PREGNANCY AND THE MICROCHIMERISM LEGACY OF PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy has both short-term effects and long-term consequences. For women who have an autoimmune disease and subsequently become pregnant, pregnancy can induce amelioration of the mother’s disease, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, while exacerbating or having no effect on other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus. That pregnancy also leaves a long-term legacy has recently become apparent by the discovery that bi-directional cell trafficking results in persistence of fetal cells in the mother and of maternal cells in her offspring for decades after birth. The long-term persistence of a small number of cells (or DNA) from a genetically disparate individual is referred to as microchimerism. While microchimerism is common in healthy individuals and is likely to have health benefits, microchimerism has been implicated in some autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. In this paper, we will first discuss short-term effects of pregnancy on women with autoimmune disease. Pregnancy-associated changes will be reviewed for selected autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune thyroid disease. The pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis presents a window of opportunity for insights into both immunological mechanisms of fetal-maternal tolerance and pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity. A mechanistic hypothesis for the pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis will be described. We will then discuss the legacy of maternal-fetal cell transfer from the perspective of autoimmune diseases. Fetal and maternal microchimerism will be reviewed with a focus on systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), autoimmune thyroid disease, neonatal lupus and type I diabetes mellitus. PMID:18716941

  7. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  8. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W M; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the "Olympic legacy" following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields.

  9. Scientific Data as the Core Legacy of IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The interdisciplinary breadth of the International Polar Year is unprecedented. The IPY has explicit objectives to link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines and to strengthen international coordination of research and enhance international collaboration and cooperation. The IPY Data Policy and Management Subcommittee have developed a policy to help meet these objectives and an international collaboration of investigators and data managers, the IPY Data and Information Service, are working to make IPY data widely available. I will present an overview of the primary data management considerations for IPY and how diverse organizations are making IPY and related data available. Centralized discovery mechanisms for widely distributed data plus targeted access mechanisms for specific disciplines will be presented. These range from near real time access to satellite remote sensing data and GCM output to fair and appropriate access to traditional knowledge of the Arctic. These mechanisms reflect significant advancement in polar data management, but they belie the major challenges that remain. These challenges include fostering a culture change in science that puts greater value on data publication and open data access as well as developing sustained systems and business models for the long-term preservation of IPY data. This will be crucial to ensuring the legacy of IPY, a major objective of IPY sponsors, ICSU and WMO. New efforts to ensure this legacy include the development of the WMO Information System, the Sustained Arctic Observing Network, and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems; the reform of ICSU's World Data Center System; and the results of the Electronic Geophysical Year.

  10. How do land-use legacies affect ecosystem services in United States cultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carly Ziter; Rose A. Graves; Monica G. Turner

    2017-01-01

    ContextLandscape-scale studies of ecosystem services (ES) have increased, but few consider land-use history. Historical land use may be especially important in cultural landscapes, producing legacies...

  11. To Defend and Deter: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Missile Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lonnquest, John

    1996-01-01

    Defense (DoD) Legacy Resource Management Program was established under the Defense Appropriations Act of 1991 to 'determine how to better integrate the conservation of irreplaceable biological, cultural...

  12. Remote Evaluation of the Coherence of Indirect Manipulation Interface Systems For Agent-Mediated Legacy Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schafer, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Many information systems depend heavily on distributed legacy data sources. These data sources introduce a number of significant problems, especially when the sources must be combined and displayed to remote users...

  13. Identifying & Inventorying Legacy Materials for Digitization at the National Transportation Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    As an all-digital repository of transportation knowledge, the National Transportation Library (NTL) has undertaken several digitization projects over the years to preserve legacy print materials and make them accessible to stakeholders, researchers, ...

  14. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addi......We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater......, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable...

  15. From combinatorics to philosophy the legacy of G.-C. Rota

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Ernesto; Marra, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an assessment of G. -C. Rota's legacy to international research in mathematics, philosophy and computer science. It includes chapters by leading researchers as well as a number of invited research papers.

  16. The life, legacy, and premature death of Felix Mendelssohn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherington, M; Smith, R; Nielsen, P J

    1999-01-01

    Felix Mendelssohn is one of the great classical composers of all time. During his short lifetime in the first half of the nineteenth century, he reached enormous heights as a composer, conductor, and leader in the world of music. Nearly one hundred years after his death, the Nazi regime attempted, unsuccessfully, to erase his music and his memory from history. Since the end of World War II, there has been a resurgence in interest in the life and music of Felix Mendelssohn and that of his sister, Fanny. Felix Mendelssohn died in 1947 at the age of 38. Both of his sisters died suddenly at the ages of 42 and 45. There is insufficient laboratory or post-mortem data to make a medical diagnosis with certainty. However, based on the information available to us, we speculate that Mendelssohn suffered a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. The differential diagnosis of familial stroke syndrome is discussed.

  17. Župančič's Legacy and His Personal Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Trobec Zadnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of writer Oton Župančič, acquired by the City Museum of Ljubljana in 1985 with a donation of the artist’s family, is a rare so large and diverse among artistic legacies. Its key part is the furniture of two rooms from Župančič’s last homes with his personal library. This article presents an overview of museum work done, from the acquisition of the legacy to its first public presentation in the framework of the exhibition Župančičeva spominska zbirka in 1985 in the museum. The methodology of the inventarization and technical foundation for the second exhibition of Oton Župančič legacy in 2008 is described. It is one of the few museum exhibitions facilitating the lovers of literary art to be in touch with the artist’s legacy on a daily basis. More detailed description of the museum’s inventory of the personal library uncovered that books are not just a literal material but also the museum subjects that exhibit artist’s work and interests and as such are the mirror of time. Many books overwritten and painted became the artist’s notebooks and thus his personal belongings. In conclusion, the obtained results and limitations are discussed and plans for further consideration and presentation of the legacy are mentioned.

  18. Nutrient pressures and legacies in a small agricultural karst catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Daly, Karen; Wall, David P.; Jahangir, Mohammad M.; Jordan, Phil; Hennessey, Deirdre; Huebsch, Manuela; Blum, Philipp; Vero, Sara; Richards, Karl G.

    2017-04-01

    Catchments with short subsurface hydrologic time lags are commonly at risk for leached losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Such catchments are suitable for testing the efficacy of mitigation measures as management changes. In some sites, however, N and P may be retained in the soil and subsoil layers, and then leached, mobilised or attenuated over time. This biogeochemical time lag may therefore have enduring effects on the water quality. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of N and P retention, attenuation and distribution of subsurface pathway in an intensively managed agricultural karst catchment with an oxidised aquifer setting, and also to inform how similar sites can be managed in the future. Results showed that in the years pre-2000 slurry from an on-site integrated pig production unit had been applied at rates of 33 t/ha annually, which supplied approximately 136 kg/ha total N and approximately 26 kg/ha total P annually. This practice contributed to large quantities of N (total N and NH4-N) and elevated soil test P (Morgan extractable P), present to a depth of 1 m. This store was augmented by recent surpluses of 263 kg N/ha, with leached N to groundwater of 82.5 kg N/ha and only 2.5 kg N/ha denitrified in the aquifer thereafter. Sub hourly spring data showed the largest proportion of N loss from small (54-88%) and medium fissure pathways (7- 21%) with longer hydrologic time lags, with smallest loads from either large fissure (1-13%) or conduit (1-10%) pathways with short hydrologic time lags (reaction time at the spring from onset of a rainfall event is within hours). Although soils were saturated in P and in mobile forms to 0.5 m, dissolved reactive P concentrations in groundwater remained low due to Ca and Mg limestone chemistry. Under these conditions a depletion of the legacy store, with no further inputs, would take approximately 50 years and with NO3-N concentrations in the source area dropping to levels that could sustain

  19. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  20. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo

    2017-12-15

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Nursing and the Public Health Legacies of the Russian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Susan

    2017-11-01

    The centenary of the October Revolution in 1917 provides a timely opportunity to assess the legacies of that event. I examine the role of the revolution in public health with a focus on nursing, assessing the Imperial Russian health care system, the development of Soviet nursing, and current plans for nursing and public health care in Putin's Russia. Analyzing nursing shows that there was a great deal of continuity in terms of medical personnel and ideas on how public health care service in Russia should operate. Nursing illuminates some of the complexities of Soviet health care and ideology, particularly the state's desire to create a socialist form of nursing in theory, despite the strong links with the prerevolutionary past in the form of personnel. This situation changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the new Russian state attempted to sever connections with the past, this time with the Soviet past. But as I show, making a clean break with the past is a difficult and often fraught process.

  2. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher; Hoq, Sadia

    2012-04-01

    We request Mopra time to complete MALT90, a large, volume-complete survey of high-mass star-forming cores. MALT90 is unique and exploits Mopra's capability for OTF mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90GHz. These molecular lines probe the cores' physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span their complete range in evolution. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1km/s) resolution. As in the previous years, fully reduced data products will be made available to the community through the ATOA. In order for MALT90 to be volume-complete, we require 1397 hours to map 942 remaining cores. This time allocation is necessary so that MALT90 is complete to all high-mass cores out to 7kpc: a carefully chosen distance limit to adequate sample a range of Galactic environments and to include all high-mass regions for which individual cores can be resolved with ALMA. When complete, MALT90 will provide an important legacy database for the community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass cores for ALMA.

  3. MALT 90: The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Foster, J.; Brooks, K.; Rathborne, J.; Longmore, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the first season results of the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), which will image 3 mm molecular line emission from 3,000 dense star-forming cores. MALT90 exploits the capability of the ATNF Mopra 22 m telescope for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores’ physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 micron ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. We present preliminary results for four key science projects: (1) determining the kinematic distances and Galactic distribution of dense cores, (2) establishing the distribution and evolution of angular momentum in a large sample of high-mass cores, (3) investigating the chemical evolution of dense cores, and (4) comparing the extragalactic molecular line-infrared luminosity correlations with those in Galactic cores. MALT90 will provide the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  4. Historical legacies of river pollution reconstructed from fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Paloma; Cal, Laura; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Almécija, Clara; Caballero, Pablo; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Many rivers have been impacted by heavy metal pollution in the past but the long-term legacies on biodiversity are difficult to estimate. The River Ulla (NW Spain) was impacted by tailings from a copper mine during the 1970-1980s but absence of baseline values and lack of subsequent monitoring have prevented a full impact assessment. We used archived fish scales of Atlantic salmon to reconstruct levels of historical copper pollution and its effects on salmon fitness. Copper bioaccumulation significantly increased over baseline values during the operation of the mine, reaching sublethal levels for salmon survival. Juvenile growth and relative population abundance decreased during mining, but no such effects were observed in a neighbouring river unaffected by mining. Our results indicate that historical copper exposure has probably compromised the fitness of this Atlantic salmon population to the present day, and that fish scales are suitable biomarkers of past river pollution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The talent of mature women and their legacy for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Troncoso Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of facts about women who shone in their youth either for their research, their works of art, or their social and political activities, and who remained active in their later years, when they became what are commonly called senior citizens. It was during these years that these brilliant women managed to crystallise and consolidate the work they had done all of their life, bringing about changes in scientific, artistic, cultural and social fields, leaving behind a legacy of knowledge for future generations. A small host of women representing different disciplines has been chosen here, and all of these women were active in their later life. Many others who could have been included will not be found, not only because there is not enough space here to mention all of them here, but also because there is a lack of sources dealing with the millions of senior heroines who are anonymous; elderly women who play a vital role in the development of humanity when they pass on knowledge and values; women who remain active in their later years and who only retire the day they die

  6. Born Broken: Fonts and Information Loss in Legacy Digital Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For millions of legacy documents, correct rendering depends upon resources such as fonts that are not generally embedded within the document structure. Yet there is a significant risk of information loss due to missing or incorrectly substituted fonts. Large document collections depend on thousands of unique fonts not available on a common desktop workstation, which typically has between 100 and 200 fonts. Silent substitution of fonts, performed by applications such as Microsoft Office, can yield poorly rendered documents. In this paper we use a collection of 230,000 Word documents to assess the difficulty of matching font requirements with a database of fonts. We describe the identifying information contained in common font formats, font requirements stored in Word documents, the API provided by Windows to support font requests by applications, the documented substitution algorithms used by Windows when requested fonts are not available, and the ways in which support software might be used to control font substitution in a preservation environment.

  7. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  8. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  9. Who cares? The lost legacy of Archie Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Sandset, Tony; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 20 years, the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has sought to develop standardised approaches to patient treatment by drawing on research results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration and its eponym, Archie Cochrane, have become symbols of this development, and Cochrane's book Effectiveness and Efficiency from 1972 is often referred to as the first sketch of what was to become EBM. In this article, we claim that this construction of EBM's historical roots is based on a selective reading of Cochrane's text. Through a close reading of this text, we show that the principal aim of modern EBM, namely to warrant clinical decisions based on evidence drawn from RCTs, is not part of Cochrane's original project. He had more modest ambitions for what RCTs can accomplish, and, more importantly, he was more concerned with care and equality than are his followers in the EBM movement. We try to reconstruct some of Cochrane's lost legacy and to articulate some of the important silences in Effectiveness and Efficiency From these clues it might be possible, we argue, to remodel EBM in a broader, more pluralistic, more democratic and less authoritarian manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  11. The raven flights: intersemiotic translations and legacy for media arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helciclever Barros da Silva Vitoriano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop some comments and comparisons between Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” (1845 and his essay “Philosophy of Composition” (1846, as part of a semiotic translation of that poem, notably in the movie industry, visual arts, HQ and other productions intermedia, with the theoretical and critical pillars initially based on Poe’s poetry itself. In terms of methodology, inter-semiotic and intermediality translation studies played a major role. Among the findings of this article, there is the genetic potential of the crow to interartistical and inter-semiotic transpositions, which are strongly anchored to the Philosophy of Composition, which was and still is an ode to the meticulous artistic work, and, at the same time, the poetic modern tale and an important pre-media trail, to signal and anticipate some features still felt in the literary, visual, and cinematographic arts today. As of Poe´s legacy to the cinema, the first film directors and producers soon realized the strength of the seventh art to translate into few images larger contexts, as the biographical ones, and they also realized the cinematographic potential in merging real and fictional stories, documenting and aestheticizing reality. Cinema was, then, perceived as a new and strong expression, able to generate new meanings and lead the viewer, which was the way Poe used to refer to narrative and poetic literature.

  12. John Snow’s legacy: epidemiology without borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-01-01

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11–12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow’s example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world. PMID:23582396

  13. Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, Michael P; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Baeten, Lander; Midolo, Gabriele; Blondeel, Haben; Depauw, Leen; Landuyt, Dries; Maes, Sybryn L; De Lombaerde, Emiel; Carón, Maria Mercedes; Vellend, Mark; Brunet, Jörg; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dörfler, Inken; Durak, Tomasz; De Frenne, Pieter; Gilliam, Frank S; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hommel, Patrick; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kirby, Keith J; Kopecký, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan; Li, Daijiang; Máliš, František; Mitchell, Fraser J G; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Petřík, Petr; Reczyńska, Kamila; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Van Calster, Hans; Vild, Ondřej; Wagner, Eva Rosa; Wulf, Monika; Verheyen, Kris

    2018-04-01

    The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental changes to interact with land-use legacies given different community trajectories initiated by prior management, and subsequent responses to altered resources and conditions. We tested this expectation for species richness and functional traits using 1814 survey-resurvey plot pairs of understorey communities from 40 European temperate forest datasets, syntheses of management transitions since the year 1800, and a trait database. We also examined how plant community indicators of resources and conditions changed in response to management legacies and environmental change. Community trajectories were clearly influenced by interactions between management legacies from over 200 years ago and environmental change. Importantly, higher rates of nitrogen deposition led to increased species richness and plant height in forests managed less intensively in 1800 (i.e., high forests), and to decreases in forests with a more intensive historical management in 1800 (i.e., coppiced forests). There was evidence that these declines in community variables in formerly coppiced forests were ameliorated by increased rates of temperature change between surveys. Responses were generally apparent regardless of sites' contemporary management classifications, although sometimes the management transition itself, rather than historic or contemporary management types, better explained understorey responses. Main effects of environmental change were rare, although higher rates of precipitation change increased plant height, accompanied by increases in fertility indicator values. Analysis of indicator values suggested the importance of directly characterising resources and conditions to better

  14. Intergenerational Neighborhood Attainment and the Legacy of Racial Residential Segregation: A Causal Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Jeremy

    2017-08-01

    Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent's exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life. The urban continuity pathway captures the temporal consistency of the built and topographical environment in providing similar residential opportunities across generations. Findings from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. Census data indicate that the legacy effect of racial residential segregation among black families operates primarily through the neighborhood effects that influence children growing up. For white families, there is less support for the legacy effects of segregation. The findings are supported by a comprehensive mediation analysis that provides a formal sensitivity analysis, deploys an instrumental variable, and assesses effect heterogeneity. Knowledge of the legacy of segregation moves neighborhood attainment research beyond point-in-time studies of racial residential segregation to provide a deeper understanding into the ways stratified residential environments are reproduced.

  15. Sports Mega-Events: Reflections About the Legacies of Uefa Euro Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Soares Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay conducted a literature review of the legacy of sports mega-events, emphasizing the UEFA European Championship. In order to review the academic literature about the subject, we used the following keywords: legacies; sports mega-events and its legacies; UEFA European Championship; and their corresponding terms in Spanish and Portuguese. It was also reviewed some important research basis: Annals; BVS; DOAJ; EBSCO; REDALYC; Periódicos CAPES; PubMed; Scielo; Scopus; Science Direct; and, Scholar Google. The results were analyzed by categories. Regarding the sport mega-event Eurocopa, it was found that the tourism legacies, the economics impacts and the social aspect have been discussed more often, as well as projections and predictions of events that will occur later. It was also concluded that most of the articles shows an absence of discussion about the negative impacts of sports mega-events. It is therefore recommended to use standard methods with comparisons of results and longitudinal studies to better understand the impacts and the use of legacy.

  16. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  17. In water thermal imaging comparison of the Alcon legacy and AMO sovereign phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Miller, Kevin; D Olson, Michael

    2008-02-15

    To compare the temperature profiles of 2 popular phacoemulsification units under similar operating conditions in water. The phacoemulsification probes of the Sovereign WhiteStar and Legacy AdvanTec were capped with water-filled test chambers and imaged side-by-side using a thermal camera. The highest temperature of each chamber was measured at several time points after power application. Testing was performed under conditions capable of producing a corneal burn. The Legacy was operated in pulse mode at 15 Hz; a 50% duty cycle; and console power settings of 10, 30, 50 and 100%. The Sovereign was operated at the same console settings in WhiteStar C/F pulse mode at 56 Hz and a 33% duty cycle. Under all conditions (powers of 10, 30, 50 and 100%; with or without irrigation/aspiration flow; and with or without sleeve compression), the Sovereign generated higher temperatures than the Legacy. At irrigation/aspiration flow rates ≥ 5 cc/min, the temperature profiles of the 2 units were indistinguishable. The Sovereign WhiteStar ran hotter than the Legacy AdvanTec under a variety of controlled low flow operating conditions. The Sovereign WhiteStar is more likely than the Legacy AdvanTec to produce a corneal burn under low flow conditions.

  18. Legacies of flood reduction on a dryland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Hazelton, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Bill Williams (Arizona) is a regulated dryland river that is being managed, in part, for biodiversity via flow management. To inform management, we contrasted riparian plant communities between the Bill Williams and an upstream free-flowing tributary (Santa Maria). Goals of a first study (1996-1997) were to identify environmental controls on herbaceous species richness and compare richness among forest types. Analyses revealed that herbaceous species richness was negatively related to woody stem density, basal area and litter cover and positively related to light levels. Introduced Tamarix spp. was more frequent at the Bill Williams, but all three main forest types (Tamarix, Salix/Populus, Prosopis) had low understory richness, as well as high stem density and low light, on the Bill Williams as compared to the Santa Maria. The few edaphic differences between rivers (higher salinity at Bill Williams) had only weak connections with richness. A second study (2006-2007) focused on floristic richness at larger spatial scales. It revealed that during spring, and for the study cumulatively (spring and fall samplings combined), the riparian zone of the unregulated river had considerably more plant species. Annuals (vs. herbaceous perennials and woody species) showed the largest between-river difference. Relative richness of exotic (vs. native) species did not differ. We conclude that: (1) The legacy of reduced scouring frequency and extent at the Bill Williams has reduced the open space available for colonization by annuals; and (2) Change in forest biomass structure, more so than change in forest composition, is the major driver of changes in plant species richness along this flow-altered river. Our study informs dryland river management options by revealing trade-offs that exist between forest biomass structure and plant species richness. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  20. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  1. O legado de Foucault The Legacy of Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O livro O Legado de Foucault, resultado de seminário homônimo realizado na Unesp/Araraquara - SP em 2004, realiza um amplo debate acerca da influência teórica do pensador francês sobre as ciências humanas contemporâneas. A diversidade de temas discutidos, agrupados em seis grupos temáticos (Arquivos; Engajamentos e resistências; Feminismos; Amizade, corpo e estética da existência; Direito, violência e controle social; e Percursos filosóficos, faz justiça à pluralidade do pensamento de Foucault e explora as incontáveis possibilidades por ele abertas. Se o livro pretende tratar da influência teórica do autor sobre as ciências humanas contemporâneas, ele acaba oferecendo uma ocasião para se compreender como as ciências sociais brasileiras, em particular as desenvolvidas nas universidades públicas paulistas, estão trabalhando e se renovando através de suas idéias.The book O Legado de Foucault (The Legacy of Foucault is the result of a seminar with the same name held in Unesp / Araraquara - SP in 2004, and it presents a debate about the wide theoretical influence of the French thinker on the contemporary human sciences. The diversity of topics discussed, grouped into six thematic groups (Archives, Engagement and resistance; Feminisms; Friendship, body and aesthetics of existence; Law, violence and social control; and Philosophical paths, does justice to the plurality of Foucault's thought and explores the endless possibilities he opened up. The book intends to address the author's theoretical influence on the contemporary human sciences, and it provides an opportunity to understand how the social sciences in Brazil, particularly those developed in the public universities of the state of São Paulo, are working and renewed by his ideas.

  2. Fat, demented and stupid: An unrecognized legacy of pediatric urology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    The human body is an unfathomably intricate structure consisting of many connected and intertwined systems. This makes it impossible for therapeutic interventions to selectively target only one physiologic system without some impact or side effects on all the other systems. The resiliency of the human body modifies and disguises side effects, some of which may be undetectable for years and not apparent without scientific investigation. Pediatric urologists employ relatively few medications for the common conditions they treat and in general these consist of antibiotics, anticholinergics, and anesthetics. Although harm from early side effects is well recognized, recent medical literature suggests there may be other side effects of these common interventions that aren't as well recognized. Antibiotics have been added to livestock feed as growth promoters for three-quarters of a century. Antibiotics alter the microbiota of the intestinal tract and these alterations have been demonstrated to impact growth, metabolism, and the risk of obesity in animals and humans. To date, the long-term impact of daily antibiotic prophylaxis in children with such pediatric urology conditions as vesicoureteral reflux or prenatal hydronephrosis have not been published. Similarly, there are no studies assessing long-term effects of anticholinergic use on cognition in children despite research demonstrating an increased risk of dementia in adults using anticholinergics. Research in animals and children recently led the FDA to issue a warning regarding the risk of lengthy use of general anesthesia on cognitive development in children. This review raises the possibility that antibiotics in children may alter growth, anticholinergics may increase their risk of dementia later in life, and anesthetics may impair their cognitive development. The possibility of such an unrecognized legacy from current therapeutic interventions should give all physicians, including pediatric urologists, pause for

  3. THE CHANDRA COSMOS LEGACY SURVEY: OPTICAL/IR IDENTIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cardamone, C. [Department of Science, Wheelock College, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Griffiths, R. E. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-01-20

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra  COSMOS-Legacy  Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra  program on the 2.2 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  4. The NSIDC DAAC's Role in Sustaining the IPY Data Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. L.; Kaminski, M.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Snow and Ice Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC DAAC) has been awarded a follow-on contract for the coming five years. The scope of this work is specific to NASA's Earth Observing Priorities but meshes well with International Polar Year needs. We will discuss the intended tasks for the NSIDC DAAC in relation to the needs for IPY data management, pointing out challenges to either the DAAC specifically or to the IPY community generally. The challenges to the NSIDC DAAC include better integration of our legacy data with our Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite mission data, and integration of our data and systems with the greater data management community and programs such as the IPY. We must continually improve the ways we describe and deliver our data to users, enhancing their ability to use it in innovative ways. Our approaches to meeting these objectives include: Adapting our data systems to the ever-changing user needs and technology landscape. Major thrusts include deriving gains in programmer and software engineer efficiency through greater standardization of software development processes; increasing use of subsetting to deliver larger quantities of data with available network bandwidth; standardizing metadata within the NSIDC DAAC and between our data center collaborators; harmonizing formats and spatial/temporal coverages for data and data types to enable more powerful visualization, online analysis and data integration. Implementing existing and new geophysical algorithms for cryospheric and polar processes including sea ice concentration and types, ice surface temperature, sea ice motion, ice sheet topography and ice volume change, surface albedo, snow extent, and snow water equivalent. Acquiring new data streams and developing new data products (including new data types and improved formats) to meet NASA and EOS science objectives for the cryosphere and polar regions.

  5. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.

