Sample records for legacy avionics systems

  1. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date (United States)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl


    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  2. Avionics systems integration technology (United States)

    Stech, George; Williams, James R.


    A very dramatic and continuing explosion in digital electronics technology has been taking place in the last decade. The prudent and timely application of this technology will provide Army aviation the capability to prevail against a numerically superior enemy threat. The Army and NASA have exploited this technology explosion in the development and application of avionics systems integration technology for new and future aviation systems. A few selected Army avionics integration technology base efforts are discussed. Also discussed is the Avionics Integration Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) that NASA has established at Langley for research into the integration and validation of avionics systems, and evaluation of advanced technology in a total systems context.

  3. Avionics System Performance Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damania, Bhavesh


    .... The reasons for improved performance management include advances in processor technology and architectures, increasingly integrated systems, and the requirement of reducing costs in developing and deploying the systems...

  4. Survivable Avionics Computer System. (United States)


    T. HALL AFWAL/AAA-1 SCONTRACT F33-615-80-C-1014 SRI Project 1314 E~J Approved by: CHARLES J. SHOENS, Director Systems Techniques Laboratory DAVID A...4 U3.3.3. U3.3.3. 3.3, ~l3.U OXZrZrZr -Z~ 31Zr31Zr I- o - NOIA . 3,3. 3,3. 3𔃽, 3~3, -- Zr -Zr A .4 .4 3, 3, 3, t-~ 3, ~3,3, .03~ .03, 3,3.4 3,3

  5. Systems Engineering and Reusable Avionics (United States)

    Conrad, James M.; Murphy, Gloria


    One concept for future space flights is to construct building blocks for a wide variety of avionics systems. Once a unit has served its original purpose, it can be removed from the original vehicle and reused in a similar or dissimilar function, depending on the function blocks the unit contains. For example: Once a lunar lander has reached the moon's surface, an engine controller for the Lunar Decent Module would be removed and used for a lunar rover motor control unit or for a Environmental Control Unit for a Lunar Habitat. This senior design project included the investigation of a wide range of functions of space vehicles and possible uses. Specifically, this includes: (1) Determining and specifying the basic functioning blocks of space vehicles. (2) Building and demonstrating a concept model. (3) Showing high reliability is maintained. The specific implementation of this senior design project included a large project team made up of Systems, Electrical, Computer, and Mechanical Engineers/Technologists. The efforts were made up of several sub-groups that each worked on a part of the entire project. The large size and complexity made this project one of the more difficult to manage and advise. Typical projects only have 3-4 students, but this project had 10 students from five different disciplines. This paper describes the difference of this large project compared to typical projects, and the challenges encountered. It also describes how the systems engineering approach was successfully implemented so that the students were able to meet nearly all of the project requirements.

  6. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.


    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  7. Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous, avionic and robotic systems are used in a variety of applications including launch vehicles, robotic precursor platforms, etc. Most avionic innovations...

  8. Next Generation Avionics System for Satellite Application (United States)

    Wiegand, M.; Schmidt, G.; Hahn, M.

    This paper describes the new modular avionics system developed at Astrium GmbH in Munich in the frame of Gammabus, a DLR-funded development for constellation programs. Modularity, reusability and time to market are major goals of the development. The system consists of the on-board computer core modules, namely processor module, telemetry/telecommand/reconfiguration/safeguard-memory module and power converter module, an onboard software computing environment as well as a development and verification environment including a real-time testbed and ground station interface (SCOS) to support mission simulation tests. The new concept is taking advantage of improvements in microelectronics and software technology to improve performance while reducing costs.

  9. Digital avionics systems - Principles and practices (2nd revised and enlarged edition) (United States)

    Spitzer, Cary R.


    The state of the art in digital avionics systems is surveyed. The general topics addressed include: establishing avionics system requirements; avionics systems essentials in data bases, crew interfaces, and power; fault tolerance, maintainability, and reliability; architectures; packaging and fitting the system into the aircraft; hardware assessment and validation; software design, assessment, and validation; determining the costs of avionics.