  6. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  7. Lessons learned in planning the Canadian Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael E.; Brooks, Sheila M.; Miller, Joan M.; Mason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) began implementing a $7B CDN, 70-year Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) to deal with legacy decommissioning and environmental issues at AECL nuclear sites. The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interest of Canadians. The liabilities include shutdown research and prototype power reactors, fuel handling facilities, radiochemical laboratories, support buildings, radioactive waste storage facilities, and contaminated lands at several sites located across eastern Canada from Quebec to Manitoba. The largest site, Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, will continue as an operational nuclear site for the foreseeable future. Planning and delivery of the Program is managed by the Liability Management Unit (LMU), a group that was formed within AECL for the purpose. The composition and progress of the NLLP has been reported in recent conferences. The NLLP comprises a number of interlinked decommissioning, waste management and environmental restoration activities that are being executed at different sites, and by various technical groups as suppliers to the LMU. Many lessons about planning and executing such a large, diverse Program have been learned in planning the initial five-year 'start-up' phase (which will conclude 2011 March), in planning the five-year second phase (which is currently being finalized), and in planning individual and interacting activities within the Program. The activities to be undertaken in the start-up phase were planned by a small group of AECL technical experts using the currently available information on the liabilities. Progress in executing the Program was slower than anticipated due to less than ideal alignment between some planned technical solutions and the actual requirements, as well as the

  8. The European Legacy in Africa, the African Legacy in Europe: Postcolonial Violence and the Specter of Genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Jalušič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on selected elements of the European legacy in Africa that frame the twentieth century in a crucial way. They mark the “Western” picture of the world during that period, and they contributed to the perpetration of major atrocities on the African continent on a scale that invites comparison with the Holocaust – that is, the genocide of Namibian Hereros at the beginning of the twentieth century and the genocide of the Rwandan Tutsis at its end. This paper also discusses elements of the African legacy in Europe – particularly the emergence and transfer of a new form of power that depends on the experience of imperialism as central to the “Western” worldview – and the question of how one can explain this. The Rwandan genocide in 1994 did not represent a repetition or even an approximation of the European Holocaust, just as the Herero genocide (1904–8 cannot be seen as its forerunner, although they all share many points in common. The Rwandan genocide is qualitatively different from both: it represents a new development in the nature of the atrocity, in which the victims become the killers. A better understanding of it could therefore also shed light on some related, but different, events, such as “humanitarian interventions” and the “war against terror.” This contribution draws on some recent historical studies and builds on the analysis of imperialism, race, and bureaucracy in Hannah Arendt’s work; it is also inspired by the works of some authors that adopted the Arendtian analysis of totalitarianism, such as Mahmood Mamdani. The article focuses on the organization of the colonial and postcolonial bureaucratic apparatus of rule, its special form of non-state power, and its connection with “race,” “tribe,” and “tradition” as crucial elements of post-totalitarian forms of government and new forms of identitarian collective violence. The main aim is not so much to analyze the Rwanda genocide

  9. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela’s Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrehet Gebremedhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after South Africa’s democratization, Nelson Mandela’s passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela’s thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic development, and education as a means to social justice, human rights, and democracy. Assessing the legacy of these twin emphases, we conducted qualitative and quantitative content analysis of turning point documents in education policy and annual reports from the respective South African ministries of education over the last two decades. Our analysis reveals that although a focus on education policy for economic development has consistently remained strong, Mandela’s view of education serving to foster social justice, inter-racial equality, human rights, and a deepening of democracy has faded in official educational policy discourse.

  10. Design Legacies: Why Service Designers Cannot Embed Design in the Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Much talk about service design has focused on how to bring design practices, design thinking and design methods into an organization in order to transform or change the way it is going about business. There is only one thing that researchers and practitioners have overlooked: Design principles......, methods and practices are already deeply embedded in organizations. That is, in fact, the real problem: Organizations are full of design legacies, however flawed and poorly suited. If service designers want to effect real change in real organizations, they have to be able to articulate...... these organizational design practices. This paper explains the concept of design legacies and describes three elements of organizational design legacies: organizational purpose, organizational design approaches and organizational design practices. Using a matrix developed around designing for, with and by, the paper...

  11. A Novel Technique for Running the NASA Legacy Code LAPIN Synchronously With Simulations Developed Using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrnak, Daniel R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a method for running a dynamic legacy inlet simulation in concert with another dynamic simulation that uses a graphical interface. The legacy code, NASA's LArge Perturbation INlet (LAPIN) model, was coded using the FORTRAN 77 (The Portland Group, Lake Oswego, OR) programming language to run in a command shell similar to other applications that used the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA) is a dynamic simulation that runs on a modern graphical operating system. The product of this work has both simulations, LAPIN and Simulink, running synchronously on the same computer with periodic data exchanges. Implementing the method described in this paper avoided extensive changes to the legacy code and preserved its basic operating procedure. This paper presents a novel method that promotes inter-task data communication between the synchronously running processes.

  12. Paralympic Legacy: Exploring the Impact of the Games on the Perceptions of Young People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Janine; Vickerman, Philip B

    2016-10-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11-16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.

  13. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Weitzman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3− is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3− was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3− from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 % and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 % horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 % horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations

  14. The Impact of Oregon's Pension Legacy Costs on New Teacher Turnover and Quality. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin E.; Dyke, Andrew; Tapogna, John

    2016-01-01

    Pension legacy costs can restrict the amount of resources available for current public education, potentially making it more difficult to attract and retain high-quality teachers. Oregon provides a useful case study in pension legacy costs because many school districts in the state are now reallocating General Fund expenditures to cover sizeable…

  15. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Program Update, April-June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    Welcome to the April-June 2009 issue of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Program Update. This publication is designed to provide a status of activities within LM. The Legacy Management goals are: (1) Protect human health and the environment through effective and efficient long-term surveillance and maintenance - This goal highlights DOE's responsibility to ensure long-term protection of people, the environment, and the integrity of engineered remedies and monitoring systems. (2) Preserve, protect, and make accessible legacy records and information - This goal recognizes LM's commitment to successfully manage records, information, and archives of legacy sites under its authority. (3) Support an effective and efficient work force structured to accomplish Departmental missions and assure continuity of contractor worker pension and medical benefits - This goal recognizes DOE's commitment to its contracted work force and the consistent management of pension and health benefits. As sites continue to close, DOE faces the challenges of managing pension plan and health benefits liability. (4) Manage legacy land and assets, emphasizing protective real and personal property reuse and disposition - This goal recognizes a DOE need for local collaborative management of legacy assets, including coordinating land use planning, personal property disposition to community reuse organizations, and protecting heritage resources (natural, cultural, and historical). (5) Improve program effectiveness through sound management - This goal recognizes that LM's goals cannot be attained efficiently unless the federal and contractor work force is motivated to meet requirements and work toward continuous performance improvement.

  16. Legacy sediment storage in New England river valleys: anthropogenic processes in a postglacial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N. P.; Johnson, K. M.; Waltner, M.; Hopkins, A. J.; Dow, S.; Ames, E.; Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Walter and Merritts (2008, and subsequent papers) show that legacy sediment associated with deposition in millponds is a common feature in river valleys of the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont region, with 1-5 m of fine sand and silt overlying Holocene soil and Pleistocene periglacial deposits. For this project, we seek to test the hypothesis that these field relationships are seen in New England, a formerly glaciated region with similar history and intensity of forest clearing and milldam construction during the 17-19th centuries. We study three watersheds, using field observations of bank stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and mapping of terraces and floodplains using lidar digital elevation models and other GIS datasets. The 68 km2 South River watershed in western Massachusetts exhibits the most extensive evidence for legacy sediment storage. We visited 17 historic dam sites in the watershed and found field evidence for fine sand and silt legacy sediment storage at 14, up to 2.2 m thick. In the 558 km2 Sheepscot River watershed in coastal Maine, we visited 12 historic dam sites, and found likely legacy sediment at six, up to 2.3 m thick. In the 171 km2 upper Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts, we investigated 14 dam sites, and found legacy sediment at two, up to 1.8 m thick. Stratigraphically, we identified the base of legacy sediment from a change in grain size to gravel at most sites, or to Pleistocene marine clay at some Sheepscot River sites. In the Sheepscot River, we observed cut timbers underlying historic sediment at several locations, likely associated with sawmill activities. Only at the Charles River were we able to radiocarbon date the underlying gravel (1281-1391 calibrated CE). At no site did we find a buried Holocene soil, in contrast to the field relations commonly observed in the Mid-Atlantic region. This may indicate that the New England sites have eroded to the pre-historic river bed, not floodplain surfaces. We attribute the variation in

  17. A Balance of Primary and Secondary Values: Exploring a Digital Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Cushing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research explores the concept of a digital legacy as a general concept and as a collection of digital possessions with unique characteristics. The results reported in this article are part of a larger study. In Cushing (2013, the author identified the characteristics of a digital possession. In this study, these characteristics of a digital possession were utilized to explore how the characteristics of several digital possessions could form a collection, or a digital legacy. In addition to being explored as a collection of digital possessions, data was collected about the general concept of a digital legacy. In part I of the study, 23 participants from three age groups were interviewed about their general concept of a digital legacy. Five general characteristics describing a digital legacy were identified. In part II of the study, interview data from Cushing (2013 was used to create statements describing digital possessions. The statements were classified utilizing the archival concept of primary and secondary values, as well as the consumer behavior concepts of self extension to possessions and possession attachment. Primary value refers to the purpose for which the item was created, while secondary value refers to an additional value that the participants can perceive the item to hold, such as a perception that an item can represent one's identity. Using standard Q method procedure, 48 participants were directed to rank their agreement with 60 statements (written on cards, along a distribution of -5 to +5, according to the characteristics of the digital possession they would most like to maintain for a digital legacy. The ranked statements were analyzed using Q factor analysis, in order to perceive the most common statements associated with maintaining digital possessions for a digital legacy. Q method results suggested that most individuals described the digital possessions they wanted to maintain for a digital legacy using

  18. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  19. THE CHANDRA COSMOS-LEGACY SURVEY: THE z > 3 SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Shankar, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Comastri, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Gilli, R. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Elvis, M. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Trakhtenbrot, B.; Schawinski, K. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fiore, F. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Griffiths, R. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-08-20

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z {sub phot}). In this work, we treat z {sub phot} as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z {sub phot} < 3 but z {sub phot} probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5–2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1}), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ∼20 from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 6. The observed decline is ∼80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s{sup −1} < logL(2–10 keV) < 44.1 erg s{sup −1}) from z ∼ 3 to z ∼ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1}, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ∼ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at log L (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s{sup −1} with respect to our data.

  20. An Invitation to the Improved Yohkoh Legacy data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, A.; Acton, L. W.; McKenzie, D.; Yoshimura, K.; Freeland, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Yohkoh Legacy data Archive (YLA) is a unique source of solar X-ray images and spectra obtained with the Yohkoh satellite(1991-2001). The archive consists of four levels of data products from raw to highly value added, with ample amount of documentation and user-friendly web interface (http://solar.physics.montana.edu/ylegacy). The YLA is also unique in that quality and variety of the products and services have been constantly improved through these nine years after the completion of the satellite mission. Our recent improvements are: (1) Completion of the stray light correction, applied to the data after the SXT entrance filter failure in 1992. (2) Completion of the satellite attitude data correction. (3) E-mail based individual user support (E-consultant service). (4) New FITS header definition with World Coordinate System compliance. (5) Update of SXT response function based on the latest atomic data and models (Chianti 6.0.1). (6) Introduction of a new data category, Level 3, for co-aligned composite images suitable for browsing in movie mode. The main body of our archive (data from the Soft X-ray Telescope) are provided in both Yohkoh-specific (XDA) and FITS formats. The XDA format is convenient for analysis with existing SSW/Yohkoh software that runs under IDL. The more general FITS format enables use of advanced SSW applications developed in the various missions after Yohkoh. FITS products do not specifically require IDL to read and view images, which allows our products to be accessed from a wide range of communities. Our products can be accessed through our quick-look and data-search web services, and also through the Virtual Solar Observatory data search. Since 2009, YLA is funded as one of NASA's Resident Archives in Virtual Observatories for Heliophysics Data program. Through the funds, we take responsibility for maintaining the best corrected data sets, and providing the easy access and user support. The top page of the YLA web interface

  1. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  2. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  3. Ripples from a Passing Ship: Memories; and a Legacy of Richard Peters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines aspects and dimensions of my "relationship" with Richard Peters from 1966 onward. The underlying suggestion is that, while Peters' contribution to philosophy of education was undeniably of major proportions, both that contribution and his legacy are institutional rather than substantive. (Contains 15 notes.)

  4. The oak tree in history and its legacy in the Western Cape | Kemp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly the change from forest to urban tree and its consequent contribution to our historical and architectural legacies are presented. The essay relies on a mix of primary, secondary as well as popular sources like web pages and ordinary literature and does not claim to be botany specific. Where appropriate, scientific ...

  5. The first exposure assessment of legacy and unrestricted brominated flame retardants in predatory birds of Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to legacy polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and unrestricted 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis (2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) was examined in tail fea...

  6. Kirkham’s legacy and contemporary challenges in soil physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper, written by the winners of the Don and Betty Kirkham Award in Soil Physics, is dedicated to the legacy of Don Kirkham. It describes eight longstanding or emerging research areas in soil physics that contain key unsolved problems. All are field-oriented with applications to a number of imp...

  7. The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of colonial proposals and legislations dating back to the early 19th century. The social sciences and humanities still carry disciplinary burdens that need revisiting as we attempt to think of new educational strategies for the 21st century.

  8. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  9. 75 FR 64318 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... H118435 HkP CATEGORY: Marking Mr. Keith Andrews, President Fairplay Electric Cars 743 Horizon Ct., Suite..., requesting a final determination on behalf of Fairplay Electric Cars, LLC (``Fairplay''), pursuant to subpart... Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  10. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Casertano, Stefano; Cassata, Paolo; Castellano, Marco; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dahlen, Tomas; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Haeussler, Boris; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; van der Wel, Arjen; Villforth, Carolin; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan, Hao-Jing; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, over the approximate redshift (z) range 8-1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope, from the

  11. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  12. Legacy data sharing to improve drug safety assessment: the eTOX project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Ferran; Pognan, François; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The sharing of legacy preclinical safety data among pharmaceutical companies and its integration with other information sources offers unprecedented opportunities to improve the early assessment of drug safety. Here, we discuss the experience of the eTOX project, which was established through the...

  13. Colorism, a Legacy of Historical Trauma in Parent-Child Relationships: Clinical, Research, and Personal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marva L.; Noroña, Carmen Rosa; McConnico, Neena; Thomas, Kandace

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners need to be aware of the intergenerational transmission of historical trauma in families with young children. One legacy of historical trauma, "colorism"--valuing light skin over dark skin--occurs among many oppressed indigenous, ethnic, racial, and cultural groups around the world. The unconscious hierarchy and privilege…

  14. Legacies and Traditions of Counseling Psychology: When the Past Is Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen W.; Vacha-Haase, Tammi

    2010-01-01

    The Legacies & Traditions Forum has a rich past of documenting individual contributions to the profession of counseling psychology. The history of this forum, as well as early contributors and journal articles, are identified. Themes that emerged from a review of past oral biographies include changes in the work setting for counseling…

  15. Taking the Next Step: Confronting the Legacies of Slavery at Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Linnea; Wickens, K. Allison; Jecha, Jackie; Powell, Linda; Hawkins, Callie; Flanagan, Candra

    2017-01-01

    "Slavery is the ground zero of race relations," declared James and Lois Horton in their groundbreaking book, "Slavery and Public History." Engaging the history and legacy of slavery is a crucial step in understanding current U.S. society especially race relations. Historic sites that have connections to slavery have begun to…

  16. The future of mega sport events : Examining the ‘Dutch Approach’ to legacy planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, S.; Zandberg, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Mega sport events (MSE) are immensely popular but also highly criticized because these nclude large public budgets and involve politically sensitive topics. In this context, there is an increasing attention toward legacy planning, the effort to confer long-term benefits to a host

  17. Legacy data sharing to improve drug safety assessment : the eTOX project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, Ferran; Pognan, François; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Díaz, Carlos; Cases, Montserrat; Pastor, Manuel; Marc, Philippe; Wichard, Joerg; Briggs, Katharine; Watson, David K; Kleinöder, Thomas; Yang, Chihae; Amberg, Alexander; Beaumont, Maria; Brookes, Anthony J; Brunak, Søren; Cronin, Mark T D; Ecker, Gerhard F; Escher, Sylvia; Greene, Nigel; Guzmán, Antonio; Hersey, Anne; Jacques, Pascale; Lammens, Lieve; Mestres, Jordi; Muster, Wolfgang; Northeved, Helle; Pinches, Marc; Saiz, Javier; Sajot, Nicolas; Valencia, Alfonso; van der Lei, Johan; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Vock, Esther; Wolber, Gerhard; Zamora, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    The sharing of legacy preclinical safety data among pharmaceutical companies and its integration with other information sources offers unprecedented opportunities to improve the early assessment of drug safety. Here, we discuss the experience of the eTOX project, which was established through the

  18. The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of colonial proposals and legislations dating back to the early 19th century. The social sciences and humanities still carry disciplinary burdens that need revisiting as we attempt to think of new educational strategies for the 21st century.

  19. Leaving a Legacy Neutralizes Negative Effects of Death Anxiety on Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, Daniel J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Mortality salience (MS) can lead to a paralyzing terror, and to cope with this, people strive for literal or symbolic immortality. As MS leads to conformity and narrow-mindedness, we predicted that MS would lead to lower creativity, unless creativity itself could lead to leaving a legacy and thus

  20. Leaving a legacy neutralizes negative effects of death anxiety on creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, D.J.; Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Mortality salience (MS) can lead to a paralyzing terror, and to cope with this, people strive for literal or symbolic immortality. As MS leads to conformity and narrow-mindedness, we predicted that MS would lead to lower creativity, unless creativity itself could lead to leaving a legacy and thus

  1. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  2. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  3. Julia Kristeva’s Semanalysis and the Legacy of Émile Benveniste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, M.; Semetsky, I.

    2017-01-01

    This essay addresses Julia Kristeva’s concept of semanalysis in view of the legacy of Émile Benveniste . Both scholars shared a critical approach to semiotics. Kristeva followed Benveniste’s footsteps in looking for support in psychoanalytic theory in order to better understand the genealogy of the

  4. Julia Kristeva’s Semanalysis and the Legacy of Émile Benveniste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, M.; Bankov, K.

    2017-01-01

    This essay describes the legacy of Émile Benveniste in the semanalysis of Julia Kristeva and their Wahlverwantschaft, also on a more personal level. They shared her criticism on semiotics, she followed his footsteps in looking for support in psychoanalytic theory in order to understand the genealogy

  5. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  6. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  7. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak

  8. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey : II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekeraite, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Perez, E.; Perez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R. -J.; Demleitner, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Marmol-Queralto, E.; Marquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Molla, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  9. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; López-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  10. An indicator framework to assess the legacy impacts of the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing legacy impacts entails monitoring and evaluating the long-terms effects of mega events which is a neglected area of research. Most researchers on mega events focus ... to sustainability imperatives. Furthermore, examining long-term outcomes are central to informing future bidding and planning of mega events.

  11. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Forsstrom, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH center dot reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar

  12. Creation and implementation of the international information system for radiation legacy of the USSR 'RADLEG'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The stating of radiological problem of the radiation legacy of the Soviet and Russian military and civil programs of the nuclear fuel cycle have became possible after 'cold war' termination. The objective of the 'RADLEG' project is 'Development of a sophisticated computer based data system for evaluation of the radiation legacy of the former USSR and setting priorities on remediation and prevention policy'. The goal of the 'RADLEG' Project Phase 1 was creation of a simple operational database to be linked to GIS, describing currently available information on radiation legacy of the former USSR. During the Project Phase 2 the public accessible database linked to GIS has been developed. This GIS data system containing comprehensive information on the radiation legacy of the former Soviet Union has been developed in order to aid policy makers in two principle areas: to identify and set priorities on radiation safety problems, and to provide guidance for the development of technically, economically and socially sound policies to reduce health and environmental impact of radioactively contaminated sites. (author)

  13. Genocidal gender and sexual violence. The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda's ordinary courts and gacaca courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitesi, U.

    2013-01-01

    This study has set out to investigate the legacy of post-genocide judicial institutions mandated to adjudicate cases of genocide and related offences vis-à-vis genocidal gender and sexual violence. The study takes the complex genocidal experience of victims of gender and sexual violence as the

  14. Living out our values: the legacy of Christian academic nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeling, Harriet V; Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Thompson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Retired academic nursing leaders possess a rich legacy of knowledge. Using a grounded theory approach, knowledge possessed by 14 retired Christian Chairperson/Deans was explored. Two themes representing commitment to living out Christian values; and fortitude, understanding, and spiritual guidance emerged from written responses to open-ended survey questions.

  15. Creating "Visual Legacies": Infographics as a Means of Interpreting and Sharing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charee M.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by the principle "good data presentation is timeless," (Cressey, 2014, p.305), this unit project challenges students to engage an alternative means of sharing communication research and to realize the potential for their presentations to become "visual legacies" through the creation of infographics. Students encounter…

  16. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch-Founder of Medical Microbiology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch - Founder of Medical Microbiology. Jaya S Tyagi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 20-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. "Work and Leisure in Country Schools in Wyoming." Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Andrew; And Others

    The country school legacy of Wyoming is rich in history, folklore, and tradition. Materials (many anecdotal) gathered from school records, oral histories, autobiographies, and memoirs provide glimpses into the diverse and demanding role of frontier teachers (who were mostly female and, by contract requirement, usually single) and the work and…

  18. The VLT/X-shooter GRB afterglow legacy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Lex; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Pugliese, Vanna; van Rest, Daan

    2017-11-01

    The Swift satellite allows us to use gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to peer through the hearts of star forming galaxies through cosmic time. Our open collaboration, representing most of the active European researchers in this field, builds a public legacy sample of GRB X-shooter spectroscopy while Swift continues to fly. To date, our spectroscopy of more than 100 GRB afterglows covers a redshift range from 0.059 to about 8 (Tanvir et al. 2009, Nature 461, 1254), with more than 20 robust afterglow-based metallicity measurements (over a redshift range from 1.7 to 5.9). With afterglow spectroscopy (throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-rays to the sub-mm) we can hence characterize the properties of star-forming galaxies over cosmic history in terms of redshift, metallicity, molecular content, ISM temperature, UV-flux density, etc.. These observations provide key information on the final evolution of the most massive stars collapsing into black holes, with the potential of probing the epoch of the formation of the first (very massive) stars. VLT/X-shooter (Vernet et al. 2011, A&A 536, A105) is in many ways the ideal GRB follow-up instrument and indeed GRB follow-up was one of the primary science cases behind the instrument design and implementation. Due to the wide wavelength coverage of X-shooter, in the same observation one can detect molecular H2 absorption near the atmospheric cut-off and many strong emission lines from the host galaxy in the near-infrared (e.g., Friis et al. 2015, MNRAS 451, 167). For example, we have measured a metallicity of 0.1 Z ⊙ for GRB 100219A at z = 4.67 (Thöne et al. 2013, MNRAS 428, 3590), 0.02 Z ⊙ for GRB 111008A at z = 4.99 (Sparre et al. 2014, ApJ 785, 150) and 0.05 Z ⊙ for GRB 130606A at z = 5.91 (Hartoog et al. 2015, A&A 580, 139). In the latter, the very high value of [Al/Fe]=2.40 +/- 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and may be a signature of a previous generation of massive (perhaps even the first) stars

  19. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  20. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  1. Coupled Calculations in Helical Steam Generator: Validation on Legacy Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzari, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yuan, Haomin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ferencz, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    programs, especially at the design stage. Over the past five years, the Reactor Product Line has developed the integrated multi-physics code suite SHARP. The goal of developing such a tool is to perform multi-physics neutronics, thermal/fluid, and structural mechanics modeling of the components inside the full reactor core or portions of it with a user-specified fidelity. In particular SHARP contains high-fidelity single-physics codes Diablo for structural mechanics and Nek5000 for fluid mechanics calculations. Both codes are state-of-the-art, highly scalable tools that have been extensively validated. These tools form a strong basis on which to build a flow-induced vibration modeling capability. In this report we discuss one-way coupled calculations performed with Nek5000 and Diablo aimed at simulating available FIV experiments in helical steam generators in the turbulent buffeting regime. In this regime one-way coupling is judged sufficient because the pressure loads do not cause substantial displacements. It is also the most common source of vibration in helical steam generators at the low flows expected in integral PWRs. The legacy data is obtained from two datasets developed at Argonne and B&W.

  2. Simulating and quantifying legacy topographic data uncertainty: an initial step to advancing topographic change analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, Thad; Zhu, Zhen; Gares, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Rapid technological advances, sustained funding, and a greater recognition of the value of topographic data have helped develop an increasing archive of topographic data sources. Advances in basic and applied research related to Earth surface changes require researchers to integrate recent high-resolution topography (HRT) data with the legacy datasets. Several technical challenges and data uncertainty issues persist to date when integrating legacy datasets with more recent HRT data. The disparate data sources required to extend the topographic record back in time are often stored in formats that are not readily compatible with more recent HRT data. Legacy data may also contain unknown error or unreported error that make accounting for data uncertainty difficult. There are also cases of known deficiencies in legacy datasets, which can significantly bias results. Finally, scientists are faced with the daunting challenge of definitively deriving the extent to which a landform or landscape has or will continue to change in response natural and/or anthropogenic processes. Here, we examine the question: how do we evaluate and portray data uncertainty from the varied topographic legacy sources and combine this uncertainty with current spatial data collection techniques to detect meaningful topographic changes? We view topographic uncertainty as a stochastic process that takes into consideration spatial and temporal variations from a numerical simulation and physical modeling experiment. The numerical simulation incorporates numerous topographic data sources typically found across a range of legacy data to present high-resolution data, while the physical model focuses on more recent HRT data acquisition techniques. Elevation uncertainties observed from anchor points in the digital terrain models are modeled using "states" in a stochastic estimator. Stochastic estimators trace the temporal evolution of the uncertainties and are natively capable of incorporating sensor

  3. On rivalry and goal pursuit: Shared competitive history, legacy concerns, and strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Benjamin A; Reinhard, David A

    2016-02-01

    Seven studies converge to show that prompting people to think about a rival versus a nonrival competitor causes them to view current competitions as more connected to past ones, to be more concerned with long-term legacy, and to pursue personal goals in a more eager, less cautious manner. These results are consistent with a social-cognitive view of rivalry that defines it as a competitive relational schema. A preliminary analysis revealed that people were more likely to appeal to past competitions to explain the importance of current rivalry than nonrivalry contests. Experiment 1 showed that people view rivalry versus nonrivalry competitions as more embedded in an ongoing competitive narrative and that this perception increases legacy concerns. The next 2 experiments used a causal chain approach to examine the possibility of legacy concerns acting as a mediator between rivalry and eagerness. Experiment 2a demonstrated that longer (vs. shorter) competitive histories are associated with increased legacy concerns. Experiment 2b manipulated legacy concerns and found that this shifted regulatory focus toward eagerness. Finally, 3 experiments tested the direct effect of thinking about a rival on eager strategy selection: Thinking about rivals (vs. nonrivals) led people to be more interested in offensive than defensive strategies (Experiment 3), to initiate rather than delay their goal pursuit (Experiment 4), and to rely on spontaneous rather than deliberative reasoning (Experiment 5). We suggest that rivalries affect how people view their goals and the strategies they use for pursuing them, and that these effects are at least partially attributable to the shared history between individuals and their rivals. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Initial Comparison of Direct and Legacy Modeling Approaches for Radial Core Expansion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Radial core expansion in sodium-cooled fast reactors provides an important reactivity feedback effect. As the reactor power increases due to normal start up conditions or accident scenarios, the core and surrounding materials heat up, causing both grid plate expansion and bowing of the assembly ducts. When the core restraint system is designed correctly, the resulting structural deformations introduce negative reactivity which decreases the reactor power. Historically, an indirect procedure has been used to estimate the reactivity feedback due to structural deformation which relies upon perturbation theory and coupling legacy physics codes with limited geometry capabilities. With advancements in modeling and simulation, radial core expansion phenomena can now be modeled directly, providing an assessment of the accuracy of the reactivity feedback coefficients generated by indirect legacy methods. Recently a new capability was added to the PROTEUS-SN unstructured geometry neutron transport solver to analyze deformed meshes quickly and directly. By supplying the deformed mesh in addition to the base configuration input files, PROTEUS-SN automatically processes material adjustments including calculation of region densities to conserve mass, calculation of isotopic densities according to material models (for example, sodium density as a function of temperature), and subsequent re-homogenization of materials. To verify the new capability of directly simulating deformed meshes, PROTEUS-SN was used to compute reactivity feedback for a series of contrived yet representative deformed configurations for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor design. The indirect legacy procedure was also performed to generate reactivity feedback coefficients for the same deformed configurations. Interestingly, the legacy procedure consistently overestimated reactivity feedbacks by 35% compared to direct simulations by PROTEUS-SN. This overestimation indicates that the legacy procedures are in fact

  5. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  6. MATERNAL PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTING FOLLOWING AN EVIDENCE-BASED PARENTING PROGRAM: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF LEGACY FOR CHILDRENTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sophie A; Robinson, Lara R; Comeau, Dawn L; Claussen, Angelika H; Perou, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of maternal perceptions of parenting following participation in Legacy for Children TM (Legacy), an evidence-based parenting program for low-income mothers of young children and infants. To further examine previous findings and better understand participant experiences, we analyzed semistructured focus-group discussions with predominantly Hispanic and Black, non-Hispanic Legacy mothers at two sites (n = 166) using thematic analysis and grounded theory techniques. The qualitative study presented here investigated how mothers view their parenting following participation in Legacy, allowing participants to describe their experience with the program in their own words, thus capturing an "insider" perspective. Mothers at both sites communicated knowledge and use of positive parenting practices targeted by the goals of Legacy; some site-specific differences emerged related to these parenting practices. These findings align with the interpretation of quantitative results from the randomized controlled trials and further demonstrate the significance of the Legacy program in promoting positive parenting for mothers living in poverty. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding real-world context regarding program efficacy and the benefit of using qualitative research to understand participant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. The use of unmanned aerial systems for the mapping of legacy uranium mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P G; Payton, O D; Fardoulis, J S; Richards, D A; Scott, T B

    2015-05-01

    Historical mining of uranium mineral veins within Cornwall, England, has resulted in a significant amount of legacy radiological contamination spread across numerous long disused mining sites. Factors including the poorly documented and aged condition of these sites as well as the highly localised nature of radioactivity limit the success of traditional survey methods. A newly developed terrain-independent unmanned aerial system [UAS] carrying an integrated gamma radiation mapping unit was used for the radiological characterisation of a single legacy mining site. Using this instrument to produce high-spatial-resolution maps, it was possible to determine the radiologically contaminated land areas and to rapidly identify and quantify the degree of contamination and its isotopic nature. The instrument was demonstrated to be a viable tool for the characterisation of similar sites worldwide. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The Legacy of Tomas Bata to the Information Processing for the Development of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Chvatal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Businessman Tomas Bata was successful also because he was able to work with information efficiently. While it is difficult to compare the work with information twenties with today's information systems, but we can find elements that do not emphasize current systems because the information is accessible anytime, anywhere on-line. One such element is the regularity in information processing and its presentation. The article gives an overview of resources to draw from the legacy of Tomas Bata, the first comparison approach in creating and using of personnel and manufacturing information and how to deal with the legacy of Tomas Bata in information processing. This is done a methodology for upcoming research. Even it can be assumed that the corporation meets the characteristics of Tomas Bata „learning organisation" as we understand in the dimension of the information and knowledge society. Historical development is also confronted with the current state of the information system Bata Shoes Organisation.

  9. Socialist and postsocialist land-use legacies determine farm woodland composition and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, H.

    2014-01-01

    European agroecosystems host a variety of farm woodlands that act as primary determinants of biodiversity and ecosystem services. While woodland areas have been in decline worldwide, they have regionally increased, for example, in Eastern Germany. This study performs a quantitative and spatially...... of variability. Percentages of nonnative (7 %) and coniferous (10 %) individuals are low. The findings suggest that socialist and postsocialist farmland and forest policies translated into distinct land-use legacies in the newly established farm woodlands, which differ considerably from the composition...... and structure of presocialist woodlands. We argue that forest conservation planning should actively consider land-use legacies, which are of particular relevance in the landscapes of Central and Eastern Europe, as these have undergone multiple, abrupt, and severe land-use transitions....

  10. The Space of the City and Literary Imagination: the Legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Stepanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov (1889–1958, a Russian historian who suggested a unique approach to urban studies in which literature played the key role. In the first section of this paper, the genesis of Antsiferov’s conceptions of the study of urban history and the image of the city are outlined. The second section provides an analysis of his ideas on the literary image of St. Petersburg and the theory of literary-themed guided tours, which were articulated in his works of the 1920s. The finalsection of the article sheds light on the reception and legacy of Antsiferov’s intellectual ideas in the modern humanities and assesses its significance in the modern context of interdisciplinarity.

  11. Legacies of 1917 in Contemporary Russian Public Health: Addiction, HIV, and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin-Fish, Michele

    2017-11-01

    I examine the legacies of Soviet public health policy and the socialist health care system and trace how the Soviet past figures in contemporary Russian policymaking and debates about drug use, HIV, and abortion. Drug policies and mainstream views of HIV reflect continuities with key aspects of Soviet-era policies, although political leaders do not acknowledge these continuities in justifying their policies. In abortion policy, by contrast, which is highly debated in the public realm, advocates represent themselves as differing from Soviet-era policies to justify their positions. Yet abortion activists' views of the past differ tremendously, reminding us that the Soviet past is symbolically productive for arguments about Russia's present and future. I describe key aspects of the Soviet approach to health and compare how current drug policy (and the related management of HIV/AIDS) and abortion policies are discursively shaped in relation to the Soviet historical and cultural legacy.

  12. Indirect effects of land-use legacies determine tree colonization patterns in abandoned heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Verheyen, Kris; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist

    2015-01-01

    Questions How do land-use legacies and distance to forest patches influence tree colonization at a post-agricultural heathland? Are colonizing species with different life-history traits affected differently by these factors? Is the effect of increased nutrient availability from land-use legacies...... of tree/shrubs in the heathland. Further, we used high-resolution LiDAR data to classify the vegetation and identify forest patches. In the analysis, we first used a logistic mixed model to test whether colonization of tree and shrub species differed between areas with different land-use history...... and whether it was influenced by the distance to forest patches and life-history traits (seed mass) of colonizing species. Then, to determine how different factors influence colonization, we explored the direct and indirect relationships among nutrient availability, density of adult trees, canopy cover, cover...

  13. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  14. Geochemical legacies and the future health of cities: A tale of two neurotoxins in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillipelli, Gabriel M.; Risch, Martin R.; Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Nichols, Deborah E.; Crewe, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between environmental processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are poorly studied, yet may pose a significant threat to population health.

  15. Exploring the Legacies of Armed Rebellion in Burundi’s Maquis par Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Van Acker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the legacies of armed rebellion in post-war Burundi, where two of the main political parties, the ruling CNDD-FDD and the FNL, are former rebel movements. It aims to add a micro-political perspective to the discussion on the transformation of rebel groups into political parties, and bring some nuance to the normative underpinnings of this debate. Based on observations of the role of local leaders with an FNL past, and of retrospective popular appreciation for wartime governance by the FNL in its stronghold of Bujumbura Rural, the paper argues that beyond the symptoms of a violent political culture, this legacy should also be understood as a complex source of post-war power and legitimacy.

  16. SCALES OF FLOWS: Qatar and the Urban Legacies of Mega Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grichting

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2022, Qatar will become the first Middle Eastern and Arab country to host such an  important Mega-Event as the FIFA World Cup. Global cultural and sporting Mega Events  ave driven the urban transformation of cities such as Barcelona, London, Rio, Beijing,Shanghai, and Lisbon and the spectacle and economic boosterism encourages cities to  compete on the World Stage for these events. The best practices of successful bids and  their enduring legacies create a knowledge and policy flow of Mega Event strategies for global branding and sustainable Urban, Social, and Economic Development at the local and regional scales. This paper discusses the urban legacies that will result from Qatar hosting the World Cup and other Mega Events, and questions how an emerging global host city like Doha will benefit on the long and short term.

  17. Legacy nitrogen may prevent achievement of water quality goals in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K J; Van Cappellen, P; Basu, N B

    2018-03-22

    In August 2017, the Gulf of Mexico's hypoxic zone was declared to be the largest ever measured. It has been estimated that a 60% decrease in watershed nitrogen (N) loading may be necessary to adequately reduce eutrophication in the Gulf. However, there has been no rigorous assessment of the impact of N legacies on achieving water quality goals. Here we show that even if agricultural N use became 100% efficient, it would take decades to meet target N loads due to legacy N within the Mississippi River Basin. Our results suggest that both long-term commitment and large-scale changes in agricultural management practices will be necessary to decrease Mississippi N loads and to meet current goals for reducing the size of the Gulf hypoxic zone. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Chicana/o Movement Pedagogical Legacies: Indigenous Consciousness, Critical Pedagogy, and Constructing Paths to Decolonization

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Nájera, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to draw from the pedagogical legacy of the CCM, and its now four-decade project in ethnic revitalization of Indigeneity, a means to better understand how cultural identity and cultural diversity are connected to human struggles to attain democracy, social equality, and build community. I focus on Chicana/o activist organizations that established educational components aimed at helping youth and adults develop a critical consciousness of Chicana/o Indigenous cultur...

  19. Implementation Challenges of an Enterprise System and Its Advantages over Legacy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nabie Y. Conteh; M. Jalil Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the implementation challenges of Enterprise Resource Planning in the industry and its advantages over legacy systems. The paper depicts the historical background of ERPs and their significance in facilitating coordination among the functional areas of organizations in the industry. It also discusses the role it plays in promoting the activities of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The paper presents empirical data on ERPs and their c...

  20. Leveraging protein binding and the EPR effect in legacy chemotherapy regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legacy chemotherapy regimens have the potential to be significantly more effective and less toxic if the dosage is titrated so that the mole ratio of drugs to circulating albumin is less than or equal to 1 and the order of administration of the drugs within each course of the regimen follows the sequence most hydrophobic (usually the least dose to least hydrophobic (usually the largest dose

  1. Legacies of Human Impact: Long-Term Nitrogen Dynamics, from the Mississippi to the Mekong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Global flows of reactive nitrogen (N) have increased significantly over the last century in response to land-use change, agricultural intensification and elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. Despite widespread implementation of a range of conservation measures to mitigate the impacts of N-intensive agriculture, N concentrations in surface waters are in many cases remaining steady or continuing to increase. Such lack of response has been attributed to legacy N stores in subsurface reservoirs that contribute to time lags between conservation measures implemented on the landscape and water quality benefits realized in receiving water bodies. It has remained unclear, however, what the magnitudes of such stores might be, and how they are partitioned between shallow soil and deeper groundwater reservoirs. In the present work, we have synthesized data to develop a comprehensive, 214-year (1800 - 2014) trajectory of N inputs to the land surface of watersheds across a global continuum of watersheds, from the Mississippi to the Mekong and beyond. Using our ELEMeNT model, a process-based model that pairs long-term nutrient input trajectories with a travel time-based approach, we have reconstructed historic nutrient yields at the outlets of major global watersheds and have estimated the magnitudes of N accumulation in both soil and groundwater pools. Our results show significant N loading above baseline levels many major watersheds before the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers, generally coinciding with periods of significant conversion of pristine land to row-crop agriculture. Our results also highlight the varying importance of biogeochemical and hydrologic N legacies across a wide distribution of climate, land use, and management. The results of the present study suggest that anthropogenic N legacies are a major driver of both current and future water quality, and that the presence of these legacies significantly impacts global nutrient cycling.

  2. Land-use legacies in the forest structure of silvopastoral oak woodlands in the Eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    Eastern Mediterranean silvopastoral oak woodlands have been greatly damaged through forest conversion, illegal lumbering, overgrazing, and forest fires. The aim of this study was to assess land-use changes and the legacies that they have imprinted on the forest structure of Quercus macrolepis and accompanying Quercus pubescens and Quercus cerris woodlands on Lesvos Island, Greece. The size-structures of adult oak populations were analyzed as indicators of long-term oak regeneration, while sho...

  3. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graves, Ronald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orban, John [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Theiss, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  4. Nordic School of Public Health NHV and its legacy in global health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krettek, A.; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Toan, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the legacy of the Nordic School of Public Health NHV (NHV) in global health. We delineate how this field developed at NHV and describe selected research and research training endeavours with examples from Vietnam and Nepal as well as long-term teaching collaborations such a...... such as BRIMHEALTH (Baltic RIM Partnership for Public HEALTH) in the Baltic countries and Arkhangelsk International School of Public Health in Russia....

  5. Effects of management legacies on stream fish and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Michael C; Schultz, Randall D

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  6. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Flynn, Dan F B; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Petermann, Jana S; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. Little is known, however, about such community-history effects and particularly the role of plant-soil interactions in this process. Soil-legacy effects may occur if co-evolved interactions with soil communities either positively or negatively modify plant biodiversity effects. We tested how plant selection and soil legacy influence biodiversity effects on productivity, and whether such effects increase the resistance of the communities to invasion by weeds. We used two plant selection treatments: parental plants growing in monoculture or in mixture over 8 yr in a grassland biodiversity experiment in the field, which we term monoculture types and mixture types. The two soil-legacy treatments used in this study were neutral soil inoculated with live or sterilized soil inocula collected from the same plots in the biodiversity experiment. For each of the four factorial combinations, seedlings of eight species were grown in monocultures or four-species mixtures in pots in an experimental garden over 15 weeks. Soil legacy (live inoculum) strongly increased biodiversity complementarity effects for communities of mixture types, and to a significantly weaker extent for communities of monoculture types. This may be attributed to negative plant-soil feedbacks suffered by mixture types in monocultures, whereas monoculture types had positive plant-soil feedbacks, in both monocultures and mixtures. Monocultures of mixture types were most strongly invaded by weeds, presumably due to increased pathogen susceptibility, reduced biomass, and altered plant-soil interactions of mixture types. These results show that biodiversity effects in experimental grassland communities can be modified by the evolution of

  7. Rapid Integration Tools for Rapid Application Development: A Case Study on Legacy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    infrastructure Analytics Engine Figure 8: Legacy Market Data Subsystem 3 TIBCO means standard industry-specific messaging infrastructure component. 60 CMU...listener applications there are or what they are. Java Jv C2++ C++ EnieadContribution AnatyticsSbyte S.bsystem TIBCO iCommunication ýCross language...server and the TIBCO based Message Bridge Market Data and Analytics Engine TI13 (A C- TIE CA--- Analtics\\-F AdaterAdapter servers? -_ Analysis of the Non

  8. The legacy of the theory of high reliability organizations: an ethnographic endeavor

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrier, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    This article looks back over two decades of work pioneered by Todd LaPorte and colleagues, under the banner of High Reliabiilty Theory (HRT). The article revisits the American roots of the Berkeley-based group and comments on its early and decisive fieldwork choices. It revisits some of the elements that emerged through the controversy around findings and implications of HRT. It discusses the legacy of HRT and the ethographical twist given to "normal operations" studies. It further explains w...

  9. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  10. Deconstructing a colonial legacy: An analysis of Indian secondary education policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Priti

    2017-01-01

    The Indian secondary education system has, since independence in 1947, strived to transform in terms of policy but failed to transcend in practice the challenges presented by the colonial legacy it inherited. This study draws on Hodgson and Spours (2006) analytical policy framework to critically examine three key Indian secondary education policy initiatives: the Mudaliar Commission Report (1952-1953); the Kothari Commission Report (1964 -1966); and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012-2017). The...

  11. A Colonial Legacy of African Gender Inequality? Evidence from Christian Kampala, 1895-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Meier zu Selhausen, Felix; Weisdorf, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The colonial legacy of African underdevelopment is widely debated but hard to document. We use occupational statistics from Protestant marriage registers of historical Kampala to investigate the hypothesis that African gender inequality and female disempowerment are rooted in colonial times. We find that the arrival of Europeans in Uganda ignited a century- long transformation of Kampala involving a gender Kuznets curve. Men rapidly acquired literacy and quickly found their way into white-col...

  12. SONS: The JCMT legacy survey of debris discs in the submillimetre

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Wayne S.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant M.; Greaves, Jane S.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Booth, Mark; Bastien, Pierre; Bryden, Geoff; Butner, Harold; Chen, Christine H.; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Davies, Claire L.; Dent, William R. F.; Di Francesco, James; Duchene, Gaspard

    2017-01-01

    Debris discs are evidence of the ongoing destructive collisions between planetesimals, and their presence around stars also suggests that planets exist in these systems. In this paper, we present submillimetre images of the thermal emission from debris discs that formed the SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars (SONS) survey, one of seven legacy surveys undertaken on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope between 2012 and 2015. The overall results of the survey are presented in the form of 850 μm (...

  13. Taking a Hike and Hucking the Stout: The Troublesome Legacy of the Sublime in Outdoor Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Drennig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As Henry Thoreau noted in the 1850s, the simple act of walking can be loaded with political and spiritual meaning. Today, taking a hike as an act of engaging in outdoor recreation is equally non-trivial, and therefore subject of the following analysis. As this paper argues, outdoors recreation is still influenced by the legacy of the Sublime and its construction of wilderness. This troublesome legacy means that the cultural self-representation of outdoor sports – and the practice itself – lays claim to the environment in ways that are socially and sometimes even ethni-cally exclusive. This essay uses William Cronon’s critique of the cultural constructedness of wilderness as a point of departure to see how Western notions of sublime nature have an impact on spatial practice. The elevation of specific parts of the environ-ment into the category of wilderness prescribes certain uses and meanings as na-ture is made into an antidote against the ills of industrial civilization, and a place where the alienated individual can return to a more authentic self. This view then has become a troublesome legacy, informing the cultural self-representation of those uses of “wilderness” that are known as outdoor recreation. In its cultural production, outdoors recreation constructs “healthy” and “athlet-ic” bodies exercising in natural settings and finding refuge from the everyday al-ienation of postmodern society. Yet these bodies are conspicuously white, and the obligatory equipment and fashion expensive. Outdoor recreation is a privileged assertion of leisure, often denoting an urban, affluent, and white, background of the practitioner. These practitioners then lay exclusive claim on the landscapes they use. As trivial as taking a hike or any other form of outdoors recreation may thus seem, they put a cultural legacy into practice that is anything but trivial.

  14. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Which DLA-Managed Legacy Parts are Potential AM Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    be made using AM. Addressing these matters is not a trivial or quick exercise. Currently, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and the Military...case must be ex- tensively researched to determine whether AM is a reasonable option. With 4.5 million Class IX legacy parts to consider, DLA and the...managed Class IX parts that could be made using AM by collecting and assessing online data in Department of Defense (DoD), DLA, and commercial databases

  16. The Nobel Legacy: A Journey through Chemistry Inspired by the Achievements of Nobel Laureates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Francesca Rita; Ross, Haymo

    2018-03-15

    The Prize is right! Chemistry-A European Journal will start an exciting journey exploring the significance of Nobel Prize awards in Chemistry in the corresponding contemporary chemistry fields. In this new journal feature called "The Nobel Legacy", a recurring series of invited Review-type articles each one connected to a particular Nobel Prize in Chemistry will be published. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A virtual roundtable on Iser’s legacy Part II: conversation with Mark Freeman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Freeman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article you find the second part of a roundtable on Wolfgang’s Iser legacy with Gerald Prince, Mark Freeman, Marco Caracciolo and Federico Bertoni. In Part II we discuss with Prof. Mark Freem the role of narrative hermeneutics in understanding the human realm and the tenets of self-interpretation, as well as the necessity of literary antrhopology and literary theory.

  18. Does drought legacy alter the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Michael; Hasibeder, Roland; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Ingrisch, Johannes; Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Lair, Georg; Reinthaler, David; Richter, Andreas; Kaufmann, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Climate projections suggest an increase in the frequency and the severity of extreme climatic events, such as droughts, with consequences for the carbon cycle and its feedbacks to the climate system. An important implication of increasing drought frequency is that possible legacies of previous droughts may increasingly affect ecosystem responses to new drought events, though this has been rarely tested. Based on a series of severe experimental droughts performed during nine subsequent years on a mountain grassland in the Austrian Alps, we present evidence of effects of drought legacies on the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Both single and recurrent droughts led to increased aboveground productivity during drought recovery relative to control plots, favoring the biomass production and leaf area of grass species more strongly than of forbs. Belowground productivity was significantly increased during recovery. This led to higher total root length, even though specific root length was strongly reduced during recovery, particularly after recurrent drought events. Following rewetting, the temperature dependence of soil respiration was increasingly diminished and the Birch effect declined with progressive recurrence of droughts. This was paralleled by a change in soil aggregate stability and soil porosity in plots repeatedly exposed to drought. Isotopic pulse-labelling experiments revealed effects of drought legacy on plant carbon uptake and belowground allocation and altered microbial turnover of recent plant-derived carbon during and after a subsequent drought. Shifts in tissue nitrogen concentration indicate that drought effects on soil nitrogen turnover and availability could play an important role in the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics following both single and recurrent droughts. In conclusion, drought legacies can alter the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought, the effects increasing

  19. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. A Layered Past: the Transformation and Development of Legacy Sediments as Alluvial Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A.; Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Legacy sediments are a widespread consequence of post-colonial upland erosion in the United States. Although these deposits are ubiquitous in valley bottoms of the southeastern Piedmont, mature hardwood forests and collapsed stream banks mask their occurrence. While these deposits have been studied for their fluvial dynamics and water quality impacts, they have received less attention in regards to soil structure and formation. In this study, we characterized legacy sediment mineraology, composition and structure to understand how pedogenic processes are overprinting sediment layering in a 40-hectare Piedmont floodplain. To constrain the timing of deposition, we used Pb-210 and C-14 dating on buried charcoal and tree stumps. Our results show that in 100 years of forest regeneration, vegetation and oscillating floodplain conditions have driven these eroded sediment deposits to evolve as soil profiles both in structure and composition. These textural and nutrient gradients have ramifications for the subsurface flow of nutrients through the floodplain. Given the estimated millennia it will take to erode legacy sediment from Piedmont floodplains, it is important to think of these deposits as new stable environments on their own trajectory of soil evolution.

  1. Getting Objects Methods and Interactions by Extracting Business Rules from Legacy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar El Beggar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of legacy systems becomes over the years extremely complex and highly expensive due to the incessant changes of company activities and policies. In this case, a new or an improved system must replace the previous one. However, replacing those systems completely from scratch is also very expensive and it represents a huge risk. The optimal scenario is evolving those systems by profiting from the valuable knowledge embedded in them. This paper aims to present an approach for knowledge acquisition from existing legacy systems by extracting business rules from source code. In fact, the business rules are extracted and assigned next to the domain entities in order to generate objects methods and interactions in an object-oriented platform. Furthermore, a rules translation in natural language is given. The aim is advancing a solution for re-engineering legacy systems, minimize the cost of their modernization and keep very small the gap between the company business and the renovated systems.