  10. Revisiting Legacy Software System Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadka, R.


    Legacy software systems are those that significantly resist modification and evolution while still being valuable to its stakeholders to the extent that their failure has a detrimental impact on business. Despite several drawbacks of legacy software systems, they are still being extensively used in

  11. NASA Affordable Vehicle Avionics (AVA). Common Modular Avionics System for Nanolaunchers Offering Affordable Access to Space; [Space Technology: Game Changing Development (United States)

    Aquilina, Rudy


    Small satellites are becoming ever more capable of performing valuable missions for both government and commercial customers. However, currently these satellites can be launched affordably only as secondary payloads. This makes it difficult for the small satellite mission to launch when needed, to the desired orbit, and with acceptable risk. What is needed is a class of low-cost launchers, so that launch costs to low-Earth orbit (LEO) are commensurate with payload costs. Several private and government-sponsored launch vehicle developers are working toward just that-the ability to affordably insert small payloads into LEO. But until now, cost of the complex avionics remained disproportionately high. AVA (Affordable Vehicle Avionics) solves this problem. Significant contributors to the cost of launching nanosatellites to orbit are the avionics and software systems that steer and control the launch vehicles, sequence stage separation, deploy payloads, and telemeter data. The high costs of these guidance, navigation and control (GNC) avionics systems are due in part to the current practice of developing unique, single-use hardware and software for each launch. High-performance, high-reliability inertial sensors components with heritage from legacy launchers also contribute to costs-but can low-cost commercial inertial sensors work just as well? NASA Ames Research Center has developed and tested a prototype low-cost avionics package for space launch vehicles that provides complete GNC functionality in a package smaller than a tissue box (100 millimeters by 120 millimeters by 69 millimeters; 4 inches by 4.7 inches by 2.7 inches), with a mass of less than 0.84 kilogram (2 pounds. AVA takes advantage of commercially available, low-cost, mass-produced, miniaturized sensors, filtering their more noisy inertial data with real-time GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) data. The goal of the AVA project is to produce and light-verify a common suite of avionics and software that

  12. The Space Technology 5 Avionics System (United States)

    Speer, Dave; Jackson, George; Stewart, Karen; Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri


    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission is a NASA New Millennium Program project that will validate new technologies for future space science missions and demonstrate the feasibility of building launching and operating multiple, miniature spacecraft that can collect research-quality in-situ science measurements. The three satellites in the ST5 constellation will be launched into a sun-synchronous Earth orbit in early 2006. ST5 fits into the 25-kilogram and 24-watt class of very small but fully capable spacecraft. The new technologies and design concepts for a compact power and command and data handling (C&DH) avionics system are presented. The 2-card ST5 avionics design incorporates new technology components while being tightly constrained in mass, power and volume. In order to hold down the mass and volume, and quali& new technologies for fUture use in space, high efficiency triple-junction solar cells and a lithium-ion battery were baselined into the power system design. The flight computer is co-located with the power system electronics in an integral spacecraft structural enclosure called the card cage assembly. The flight computer has a full set of uplink, downlink and solid-state recording capabilities, and it implements a new CMOS Ultra-Low Power Radiation Tolerant logic technology. There were a number of challenges imposed by the ST5 mission. Specifically, designing a micro-sat class spacecraft demanded that minimizing mass, volume and power dissipation would drive the overall design. The result is a very streamlined approach, while striving to maintain a high level of capability, The mission's radiation requirements, along with the low voltage DC power distribution, limited the selection of analog parts that can operate within these constraints. The challenge of qualifying new technology components for the space environment within a short development schedule was another hurdle. The mission requirements also demanded magnetic cleanliness in order to reduce

  13. Dual backlighting system for avionic AMLCDs (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.; Sundaresan, Gayathri


    Avionic displays are required to be fully functional over a wide range of ambient illumination, encompassing bright sunlight during the day and dim starlit sky at night. Additionally, in most applications the night operation is required to be compliant with night vision imaging system (NVIS A or B) goggles. This article describes a patented dual lighting system, employing a hot cathode fluorescent lamp for the day mode and a filtered cold cathode fluorescent lamp against a light pipe (edgelit) for the night mode of operation. Since the two modes of operation are decoupled from each other, the day mode can be designed for high luminance and broad color gamut, regardless of NVIS requirements, while the night mode can be designed to be compatible with either the NVIS-A or NVIS-B systems with no impact to the day mode. This unique blacklight design provides a wide dimming range for the display and delivers excellent performance under all viewing conditions. Furthermore, this approach provides excellent uniformity in the night mode with minimal color shifts over view angles and has been successfully implemented on two cockpit display programs.