  2. From legacy and client/server systems to components in healthcare information systems in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, J; Korpela, M; Eerola, A; Porrasmaa, J; Ruonamaa, H; Sormunen, M

    2001-01-01

    A strategy and toolset (FixIT) for migrating a specific type of legacy systems--based on the FileMan DBMS of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs--to a two-tier client/server and web browser-based architecture was presented in MEDINFO'98. In the current paper we discuss the further migration to a multitier software component architecture. A literature survey and industry contacts were used to specify an open, component-based target architecture for healthcare information systems to be reached by the year 2005, as well as a phased migration strategy from the present FileMan/FixIT-based systems towards the target. The target architecture is based on large-grained business components and accommodates heterogeneous elements on the intra-component, intra-application, intra-organization and inter-organizational levels. Four logical tiers are identified within a business component. Three migration paths are specified for different cases: the tier-by-tier, piece-by-piece, and web-wrapping paths. It is argued that the architecture, supported by off-the-shelf toolsets, application frameworks and a new software development process, makes it possible to turn legacy systems into a valuable asset, split monolithic applications into reusable components, and ultimately replace the legacy parts at a feasible pace

  3. Applying geochemical signatures of atmospheric dust to distinguish current mine emissions from legacy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Resolving the source of environmental contamination is the critical first step in remediation and exposure prevention. Australia's oldest silver-zinc-lead mine at Broken Hill (>130 years old) has generated a legacy of contamination and is associated with persistent elevated childhood blood lead (Pb) levels. However, the source of environmental Pb remains in dispute: current mine emissions; remobilized mine-legacy lead in soils and dusts; and natural lead from geological weathering of the gossan ore body. Multiple lines of evidence used to resolve this conundrum at Broken Hill include spatial and temporal variations in dust Pb concentrations and bioaccessibility, Pb isotopic compositions, particle morphology and mineralogy. Total dust Pb loading (mean 255 μg/m2/day) and its bioaccessibility (mean 75% of total Pb) is greatest adjacent to the active mining operations. Unweathered galena (PbS) found in contemporary dust deposits contrast markedly to Pb-bearing particles from mine-tailings and weathered gossan samples. Contemporary dust particles were more angular, had higher sulfur content and had little or no iron and manganese. Dust adjacent to the mine has Pb isotopic compositions (208Pb/207Pb: 2.3197; 206Pb/207Pb: 1.0406) that are a close match (99%) to the ore body with values slightly lower (94%) at the edge of the city. The weight of evidence supports the conclusion that contemporary dust Pb contamination in Broken Hill is sourced primarily from current mining activities and not from weathering or legacy sources.

  4. Managing the risks of legacy radioactive sources from a security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Mark; Murray, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The safety and security risk posed by highly radioactive, long-lived sources at the end of their normal use has not been consistently well-managed in previous decades. The Brazilian Cs-137 accident in 1986 and the Thailand Co-60 accident in 2000 are prime examples of the consequences that ensue from the loss of control of highly dangerous sources after their normal use. With the new international emphasis on security of radioactive sources throughout their life cycle, there is now further incentive to address the management of risks posed by legacy, highly dangerous radioactive sources. The ANSTO South-East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project has identified, and is addressing, a number of legacy situations that have arisen as a result of inadequate management practices in the past. Specific examples are provided of these legacy situations and the lessons learned for managing the consequent safety and security risk, and for future complete life-cycle management of highly radioactive sources. (author)

  5. REDLetr: Workflow and tools to support the migration of legacy clinical data capture systems to REDCap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William D; Cobb, Jake; Levey, Allan I; Gutman, David A

    2016-09-01

    A memory clinic at an academic medical center has relied on several ad hoc data capture systems including Microsoft Access and Excel for cognitive assessments over the last several years. However these solutions are challenging to maintain and limit the potential of hypothesis-driven or longitudinal research. REDCap, a secure web application based on PHP and MySQL, is a practical solution for improving data capture and organization. Here, we present a workflow and toolset to facilitate legacy data migration and real-time clinical research data collection into REDCap as well as challenges encountered. Legacy data consisted of neuropsychological tests stored in over 4000 Excel workbooks. Functions for data extraction, norm scoring, converting to REDCap-compatible formats, accessing the REDCap API, and clinical report generation were developed and executed in Python. Over 400 unique data points for each workbook were migrated and integrated into our REDCap database. Moving forward, our REDCap-based system replaces the Excel-based data collection method as well as eases the integration into the standard clinical research workflow and Electronic Health Record. In the age of growing data, efficient organization and storage of clinical and research data is critical for advancing research and providing efficient patient care. We believe that the workflow and tools described in this work to promote legacy data integration as well as real time data collection into REDCap ultimately facilitate these goals. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  7. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  8. Legacies and Trajectories of Hormone Export from Agricultural Catchments Under Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, H. E.; Mashtare, M. L.; Sassman, S. A.; Rao, P. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Basu, N. B.; Lee, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hormones and other emerging contaminants have been detected in surface waters worldwide at concentrations known to negatively impact sensitive aquatic species. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a significant source of hormones to the environment, as their recent intensification has increased manure production and land disposal. However, little is known regarding the short- and long-term fate and transport in catchments and likely environmental impacts. Lab microcosm and column studies indicate moderately high retardation (log KOC ~ 2.8 - 3.7) and fast aerobic biotransformation (half-lives hormones in streams. Field studies at nested scales in tile-drained agricultural catchments suggested time-invariant concentrations for hormone export at annual time scales, similar to that noted for nutrients, implying accumulation of legacy stores from annual manure applications. A robust hydro-biogeochemical model, Hormone Export and Restoration Dynamics (HERD), was developed and validated to probe several research questions: (i) can manure application practices lead to the accumulation of hormones within the soil profile and develop legacy sources?; (ii) how persistent are hormones when long-term manure applications cease?; and (iii) to what extent can best management practices be successfully employed to reduce the downstream export of hormones? Preliminary HERD simulations suggest that hormones build up in the soil profile over time as a result of repeated animal waste applications, creating legacy sources that cause hormone export to become mass transfer-limited rather than source-limited. Under such conditions, annual flow-weighted concentrations were found to be chemostatic, implying hydrologic variability rather than biogeochemical processes as the dominant control of hormone export. Additionally, these results suggest that long-term, repeated animal waste applications can lead to chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to hormones at low concentrations

  9. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G; Marchant, Ben P

    2012-01-15

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  10. Quantifying Ancient Maya Land Use Legacy Effects on Contemporary Rainforest Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Hightower

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human land use legacies have significant and long-lasting ecological impacts across landscapes. Investigating ancient (>400 years legacy effects can be problematic due to the difficulty in detecting specific, historic land uses, especially those hidden beneath dense canopies. Caracol, the largest (~200 km2 Maya archaeological site in Belize, was abandoned ca. A.D. 900, leaving behind myriad structures, causeways, and an extensive network of agricultural terraces that persist beneath the architecturally complex tropical forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR enables the detection of these below-canopy archaeological features while simultaneously providing a detailed record of the aboveground 3-dimensional canopy organization, which is indicative of a forest’s ecological function. Here, this remote sensing technology is used to determine the effects of ancient land use legacies on contemporary forest structure. Canopy morphology was assessed by extracting LiDAR point clouds (0.25 ha plots from LiDAR-identified terraced (n = 150 and non-terraced (n = 150 areas on low (0°–10°, medium (10°–20°, and high (>20° slopes. We calculated the average canopy height, canopy openness, and vertical diversity from the LiDAR returns, with topographic features (i.e., slope, elevation, and aspect as covariates. Using a PerMANOVA procedure, we determined that forests growing on agricultural terraces exhibited significantly different canopy structure from those growing on non-terraced land. Terraces appear to mediate the effect of slope, resulting in less structural variation between slope and non-sloped land and yielding taller, more closed, more vertically diverse forests. These human land uses abandoned >1000 years ago continue to impact contemporary tropical rainforests having implications related to arboreal habitat and carbon storage.

  11. Fertilizer legacies meet saltwater incursion: challenges and constraints for coastal plain wetland restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ardón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland restoration is an important tool for climate change adaptation and excess nutrient runoff mitigation. However, the capacity of restored coastal wetlands to provide multiple ecosystem services is limited by stressors, such as excess nutrients from upstream agricultural fields, high nutrient legacies on-site, and rising salinities downstream. The effects of these stressors are exacerbated by an accelerating hydrologic cycle, expected to cause longer droughts punctuated by more severe storms. We used seven years of surface water and six years of soil solution water chemistry from a large (440 ha restored wetland to examine how fertilizer legacy, changes in hydrology, and drought-induced salinization affect dissolved nutrient and carbon concentrations. To better understand the recovery trajectory of the restored wetland, we also sampled an active agricultural field and two mature forested wetlands. Our results show that nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P concentrations in soil solution were 2–10 times higher in the restored wetland compared to two mature forested wetlands, presumably due to legacy fertilizer mobilized by reflooding. Despite elevated nutrient concentrations relative to reference wetlands, the restored wetland consistently attenuated N and P pulses delivered from an upstream farm. Even with continued loading, N and P concentrations in surface water throughout the restored wetland have decreased since the initial flooding. Our results suggest that high nutrient concentrations and export from wetlands restored on agricultural lands may be a severe but temporary problem. If field to wetland conversion is to become a more widespread method for ameliorating nutrient runoff and adapting coastal plain ecosystems to climate change, we should adopt new methods for minimizing the initial export phase of wetland restoration efforts.

  12. The Land-Use Legacy Effect: Groundwater mechanisms behind ecosystem responses to land use/cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. L.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    While many studies have linked land use/land cover (LULC) to aquatic ecosystem responses, only a few have linked the dynamics of changing LULC to water quality through a mechanistic understanding of flow paths and travel times. The Huron River Watershed, along with most of the rest of of Michigan has undergone extensive LULC change over the past century, shifting from a primarily agricultural to a suburban landscape, and includes sites that cover a range of historical LULC trajectories. We coupled a multi-temporal GIS database of LULC data (circa 1800, 1880, 1938, 1955, 1968, 1978, 1995, and 2006) with a model of groundwater flow paths to create a "Legacy Map" of LULC for each 109x109m model cell in the study area. We then investigate relationships between time-varying LULC and lake water chemistry, ranging from nutrients to conservative ions, using multiple linear regression over a range of spatial scales. Our study illustrates that there are large areas where there may be a temporal mismatch between LULC of the current landscape and LULC expressed in the lake via water chemistry. Specifically, watershed areas that have long groundwater pathways may be delivering water more representative of historical LULC than current LULC. Moreover, some water chemistry variables (SRP, Cl, Na) have stronger links to current LULC and others (NH4) have a stronger link to legacy LULC. This study highlights the important role that "groundwatersheds" play in linking the landscape to aquatic systems. We then zoom out to apply this concept to Michigan's Lower Peninsula to show the extent that groundwatersheds and surface watersheds are also spatially mismatched. These two perspectives suggest a need to consider both groundwater legacies and groundwatersheds in nutrient management and watershed planning.

  13. Geochemical Legacies and the Future Health of Cities: An Analysis of two Neurotoxins in Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Risch, M.

    2015-12-01

    The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between geochemical processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are very poorly studied, yet have materialized as perhaps the greatest threat to large-scale population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb), a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But these legacy Pb sources are still around in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a pernicious and widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg), although very little work has been done to understand human exposures to low levels of this element in soils. The most documented human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for above average dietary Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Many aspects of the dose-response curves for individual elements and mixtures are poorly understood, especially at lower levels, leaving unanswered several interesting and provocative questions about environmental impacts on neurological and

  14. Environmental radioactivity and mitigation of radiological impact at legacy uranium sites in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium legacy sites in the country contain large amounts of milling tailings, mining waste, old infrastructures and acid mine drainage with high radioactivity concentrations. Radioactivity surveillance of these sites has been maintained for many years and institutional control kept beyond cessation of Portuguese uranium mining in 2001. A research programme (2003-2006) requested by the government to assess environmental contamination and public health risks in these regions advised implementing environmental remediation measures. A national programme was approved for remediation of abandoned mine sites, including radioactive and non-radioactive mines, that started in 2005 and since has completed significant remediation works in several old uranium mines. One amongst these sites, the Urgeiriça mine and milling site, was re-engineered, tailings were covered, the mine was closed, the area of mine and milling facilities cleaned, and an automated contaminated water treatment plant installed. Environmental radioactivity surveys carried out in this region showed reduced ambient radiation doses, lower radon concentrations in surface air, return to background radioactivity in surface air aerosols, and decrease of radionuclide concentrations in the river receiving water discharges from the mine site, resulting in a reduced radiation exposure to members of the public. Other legacy uranium mines without milling tailings, were mainly remediated for landscape engineering and the adopted solutions included, for example, preservation of non-contaminated ponds for public leisure. Although not completed yet in many sites, the remediation works implemented contributed already to a significant abatement of radiation exposure allowing for safer implementation of activities, such as agriculture and cattle grazing, in the surroundings of legacy sites. Environmental remediation and abatement of radiation exposure contributed to revitalize socio-economic activities of the region and

  15. Geochemical legacies and the future health of cities: A tale of two neurotoxins in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Filippelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past and future of cities are inextricably linked, a linkage that can be seen clearly in the long-term impacts of urban geochemical legacies. As loci of population as well as the means of employment and industry to support these populations, cities have a long history of co-locating contaminating practices and people, sometimes with negative implications for human health. Working at the intersection between environmental processes, communities, and human health is critical to grapple with environmental legacies and to support healthy, sustainable, and growing urban populations. An emerging area of environmental health research is to understand the impacts of chronic exposures and exposure mixtures—these impacts are poorly studied, yet may pose a significant threat to population health. Acute exposure to lead (Pb, a powerful neurotoxin to which children are particularly susceptible, has largely been eliminated in the U.S. and other countries through policy-based restrictions on leaded gasoline and lead-based paints. But the legacy of these sources remains in the form of surface soil Pb contamination, a common problem in cities and one that has only recently emerged as a widespread chronic exposure mechanism in cities. Some urban soils are also contaminated with another neurotoxin, mercury (Hg. The greatest human exposure to Hg is through fish consumption, so eating fish caught in urban areas presents risks for toxic Hg exposure. The potential double impact of chronic exposure to these two neurotoxins is pronounced in cities. Overall, there is a paradigmatic shift from reaction to and remediation of acute exposures towards a more nuanced understanding of the dynamic cycling of persistent environmental contaminants with resultant widespread and chronic exposure of inner-city dwellers, leading to chronic toxic illness and disability at substantial human and social cost.

  16. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a

  17. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2012-01-01

    Soils deliver important ecosystem services, such as nutrient provision for plants and the storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which are greatly impacted by drought. Both plants and soil biota affect soil C and N availability, which might in turn affect their response to drought, offering...... the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...

  18. Soeharto's New Order and its Legacy : Essays in honour of Harold Crouc

    OpenAIRE

    Aspinall, Edward; Fealy, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Indonesia’s President Soeharto led one of the most durable and effective authoritarian regimes of the second half of the twentieth century. Yet his rule ended in ignominy, and much of the turbulence and corruption of the subsequent years was blamed on his legacy. More than a decade after Soeharto’s resignation, Indonesia is a consolidating democracy and the time has come to reconsider the place of his regime in modern Indonesian history, and its lasting impact. This book begins this task by b...

  19. Strategies for the cost effective treatment of Oak Ridge legacy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-03-01

    Research and development treatment strategies for treatment or elimination of several Oak Ridge plant liquid, solid, and legacy wastes are detailed in this report. Treatment strategies for volumetrically contaminated nickel; enriched uranium-contaminated alkali metal fluorides; uranium-contaminated aluminum compressor blades; large, mercury-contaminated lithium isotope separations equipment; lithium process chlorine gas streams; high-concentration aluminum nitrate wastes, and high-volume, low-level nitrate wastes are discussed. Research needed to support engineering development of treatment processes is detailed

  20. Integrating Legacy Data into a New Method for Studying Architecture: A case study from Isthmia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J.R. Ellis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a new methodology developed to disentangle the hitherto incomprehensible maze of poorly preserved architecture at the Archaic through late Roman period Panhellenic sanctuary at Isthmia, Greece, into clearly defined buildings with their relative construction phases. The methodology combines on-site architectural analyses with the digitisation and reintegration of the site's legacy data within a GIS. The results of this study, still in its preliminary stages, reveal an area east of the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia as a built environment of rather large and complex units in contrast to the conventional interpretation of a series of small and unimportant structures.

  1. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The world cup in the city of Belo Horizonte: impacts and legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Dias Munaier Lages

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The announced impacts and legacies of the World Cup in the city of Belo Horizonte were investigated. Methodologically, this was a qualitative study, in which 6 managers were interviewed as a method of collecting data. It was concluded that there is a relationship of subordination between the event's logic and capital market's dynamics. This limitates any social gains which may be obtained. The managers only see the mega event as a 'business' and an opportunity of anticipating decisions and governmental support, to increase the flow of tourists and to promote the image of the city.

  3. Why Replacing Legacy Systems Is So Hard in Global Software Development: An Information Infrastructure Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Stina; Bjørn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    to be obvious explanations for why GSD tasks fail to reach completion; however, we account for the difficulties within the technical nature of software system task. We use the framework of information infrastructure to show how replacing a legacy system in governmental information infrastructures includes...... the work of tracing back to knowledge concerning law, technical specifications, as well as how information infrastructures have dynamically evolved over time. Not easily carried out in a GSD setup is the work around technical tasks that requires careful examination of mundane technical aspects, standards......, and bureaucratic forms, as well as the excavation work that keeps the information infrastructure afloat....

  4. The Gribov Legacy, Gauge Theories and the Physical S-Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alan R.

    Reggeon unitarity and non-Abelian gauge field copies are focused on as two Gribov discoveries that, it is suggested, may ultimately be seen as the most significant and that could, in the far distant future, form the cornerstones of his legacy. The crucial role played by the Gribov ambiguity in the construction of gauge theory bound-state amplitudes via reggeon unitarity is described. It is suggested that the existence of a physical, unitary, S-Matrix in a gauge theory is a major requirement that could even determine the theory.

  5. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839, is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?, from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  6. Investigating the long-term legacy of drought and warming on the soil microbial community across five European shrubland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how the legacy of warming and summer drought affected microbial communities in five different replicated long-term (>10 years) field experiments across Europe (EU-FP7 INCREASE infrastructure). To focus explicitly on legacy effects (i.e., indirect rather than direct effects of the environmental factors), we measured microbial variables under the same moisture and temperature in a brief screening, and following a pre-incubation at stable conditions. Specifically, we investigated the size and composition of the soil microbial community (PLFA) alongside measurements of bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate in ergosterol incorporation) growth rates, previously shown to be highly responsive to changes in environmental factors, and microbial respiration. We found no legacy effects on the microbial community size, composition, growth rates, or basal respiration rates at the effect sizes used in our experimental setup (0.6 °C, about 30% precipitation reduction). Our findings support previous reports from single short-term ecosystem studies thereby providing a clear evidence base to allow long-term, broad-scale generalizations to be made. The implication of our study is that warming and summer drought will not result in legacy effects on the microbial community and their processes within the effect sizes here studied. While legacy effects on microbial processes during perturbation cycles, such as drying-rewetting, and on tolerance to drought and warming remain to be studied, our results suggest that any effects on overall ecosystem processes will be rather limited. Thus, the legacies of warming and drought should not be prioritized factors to consider when modeling contemporary rates of biogeochemical processes in soil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Another giant solar explosion follows Tuesday's enormous solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The activity started on Tuesday with a giant solar flare - the second biggest ever seen by SOHO, the ESA-NASA solar observatory that maintains a constant watch on the Sun, monitoring these events as they happen. A few minutes later, spacecraft circling the Earth began to detect high levels of energetic radiation, capable of blinding satellites and causing increased radiation levels down to normal aircraft cruising altitudes. About 24 hours after the solar flare was observed, an accompanying coronal mass ejection - a giant cloud of magnetised plasma - reached the Earth, causing rapid changes in the Earth's magnetic field and what is known as a geomagnetic storm. This storm caused widespread disruption to communications; both satellite-based and HF radio. These events are truly sporadic and extremely difficult to predict. On Wednesday it appeared that radiation levels were decreasing. However, a second flare overnight has caused a further sharp increase in radiation levels. Here on Earth, the disruption continues today with a further coronal mass ejection expected to reach the Earth tomorrow in time for Halloween. Solar eruptions of this type together with the associated increased radiation levels and electromagnetic disturbances around the Earth have real immediate and long-term economic impacts. During the last few days, space weather related problems have been detected on spacecraft operated by a range of agencies across the globe and operations teams are on alert. On Earth, telecommunication links have been disrupted and steps have been taken to safeguard aircraft, which including some changes in scheduling. Effects have also been detected in high latitude power grids and are being carefully monitored. The increased dependency of our society on systems which are directly or indirectly influenced by solar and other events seen in space raises concerns about our ability to monitor and anticipate these events and the resulting changes collectively referred to as space weather. At the European Space Agency these issues are being handled jointly in the Electromagnetics and Space Environment Division by Dr Eamonn Daly’s group for the specifications of spacecraft protection and in the spacecraft operations teams. In addition, Europe-wide coordination is currently being set up together with the European Union via its COST (Coordination in Science and Technology) programme and ESA’s General Studies Programme. This coordination aims to optimise our existing resources (together with our international partners) in order to develop an operational resource which will enable society to respond effectively to immediate as well as long-term changes in our space weather. Websites on space weather: http://www.esa.int/spaceweather/

  8. Fusion: A true challenge for an enormous reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.

    2015-08-01

    From nuclear physics we know that energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Steady progress shows that fusion—one of the few possible options for the future—can be a clean and safe solution for mankind's long-term energy needs, with minimal environmental impact. A source of energy which would be inexhaustible, inherently safe and environmentally friendly, is this not a marvellous prospect? Nuclear fusion has been the energy source of our Sun and the stars in the universe for billions of years. This process requires temperatures of tens of millions of degrees, so extremely high and foreign to our daily experience as to seem out of reach. Nevertheless, these extremely high temperatures are routinely realised in several laboratories all over the world, and since the early 1990s, large amounts of energy have been released in a controlled way from fusion reactions. We are witnessing the birth of a new technology destined to meet the gigantic future energy needs of mankind with minimal impact on the environment.

  9. Educational reform places enormous pressure on in-service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS Campus

    national requirement for all teachers to be socially just educators, pre-service teachers need to be guided to first recognise and understand ... and equity of education policy and practice in the US, “successful education of students of colour and students who are ... African educational context, any perception of racism as an ...

  10. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  11. Pharmaceutical pollution of aquatic environment: an emerging and enormous challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzymski Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The global use of pharmaceuticals is on the systematic rise and leads to contamination of surface waters with xenobiotic compounds with a wide range of bioactivity. Waters that receive urban and medical effluents are particularly threatened. The presence of pharmaceuticals in these ecosystems can lead to unpredictable ecological impacts and responses, and may also have an impact on human health. At the same time the identification and quantification of these chemicals, to a large extent remains a subject to scientific investigation than part of a thorough monitoring programme. Their biological effects on aquatic organisms are mainly recognized experimentally and often using concentrations far exceeding environmentally relevant levels. This review paper defines the main sources of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, discusses the fate of these compounds and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of pharmaceutical monitoring in Polish surface waters.

  12. Atypical presentation of an enormous vesical calculus: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.T. Lawal

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... Abstract. Giant vesical calculi, though rare, are still encountered in contemporary urologic practice despite the increased availability, accessibility, and affordability of modern imaging modalities and urologic care. This is the case report of a middle-aged man with an unusually large vesical calculus.

  13. The Legacy of Uranium Development on or Near Indian Reservations and Health Implications Rekindling Public Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Moore-Nall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uranium occurrence and development has left a legacy of long-lived health effects for many Native Americans and Alaska Natives in the United States. Some Native American communities have been impacted by processing and development while others are living with naturally occurring sources of uranium. The uranium production peak spanned from approximately 1948 to the 1980s. Thousands of mines, mainly on the Colorado Plateau, were developed in the western U.S. during the uranium boom. Many of these mines were abandoned and have not been reclaimed. Native Americans in the Colorado Plateau area including the Navajo, Southern Ute, Ute Mountain, Hopi, Zuni, Laguna, Acoma, and several other Pueblo nations, with their intimate knowledge of the land, often led miners to uranium resources during this exploration boom. As a result of the mining activity many Indian Nations residing near areas of mining or milling have had and continue to have their health compromised. This short review aims to rekindle the public awareness of the plight of Native American communities living with the legacy of uranium procurement, including mining, milling, down winders, nuclear weapon development and long term nuclear waste storage.

  14. Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ellen D S; Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B; Mekiana, Deborah; Ctibor, Alaina

    2012-01-01

    Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN) students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL) at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Student Services (RSS) and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) within which we conducted the "What makes life good?" study aimed towards developing a QOL measure for AN students. Equally important was building a legacy of research trust among AN partners. We describe Phase I of a 2-phase study that employed a sequential mixed methods approach. Discussed are facilitators, challenges and lessons learned while striving to adhere to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Phase I included formative focus groups and QOL measurement development. The research involved the interplay among activities that were co-developed with the goal of enhancing trust and research capacity. Emphasis was placed on ensuring that data collection and analyses were student driven. All partners resided at the same university. However, trust and collaboration could not be assumed. Working within a collaborative framework, our partnership achieved the aim of developing a culturally informed QOL measure, while also creating an empowering experience for all partners who became co-investigators in a process that might normally be regarded with mistrust.

  15. Virtualization of Legacy Instrumentation Control Computers for Improved Reliability, Operational Life, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan E

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories tend to be amenable environments for long-term reliable operation of scientific measurement equipment. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find equipment 5, 10, or even 20+ years old still being routinely used in labs. Unfortunately, the Achilles heel for many of these devices is the control/data acquisition computer. Often these computers run older operating systems (e.g., Windows XP) and, while they might only use standard network, USB or serial ports, they require proprietary software to be installed. Even if the original installation disks can be found, it is a burdensome process to reinstall and is fraught with "gotchas" that can derail the process-lost license keys, incompatible hardware, forgotten configuration settings, etc. If you have running legacy instrumentation, the computer is the ticking time bomb waiting to put a halt to your operation.In this chapter, I describe how to virtualize your currently running control computer. This virtualized computer "image" is easy to maintain, easy to back up and easy to redeploy. I have used this multiple times in my own lab to greatly improve the robustness of my legacy devices.After completing the steps in this chapter, you will have your original control computer as well as a virtual instance of that computer with all the software installed ready to control your hardware should your original computer ever be decommissioned.

  16. The biological evolution of guilt, shame and anxiety: A new theory of negative legacy emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breggin, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    Human beings are the most social and the most violent creatures on Earth. The combination of cooperation and aggression enabled us to dominate our ecosystem. However, the existence of violent impulses would have made it difficult or impossible for humans to live in close-knit families and clans without destroying each other. Nature's answer was the development of guilt, shame and anxiety-internal emotional inhibitions or restraints specifically against aggressive self-assertion within the family and other close relationships. The theory of negative legacy emotions proposes the first unitary concept for the biopsychosocial function of guilt, shame and anxiety, and seeks their origin in biological evolution and natural selection. Natural selection favored individuals with built-in emotional restraints that reduced conflicts within their family and tribal unit, optimizing their capacity to survive and reproduce within the protection of their small, intimate societies, while maintaining their capacity for violence against outsiders. Unfortunately, these negative legacy emotions are rudimentary and often ineffective in their psychosocial and developmental function. As a result, they produce many unintended untoward effects, including the frequent breakdown of restraints in the family and the uninhibited unleashing of violence against outsiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nurturing a lexical legacy: reading experience is critical for the development of word reading skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2017-12-01

    The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.

  18. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  19. Frederik Ruysch (1638–1731): Historical perspective and contemporary analysis of his teratological legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas; Radziun, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    The Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) in Saint Petersburg is the oldest museum in Russia. It keeps the remains of the anatomical collection of the world‐famous 17th century Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch. This unique collection was bought and shipped in 1717 by Czar Peter the Great, and presently still comprises more than 900 specimens, a modest number of which concerns specimens with congenital anomalies. We searched for teratological clues in the existing collection and in all his descriptions and correspondence regarding specimens and cases he encountered during his career as doctor anatomiae and chief instructor of the surgeons and midwives in Amsterdam. A total of 63 teratological specimens and case descriptions were identified in this legacy, including some exceedingly rare anomalies. As it turns out, Ruysch was the first to describe several of the conditions we encountered, including intracranial teratoma, enchondromatosis, and Majewski syndrome. Although his comments pose an interesting view on how congenital anomalies were scientifically perceived in early 18th century Europe, Ruysch mostly refrained from explaining the causes of the conditions he encountered. Instead, he dedicated himself to careful descriptions of his specimens. Almost 300 years after his demise, Ruysch's legacy still impresses and inspires both scientists and lay men. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27126916

  20. Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731): Historical perspective and contemporary analysis of his teratological legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas; Radziun, Anna B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-01-01

    The Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) in Saint Petersburg is the oldest museum in Russia. It keeps the remains of the anatomical collection of the world-famous 17th century Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch. This unique collection was bought and shipped in 1717 by Czar Peter the Great, and presently still comprises more than 900 specimens, a modest number of which concerns specimens with congenital anomalies. We searched for teratological clues in the existing collection and in all his descriptions and correspondence regarding specimens and cases he encountered during his career as doctor anatomiae and chief instructor of the surgeons and midwives in Amsterdam. A total of 63 teratological specimens and case descriptions were identified in this legacy, including some exceedingly rare anomalies. As it turns out, Ruysch was the first to describe several of the conditions we encountered, including intracranial teratoma, enchondromatosis, and Majewski syndrome. Although his comments pose an interesting view on how congenital anomalies were scientifically perceived in early 18th century Europe, Ruysch mostly refrained from explaining the causes of the conditions he encountered. Instead, he dedicated himself to careful descriptions of his specimens. Almost 300 years after his demise, Ruysch's legacy still impresses and inspires both scientists and lay men. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reconstructing Early Industrial Contributions to Legacy Trace Metal Contamination in Southwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Robert J; Bain, Daniel J; Hillman, Aubrey L; Pompeani, David P; Finkenbinder, Matthew S; Abbott, Mark B

    2017-04-18

    Early industrial trace metal loadings are poorly characterized but potentially substantial sources of trace metals to the landscape. The magnitude of legacy contamination in southwestern Pennsylvania, the cradle of North American fossil fuel industrialization, is reconstructed from trace metal concentrations in a sediment core with proxies including major and trace metal chemistry, bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. Trace metal chemistry in this sediment record reflects 19th and 20th century land use and industry. In particular, early 19th century arsenic loadings to the lake are elevated from pesticides used by early European settlers at a lakeside tannery. Later, sediment barium concentrations rise, likely reflecting the onset of acidic mine drainage from coal operations. Twentieth century zinc, cadmium, and lead concentrations are dominated by emissions from the nearby, infamous Donora Zinc Works yet record both the opening of a nearby coal-fired power plant and amendments to the Clean Air Act. The impact of early industry is substantial and rivals more recent metal fluxes, resulting in a significant potential source of contaminated sediments. Thus, modern assessments of trace metal contamination cannot ignore early industrial inputs, as the potential remobilization of legacy contamination would impact ecosystem and human health.

  2. A strategy for low cost development of incremental oil in legacy reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitous decline in oil prices during 2015 has forced operators to search for ways to develop low-cost and low-risk oil reserves. This study examines strategies to low cost development of legacy reservoirs, particularly those which have already implemented a carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) program. Initially the study examines the occurrence and nature of the distribution of the oil resources that are targets for miscible and near-miscible CO2 EOR programs. The analysis then examines determinants of technical recovery through the analysis of representative clastic and carbonate reservoirs. The economic analysis focusses on delineating the dominant components of investment and operational costs. The concluding sections describe options to maximize the value of assets that the operator of such a legacy reservoir may have that include incremental expansion within the same producing zone and to producing zones that are laterally or stratigraphically near main producing zones. The analysis identified the CO2 recycle plant as the dominant investment cost item and purchased CO2 and liquids management as a dominant operational cost items. Strategies to utilize recycle plants for processing CO2 from multiple producing zones and multiple reservoir units can significantly reduce costs. Industrial sources for CO2 should be investigated as a possibly less costly way of meeting EOR requirements. Implementation of tapered water alternating gas injection schemes can partially mitigate increases in fluid lifting costs.

  3. German Spent Nuclear Fuel Legacy: Characteristics and High-Level Waste Management Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany is phasing-out the utilization of nuclear energy until 2022. Currently, nine light water reactors of originally nineteen are still connected to the grid. All power plants generate high-level nuclear waste like spent uranium or mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel which has to be properly managed. Moreover, vitrified high-level waste containing minor actinides, fission products, and traces of plutonium reprocessing loses produced by reprocessing facilities has to be disposed of. In the paper, the assessments of German spent fuel legacy (heavy metal content and the nuclide composition of this inventory have been done. The methodology used applies advanced nuclear fuel cycle simulation techniques in order to reproduce the operation of the German nuclear power plants from 1969 till 2022. NFCSim code developed by LANL was adopted for this purpose. It was estimated that ~10,300 tonnes of unreprocessed nuclear spent fuel will be generated until the shut-down of the ultimate German reactor. This inventory will contain ~131 tonnes of plutonium, ~21 tonnes of minor actinides, and 440 tonnes of fission products. Apart from this, ca.215 tonnes of vitrified HLW will be present. As fission products and transuranium elements remain radioactive from 104 to 106 years, the characteristics of spent fuel legacy over this period are estimated, and their impacts on decay storage and final repository are discussed.

  4. THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg 2 , with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 × 10 6 sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg 2 split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 × 10 7 sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  5. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey

    2015-03-17

    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  6. Asteroseismic inversions in the Kepler era: application to the Kepler Legacy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldgen, Gaël; Reese, Daniel; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-10-01

    In the past few years, the CoRoT and Kepler missions have carried out what is now called the space photometry revolution. This revolution is still ongoing thanks to K2 and will be continued by the Tess and Plato2.0 missions. However, the photometry revolution must also be followed by progress in stellar modelling, in order to lead to more precise and accurate determinations of fundamental stellar parameters such as masses, radii and ages. In this context, the long-lasting problems related to mixing processes in stellar interior is the main obstacle to further improvements of stellar modelling. In this contribution, we will apply structural asteroseismic inversion techniques to targets from the Kepler Legacy sample and analyse how these can help us constrain the fundamental parameters and mixing processes in these stars. Our approach is based on previous studies using the SOLA inversion technique [1] to determine integrated quantities such as the mean density [2], the acoustic radius, and core conditions indicators [3], and has already been successfully applied to the 16Cyg binary system [4]. We will show how this technique can be applied to the Kepler Legacy sample and how new indicators can help us to further constrain the chemical composition profiles of stars as well as provide stringent constraints on stellar ages.

  7. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont.We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959–1961 in order to quantify 44–46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources.Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9–4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and

  8. Stakeholder participation for the legacy ponds and legacy silos (LP and LS) facility at Sellafield, Cumbria. UK: the nature and effectiveness of the dialogue - 16030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, John

    2009-01-01

    The Legacy Ponds and Silos (LP and S) facilities are part of the UK nuclear legacy located at the Sellafield Site, Cumbria. There are four individual facilities containing nuclear wastes that have accumulated over a period of approximately 50 years. Waste retrieval and conditioning, in preparation for decommissioning, is currently being carried out by the site operator. LP and S have recently proposed a re-engagement with stakeholders following the initial engagement in December 2005. This paper reviews this earlier engagement in terms of the nature of dialogue that was carried out when compared against definitions of deliberation provided in the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide those planning future engagement with a better understanding of how the nature of dialogue can vary and uses participation and deliberation as indicators of effective engagement. A concern of those working towards a programme of effective stakeholder participation in 2005 was how to ensure genuine dialogue and stakeholder representation in such a strictly controlled and regulated environment with a technical complexity that challenges technical specialist and lay person alike. LP and S recognised that effective dialogue with stakeholders on the available technical options and their associated societal impacts would form a significant part of this process if options were to prove resilient. However, the challenge presented to LP and S was how to engage stakeholders on a variety of projects, whilst ensuring the output could be used by the projects as part of their technical decision making. Initial contact was made with stakeholders in December 2005, as part of a 'Baseline' Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) study. A BPEO study leads to decisions on waste management based on an integrated assessment of alternative options, on the basis of factors such as the occupational and environmental risks, the environmental impacts, costs and social implications of the options

  9. Thoreau's Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Cites contemporary applications of Thoreau's belief that wild places were a source of inspiration containing the "raw material of life" and that "to the extent a culture, or an individual, lost contact with wildness it became weak and dull." Makes a case for the employment of outdoor recreation educators by schools to teach…

  10. Hagedorn legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafelski Johann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These remarks open the one-day session “50 years of Hagedorn’s Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model”. These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.

  11. Worlds without War: Reflections on Elise Boulding's Life, Work and Legacy as a Peace Educator, Feminist and Futurist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Francis P.; Milojevic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Our joint article focuses on Elise Boulding's creative work and legacy as a feminist peace theorist, peace educator and futures educator. Boulding throughout her life was deeply concerned not only with critiquing the institution of war but of working for better, more peaceable worlds. She was very much a "practical futurist". Various important…

  12. Distribution of Amphipods (Gammarus nipponensis Ueno) Among Mountain Headwater Streams with Different Legacies of Debris Flow Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the impacts of debris flows on the distribution of an amphipod with limited dispersal ability in the context of stream networks, we surveyed the presence of Gammarus nipponensis in 87 headwater streams with different legacies of debris flow occurrence within an 8.5-...

  13. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  14. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  15. Incorporating limited field operability and legacy soil samples in a hypercube sampling design for digital soil mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Buzzo, Giovanni; Dumperth, Christian; Wadoux, Alexandre; Xiang, Wei; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Most calibration sampling designs for Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) demarcate spatially distinct sample sites. In practical applications major challenges are often limited field accessibility and the question on how to integrate legacy soil samples to cope with usually scarce resources for field

  16. What Was George Washington's Legacy to American Constitutionalism and Citizenship? We The People...The Citizen and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, CA.

    This supplementary lesson to the "We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution" lessons looks at the legacy of George Washington, an influential leader in the creation of the United States. Upon completion of this lesson students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend a position on the contributions of the "Father of His…

  17. It’s Nakba, Not a Party: Re-Stating the (Continued) Legacy of the Oslo Accords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    Two decades later, how should we conceptualize the relevance of the Oslo Accords today? This article reconstitutes our understanding of the Accords through three parameters and purports that the legacy of the Interim Agreement is one that oscillates between what it has failed to achieve with regard...

  18. Intra- and interspecific plant-soil interactions, soil legacies and priority effects during old-field succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    1. Legacy effects of plant influences on abiotic and biotic soil properties can result in priority effects that influence the structure and composition of plant communities. To better understand the role of these plant–soil interactions, here we expand the concept of plant–soil feedbacks from a

  19. The James clerk maxwell telescope legacy survey of nearby star-forming regions in the gould belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Nutter, D.; Bastien, P.; Basu, S.; Bonnell, I.; Bowey, J.; Brunt, C.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E.; Davis, C. J.; Dent, W. R. F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Edmunds, M. G.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuller, G. A.; Gosling, A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Helmich, F.; Hills, R. E.; Holland, W. S.; Houde, M.; Jayawardhana, R.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, H.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Matzner, C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Naylor, D.; Padman, R.; Plume, R.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Redman, R. O.; Reid, M.; Richer, J. S.; Shipman, R.; Simpson, R. J.; Spaans, M.; Stamatellos, D.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    This paper describes a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) legacy survey that has been awarded roughly 500 hr of observing time to be carried out from 2007 to 2009. In this survey, we will map with SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) almost all of the well-known low-mass and

  20. The Inheritance of Millenial Students: What They Will Inherit from Their Campus Experience--What Legacy Will They Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Millennial students can be inspired to create a legacy for future generations by the recognizable actions of campus planners to create more sustainable campuses through smart growth planning, green buildings, transportation planning, and energy- and water-efficiency retrofits. This article describes policies, programs, and projects at The…

  1. Particle physics in the 60s and 70s and the legacy of contributions by J. A. Swieca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the development of QFT during these two decades and draw attention to its legacy in the ongoing particle physics research. (author)

  2. Veterans Affairs Information Technology: Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations, Consolidate Data Centers, and Retire Legacy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Veterans Affairs, Volume 1: Integrated Report (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 1, 2015). This assessment was conducted in response to a requirement in the Veterans...VETERANS AFFAIRS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations...Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations, Consolidate Data Centers, and Retire Legacy Systems What GAO Found GAO

  3. The importance of hydraulic groundwater theory in catchment hydrology: The legacy of Wilfried Brutsaert adn Jean-Yves Parlange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troch, P.A.; Berne, A.; Bogaart, P.W.; Harman, C.; Hilberts, A.G.J.; Lyon, S.W.; Paniconi, C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Rupp, D.E.; Selker, J.S.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Verhoest, N.E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a literature overview, this paper summarizes the impact and legacy of the contributions of Wilfried Brutsaert and Jean-Yves Parlange (Cornell University) with respect to the current state-of-the-art understanding in hydraulic groundwater theory. Forming the basis of many applications in

  4. 75 FR 78900 - Regulations Governing Book-Entry Treasury Bonds, Notes and Bills Held in Legacy Treasury Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... available to conduct sales. As a cost-saving measure, Treasury is returning the Legacy Treasury Direct and... expected to decrease costs for taxpayers; therefore, this rule is not expected to lead to any of the... goal of permitting investors to buy and hold marketable Treasury securities until maturity. As a cost...

  5. Particle physics in the 60s and 70s and the legacy of contributions by J. A. Swieca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Univ., Berlin

    2007-01-01

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge Andre Swieca. I explain how it fits into the development of QFT during these two decades and draw attention to its legacy in the ongoing particle physics research. (author)

  6. Spirituality and Creativity of Indigenous Societies in Brazil and Their Legacy to Brazilian Culture and Creative Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.; Braga, Nívea Pimenta; Prado, Renata Muniz; Chagas-Ferreira, Jane Farias

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores connections between spirituality and creativity in indigenous communities, and their link to spiritual intelligence. Some spiritual and creative characteristics of Brazilian indigenous peoples are described, as well as their legacy to Brazilian culture and creative giftedness. The paper concludes that Brazilian people have…

  7. Microbial control of biogeochemistry during drying-rewetting: the legacy of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Drought and drying-rewetting cycles are frequent stressors for soil microbial communities; a stress that is predicted to grow increasingly severe with future climate change. Understanding how the microbial community controls biogeochemical cycles under these dynamic events is instrumental to enable predictive power for C and nutrient cycling in soils. First, we investigated the microbial growth dynamics underlying the dramatic soil C pulse induced by rewetting a dry soil at high time-resolution in a series of week-long studies in a range of soils. Second, we investigated how the duration of drought modulated the microbial responses to rewetting. Third, we investigated how the legacy of experimental field-drought modulated the microbial responses to rewetting dry soil. Fourth, we extended our analysis by investigating how the legacy of drought affected the actively growing microbial community and their biogeochemistry by assessing a cross-continental set of long term (>10 y) drought experiments including soils from ecosystems across Europe. We found two principal types of respiration responses induced by rewetting a dry soil: (i) an immediate maximal peak followed by an exponential decline or (ii) an immediate peak maintained for 20 h, followed by an intermittent period of exponential increase reaching a maximal peak rate only after > 24 h, followed by an exponential decline. Microbial growth contrasted sharply with the respiration dynamics of both types of rewetting responses. In the type (i) response a linear increase starting immediately after rewetting from zero growth and gradually converging to similar rates as in a moist control soil occurred. In the type (ii) response microbial growth remained at zero for about 20 h, followed by an exponential increase, reaching a peak value many-fold times higher than that of the moist control soils >24 h after rewetting. An extended period of drought prior to rewetting could change the microbial responses from type (i) to

  8. Mapping Natural Terroir Units using a multivariate approach and legacy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Bucelli, Piero; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Natural Terroir Unit (NTU) is a volume of earth's biosphere that is characterized by a stable set of variables related to the topography, climate, geology and soil. Methods to study the association soil-climate-vines are numerous, but the main question is always: which variables are actually important for the quality and the typicality of grapevines, and then wine, for a particular scale? This work aimed to setting up a multivariate methodology to define viticultural terroirs at the province scale (1:125,000), using viticultural and oenological legacy data. The study area was the Siena province in the Tuscany region (Central Italy). The reference grapevine cultivar was "Sangiovese", which is the most important cultivar of the region. The methodology was based upon the creation of a GIS storing several viticultural and oenological legacy data of 55 experimental vineyards (vintages between 1989-2009), the long term climate data, the digital elevation model, the soil-landscapes (land systems) and the soil profiles with the soil analysis. The selected viticultural and oenological parameters were: must sugar content, sugar accumulation rate from veraison to harvest, must titratable acidity, grape yield per vine, number of bunches for vine, mean bunch weight, and mean weight of berries. The environmental parameters related to viticulture, selected by an explorative PCA, were: elevation, mean annual temperature, mean soil temperature, annual precipitation, clay, sand and gravel content of soils, soil water availability, redoximorphic features and rooting depth. The geostatistical models of the variables interpolation were chosen on the best of mean standardize error, obtained by the cross-validation, between "Simple cokriging with varying local mean", "Multicollocated simple cokriging with varying local mean" and "Regression kriging". These variables were used for a k-means clustering aimed to map the Natural Terroirs Units (NTUs). The viticultural areas of Siena province

  9. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Measuring Stream Bank Erosion within Legacy Sediments: Data Processing and Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Land clearing for agricultural purposes following European settlement of America resulted in upland erosion rates 50-400 times above long-term geologic rates in much of the North Carolina Piedmont region. A considerable amount of the eroded sediment was subsequently aggraded on floodplains and impounded in the slackwater ponds behind milldams. This trapped "legacy" sediment is commonly mistaken for natural floodplain deposition and has remained largely unrecognized as a potential source of accelerated sediment erosion contributing to modern water quality impairment. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is utilized to monitor stream bank evolution along a reach that has breached a former millpond. Due to the unique surface geometry and orientation of the stream bank, vegetation occlusion, and true 3D structure of the point cloud, a systematic data processing approach is implemented to compute the change in sediment volume between repeat TLS surveys. The processing approach consists of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the stream bank point cloud; 2) transformation of the point cloud such that the xy plane is parallel to the trend of the bank; 3) filter vegetation by selecting local lowest point within a grid cell; 4) smooth high frequency noise 5) generate bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). From the DEMs, change in volume was quantified for a 13 m x 3.5 m section of the stream bank providing an estimate on erosion rates and slumping between surveys. The major mechanisms for the observed changes are freeze-thaw events and fluvial entrainment. To evaluate the surface evolution between the distinct sedimentary layers (legacy vs non-legacy) that comprise the stream bank, elevation change is modeled as a continuous trivariate function z = f(x,y,t) where x,y is horizontal location, t is time, and z is a first-surface referenced elevation. Hence, z=0 for all x,y at t=0, time of first survey. The filtered, transformed, and first

  10. Developing a physical activity legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: a policy-led systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Mike; Coren, Esther; Fiore, Jo; Wellard, Ian; Mansfield, Louise; Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia; Dowse, Suzanne

    2012-03-01

    There is no evidence that previous Olympic Games have raised physical activity levels in adult populations. However, it may be premature to assume that this lack of previous evidence for an inherent effect is an indication that there is no potential to proactively harness the Games to generate a physical activity or sport legacy. Given that the political goal of achieving a physical activity legacy had already been set, the policy-led aim of this systematic review was to examine the processes by which the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games might deliver a physical activity (as opposed to sport) legacy. Searches were conducted on five databases: SPORTS DISCUS, CINAHL, PsychLNFO, MEDLINE and Web of Knowledge. There are two key findings: first, that communities that are not positively engaged with hosting the 2012 Games in London are likely to be beyond the reach of any initiatives seeking to harness the Games to develop legacies in any area; second, major events such as London 2012 can, if promoted in the right way, generate a 'festival effect' that may have the potential to be harnessed to promote physical activity among the least active. The 'festival effect' derives from the promotion of the 2012 Games as a national festival that is bigger than and beyond sport, but that is also rooted in the lives of local and cultural communities, thus creating a strong desire to participate in some way in an event that is both nationally significant and locally or culturally relevant. Physical activity policy makers and professionals should seek to satisfy this desire to participate through providing physical activity (rather than sport) opportunities presented as fun community events or programmes. The key to generating a physical activity legacy among the least active adults through this process is to de-emphasise the sporting element of the 2012 Games and promote the festival element.

  11. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  12. Independent regulatory control and monitoring of the environment at the uranium legacy sites under reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Isaev, D.V.; Aladova, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Radiation safety at areas affected by the natural uranium mining and milling facilities is very important for the environment protection and human health. For this purpose the close operator-regulator contact is required during remedial operations. One of the key mechanisms of the operating regulatory supervision of radiation safety at uranium legacy sites is organization of independent radiation control and monitoring in the course of reclamation and after its completion. The main stages of this strategy include: detailed radiation survey at the area and in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites; threat assessment in order to identify the regulatory priorities; environmental radiation control and monitoring. Tailings and shallow disposal sites of the uranium mining wastes are the most critical areas in terms of potential hazard for the environment. Tailings are the source of contamination of the near-land air due to the radionuclide dust resuspension from the tailing surface; surface and ground water due to washing out from by precipitation and surface streams of toxic and radioactive elements. Frequently, contamination of surface and ground waters results in some problems, especially when using the leaching fluids for the solution mining and draining hydraulic fluids. Radiation risk for the residents of areas near not operating uranium mining and milling facilities depends on the following factors: radon exhalation from the surface of dumps and tailing; radioactive dust transfer; using radioactive material in building; contamination of surface water streams and aquifers used for drinking water supply; contamination of open ponds used for fish breeding and catching; contamination of foodstuffs grown in the nuclear legacy areas. Radiation monitoring is necessary for the up-to-date response to changing radiation situation during reclamation and arrangement of adequate countermeasures. We mean here comprehensive dynamic surveillance including long

  13. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette

    2015-01-01

    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  14. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early "visiting" radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the "giants" of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional "genealogy," and legacies left by those who created this tradition.

  15. Inspiring Collaboration: The Legacy of Theo Colborn's Transdisciplinary Research on Fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Sara; Schultz, Kim; Thomas, Deborah; Kassotis, Chris; Nagel, Susan

    2016-09-13

    This article describes Dr Theo Colborn's legacy of inspiring complementary and synergistic environmental health research and advocacy. Colborn, a founder of endocrine disruption research, also stimulated study of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In 2014, the United States led the world in oil and gas production, with fifteen million Americans living within one mile of an oil or gas well. Colborn pioneered efforts to understand and control the impacts of this sea change in energy production. In 2005, her research organization The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX) developed a database of chemicals used in natural gas extraction and their health effects. This database stimulated novel scientific and social scientific research and informed advocacy by (1) connecting communities' diverse health impacts to chemicals used in natural gas development, (2) inspiring social science research on open-source software and hardware for citizen science, and (3) posing new scientific questions about the endocrine-disrupting properties of fracking chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Production design as a storytelling tool in the writing of Danish TV drama series The Legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup; Sabroe, Iben Albinus

    2016-01-01

    Production design not only sets the scene for the action of a film or television series, it holds great potential to convey story and character information. However, most literature on production design describe how the work of production designers only begin in pre-production when they are ‘given...... of the Danish drama series Arvingerne/The Legacy (2014–), the article analyses the implications of creator Maya Ilsøe’s close collaboration with the series’ production designer Mia Stensgaard. This collaboration not only centred on creating a special visual universe for the series, but also involved having...... the production design perform crucial back story and character information related to the inheritance drama and to the portrayal of the artist matriarch Veronika who was intended to haunt the lives of her children throughout the series even though she dies in the very first episode....