  14. Avionics System Architecture for the NASA Orion Vehicle (United States)

    Baggerman, Clint; McCabe, Mary; Verma, Dinesh


    It has been 30 years since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) last developed a crewed spacecraft capable of launch, on-orbit operations, and landing. During that time, aerospace avionics technologies have greatly advanced in capability, and these technologies have enabled integrated avionics architectures for aerospace applications. The inception of NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) spacecraft offers the opportunity to leverage the latest integrated avionics technologies into crewed space vehicle architecture. The outstanding question is to what extent to implement these advances in avionics while still meeting the unique crewed spaceflight requirements for safety, reliability and maintainability. Historically, aircraft and spacecraft have very similar avionics requirements. Both aircraft and spacecraft must have high reliability. They also must have as much computing power as possible and provide low latency between user control and effecter response while minimizing weight, volume, and power. However, there are several key differences between aircraft and spacecraft avionics. Typically, the overall spacecraft operational time is much shorter than aircraft operation time, but the typical mission time (and hence, the time between preventive maintenance) is longer for a spacecraft than an aircraft. Also, the radiation environment is typically more severe for spacecraft than aircraft. A "loss of mission" scenario (i.e. - the mission is not a success, but there are no casualties) arguably has a greater impact on a multi-million dollar spaceflight mission than a typical commercial flight. Such differences need to be weighted when determining if an aircraft-like integrated modular avionics (IMA) system is suitable for a crewed spacecraft. This paper will explore the preliminary design process of the Orion vehicle avionics system by first identifying the Orion driving requirements and the difference between Orion requirements and those of

  15. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for Space and Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Ray, Robert E.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.


    NASA's newly named Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to mature and develop the avionic and processor technologies required to fulfill NASA's goals for future space and lunar exploration. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the individual AAPS technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of the project's recent technology advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the project's plans for the coming year.

  16. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)


    textabstractWe show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on

  17. Optimized Computer Systems for Avionics Applications. (United States)


    processing system . . 10 4. Block diagram of a typical electronic warfare system ....... 12 5. Data compression in communication channels with DPCM ...modulation ( DPCM ) is a time domain compression scheme that is effective for tranamitting both image and voice signals. The basic elements of the system... DPCM has been used successfully’in time domain compression of images, although the quality of the reconstruction is highly dependent on the exact

  18. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei


    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  19. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)


    textabstractWe combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed

  20. The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design (United States)

    Lorentz, John

    This dissertation will provide a detailed approach and analysis of a new collaborative requirements prioritization methodology that has been used successfully on four Coast Guard avionics acquisition and development programs valued at $400M+. A statistical representation of participant study results will be discussed and analyzed in detail. Many technically compliant projects fail to deliver levels of performance and capability that the customer desires. Some of these systems completely meet "threshold" levels of performance; however, the distribution of resources in the process devoted to the development and management of the requirements does not always represent the voice of the customer. This is especially true for technically complex projects such as modern avionics systems. A simplified facilitated process for prioritization of system requirements will be described. The collaborative prioritization process, and resulting artifacts, aids the systems engineer during early conceptual design. All requirements are not the same in terms of customer priority. While there is a tendency to have many thresholds inside of a system design, there is usually a subset of requirements and system performance that is of the utmost importance to the design. These critical capabilities and critical levels of performance typically represent the reason the system is being built. The systems engineer needs processes to identify these critical capabilities, the associated desired levels of performance, and the risks associated with the specific requirements that define the critical capability. The facilitated prioritization exercise is designed to collaboratively draw out these critical capabilities and levels of performance so they can be emphasized in system design. Developing the purpose, scheduling and process for prioritization events are key elements of systems engineering and modern project management. The benefits of early collaborative prioritization flow throughout the