  17. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early ''visiting'' radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the ''giants'' of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional ''genealogy,'' and legacies left by those who created this tradition. (orig.)

  18. International conference entitled Zdeněk Kopal’s Binary Star Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Drechsel, Horst; ZDENEK KOPAL’S BINARY STAR LEGACY

    2005-01-01

    An international conference entitled "Zdenek Kopal's Binary Star Legacy" was held on the occasion of the late Professor Kopal's 90th birthday in his home town of Litomyšl/Czech Republic and dedicated to the memory of one of the leading astronomers of the 20th century. Professor Kopal, who devoted 60 years of his scientific life to the exploration of close binary systems, initiated a breakthrough in this field with his description of binary components as non-spherical stars deformed by gravity, with surfaces following Roche equipotentials. Such knowledge triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by exciting objects such as cataclysmic variables, symbiotic stars or X-ray binaries. Contributions to this conference included praise of the achievements of a great astronomer and personal reminiscences brought forward by Kopal's former students and colleagues, and reflected the state of the art of the dyn...

  19. Lost in scales: Balkan folk music research and the ottoman legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennanen Risto Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented 'Oriental' musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the 'Oriental' characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece. The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

  20. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Richard I. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early ''visiting'' radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the ''giants'' of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional ''genealogy,'' and legacies left by those who created this tradition. (orig.)

  1. Forest legacies, climate change, altered disturbance regimes, invasive species and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.; Jarnevich, C.; Kumar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The factors that must be considered in seeking to predict changes in water availability has been examined. These factors are the following: forest legacies including logging, mining, agriculture, grazing, elimination of large carnivores, human-caused wildfire, and pollution; climate change and stream flow; altered disturbances such as frequency intensity and pattern of wildfires and insect outbreaks as well as flood control; lastly, invasive species like forest pests and pathogens. An integrated approach quantifying the current and past condition trends can be combined with spatial and temporal modeling to develop future change in forest structures and water supply. The key is a combination of geographic information system technologies with climate and land use scenarios, while preventing and minimizing the effects of harmful invasive species.

  2. Reappraising the Legacy of Colonialism: The Value of an Island Sample - A Response to Bertram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Feyrer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this brief article, we respond to Geoff Bertram’s overview of the current state of research into the legacy of colonial institutions. We make the general case for islands as a useful unit of observation in thinking about cross country income differences. The nature of island exploration and settlement provides a unique natural experiment that is not available in a mainland sample of countries. However, we feel that the results provide useful insights to the general literature about the relationship between colonialism and income. We also respond to Bertram’s criticisms of our data and sample selection. In many cases, problems he identifies have been addressed in the most recent version of our work.

  3. Reappraising the Legacy of Colonialism: A Response to Feyrer and Sacerdote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Bertram

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent paper by Feyrer & Sacerdote (2006 argues that the legacy of colonialism in a sample of 80 small islands is positive rather than negative, in the sense that a long period as a colony in the 18th and 19th centuries correlates positively with present-day incomes and low infant mortality rates. Remaining a colony to the end of the 20th century is also positive for income. Colonial rule in the 17th and 20th centuries has no impact. This review essay relates Feyrer & Sacerdote’s work to other recent, cross-country research on the linkages between colonialism and development, and offers some criticisms of their data and conclusions. An interesting ongoing debate, as well as plenty of opportunities for further research along these lines, are anticipated.

  4. From legacy systems via client/server to web browser technology in hospital informatics in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, M

    1998-01-01

    The majority of hospital information system installations in Finland are based on a legacy technology from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This paper presents an architecture and a tool set which provide a migration path from terminal-based to client/server technology, conserving much of the investments in existing applications. It is argued, though, that a new technological revolution is required in the form of extending the web browser/server technology to operational information systems in hospitals. A blueprint is presented for a further migration path from client/server to browser/server technology. The browser technology is regarded as a major challenge to hospital information systems in the next few years.

  5. Computing element evolution towards Exascale and its impact on legacy simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin de Verdiere, Guillaume J.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the current race towards the Exascale, this article highlights the main features of the forthcoming computing elements that will be at the core of next generations of supercomputers. The market analysis, underlying this work, shows that computers are facing a major evolution in terms of architecture. As a consequence, it is important to understand the impacts of those evolutions on legacy codes or programming methods. The problems of dissipated power and memory access are discussed and will lead to a vision of what should be an exascale system. To survive, programming languages had to respond to the hardware evolutions either by evolving or with the creation of new ones. From the previous elements, we elaborate why vectorization, multithreading, data locality awareness and hybrid programming will be the key to reach the exascale, implying that it is time to start rewriting codes. (orig.)

  6. The Influence of Marketing Scholarship’s Legacy on Nonprofit Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wymer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the debate on whether or not marketing is a science was nominally resolved years ago, the origins of marketing scholarships as an applied business discipline remain influential. The effects on this influence is a body of research that is fragmented, conflicted, sometimes invalid, and has produced few general theories indicative of a social science. Recommendations are offered for improving the quality of nonprofit marketing scholarship.

  7. Social determinants of health and community needs: implications for health legacy foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-11-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of nonprofit hospitals are on the rise. Proceeds from many of these transactions will endow new health legacy foundations (HLFs). These philanthropic entities have substantial potential for charitable investment in US communities. Research indicates that the greatest improvements in population health can be achieved by addressing underlying social factors. Determining whether communities served by HLFs are characterized by poor social determinants of health would provide new information for developing effective grant-making strategies. Our study compared socioeconomic, demographic, and health care access indicators in HLF versus non-HLF counties. Compared with non-HLF counties, HLF counties had significantly higher proportions of racial minorities and multiple socioeconomic factors that rendered them more vulnerable to health disparities and poor health. However, HLF counties had better access to health care. These findings have direct implications for HLF leadership, planning, and grant making. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  9. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  10. Widespread legacy brine contamination from oil production reduces survival of chorus frog larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Puglis, Holly J.; Battaglin, William A.; Anderson, Chauncey; Honeycutt, Richard; Smalling, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Advances in drilling techniques have facilitated a rapid increase in hydrocarbon extraction from energy shales, including the Williston Basin in central North America. This area overlaps with the Prairie Pothole Region, a region densely populated with wetlands that provide numerous ecosystem services. Historical (legacy) disposal practices often released saline co-produced waters (brines) with high chloride concentrations, affecting wetland water quality directly or persisting in sediments. Despite the potential threat of brine contamination to aquatic habitats, there has been little research into its ecological effects. We capitalized on a gradient of legacy brine-contaminated wetlands in northeast Montana to conduct laboratory experiments to assess variation in survival of larval Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) reared on sediments from 3 local wetlands and a control source. To help provide environmental context for the experiment, we also measured chloride concentrations in 6 brine-contaminated wetlands in our study area, including the 2 contaminated sites used for sediment exposures. Survival of frog larvae during 46- and 55-day experiments differed by up to 88% among sediment sources (Site Model) and was negatively correlated with potential chloride exposure (Chloride Model). Five of the 6 contaminated wetlands exceeded the U.S. EPA acute benchmark for chloride in freshwater (860 mg/L) and all exceeded the chronic benchmark (230 mg/L). However, the Wetland Site model explained more variation in survival than the Chloride Model, suggesting that chloride concentration alone does not fully reflect the threat of contamination to aquatic species. Because the profiles of brine-contaminated sediments are complex, further surveys and experiments are needed across a broad range of conditions, especially where restoration or remediation actions have reduced brine-contamination. Information provided by this study can help quantify potential ecological threats

  11. Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaina Ctibor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Student Services (RSS and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR within which we conducted the “What makes life good?” study aimed towards developing a QOL measure for AN students. Equally important was building a legacy of research trust among AN partners. Study design. We describe Phase I of a 2-phase study that employed a sequential mixed methods approach. Discussed are facilitators, challenges and lessons learned while striving to adhere to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods. Phase I included formative focus groups and QOL measurement development. The research involved the interplay among activities that were co-developed with the goal of enhancing trust and research capacity. Emphasis was placed on ensuring that data collection and analyses were student driven. Conclusions. All partners resided at the same university. However, trust and collaboration could not be assumed. Working within a collaborative framework, our partnership achieved the aim of developing a culturally informed QOL measure, while also creating an empowering experience for all partners who became co-investigators in a process that might normally be regarded with mistrust.

  12. The geomorphic legacy of water and erosion control structures in a semiarid rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.

    2018-01-01

    Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.

  13. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  14. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  15. Digital storytelling: an innovative legacy-making intervention for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Dietrich, Mary S; Friedman, Debra L; Hinds, Pamela S; Given, Barbara; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a legacy-making intervention in children with cancer and the preliminary effects on outcomes related to quality of life. Children (N = 28) ages 7-17 years completed a baseline QOL questionnaire (PedsQL) at T1. After baseline, the intervention group (n = 15) completed a randomized intervention that guided children to answer questions about legacy-making and create a digital story about themselves. A final copy of the digital story was provided to the families. A control group (n = 13) received customary care. Children repeated the questionnaire at T2. Parents (N = 22) of children who completed the intervention completed follow-up survey questions regarding intervention effects. Feasibility was strong (78% participation; 1 attrition). While differences between the groups in physical, emotional, social, or school functioning change was not statistically significant, the intervention group showed slightly better emotional and school functioning compared to controls. Parents reported that their child's digital story provided emotional comfort to them (n = 11, 46%), facilitated communication between parents and children (n = 9, 38%), and was a coping strategy for them (n = 4, 17%). Parents reported that the intervention helped children express their feelings (n = 19, 79%), cope (n = 6, 27%), and feel better emotionally (n = 5, 23%). Our intervention is feasible for children with cancer, is developmentally appropriate for children 7-17 years of age, and demonstrates promise to improve quality of life outcomes for children with cancer and their parents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  17. Climate legacy and lag effects on dryland plant communities in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Erin; Munson, Seth M.; Villarreal, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Climate change effects on vegetation will likely be strong in the southwestern U.S., which is projected to experience large increases in temperature and changes in precipitation. Plant communities in the southwestern U.S. may be particularly vulnerable to climate change as the productivity of many plant species is strongly water-limited. This study examines the relationship between climate and vegetation condition using a time-series of Landsat imagery across grassland, shrubland, and woodland communities on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We improve on poorly understood inter-annual climate-vegetation relationships by exploring how the responses of different plant communities depend on climate legacies (>12 months) and lag behind shorter-term (3–12 month) changes in water availability. Our results show a prolonged drying trend on the Colorado Plateau since the early 1990s that was punctuated in several years by intense droughts. In areas that experienced sustained dry conditions or a drying trend, vegetation greenness (a proxy for production) increased linearly when conditions were interrupted by wetting events. In contrast, in areas that experienced sustained wet conditions or a wetting trend, vegetation greenness was weakly or not related to wetting events, indicating that production may saturate if vegetation experiences sufficient water availability. Shrubland and woodland communities had stronger relationships with climate at long lags (6–12 months) and many maintained greenness under sustained water deficit, whereas grassland communities had stronger relationships at short lags (3–6 months) and lost greenness even in periods of short-term drought. The results of our study show the importance of identifying climate legacies and lags when assessing indicators of ecological drought, which can be used to improve forecasts of which plant communities will be vulnerable under future climate change.

  18. Reflecting on Jens Rasmussen's legacy (2) behind and beyond, a 'constructivist turn'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coze, Jean-Christophe

    2017-03-01

    This article is the second part of a study on the legacy of Jens Rasmussen. The first article, subtitled 'A Strong Program for a Hard Problem', looks back on his 30 years of scientific contribution, from 1969 to 2000. This second article explores and investigates some of the intellectual roots which influenced his thinking, using them as a basis to understand some limits and move forward. Indeed, historically oriented studies such as this one are not only tributes to researchers, but a way to differentiate and contrast our present situation with the past in order to integrate contemporary trends, be they theoretical or empirical, or oriented towards research and new models. In the first section of this article, I offer a synthesis of the background covered in the previous article, but I use a tree here as a graphical complement. Branches of the tree show the many fruitful directions opened by Jens Rasmussen, directions which inspired many researchers. In the second part, I address what I believe to be behind this wealth of engineering legacy: cybernetics. I contend that cybernetics has had a profound influence on his thinking and provided him key principles for his inspiring and successful models. To develop the tree image, one might say that cybernetics is the trunk of the tree. Finally, in the third part, I take the opportunity to explore the relevance of extending and sensitising his program to constructivist discourses. After an introduction to this discourse, identifying four types of constructivisms (cognitive, social, epistemological and anthropological), I characterise this move as a 'constructivist turn'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  20. Exploring Landscape Change in Mountain Environments With the Mountain Legacy Online Image Analysis Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Sanseverino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, Mountain Legacy Project (MLP researchers have been exploring change in Canada's mountain environments through the use of systematic repeat photography. With access to upwards of 120,000 systematic glass plate negatives from Canada's mountain west, the MLP field teams seek to stand where historic surveyors stood and accurately reshoot these images. The resulting image pairs are analyzed, catalogued, and made available for further research into landscape changes. In this article we suggest that repeat photography would fit well within the Future Earth research agenda. We go on to introduce the Image Analysis Toolkit (IAT, which provides interactive comparative image visualization and analytics for a wide variety of ecological, geological, fluvial, and human phenomena. The toolkit is based on insights from recent research on repeat photography and features the following: user-controlled ability to compare, overlay, classify, scale, fade, draw, and annotate images; production of comparative statistics on user-defined categories (eg percentage of ice cover change in each image pair; and different ways to visualize change in the image pairs. The examples presented here utilize MLP image pairs, but the toolkit is designed to be used by anyone with their own comparative images as well as those in the MLP collection. All images and software are under Creative Commons copyright and are open access for noncommercial use via the Mountain Legacy Explorer website. The IAT is at the beginning of its software life cycle and will continue to develop features required by those who use repeat photography to discover change in mountain environments.

  1. An Analysis of Electronic Commerce Acquisition Systems: Comparison of a New Pure Electronic Purchasing and Exchange System (Electronic Storefront) and Other Legacy On-line Purchasing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    ... as they relate to contracting and purchasing of supplies and services, The issues and concerns with legacy on-line procurement systems will be compared to a newly developed Pure Electronic Ordering System...

  2. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H, 105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  3. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H,105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  4. Algeria as Postcolony? Rethinking the Colonial Legacy of Post-Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriam Haleh Davis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that Algeria was of enormous importance to the theoretical output that is often recognized as French, here I would like to ask: what is at stake in re-inscribing these French intellectuals as postcolonial? In what ways did the particularities of Algerian history impact French philosophy? Indeed, if the term postcolonial is meant to describe those who were influenced by events in Algeria, then an entire generation of French thinkers might be considered postcolonial to varying degrees. Surely Derrida’s oeuvre was influenced by his experiences in Algeria, but does this make him postcolonial in the same way as Jean-Paul Sartre or Pierre Bourideu, who have also become important figures in postcolonial theory? 

  5. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  6. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  7. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (ΣPCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ΣDDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. femalespolar bear tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing CORBA-Based Distributed Scientific Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Janche; Kim, Chan; Lopez, Isaac

    2000-01-01

    Recent progress in distributed object technology has enabled software applications to be developed and deployed easily such that objects or components can work together across the boundaries of the network, different operating systems, and different languages. A distributed object is not necessarily a complete application but rather a reusable, self-contained piece of software that co-operates with other objects in a plug-and-play fashion via a well-defined interface. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), a middleware standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), uses the Interface Definition Language (IDL) to specify such an interface for transparent communication between distributed objects. Since IDL can be mapped to any programming language, such as C++, Java, Smalltalk, etc., existing applications can be integrated into a new application and hence the tasks of code re-writing and software maintenance can be reduced. Many scientific applications in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with CORBA objects can increase the codes reusability. For example, scientists could link their scientific applications to vintage Fortran programs such as Partial Differential Equation(PDE) solvers in a plug-and-play fashion. Unfortunately, CORBA IDL to Fortran mapping has not been proposed and there seems to be no direct method of generating CORBA objects from Fortran without having to resort to manually writing C/C++ wrappers. In this paper, we present an efficient methodology to integrate Fortran legacy programs into a distributed object framework. Issues and strategies regarding the conversion and decomposition of Fortran codes into CORBA objects are discussed. The following diagram shows the conversion and decomposition mechanism we proposed. Our goal is to keep the Fortran codes unmodified. The conversion- aided tool takes the Fortran application program as input and helps programmers

  9. The philosophical terrain of behavior analysis: a review of B. A. Thyer (Ed.), The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamal, P A

    2000-09-01

    The Philosophical Legacy of Behaviorism, edited by Bruce A. Thyer, is a set of original contributions, each dealing, from a behavioral stance, with one of the following major topics of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, consciousness, language, free will and determinism, and self-control. Confusions about radical behaviorism and its similarities to, and differences from, other behavioral and non-behavioral approaches are described in the book, which provides a state-of-the-art description of the philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis.

  10. Rizal’s Legacy for the 21st Century: Progressive Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Community Development in Dapitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floro Quibuyen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rizal’s four years in Dapitan have not been fully explored for the light they can shed on contemporary issues in community development and education. In particular, the significance of the school he founded in Talisay has not merited scholarly commentary. Those fruitful four years in Dapitan have become Rizal’s most unappreciated legacy, yet they are precisely what make Rizal singularly relevant to the 21st century. This essay explains why.

  11. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  12. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    marine engine emissions in “nonattainment” area counties with active ports is much higher. Concentrations of marine engine emissions in 2001/2002...can range to greater than 42% of NOx and 53% of PM2.5 from domestic mobile sources. Projected 2030 concentrations of Houston counties’ marine...Installed on a Legacy Marine Diesel Engine 6 2. Criteria gaseous and PM emissions on a gravimetric basis in accordance with ISO 8178

  13. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  14. U mining legacy: comparing the restoration challenges posed by uranium mining and milling in the USA with the former GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.A. (Jacobs Engineering, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Chernoff, A.R. (Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Albuquerque Operations Office); Mager, D. (Federal Ministry of Economics, Bonn (Germany)); Goldammer, W. (Brenk Systemplanung, Aachen (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    Many parallels can be drawn between the environmental legacy left from uranium production in the USA and the former German Democratic Republic, but there are differences in the approaches being taken to clean up. The US programme (both Title I and Title II) emphasises compliance with prescriptive standards whereas the German initiative strives to establish more risk-based regulatory structure for mine and mill restoration as in other uranium-producing countries. (author).

  15. Radiation and environmental monitoring at the nuclear legacy sites in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N.; Kiselev, S.; Titov, A.; Seregin, V.; Akhromeev, S.; Aladova, R.; Isaev, D. [SRC Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In 1960's, in the Northwest and Far East regions of Russia the technical bases of the Navy Fleet were built to maintain nuclear submarines by performing reloading of nuclear fuel, receiving and storing radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In 2000, SevRAO enterprise in the northwest of Russia and DalRAO enterprise in the Far East were set up for the purposes of environmental remediation of the nuclear legacy sites. Regulatory supervision for radiation protection and safety at the nuclear legacy sites in Russian Far east and Northwest regions is one of regulatory functions of the Federal medical biological agency (FMBA of Russia). Improvement of the normative and regulatory basis has significant impact on effectiveness and efficiency of industrial projects aimed at reduction of nuclear and radiation hazard risk at the sites for the SNF and RW temporary storage (STS).To get unbiased comprehensive information on the current radiation conditions at the STSs and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring of the SevRAO and DalRAO facilities has been carried out during 2005-2013. The nature and peculiarity of the STS area radioactive contamination on the Kola Peninsula and in the Far East are the following: 1) high levels of radioactive contamination on the industrial site; 2) non-uniformity of the contamination distribution; 3) spread of contamination in the area of health protection zone. The following environmental components are contaminated: soil, vegetation, bottom sediments and seaweeds at the offshore sea waters. The dominant radionuclides are cesium-137 and strontium-90. At the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation the radio-ecological monitoring system was arranged. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main

  16. Archiving Legacy Images from International Tsunami Science Team (ITST) Surveys, 1946 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Kong, L. S. L.; Elwany, H.; Arcos, N. P.; Dunbar, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The ITIC, USC, Coastal Environments, and NOAA/NCEI have collaborated to gather legacy videos and photos from ITST surveys conducted since 1992, plus from 1946 and 1956, by the USC-TR. The images will become part of the NCEI online and searchable historical tsunami image database. The legacy videos and photos document the local conditions in the tsunami aftermath and are important resources for visualizing the tsunami and identifying patterns of impacts. The data provide invaluable insights into tsunami events, and this information will empower future generations to make informed decisions regarding the future management of ocean resources, local development, and safety protocols. Eyewitnesses are important sources for further understanding even well studied events, especially before 2000. Videos provide context - what residents were doing, what they felt, what they saw, what reactions helped them survive. Photographs document inundation extent. Together, they help to visualize the location and document human behavior and response of the built environment. For example, a flow mark inside a house that survived, versus a partially destroyed house, differentiates construction styles. While the scientific rationale behind tsunami surveys is obvious, ITST protocols strike the delicate balance between the prompt need to act to recover ephemeral scientific field evidence, and urgent priorities for search-and-rescue immediately after tsunami disasters. The data set includes over 50 videos of varying formats and over 3,000 internationally-sourced photos from 24 major tsunami events from 1946-2013: 01 April 1946 Unimak Island, Aleutians; 09 July 1956 Amorgos Island, Greece; 01 September 1992, Nicaragua; 12 December 1992, Flores; 02 June 1994, East Java; 04 October 1994, Shikotan; 14 November 1994, Mindoro, Philippines; 17 January 1994 Northridge; 09 October 1995, Manzanillo, Mexico; 17 February 1997, Biak, Indonesia; 21 February 1996 Chimbote, Peru; 17 August 1998 Aitape, PNG

  17. Managing the nuclear legacy in the UK - Progress towards the establishment of the nuclear decommissioning authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical change in the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. The UK Government's proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Actions published on 4 July 2002. This envisages the establishment of a new organisation, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing. The challenge is to decommission and demolish these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remediate the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. To prepare the way for the NDA, a special team has been established within the UK Department of Trade and Industry. This team, known as the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU), includes staff from both private and public sectors, and is supported by a partner contractor (Bechtel Management Company Ltd) who bring high quality, experienced project management skills to the team. LMU's principal tasks are: - Acquiring a detailed knowledge of BNFL and UKAEA liabilities; - Establishing common

  18. Phytotherapy of Polish migrants in Misiones, Argentina: legacy and acquired plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I

    2014-05-14

    Analyzing how and why phytotherapeutical practices survive a migratory process is important for understanding migrant health seeking behaviour and health demand. Contrary to most studies, which focus on migrants from warm climates who settle in European and American cities, this study explores continuations in the herbal pharmacopoeia of Eastern European peasants who settled down in rural subtropical areas of Argentina. The study also explores the pharmacopoeia among the descendants of the first generation born in Argentina. Primary and secondary sources were employed in the study. Data were collected during over 200 interviews (semi-structured, free lists and in-depth) with 94 study participants. Voucher specimens of species mentioned were gathered and identified. Illnesses were reported according to local ethnomedical terminology and classification. Only reports from informants' own experience were included in the analysis. The unit of analysis was a plant use report (plant species × plant part × ailment × informant). The frequency of mentions was calculated for plant parts used and modes of preparation and administration of herbal medicines, and the Informant Diversity Value was also estimated. Secondary information was obtained from ethnobotanical and ethnomedical literature concerning the whole of Poland. A list was made of medicinal plant species known from Poland available in the study area. Then, the similarity between the available species and those used by Polish migrants was evaluated by applying the Simpson index. An exhaustive list of 129 plant species used by the Polish community in Misiones, Argentina, was obtained. Among 37 species known form Poland and available in Misiones, 19 were used by the community. There was low consensus on the treatment of health conditions with legacy plants between Polish migrants and the Polish folk pharmacopoeia. The reasons for the relatively low use of legacy species are explained. More continuation has been

  19. Holocaust and its Legacy in the Light of the Contemporary Humanitarian Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta S. Gromoglasova

    2015-01-01

    to neglect juridical and moral laws in reality. The paper concludes by insisting on the importance of the Holocaust legacy for modern humanitarian action and thinking. The Holocaust legacy helps us to conceptualize more precisely ‘new spaces of lawlessness’. It provides a base for the concepts of human security and ‘global responsibility’ for saving humanity in the contemporary world.

  20. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-11-01

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct and legacy effects of long-term elevated CO₂ on fine root growth and plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiling, Peter; Moon, Daniel; Rossi, Anthony; Forkner, Rebecca; Hungate, Bruce A; Day, Frank P; Schroeder, Rachel E; Drake, Bert

    2013-11-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO₂ concentrations alter leaf physiology, with effects that cascade to communities and ecosystems. Yet, responses over cycles of disturbance and recovery are not well known, because most experiments span limited ecological time. We examined the effects of CO₂ on root growth, herbivory and arthropod biodiversity in a woodland from 1996 to 2006, and the legacy of CO₂ enrichment on these processes during the year after the CO₂ treatment ceased. We used minirhizotrons to study root growth, leaf censuses to study herbivory and pitfall traps to determine the effects of elevated CO₂ on arthropod biodiversity. Elevated CO₂ increased fine root biomass, but decreased foliar nitrogen and herbivory on all plant species. Insect biodiversity was unchanged in elevated CO₂. Legacy effects of elevated CO₂ disappeared quickly as fine root growth, foliar nitrogen and herbivory levels recovered in the next growing season following the cessation of elevated CO₂. Although the effects of elevated CO₂ cascade through plants to herbivores, they do not reach other trophic levels, and biodiversity remains unchanged. The legacy of 10 yr of elevated CO₂ on plant-herbivore interactions in this system appear to be minimal, indicating that the effects of elevated CO₂ may not accumulate over cycles of disturbance and recovery. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Drought-induced legacy effects in wood growth across the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. are mediated by site climate, tree age, and drought sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, S.; Maxwell, J. T.; Pederson, N.; D'Orangeville, L.; Phillips, R.