  1. 1993 Aerospace Avionic Systems Division Conference, 3rd, Denver, CO, Apr. 22, 1993, Proceedings (United States)

    Topics addressed include a single-supply monolithic, MIL-STD-1553 transreceiver implemented in BiCMOS wafer fabrication technology, a development methodology for contemporary avionics systems, MIL-STD-1553 remote terminal design using ASIC megacell technology, a modular electrooptic bus coupler, experiences in validating MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals, and the STANAG 3910 data bus for the next generation of European avionics systems. Attention is also given to JIAWG compatible development boards for the i960, high-speed databus evaluation, the space avionics architecture standard tailored to the common lunar lander conceptual design, and 1553 RT mechanizations for data sample consistency and multimessage transfers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available Modern aircraft are equipped with complicated systems and complexes of avionics. Aircraft and its avionics tech- nical operation process is observed as a process with changing of operation states. Mathematical models of avionics pro- cesses and systems of technical operation are represented as Markov chains, Markov and semi-Markov processes. The pur- pose is to develop the graph-models of avionics technical operation processes, describing their work in flight, as well as during maintenance on the ground in the various systems of technical operation. The graph-models of processes and sys- tems of on-board complexes and functional avionics systems in flight are proposed. They are based on the state tables. The models are specified for the various technical operation systems: the system with control of the reliability level, the system with parameters control and the system with resource control. The events, which cause the avionics complexes and func- tional systems change their technical state, are failures and faults of built-in test equipment. Avionics system of technical operation with reliability level control is applicable for objects with constant or slowly varying in time failure rate. Avion- ics system of technical operation with resource control is mainly used for objects with increasing over time failure rate. Avionics system of technical operation with parameters control is used for objects with increasing over time failure rate and with generalized parameters, which can provide forecasting and assign the borders of before-fail technical states. The pro- posed formal graphical approach avionics complexes and systems models designing is the basis for models and complex systems and facilities construction, both for a single aircraft and for an airline aircraft fleet, or even for the entire aircraft fleet of some specific type. The ultimate graph-models for avionics in various systems of technical operation permit the beginning of

  3. Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) Flexible Systems Integration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) facility is a flexible, multi-mission hardware and software design environment. This project will develop a...

  4. Integrating ISHM with Flight Avionics Architectures for Cyber-Physical Space Systems, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Substantial progress has been made by NASA in integrating flight avionics and ISHM with well-defined caution and warning system, however, the scope of ACAW alerting...

  5. The implementation of fail-operative functions in integrated digital avionics systems (United States)

    Osoer, S. S.


    System architectures which incorporate fail operative flight guidance functions within a total integrated avionics complex are described. It is shown that the mixture of flight critical and nonflight critical functions within a common computer complex is an efficient solution to the integration of navigation, guidance, flight control, display, and flight management. Interfacing subsystems retain autonomous capability to avoid vulnerability to total avionics system shutdown as a result of only a few failures.

  6. A Time-Triggered Constraint-Based Calculus for Avionic Systems


    Hamadou, Sardaouna; Gherbi, Abdelouahed; Mullins, John; Beji, Sofiene


    The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architec- ture and the Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) network have emerged as the key components of a typical architecture model for recent civil aircrafts. We propose a real-time constraint-based calculus targeted at the analysis of such concepts of avionic embedded systems. We show our framework at work on the modelisation of both the (IMA) architecture and the TTEthernet network, illustrating their behavior by the well-known Flight Management Sys...