    2017-12-01

    While it is widely known that drought reduces carbon (C) uptake in temperate forests, tree growth can also remain stagnant post-drought despite favorable climatic conditions. While such "legacy effects" are well established, the degree to which these effects depend on species identity or variability in site conditions is poorly quantified. We sought to uncover how site, species, climate, and tree age interact to affect the presence and magnitude of legacy effects in temperate trees following drought. To do this, we assembled dendrochronological records of 18 common species across 94 sites in Eastern and Midwestern U.S. forests and quantified drought-induced changes in wood growth in the year of the drought (hereafter "drought sensitivity") and the years after the drought (i.e., legacy effects). We predicted that species particularly prone to hydraulic damage (e.g., oaks) would have the least drought sensitivity yet experience larger legacy effects, and that this effect would be exacerbated at arid sites. Across all species and sites, wood growth was reduced by 14% in the year of the drought and by 7% post-drought. Surprisingly, legacy effects were smaller for oak species and larger across species known to be more drought sensitive (e.g. tulip poplar, maple, birch). As a result, we observed a positive relationship between a species' drought sensitivity and that species' legacy effect. These legacy effects were similar in size across a range of drought severities. Surprisingly, legacy effects were smaller in more arid sites - contrary to previous investigations in dryland ecosystems - perhaps indicating the role of adaptation in mediating a tree's recovery from drought. In addition, many species actually decreased the size of their legacy effects as they aged, despite no change in drought responses. Our results run contrary to our predictions, as species with the greatest drought sensitivity had the least ability to recover, and that younger mesic forests- not arid

  3. Ectomycorrhizal host specificity in a changing world: can legacy effects explain anomalous current associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Lotus; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kennedy, Peter G

    2018-02-07

    Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade. Importantly, however, we found that the colonization of Quercus by S. subaureus required co-planting with a Pinaceae host. While our experimental results indicate that gymnosperms are required for the establishment of new S. subaureus colonies, Pineaceae hosts are locally absent at both our field sites. Given the historical presence of Pineaceae hosts before human alteration, it appears the current S. subaureus-Quercus associations represent carryover from past host presence. Collectively, our results suggest that patterns of ECM specificity should be viewed not only in light of current forest community composition, but also as a legacy effect of host community change over time. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms.

  5. Conservation Meets Militarisation in Kruger National Park: Historical Encounters and Complex Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lunstrum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on environmental history and political ecology, this paper contributes to growing debates concerning military-environment encounters and conservation militarisation/securitisation by investigating the complex histories and legacies of these relations. Grounding my insights in South Africa's iconic Kruger National Park, I chart how encounters between environment and military/security activity over the last century offer a repeatedly contradictory picture: military activity, skills, and weapons have harmed wildlife and hence reinforced the need for its protection, and they have simultaneously been deployed in the name of such protection. Furthermore, some of these historical engagements failed to materialise as planned and, as such, provide insight into military-environment frictions as well as nature's ability to thwart militarised interventions. Yet other engagements thrived and resulted in the multi-layered militarisation of Kruger, as both protected area and strategic borderland. Several of these encounters have lived on to shape Kruger's current intensive militarisation tied to rhino poaching, both the state response and poaching itself. Past military activity, in fact, provides an arsenal of enabling factors for current poaching- and conservation-related militarised violence that ultimately proves harmful to conservation efforts.

  6. Within the triangle of healthcare legacies: comparing the performance of South-Eastern European health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Arsenijevic, Jelena; Pavlova, Milena; Verhaeghe, Nick; Laaser, Ulrich; Groot, Wim

    2017-05-01

    Inter-regional comparison of health-reform outcomes in south-eastern Europe (SEE). Macro-indicators were obtained from the WHO Health for All Database. Inter-regional comparison among post-Semashko, former Yugoslavia, and prior-1989-free-market SEE economies was conducted. United Nations Development Program Human Development Index growth was strongest among prior-free-market SEE, followed by former Yugoslavia and post-Semashko. Policy cuts to hospital beds and nursing-staff capacities were highest in post-Semashko. Physician density increased the most in prior-free-market SEE. Length of hospital stay was reduced in most countries; frequency of outpatient visits and inpatient discharges doubled in prior-free-market SEE. Fertility rates fell for one third in Post-Semashko and prior-free-market SEE. Crude death rates slightly decreased in prior-free-market-SEE and post-Semashko, while growing in the former Yugoslavia region. Life expectancy increased by 4 years on average in all regions; prior-free-market SEE achieving the highest longevity. Childhood and maternal mortality rates decreased throughout SEE, while post-Semashko countries recorded the most progress. Significant differences in healthcare resources and outcomes were observed among three historical health-policy legacies in south-eastern Europe. These different routes towards common goals created a golden opportunity for these economies to learn from each other.

  7. The Legacy of Clark Lake and the Road to the Long Wavelength Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, N. E.; Polisensky, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    Over a period of nearly three decades, Bill Erickson, together with a hardy group of innovators and their collective students, developed a series of pioneering instruments in the dry lake bed of Clark Lake east of San Diego. The last of those was the Clark Lake TPT - a broad-band, completely electronic instrument that will be surpassed in sophistication only when the emerging suite of new low-frequency instruments, such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), are finally built. In the intervening decade since the Clark Lake Radio Observatory (CLRO) closed in the early 1990s, there has been a quiet renaissance of low-frequency radio astronomy. It has been motivated, in part, both by people trained at the CLRO and by a growing recognition that a variety of key astrophysical questions require observations at low radio frequencies. I summarize the positive legacy of Clark Lake, and Bill Erickson's work, that presaged the emergence of this long neglected field into the mainstream of modern astronomy.

  8. Charles Wagley's legacy of Interdisciplinary Graduate Research and Training Programs at the University of Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Schmink

    Full Text Available When Charles Wagley moved from Columbia University to the University of Florida (UF in 1972, he established the Tropical South America Program. In this program he began an enduring legacy at UF of interdisciplinarity, collaborative research and training focused on the problems and solutions of tropical development, and support for students as future leaders. Reaching out to agricultural researchers and other social science disciplines, Wagley later co-founded and directed the Amazon Research and Training Program (ARTP, and remained active even after his retirement in 1983. The ARTP built on Wagley's strategy of supporting student research and building collaboration with partners in Latin America, and innovated in bringing in visiting professors from different disciplines, developing new interdisciplinary courses, and networking among Amazonian scholars in different countries. Wagley's most lasting contribution is the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD program, which grew out of the ARTP to become an internationally-recognized interdisciplinary graduate program focused on the intersection between biodiversity conservation and the well-being of people in the tropical world. Drawing on participation from over 100 faculty affiliates in 27 academic units at UF, since 1980 the ARTP and TCD programs have trained over 400 graduate students from two dozen countries.

  9. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  10. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  11. Kaiser's School of Nursing: A 70-Year Legacy of Disruptive Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼAlfonso, Jim; Jones, Deloras; Moss, Terri

    A legacy project was launched in 2016 to research, capture, and record the history and voice of Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing alumni. The inspirational stories of these early nursing pioneers emerged within a disruptive and innovative health care system known as Kaiser Permanente. Led by a doctorally prepared nurse director, the new school boldly rejected the dominant social norms of the 1940s by welcoming minorities and offering an unprecedented curriculum that prioritized prevention, health promotion, and wellness over conventional institutionalized sick care models. Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing alumni became Kaiser Permanente's earliest nurse leaders, educators, and care advocates. They helped revolutionize the key concepts of integrated patient care. As early innovators, many graduates pursued advanced degrees and were instrumental in defining expanded nursing roles, including the introduction of nurse practitioners in California. How Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing transcended the traditions and cultural norms of the day offers a reflective narrative on the enduring leadership attributes of disruptive innovation and the nurse executive's role in reimagining care for future generations.

  12. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  13. Ibsen in Russia Revisited: The Ibsenian Legacy in the Writings of the Russian Symbolist Andrey Bely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Jorunn Helle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual atmosphere of Russian fin de siècle was characterized by a strong fascination for Norway, its nature, its culture and its literature. A good example is Henrik Ibsen who was a significant source of inspiration for Russian dramatists, writers and poets. The Russian symbolists in particular saw Ibsen as a tutelary spirit and not least the “younger” symbolist Andrey Bely regarded his works and thoughts as a prefiguration and a foreshadowing of his own. Ibsen was important to Bely through all his various stages of intellectual, artistic and spiritual seeking and in accordance with Bely’s highly interpretative, hermeneutical approach to the world, in which everything he experienced was transformed to confirm his own symbolist Weltanschauung, also Ibsen was transformed in much the same manner. And the very intriguing way in which Bely rewrites the Norwegian playwright into his own writings will be the main topic of this article, illustrating how the Russian symbolist refigures the Norwegian dramatist to make him fit into his own continuous search for new and meaningful perspectives and positions. Moreover and even still more remarkable, this search convincingly demonstrates how the Ibsenian legacy throughout the many different phases of Bely’s creative development keeps it crucial place within Bely’s life cycle, thereby establishing a most interesting thread in the complex web of Ibsen’s Wirkungsgeschichte.

  14. The post-disaster negative health legacy: pregnancy outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anzhelika; Curtis, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Disasters and displacement increasingly affect and challenge urban settings. How do pregnant women fare in the aftermath of a major disaster? This paper investigates the effect of pregnancies in disaster situations. The study tests a hypothesis that pregnant women residing in hurricane-prone areas suffer higher health risks. The setting is Louisiana in the Gulf Coast, United States, a state that continually experiences hurricane impacts. The time period for the analysis is three years following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We analysed low birth weight and preterm deliveries before and after landfall, as a whole and by race. Findings support an association between hazards and health of a community and indicate that pregnant women in the affected area, irrespective of race, are more likely to experience preterm deliveries compared to pre-event births. Results suggest there is a negative health legacy impact in Louisiana as a result of hurricane landfall. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  15. James Hillman: the unmaking of a psychologist. Part one: His legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacey, David

    2014-09-01

    This two-part essay offers a critical assessment of Hillman's archetypal psychology and enquires into its viability as a psychological model. The first part explores his legacy and reviews the metapsychological frame in which his work operates. It considers the relation between his thought and Jung's, and argues that Hillman's work is not so much post-Jungian as pre-Jungian. The second part is primarily intrapsychic; it explores Hillman's character, as discerned through his writings and interviews, and considers his work as an expression of the puer aeternus. It is argued that the puer prefers to live in an eternal dream-state resistant to growing up: yet denial of the maturational impulse will only lead to it happening anyway but in a negative form. The paper considers how Hillman's model was 'unmade' by the missing developmental element of his thought. Development is an archetypal and bio-psychological necessity, and if rejected it can ruin any system that refuses to take it seriously. In Hillman's case this manifested in the form of a repressed masculine shadow, destroying the credibility of his earlier work. The two-part paper attempts to weave an objective appraisal with a running commentary based on the author's personal engagement with the man and his work. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Marcel J.

    2015-01-01

    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks

  17. Legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants in wild edible aquatic organisms: Implications for bioaccumulation and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Li, Qing X; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Peng, Pingan; Mai, Bixian

    2018-03-01

    Highly industrialized and urbanized watersheds may receive various contaminants from anthropogenic activities. In this study, legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) were measured in edible wild aquatic organisms sampled from the Pearl River and Dongjiang River in a representative industrial and urban region in China. High concentrations of target contaminants were observed. The Pearl River exhibited higher concentrations of OHCs than the Dongjiang River due to high industrialization and urbanization. Agrochemical inputs remained an important source of OHCs in industrialized and urbanized watershed in China, but vigilance is needed for recent inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) originated from e-waste recycling activities. Bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and Dechlorane Plus (DP) was biological species- and compound-specific, which can be largely attributed to metabolic capability for xenobiotics. No health risk was related to the daily intake of DDTs, HCHs, and PBDEs via consumption of wild edible species investigated for local residents. However, the current exposure to PCBs through consuming fish is of potential health concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A legacy endures. A Maine system emphasizes its sponsor's mission in all aspects of its work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Marguerite

    2005-01-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health System, Lewiston, ME, a member of Covenant Health Systems, Lexington, MA, remains deeply committed to the mission of service begun by its foundress, St. Marguerite d'Youville. Although St. Marguerite experienced a hard life, her resilience and her commitment to the poor and disadvantaged serve as an inspiration to those who continue her legacy of compassionate care. The founding work of St. Marguerite and the sisters has helped to foster a culture in which the mission of service thrives among the system's 2,000 employees. This culture can be attributed to two things: the system's organizational values of compassion, stewardship, respect, and excellence; and the recognition of those employees whose work embodies these values. From the boardroom to the patient room, mission is integrated into each decision and action. Every two years, each of Covenant Health System's member facilities engages in a mission assessment process that examines various aspects of mission, including Catholic identity, holistic care, care for the poor, mission values integration, ethics and employee relations. In addition, the Sisters of Charity Health System's board has its own standing Mission and Community Committee, which looks strategically at how creatively and faithfully the system is continuing to live its mission.

  19. Zheng Manqing: The Memorial Hall and Legacy of the Master of Five Excellences in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Mason

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professor Zheng Manqing (1902-1975, a fine artist and a notable taijiquan disciple of Yang Chengfu, emigrated to Taiwan in 1949 following the Chinese civil war between the Guomindang and Maoist factions. Under Republic of China President Chiang Kai-shek’s Cultural Renaissance Movement, Zheng played an important role in preserving the cultural treasures of traditional China. During the period of Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution when the Mainland was veiled to foreign eyes behind the Bamboo Curtain, Zheng was instrumental in introducing taijiquan and other elements of Chinese culture to the West. Zheng passed away at his home in Yonghe, Taiwan in 1975 but not before establishing an international reputation for his mastery in taijiquan and other arts. Recently, a portion of his former residence was converted into a memorial hall (the Zheng Manqing Jinian Guan by senior students interested in preserving his martial tradition, paintings, calligraphy, and other artifacts. This article provides a brief history of Zheng’s life and his legacy in Taiwan, as well as a photographic tour of the Zheng Manqing Memorial Hall.

  20. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Atallah, Amy J.; Ochoa, Oswaldo E.; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H.; Truco, Maria Jose; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy mildew. We developed a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) originating from a cross between these two legacy cultivars, constructed a linkage map, and identified two QTLs for resistance on linkage groups 2 (qDM2.1) and 5 (qDM5.1) that determined resistance under field conditions in California and the Netherlands. The same QTLs determined delayed sporulation at the seedling stage in laboratory experiments. Alleles conferring elevated resistance at both QTLs originate from cultivar Iceberg. An additional QTL on linkage group 9 (qDM9.1) was detected through simultaneous analysis of all experiments with mixed-model approach. Alleles for elevated resistance at this locus originate from cultivar Grand Rapids. PMID:24096732

  1. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  2. Barriers to evidence-based care in nursing: historical legacies and conflicting cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C

    1998-08-01

    The British National Health Service (NHS) has witnessed many fundamental changes over the last decade, one of the most significant of which is the imperative for health-care professionals to ensure that their clinical practice can be supported by research evidence. This move from intuition and historical ritual to scientific justification has not been fully successful in either the medical or non-medical professions, with the result that a great deal of research has been sponsored at both the national and local levels to investigate the reasons underlying the research/practice divide. Within nursing the problem has been particularly exacerbated by its ideological framework, the culture and tradition of the profession itself and the recent reforms that were intended to raise its professional status and autonomy. This paper considers the impact of nursing traditions and stereotypes and the bureaucratic structures of the NHS on the introduction of evidence-based nursing care. It is suggested that the essential nature of nursing, its legacy and philosophy, together with the health service's hidden agendas, have conspired to keep nursing in a subordinated, quasi-professional role as one means by which the workforce can be controlled. Because the nursing profession has colluded with this, albeit inadvertently, it now needs to re-establish its complementary functions, in order to salvage its position and truly establish nursing as a profession in its own right.

  3. XDS-I Gateway Development for HIE Connectivity with Legacy PACS at Gil Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simalango, Mikael Fernandus; Kim, Youngchul; Seo, Young Tae; Choi, Young Hwan; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2013-12-01

    The ability to support healthcare document sharing is imperative in a health information exchange (HIE). Sharing imaging documents or images, however, can be challenging, especially when they are stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive that does not support document sharing via standard HIE protocols. This research proposes a standard-compliant imaging gateway that enables connectivity between a legacy PACS and the entire HIE. Investigation of the PACS solutions used at Gil Hospital was conducted. An imaging gateway application was then developed using a Java technology stack. Imaging document sharing capability enabled by the gateway was tested by integrating it into Gil Hospital's order communication system and its HIE infrastructure. The gateway can acquire radiology images from a PACS storage system, provide and register the images to Gil Hospital's HIE for document sharing purposes, and make the images retrievable by a cross-enterprise document sharing document viewer. Development of an imaging gateway that mediates communication between a PACS and an HIE can be considered a viable option when the PACS does not support the standard protocol for cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging. Furthermore, the availability of common HIE standards expedites the development and integration of the imaging gateway with an HIE.

  4. Euro 2012 European Football Championship Finals: planning for a health legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Catherine A H; Arbuthnott, Katherine G; Banczak-Mysiak, Barbara; Borodina, Mariya; Coutinho, Ana Paula; Payne-Hallström, Lara; Lipska, Elzbieta; Lyashko, Viktor; Miklasz, Miroslaw; Miskiewicz, Paulina; Nitzan, Dorit; Pokanevych, Igor; Posobkiewicz, Marek; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Sinelnik, Svetlana; Smiley, Daniel; Tomialoic, Rysard; Yurchenko, Volodimir; Memish, Ziad A; Heymann, David; Endericks, Tina; McCloskey, Brian; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barbeschi, Maurizio

    2014-06-14

    The revised international health regulations offer a framework that can be used by host countries to organise public health activities for mass gatherings. From June 8, to July 1, 2012, Poland and Ukraine jointly hosted the Union of European Football Associations European Football Championship Finals (Euro 2012). More than 8 million people from around the world congregated to watch the games. Host countries and international public health agencies planned extensively to assess and build capacity in the host countries and to develop effective strategies for dissemination of public health messages. The effectiveness of public health services was maximised through rapid sharing of information between parties, early use of networks of experienced individuals, and the momentum of existing national health programmes. Organisers of future mass gatherings for sporting events should share best practice and their experiences through the WHO International Observer Program. Research about behaviour of large crowds is needed for crowd management and the evidence base translated into practice. A framework to measure and evaluate the legacy of Euro 2012 is needed based on the experiences and the medium-term and long-term benefits of the tournament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Black Hole Masses for Type I Active Galactic Nuclei in the Chandra Cosmos Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Gautam; Fornasini, Francesca; Civano, Francesca Maria

    2018-01-01

    Tight local relations between SMBH masses and galaxy properties have established the fundamental connection between SMBHs and their host galaxies. However, in order to better understand the coevolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies over cosmic time, we need measurements of black hole masses, AGN luminosities, and galaxy stellar masses from sizable samples of AGN covering lower luminosities than the brightest quasars spanning a wide redshift range. In this study, we report masses of the SMBHs of 224 Type I AGNs from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey as determined by the line widths of Mg II 2798, Hb 4862, and Ha 6564 via scaling relations derived from reverberation mapping. Preliminary comparison with host galaxy luminosities and stellar masses suggests an increase in Eddington ratio with redshift, consistent with previous studies. In addition, our derived SMBH masses fall above the local AGN MBH--M* (galactic stellar mass) relation from Reines & Volonteri (2015), but it is still not clear whether this results from redshift evolution of the MBH--M* relation or from the incompleteness of the spectroscopic surveys available. The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  6. Inferring directions of evolution from patterns of variation: The legacy of Sergei Meyen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis, which no longer considers natural selection as the only leading factor of evolution, it is meaningful to revisit the legacy of biologists who discussed the role of alternative factors. Here we analyze the evolutionary views of Sergei Meyen (1935-1987), a paleobotanist who argued that the theory of evolution should incorporate a “nomothetical” approach which infers the laws of morphogenesis (i.e., form generation) from the observed patterns of variation in living organisms and in the fossil records. Meyen developed a theory of “repeated polymorphic sets” (RPSs), which he applied consistently to describe inter-organism variation in populations, intra-organism variation of metameric organs, variation of abnormalities, heterotopy, changes during embryo development, and inter-species variation within evolutionary lineages. The notion of RPS assumes the active nature of organisms that possess hidden morphogenic and behavioural capacities. Meyen's theory is compatible with Darwin's natural selection; however Meyen emphasized the importance of other forms of selection (e.g., selection of developmental trajectories, habitats, and behaviours) in choosing specific elements from the RPS. Finally, Meyen developed a new typological concept of time, where time represents variability (i.e., change) of real objects such as living organisms or geological formations. PMID:25072709

  7. Using Coarrays to Parallelize Legacy Fortran Applications: Strategy and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a strategy for parallelizing a legacy Fortran 77 program using the object-oriented (OO and coarray features that entered Fortran in the 2003 and 2008 standards, respectively. OO programming (OOP facilitates the construction of an extensible suite of model-verification and performance tests that drive the development. Coarray parallel programming facilitates a rapid evolution from a serial application to a parallel application capable of running on multicore processors and many-core accelerators in shared and distributed memory. We delineate 17 code modernization steps used to refactor and parallelize the program and study the resulting performance. Our initial studies were done using the Intel Fortran compiler on a 32-core shared memory server. Scaling behavior was very poor, and profile analysis using TAU showed that the bottleneck in the performance was due to our implementation of a collective, sequential summation procedure. We were able to improve the scalability and achieve nearly linear speedup by replacing the sequential summation with a parallel, binary tree algorithm. We also tested the Cray compiler, which provides its own collective summation procedure. Intel provides no collective reductions. With Cray, the program shows linear speedup even in distributed-memory execution. We anticipate similar results with other compilers once they support the new collective procedures proposed for Fortran 2015.

  8. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of the census of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry, G.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Feldman, M.; Fornwall, M.D.; Goldstein, P.; Guralnick, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makeswidely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001-2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared valueamong data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant tomarine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  10. OBIS-USA: a data-sharing legacy of census of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry, George R.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Feldman, Michael; Fornwall, Mark D.; Goldstein, Phillip; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey's Biological Informatics Program hosts OBIS-USA, the US node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). OBIS-USA gathers, coordinates, applies standard formats to, and makes widely available data on biological collections in marine waters of the United States and other areas where US investigators have collected data and, in some instances, specimens. OBIS-USA delivers its data to OBIS international, which then delivers its data to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other Web portals for marine biodiversity data. OBIS-USA currently has 145 data sets from 36 participants, representing over 6.5 million occurrence records of over 83,000 taxa from more than 888,000 locations. OBIS-USA, a legacy of the decade-long (2001–2010) international collaborative Census of Marine Life enterprise, continues to add data, including those from ongoing Census projects. Among the many challenges in creating OBIS, including OBIS-USA, were developing a community of trust and shared value among data providers, and demonstrating to providers the value of making their data accessible to others. Challenges also posed by the diversity of data sets relevant to marine biodiversity stored on thousands of computers, in a variety of formats, not all widely accessible, have been met in OBIS-USA by implementing a uniform standard and publishing platform that is easily accessible to a broad range of users.

  11. Dependency Analysis of Legacy Digital Materials to Support Emulation Based Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Hsu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulation has been widely discussed as a preservation strategy for digital documents that depend upon proprietary executables, as well as for legacy programs. The fundamental assumption of this strategy is that an artifact (document or program will be bundled with any required contemporaneous software in an archival information package (AIP which can be loaded and executed in an emulation environment by patrons wishing to access the preserved artifact, yet little has been written about how to identify the required components for such an AIP. Even where a digital document was distributed with a binary viewer, there may be dependencies on other software libraries. In this paper we discuss a pilot study that performed dependency analysis for digital materials originally distributed on CD-ROM. In particular, we show how to utilize a small number of existing off-the-shelf libraries to build a tool that can analyze executables within ISO (CD-ROM images, and then examine the results of applying this tool to a body of archived images.

  12. The pedagogical and ethical legacy of a "successful" educational reform: The Citizen School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Gustavo E.; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2016-02-01

    The Citizen School Project (Escola Cidadã) was implemented from 1993 to 2004 in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. This article presents the conception behind the Citizen School Project, the basic mechanisms created to implement and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and some of its contradictions. After contextualising the educational reforms in Brazil during the 1980s and 1990s, the authors demonstrate how the Citizen School Project's emphasis on participation and democratisation was a radical departure from Brazil's traditional public education system. Next, they present the three main goals and structures of the Citizen School Project - democratisation of access to schools, democratisation of schools' administration, and democratisation of access to knowledge. They conclude by discussing some pedagogic, social and political dynamics which appear to be strong legacies of this pedagogical project. The authors also argue that the Citizen School Project has both improved the quality of education in Porto Alegre and is an important contribution to our collective thinking about the politics of "successful" educational policies.

  13. The institution of science and the science of institutions the legacy of Joseph Ben-David

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The present anthology, edited by Marcel Herbst, is partially based on a conference, held in 2009, to reflect on the legacy of Ben-David, and contains a selection of substantially revised papers, plus four contributions specifically written for this volume. The book focuses on three major lines of Ben-David’s research, namely “Center and Periphery” (Part I), “Role and Ethos” (Part II), and “Organization and Growth” (Part III). In addition, comprehensive introductory (“Prologue”) and concluding chapters (“Epilogue”, Part IV) by Marcel Herbst are provided. The volume addresses the following disciplines: higher education, history and sociology of science, philosophy of science, history of medicine, public administration, policy studies, Jewish studies, and economics. The anthology is one of two new publications on Joseph Ben-David after the special Minerva edition Vol. 25, Numbers 1–2, March 1987, and Gad Freudenthal’s collection of Ben-David’s writings [1991]. The text can be used i...

  14. "Karlson" - A Stasi "Kontakt Person". An episode of Iceland’s Cold War legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s geographical position gave this small nation a special strategic importance in the political and military chess game between East and West during the Cold War era. Iceland constituted an important post for the NATO defence forces and surveillance activities. The military base and the NATO alignment created stark divisions among the population. The political discussion was framed in terms of the Cold War and the press in Iceland continuously suggested that the political motives of their opponents were conspicuously linked to or derived from either the interests of Soviet or Eastern European communism or US capitalist imperialism. It was in this circumstances that in the fifties and sixties young left wing people sought to undertake their university education in the Eastern block. The legacy of heated feelings of the Cold War has in many ways survived the Cold War itself. This article wants to contribute to the objectification of the debate by presenting the files from the archives of the East German secret service on one Icelandic student cooperating with it while studying in East Germany.

  15. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  16. Victimology’s debt to Nils Christie: The outlasting legacy of a free thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Ezzat A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tragic accidental death of Nils Christie was a huge loss to the scholarly worlds of criminology and victimology. An old dear friend and highly esteemed colleague, Christie has been hailed as one of the most innovative criminological thinkers of the 20th century. He left an outlasting legacy to both criminology and victimology. His contributions are characterized by their creativity, their originality and their clarity. To remedy what he saw as a terrible injustice done to crime victims he outlined a court procedure that restores the participants’ right to their own conflict, a procedure that provided the theoretical underpinnings of the restorative justice movement. He drew attention to the fact that victimization is not an objectively defined phenomenon but is a personal, relative and highly subjective experience. He insisted that mental images of those subjected to the same victimizing act could be and usually are quite varied. Criminology and victimology owe much to Nils Christie. The present article briefly highlights just a few of his significant contributions.

  17. Micrometeorological Measurement of Fetch- and Atmospheric Stability-Dependent Air- Water Exchange of Legacy Semivolatile Organic Contaminants in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlinger, J. A.; Tobias, D. E.; Rowe, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters including the Laurentian Great Lakes are particularly susceptible to local, regional, and long- range transport and deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants (SOCs) as gases and/or associated with particles. Recently-marketed SOCs can be expected to undergo net deposition in surface waters, whereas legacy SOCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are likely to be at equilibrium with respect to air-water exchange, or, if atmospheric concentrations decrease through, e.g., policy implementation, to undergo net gas emission. SOC air-water exchange flux is usually estimated using the two-film model. This model describes molecular diffusion through the air and water films adjacent to the air-water interface. Air-water exchange flux is estimated as the product of SOC fugacity, typically based on on-shore gaseous concentration measurements, and a transfer coefficient, the latter which is estimated from SOC properties and environmental conditions. The transfer coefficient formulation commonly applied neglects resistance to exchange in the internal boundary layer under atmospherically stable conditions, and the use of on-shore gaseous concentration neglects fetch-dependent equilibration, both of which will tend to cause overestimation of flux magnitude. Thus, for legacy chemicals or in any highly contaminated surface water, the rate at which the water is cleansed through gas emission tends to be over-predicted using this approach. Micrometeorological measurement of air-water exchange rates of legacy SOCs was carried out on ships during four transect experiments during off-shore flow in Lake Superior using novel multicapillary collection devices and thermal extraction technology to measure parts-per-quadrillion SOC levels. Employing sensible heat in the modified Bowen ratio, fluxes at three over-water stations along the transects were measured, along with up-wind, onshore gaseous concentration and aqueous concentration. The atmosphere was unstable for

  18. Architectural Accessibility of Historic Legacy: The Social Aspect and Design Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowczyk, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    Due to the necessity of eliminating civilizational backwardness, the contemporary discourse concerning the tradition and post-modernity is based on the assumption that the cultural environment is a part of an integrated system, and its function and form undergo changes in the course of a constant and complex process determined by the current economic, political as well as cultural circumstances. The recognition of the value of architectural monuments is an obvious fact, however, the idea of democratizing the legacy in the context of universal spatial design is a relatively new phenomenon. Adjusting the historic monuments to the needs of people with various limitations affecting their mobility and perception is less and less frequently considered in terms of oppression or arduousness. It has started to be perceived as a potential catalyser of positive changes. Architectural accessibility might contribute to popularizing the knowledge regarding the significance of historical legacy and provide the conditions for its sustainable development and stable subsistence. It is necessary to answer the question: can the cultural space along with the preserved throughout the history tradition of the absence of the excluded groups have a universal character, so that the conditions of using and experiencing this space by people with disabilities would not exceed their capacities. Owing to the fact that the application of universal design principles is practically more complex than the intuitive understanding of the concept itself, there is a need to continue multidirectional research taking into account methods for the real application of the assumptions underlying the ideas of social egalitarianism. The aim of the paper is adding new concepts to the debate on the roots of spatial discrimination and possibilities of counteracting this phenomenon by modifying the monuments, building complexes and historic places. The conclusions have been based on the analyses of international law

  19. Groundwater Discharge of Legacy Nitrogen to River Networks: Linking Regional Groundwater Models to Streambed Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange and Nitrogen Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Briggs, M. A.; Starn, J. J.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite years of management, excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many aquatic ecosystems. More than half of surface water in the United States is derived from groundwater, and widespread N contamination in aquifers from decades of watershed N inputs suggest legacy N discharging from groundwater may contribute to contemporary N pollution problems in surface waters. Legacy N loads to streams and rivers are controlled by both regional scale flow paths and fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients that occur at stream bed interfaces. Adequately incorporating these disparate scales is a challenge, but it is essential to understanding legacy N transport and making informed management decisions. We developed a regional groundwater flow model for the Farmington River, a HUC-8 basin that drains to the Long Island Sound, a coastal estuary that suffers from elevated N loads despite decades of management, to understand broad patterns of regional transport. To evaluate and refine the regional model, we used thermal infrared imagery paired with vertical temperature profiling to estimate groundwater discharge at the streambed interface. We also analyzed discharging groundwater for multiple N species to quantify fine scale patterns of N loading and transformation via denitrification at the streambed interface. Integrating regional and local estimates of groundwater discharge of legacy N to river networks should improve our ability to predict spatiotemporal patterns of legacy N loading to and transformation within surface waters.

  20. Alternative legacies: Artist projects in history museums & the importance of context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsey Boekenkamp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this paper is to investigate why artists are drawn to working in history museums, and how an artist-driven critique of museum practices encourages dialogue about artistic and historical authority, and the role of the museum. Drawing from the fields of public history, art history, anthropology, and journalism, this study argues that artists play an important role in fostering multiple interpretations within traditional historical and academically informed museum practices. The primary theorists influencing this study include Art Historian, Douglas Crimp and his analysis of postmodernism; Professor of Art Education, Dipti Desai and her theory of ethnographic shift; Modern European Historian, Susan Crane and her theory of disruption or “excess of memory”; English Professor, Bettina Carbonell and her theory of “bearing witness”; and Patricia Romney’s analysis of Russian Philosopher, Mikhail Bakhtin and his theory of dialogism. As an outgrowth of this pre-existing scholarship, this study sought to prove that artists were better positioned to intervene in and manipulate traditional museum practices, not because they helped facilitate shared authority, but because they asserted their own artistic authority in the creation of alternative narratives. Through an analysis comparing Fred Wilson’s installation Liberty/Liberte—shown first in the 2006-2007 exhibition Legacies: Contemporary Artists Reflect on Slavery at the New-York Historical Society, and then in its current placement as part of the Historical Society’s official renovations—this study instead concludes that artists are more than capable of successful interventions in non-art environments – specifically, history museums. However, the context in which the artwork is placed, as well as the conversation between the artist and the institution throughout the duration of any project, has the power to make or break the success of these artist interventions.

  1. Multi-processing CTH: Porting legacy FORTRAN code to MP hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.L.; Elrick, M.G.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    CTH is a family of codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in modeling complex multi-dimensional, multi-material problems that are characterized by large deformations and/or strong shocks. A two-step, second-order accurate Eulerian solution algorithm is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. CTH has historically been run on systems where the data are directly accessible to the cpu, such as workstations and vector supercomputers. Multiple cpus can be used if all data are accessible to all cpus. This is accomplished by placing compiler directives or subroutine calls within the source code. The CTH team has implemented this scheme for Cray shared memory machines under the Unicos operating system. This technique is effective, but difficult to port to other (similar) shared memory architectures because each vendor has a different format of directives or subroutine calls. A different model of high performance computing is one where many (> 1,000) cpus work on a portion of the entire problem and communicate by passing messages that contain boundary data. Most, if not all, codes that run effectively on parallel hardware were written with a parallel computing paradigm in mind. Modifying an existing code written for serial nodes poses a significantly different set of challenges that will be discussed. CTH, a legacy FORTRAN code, has been modified to allow for solutions on distributed memory parallel computers such as the IBM SP2, the Intel Paragon, Cray T3D, or a network of workstations. The message passing version of CTH will be discussed and example calculations will be presented along with performance data. Current timing studies indicate that CTH is 2--3 times faster than equivalent C++ code written specifically for parallel hardware. CTH on the Intel Paragon exhibits linear speed up with problems that are scaled (constant problem size per node) for the number of parallel nodes.

  2. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. PRELIMINARY PUBLIC CATALOG RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Brown, T. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, San Martin Drive 3700, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cassisi, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S., E-mail: mario.soto@uda.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  3. Refined WFC3 Source Lists from the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Kevin; Wolfe, M. A.; Casertano, S.; Anderson, R. E.; White, R. L.; Quick, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) provides a heightened level of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival data products, "science-ready", to the astronomical community. We provide a general examination of the current strategy, and the steps being taken to produce source lists for the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging data. These source lists are created from drizzled, combined, and astrometrically corrected WFC3 images. Providing both Source Extractor- and IRAF DAOPhot-based source lists requires that the HLA develop two unique sets of source list data products in order to facilitate the needs of the community. The HLA Data Release 6 (DR6) gave the community a first look at the HLA's high-level science image products for WFC3, while DR6.1 contributed a preliminary test suite of WFC3 source lists as a means of gaining user feedback. Since DR6.1, four flag-creating filters have been developed to refine both the Source Extractor and DAOPhot WFC3 source lists. These filters remove excess spurious artifact detections (e.g. saturated sources, cosmic rays, bleed line detections, etc…), so that more precise and complete data can be made available to the community. Although high-level science products are currently available for ACS and WFPC2 through the HLA interface, future plans include the adaptation of the WFC3 HLA image processing and source list creation pipelines for the processing of ACS and WFPC2 data. With the replacement of MultiDrizzle by AstroDrizzle, and the implementation of the newly developed and refined source list artifact flag filters, we expect to see an improvement in the quality of ACS and WFPC2 source lists and the relative astrometry of the image data.

  4. Electron-Molecule Col1isions: Quantitative Approaches, and the Legacy of Aaron Temkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B.I.

    2007-01-01

    This article, on electron-molecule collisions, is dedicated to the legacy of my good friend and sometime collaborator, Aaron Temkin on his retirement from the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center after many years of work at the highest intellectual level in the theoretical treatment of electron-atom and electron-molecule scattering. Aaron's contributions to the manner in which we think about electron-molecule collisions is clear to all of us who have worked in this field. I doubt that the great progress that has occurred in the computational treatment of such complex collision problems could have happened without these contributions. For a brief historical account, see the discussion of Temkin's contribution to electron-molecule scattering in the first article of this volume by Dr. A. K. Bhatia. In this article, I will concentrate on the application of the so called, non-adiabatic R-matrix theory, to vibrational excitation and dissociative attachment, although I will also present some results applying the Linear Algebraic and Kohn-Variational methods to vibrational excitation. As a starting point for almost all computationally effective approaches to electron-molecule collisions, is the fixed nuclei approximation. That is, one recognizes, just as one does with molecular bound states, that there is a separation of electronic(fast) and nuclear(s1ow) degrees of freedom. This separation makes it possible to "freeze" the nuclei in space, calculate the collision parameters for the frozen molecule and then, somehow to add back the vibrations and rotations. The manner in which this is done, depends on the details of the collision problem. It is the work of Aaron and a number of other researchers that has provided the guidance necessary to resolve these issues.

  5. The ghosts of trees past: savanna trees create enduring legacies in plant species composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlheber, Karen A; Crispin, Kimberly L; Anton, Cassidy; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-09-01

    Isolated trees in savannas worldwide are known to modify their local environment and interact directly with neighboring plants. Less is known about how related tree species differ in their impacts on surrounding communities, how the effects of trees vary between years, and how composition might change following loss of the tree. To address these knowledge gaps, we explored the following questions: How do savanna trees influence the surrounding composition of herbaceous plants? Is the influence of trees consistent across different species and years? How does this change following the death of the tree? We surveyed herbaceous species composition and environmental attributes surrounding living and dead evergreen and deciduous Quercus trees in California (USA) savannas across several years that differed in their total precipitation. Oak trees of all species created distinct, homogenous understory communities dominated by exotic grasses across several sites. The composition of the low-diversity understory communities showed less interannual variation than open grassland, despite a two-fold difference in precipitation between the driest and wettest year. Vegetation composition was correlated with variation in soil properties, which were strongly affected by trees. Oaks also influenced the communities beyond the edge of the crown, but this depended on site and oak species. Low-diversity understory communities persisted up to 43 years following the death of the tree. A gradual decline in the effect of trees on the physical, environment following death did not result in vegetation becoming more similar to open grassland over time. The presence of long-lasting legacies of past tree crowns highlights the difficulty of assigning control of the current distribution of herbaceous species in grassland to their contemporary environment.

  6. Wings in Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle, 1971-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne (Editor); Lane, Helen (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an engineering marvel perhaps only exceeded by the station itself. The shuttle was based on the technology of the 1960s and early 1970s. It had to overcome significant challenges to make it reusable. Perhaps the greatest challenges were the main engines and the Thermal Protection System. The program has seen terrible tragedy in its 3 decades of operation, yet it has also seen marvelous success. One of the most notable successes is the Hubble Space Telescope, a program that would have been a failure without the shuttle's capability to rendezvous, capture, repair, as well as upgrade. Now Hubble is a shining example of success admired by people around the world. As the program comes to a close, it is important to capture the legacy of the shuttle for future generations. That is what "Wings In Orbit" does for space fans, students, engineers, and scientists. This book, written by the men and women who made the program possible, will serve as an excellent reference for building future space vehicles. We are proud to have played a small part in making it happen. Our journey to document the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this magnificent winged vehicle began with an audacious proposal: to capture the passion of those who devoted their energies to its success while answering the question "What are the most significant accomplishments?" of the longestoperating human spaceflight program in our nation s history. This is intended to be an honest, accurate, and easily understandable account of the research and innovation accomplished during the era.

  7. Mapping Water Quality Contamination Legacies Using Long-term Landscape Indicators in a Transboundary Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. L.; Gergel, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Historical land-use and land cover (LULC) can impact water quality for decades and is among the factors responsible for elevated nitrate (NO3-) in many groundwater systems. Understanding the persistent "echo" effect of land-use is essential to create policies to improve water quality. To address this, we examined the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer, a source of drinking water to 100,000+ people in British Columbia and Washington. We asked two questions: 1) Are long-term groundwater NO3-concentrations changing over time and space? 2) What is the relative importance of historical versus contemporary LULC in explaining groundwater NO3-concentrations? First, NO3- concentrations in 16 shallow groundwater wells were examined using seasonal Mann-Kendall tests to detect long-term trends. We determined that over 50% of wells show significant, albeit contrasting, trends. For our second question, landscape indicators were calculated at each well and correlated with monthly NO3-concentrations. To create landscape indicators, a series of historical aerial photos (1974-2011) were scanned and georeferenced in ArcGIS. Using heads-up digitizing, we identified and quantified fine-scale features with suspected mechanistic links to NO3-sources within immediate zones of influence surrounding wells. Backward stepwise regression identified parsimonious statistical models that best predicted NO3- concentrations using landscape indicators and several co-variates. Preliminary results show the area of historical raspberry renovations was positively correlated with mean NO3- concentrations. This work helps develop affordable monitoring approaches for understanding the persistent legacy effects of land-use.

  8. Dry-wet cycles of kettle hole sediments leave a microbial and biogeochemical legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverey, Florian; Ganzert, Lars; Lischeid, Gunnar; Ulrich, Andreas; Premke, Katrin; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2018-06-15

    Understanding interrelations between an environment's hydrological past and its current biogeochemistry is necessary for the assessment of biogeochemical and microbial responses to changing hydrological conditions. The question how previous dry-wet events determine the contemporary microbial and biogeochemical state is addressed in this study. Therefore, sediments exposed to the atmosphere of areas with a different hydrological past within one kettle hole, i.e. (1) the predominantly inundated pond center, (2) the pond margin frequently desiccated for longer periods and (3) an intermediate zone, were incubated with the same rewetting treatment. Physicochemical and textural characteristics were related to structural microbial parameters regarding carbon and nitrogen turnover, i.e. abundance of bacteria and fungi, denitrifiers (targeted by the nirK und nirS functional genes) and nitrate ammonifiers (targeted by the nrfA functional gene). Our study reveals that, in combination with varying sediment texture, the hydrological history creates distinct microbial habitats with defined boundary conditions within the kettle hole, mainly driven by redox conditions, pH and organic matter (OM) composition. OM mineralization, as indicated by CO 2 -outgassing, was most efficient in exposed sediments with a less stable hydrological past. The potential for nitrogen retention via nitrate ammonification was highest in the hydrologically rather stable pond center, counteracting nitrogen loss due to denitrification. Therefore, the degree of hydrological stability is an important factor leaving a microbial and biogeochemical legacy, which determines carbon and nitrogen losses from small lentic freshwater systems in the long term run. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  10. Breast Cancer Family History and Allele-Specific DNA Methylation in the Legacy Girls Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Do, Catherine; Andrulis, Irene L; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B; Buys, Saundra S; Chung, Wendy K; Knight, Julia A; Bradbury, Angela R; Keegan, Theresa H M; Schwartz, Lisa; Krupska, Izabela; Miller, Rachel L; Santella, Regina M; Tycko, Benjamin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2018-02-13

    Family history, a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, can have both genetic and environmental contributions. Shared environment in families as well as epigenetic changes that also may be influenced by shared genetics and environment may also explain familial clustering of cancers. Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, can change the activity of a DNA segment without a change in the sequence; environmental exposures experienced across the life course can induce such changes. However, genetic-epigenetic interactions, detected as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs; a.k.a. meQTLs) and haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM), can also contribute to inter-individual differences in DNA methylation patterns. To identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility, we examined differences in white blood cell DNA methylation in 29 candidate genes in 426 girls (ages 6-13 years) from the LEGACY Girls Study, 239 with and 187 without a breast cancer family history (BCFH). We measured methylation by targeted massively parallel bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) and observed BCFH DMRs in two genes: ESR1 (Δ 4.9%, P = 0.003) and SEC16B (Δ 3.6%, P = 0.026), each of which has been previously implicated in breast cancer susceptibility and pubertal development. These DMRs showed high inter-individual variability in methylation, suggesting the presence of mQTLs/hap-ASM. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms data in the bis-seq amplicon, we found strong hap-ASM in SEC16B (with allele specific-differences ranging from 42% to 74%). These findings suggest that differential methylation in genes relevant to breast cancer susceptibility may be present early in life, and that inherited genetic factors underlie some of these epigenetic differences.

  11. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Astrophysics Group, Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Spezzi, Loredana, E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L{sub bol} for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L{sub Sun} to 69 L{sub Sun }, and has a mean and median of 4.3 L{sub Sun} and 1.3 L{sub Sun }, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L{sub bol} {approx}< 0.5 L{sub Sun }) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 {mu}m <{lambda} < 850 {mu}m) and have L{sub bol} underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  12. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Riess, Adam G.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 10(exp 9) solar mass to z approx. 2, reaching the knee of the UV luminosity function of galaxies to z approx. 8. The survey covers approximately 800 square arc minutes and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5(sigma) point-source limit H =27.7mag) covers approx. 125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The CANDELS/Wide survey includes GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area to a 50(sigma) point-source limit of H ? or approx. = 27.0 mag. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, the strategy creates a three-tiered "wedding cake" approach that has proven efficient for extragalactic surveys. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this paper, we describe the basic motivations for the survey, the CANDELS team science goals and the resulting observational requirements, the field selection and geometry, and the observing design.

  13. Rotary's PolioPlus Program: Lessons Learned, Transition Planning, and Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, John L; McGovern, Michael; Scott, Robert; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy; Goodstone, David

    2017-07-01

    Hundreds of thousands of Rotary volunteers have provided support for polio eradication activities and continue to this day by making financial contributions to the Rotary PolioPlus program, participating in national immunization days, assisting with surveillance, working on local, national, and international advocacy programs for polio eradication, assisting at immunization posts and clinics, and mobilizing their communities for immunization activities (including poliovirus and other vaccines) and other health benefits. Rotary has contributed more than $1.61 billion for the global eradication of polio and has committed to provide an additional $35 million each year until 2018 (all dollar amounts represent US dollars). Its unwavering commitment to eradicate polio has been vital to the success of the program. Rotary is providing additional support for routine immunization and healthcare. When polio is finally gone, we will have the knowledge from the lessons learned with PolioPlus, such as the value of direct involvement by local Rotarians, the program for emergency funding, innovative tactics, and additional approaches for tackling other global issues, even those beyond public health. Rotary has already transitioned its grants program to include 6 areas of focus: disease prevention and treatment, water and sanitation, maternal and child health, basic education and literacy, economic and community development, and peace and conflict prevention/resolution. Funding for these grants in 2015-2016 was $71 million. The legacy of the polio program will be the complete eradication of poliovirus and the elimination of polio for all time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  15. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2013-08-20

    Climate sensitivity measures the response of Earth's surface temperature to changes in forcing. The response depends on various climate processes that feed back on the initial forcing on different timescales. Understanding climate sensitivity is fundamental to reconstructing Earth's climatic history as well as predicting future climate change. On timescales shorter than centuries, only fast climate feedbacks including water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, and snow/sea ice albedo are usually considered. However, on timescales longer than millennia, the generally higher Earth system sensitivity becomes relevant, including changes in ice sheets, vegetation, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, etc. Here, I introduce the time-dependent climate sensitivity, which unifies fast-feedback and Earth system sensitivity. I show that warming projections, which include a time-dependent climate sensitivity, exhibit an enhanced feedback between surface warming and ocean CO2 solubility, which in turn leads to higher atmospheric CO2 levels and further warming. Compared with earlier studies, my results predict a much longer lifetime of human-induced future warming (23,000-165,000 y), which increases the likelihood of large ice sheet melting and major sea level rise. The main point regarding the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is that, even if the fast-feedback sensitivity is no more than 3 K per CO2 doubling, there will likely be additional long-term warming from slow climate feedbacks. Time-dependent climate sensitivity also helps explaining intense and prolonged warming in response to massive carbon release as documented for past events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  16. Legacy nutrient dynamics and patterns of catchment response under changing land use and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, S.; Van, M. K.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    explain different patterns of nonlinearity in watershed nutrient dynamics? And finally, how does the accumulation of nutrient legacies within watersheds impact current and future water quality?

  17. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  18. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  19. Indigenous Suicide and Colonization: The Legacy of Violence and the Necessity of Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Lawson-Te Aho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary indigenous first nations psychologists have developed an alternative frame for viewing suicide that not only shifts the focus from individual-level to group-level explanations, but challenges discourses that position group-level influences as "risk factors" that can be easily subsumed within standard repertoires for suicide prevention. First nations psychologists show the violent legacy of colonization has left a dark shadow on the contemporary lives of young people, so that around the world, suicide rates for indigenous peoples are much higher than for non-indigenous peoples in the same country. These arguments, which rely on historical accounts, cannot be neatly demonstrated using empirical data, but form an important part of a self-determination movement among indigenous peoples, directly challenging unequal power relations in society as a means to seek redress for particular issues of inequity like rates of youth suicide. We present a theoretical case study and analysis of contemporary suicide among Maori youth in New Zealand. In a traditional Maori conceptualization, individual well-being is sourced and tied to the well-being of the collective cultural identity. Therefore, individual pain is inseparable from collective pain and the role of the collective becomes that of carrying individuals who are suffering. The state of kahupo or spiritual blindness (Kruger, Pitman, et al. 2004 is characterized by a loss of hope, meaning, and purpose and an enduring sense of despair. It bears the symptoms of chronic dissociation or separation of the physical from the spiritual and vice versa. We describe community empowerment practices and social policy environments that offer pathways forward from colonization towards tino rangatiratanga, or indigenous self-determination, noting significant obstacles along the way.

  20. Using SpF to Achieve Petascale for Legacy Pseudospectral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.; Jiang, Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. Highlevel abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical kernels that can be performed entirely inprocessor. The granularity of domain decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the datalocality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe our experience in porting legacy pseudospectral models, MoSST and DYNAMO, to use SpF as well as present preliminary