  7. Impact of Advanced Avionics Technology on Ground Attack Weapon Systems. (United States)


    de celui de moyens de d~tection et d’acquisition autonomes A bord de l’avion tireur, A mains de faire appel A un avion sp~cialis6 en liaison temps...trajectoire et lea armes d’autod~fense. Remargue Le tableau que l’on fait habituellanent sur les menaces risque fort d’ tre tr~s d~courageant de par...sont en d~veloppement. le procurent des pr~cisions de quelques dizaines de m~ltres, et pourraient servir A recaler lea centrales inertielles

  8. Avionics system design for requirements for the United States Coast Guard HH-65A Dolphin (United States)

    Young, D. A.


    Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation (AHC) was awarded a contract by the United States Coast Guard for a new Short Range Recovery (SRR) Helicopter on 14 June 1979. The award was based upon an overall evaluation of performance, cost, and technical suitability. In this last respect, the SRR helicopter was required to meet a wide variety of mission needs for which the integrated avionics system has a high importance. This paper illustrates the rationale for the avionics system requirements, the system architecture, its capabilities and reliability and its adaptability to a wide variety of military and commercial purposes.

  9. Legacy System Wrapping for Department of Defense Information System Modernization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Kathleen


    This document explains the activities, benefits, problems, and issues in using the object-oriented technique of software wrapping to support the migration from legacy information systems to modernized systems...

  10. The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn


    Full Text Available The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most critics of high-stakes testing do not talk about that culture, however. They typically focus on the practice legacy of testing, the ways in which testing creates perverse incentives against good teaching. More important may be the political legacy, or how testing defines legitimate discussion about school politics. The consequence of statistical accountability systems will be the narrowing of purpose for schools, impatience with reform, and the continuing erosion of political support for publicly funded schools. Dissent from the high-stakes accountability regime that has developed around standardized testing, including proposals for professionalism and performance assessment, commonly fails to consider these political legacies. Alternatives to standardized testing which do not also connect schooling with the public at large will not be politically viable.

  11. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.


    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise

  12. NI Based System for Seu Testing of Memory Chips for Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruzdina Anna


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of implementation of National Instrument based system for Single Event Upset testing of memory chips into neutron generator experimental facility, which used for SEU tests for avionics purposes. Basic SEU testing algorithm with error correction and constant errors detection is presented. The issues of radiation shielding of NI based system are discussed and solved. The examples of experimental results show the applicability of the presented system for SEU memory testing under neutrons influence.

  13. Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Volume 2. Chapter 18. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology (United States)


    interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion software, which make up digital...1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error detection and...formulate all the significant behavior of a system. MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a

  14. Digital avionics systems - Overview of FAA/NASA/industry-wide briefing (United States)

    Larsen, William E.; Carro, Anthony


    The effects of incorporating digital technology into the design of aircraft on the airworthiness criteria and certification procedures for aircraft are investigated. FAA research programs aimed at providing data for the functional assessment of aircraft which use digital systems for avionics and flight control functions are discussed. The need to establish testing, assurance assessment, and configuration management technologies to insure the reliability of digital systems is discussed; consideration is given to design verification, system performance/robustness, and validation technology.

  15. An integrated autonomous rendezvous and docking system architecture using Centaur modern avionics (United States)

    Nelson, Kurt


    The avionics system for the Centaur upper stage is in the process of being modernized with the current state-of-the-art in strapdown inertial guidance equipment. This equipment includes an integrated flight control processor with a ring laser gyro based inertial guidance system. This inertial navigation unit (INU) uses two MIL-STD-1750A processors and communicates over the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Commands are translated into load activation through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) which incorporates the use of solid state relays. Also, a programmable data acquisition system replaces separate multiplexer and signal conditioning units. This modern avionics suite is currently being enhanced through independent research and development programs to provide autonomous rendezvous and docking capability using advanced cruise missile image processing technology and integrated GPS navigational aids. A system concept was developed to combine these technologies in order to achieve a fully autonomous rendezvous, docking, and autoland capability. The current system architecture and the evolution of this architecture using advanced modular avionics concepts being pursued for the National Launch System are discussed.

  16. An integrated autonomous rendezvous and docking system architecture using Centaur modern avionics (United States)

    Nelson, Kurt

    The avionics system for the Centaur upper stage is in the process of being modernized with the current state-of-the-art in strapdown inertial guidance equipment. This equipment includes an integrated flight control processor with a ring laser gyro based inertial guidance system. This inertial navigation unit (INU) uses two MIL-STD-1750A processors and communicates over the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Commands are translated into load activation through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) which incorporates the use of solid state relays. Also, a programmable data acquisition system replaces separate multiplexer and signal conditioning units. This modern avionics suite is currently being enhanced through independent research and development programs to provide autonomous rendezvous and docking capability using advanced cruise missile image processing technology and integrated GPS navigational aids. A system concept was developed to combine these technologies in order to achieve a fully autonomous rendezvous, docking, and autoland capability. The current system architecture and the evolution of this architecture using advanced modular avionics concepts being pursued for the National Launch System are discussed.

  17. Hardware Implementation of COTS Avionics System on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms (United States)

    Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Kumar, Parth; Ishihara, Abraham; Ippolito, Corey


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can serve as low cost and low risk platforms for flight testing in Aeronautics research. The NASA Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) and Experimental Sensor-Controlled Aerial Vehicle (X-SCAV) UAVs were developed in support of control systems research at NASA Ames Research Center. The avionics hardware for both systems has been redesigned and updated, and the structure of the EAV has been further strengthened. Preliminary tests show the avionics operate properly in the new configuration. A linear model for the EAV also was estimated from flight data, and was verified in simulation. These modifications and results prepare the EAV and X-SCAV to be used in a wide variety of flight research projects.

  18. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.


    The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for

  19. Avionics Architecture for Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Avionics Architectures for Exploration Project team will develop a system level environment and architecture that will accommodate equipment from multiple...

  20. Communication System and Avionics for Deployable Small Free Flying Payloads (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will develop a core part of the communication system for the small free flying payloads.  In particular, this portion of the system will consist of the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Advantages and disadvantages of various navigation methods are considered. The main advantage of an inertial method of navigation consisting in a high noise stability is given. The drawback of this navigation method consisting in accumulating mistakes by the time is given. The benefit of satellite navigation systems from the point of view of their glob- ality and high precision of measurement is proved. Disadvantages and advantages of a rho-rho navigation in comparison with satellite navigation systems are considered. The main activities of a complex using of satellite and radar navigation aids, and also satellite and inertial navigation aids are given. Various systems of complex use of a rho-rho navigation and satellite navigation systems are considered. The common important faults inherent in methods and systems according to patents are in detail considered. Methods of a complex using of inertial and satellite navigation systems in the form of iner- tial system use are given in a complex with the satellite receiver in contours of phase and frequency autocontrol of a satel- lite signal to increase accuracy and continuity of a signal from the receiver, and also in the form of a satellite method use with the differential mode to increase accuracy of an inertial method with correcting the inertial system signal are given. The analysis of various patents for complex methods of navigation is carried out.

  2. The 727 Approach Energy Management System avionics specification (preliminary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.O.; Lambregts, A.A.


    Hardware and software requirements for an Approach Energy Management System (AEMS) consisting of an airborne digital computer and cockpit displays are presented. The displays provide the pilot with a visual indication of when to manually operate the gear, flaps, and throttles during a delayed flap approach so as to reduce approach time, fuel consumption, and community noise. The AEMS is an independent system that does not interact with other navigation or control systems, and is compatible with manually flown or autopilot coupled approaches. Operational use of the AEMS requires a DME ground station colocated with the flight path reference.

  3. F-22 cockpit avionics: a systems integration success story (United States)

    Greeley, Kevin W.; Schwartz, Richard J.


    The F-22 'Raptor' is being developed and manufactured as multi-role fighter aircraft for the 'air dominance' mission. The F-22 team is led by Lockheed Martin, with Boeing and Pratt & Whitney as partners. The F-22 weapons system combines supersonic cruise, maneuverability, stealth, and an extensive suite of tightly integrated sensors to achieve a high level of lethality and invulnerability against current and projected threat systems such as fighter aircraft and surface to air missiles. Despite high automation of the complex systems installed in the F-22, the pilot is heavily tasked for air battle management. Response timelines are compressed due to supersonic cruise velocities. These factors challenge the Pilot Vehicle Interface (PVI) design. This paper discusses the team's response to these challenges, describing the physical cockpit layout, its controls and displays, and the hardware architecture, software tools, and development process used to mature the F-22 'Raptor' weapons system, including a review of Human Factors design considerations for F-22 displays.

  4. Evolution of the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software and Avionics for Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.


    .). This can be accomplished by gradually removing the "support software" from the legacy flight software leaving only the GNC algorithms. The "support software" could be re-developed for modern platforms, while leaving the GNC algorithms to execute on technology compatible with the legacy system. It is also possible to package the GNC algorithms into an emulated version of the original computer (via Field Programmable Gate Arrays or FPGAs), thus becoming a "GNC on a Chip" solution where it could live forever to be embedded in modern avionics platforms.

  5. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.


    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  6. Forging Links between the Web and Legacy Systems. (United States)

    Chapman, Noleen


    Discusses why information technology managers are exploring the economic and strategic advantages of Web technology and finding that legacy systems still have an important role. Presents benefits: centralized management, reduced cost of ownership, wide user access; models of Web-to-host access; the Citrix thin client model; and future of…

  7. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.


    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  8. A knowledge-based flight status monitor for real-time application in digital avionics systems (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Disbrow, J. D.; Butler, G. F.


    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) is the principal NASA facility for the flight testing and evaluation of new and complex avionics systems. To aid in the interpretation of system health and status data, a knowledge-based flight status monitor was designed. The monitor was designed to use fault indicators from the onboard system which are telemetered to the ground and processed by a rule-based model of the aircraft failure management system to give timely advice and recommendations in the mission control room. One of the important constraints on the flight status monitor is the need to operate in real time, and to pursue this aspect, a joint research activity between NASA Ames-Dryden and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on real-time knowledge-based systems was established. Under this agreement, the original LISP knowledge base for the flight status monitor was reimplemented using the intelligent knowledge-based system toolkit, MUSE, which was developed under RAE sponsorship. Details of the flight status monitor and the MUSE implementation are presented.

  9. Avionics Modification Research Analysis: From Electromechanical to Digital Avionics and from Digital to Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)


    Shah, Ghazi Muqaddas Ali


    The electronic sets that are being used in aviation industry are commonly summarized as “avionic = aviation electronic equipment”. Nearly seventy years ago the first avionics devices used on aircraft were communication and navigation systems based on old gauge instruments and analog systems. Since then, the industry has evolved a lot and today the avionics systems require for new and smarter functionalities thus driving the overall aviation research to an exponential rate to...

  10. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)


    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  11. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems. Part 2: Component development and system integration (United States)

    Yen, H. W.; Morrison, R. J.


    Fiber optic transmission is emerging as an attractive concept in data distribution onboard civil aircraft. Development of an Optical Data Distribution Network for Integrated Avionics and Control Systems for commercial aircraft will provide a data distribution network that gives freedom from EMI-RFI and ground loop problems, eliminates crosstalk and short circuits, provides protection and immunity from lightning induced transients and give a large bandwidth data transmission capability. In addition there is a potential for significantly reducing the weight and increasing the reliability over conventional data distribution networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a candidate method for data communication between the various avionic subsystems. With WDM all systems could conceptually communicate with each other without time sharing and requiring complicated coding schemes for each computer and subsystem to recognize a message. However, the state of the art of optical technology limits the application of fiber optics in advanced integrated avionics and control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to address the architecture for a fiber optics data distribution system for integrated avionics and control systems as well as develop prototype components and systems.

  12. The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.


    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a

  13. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.


    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  14. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda


    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  15. Avionics and Software Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics and Software (A&S) project is to develop a reference avionics and software architecture that is based on standards and that can be...

  16. Design of a GN and C system to meet reliability goals. [guidance, navigation and control avionics for space shuttle orbiter (United States)

    Kayton, M.


    This paper analyzes the reliability of the guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) portion of an avionics system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This analysis shows how the GNC design is affected by the need to achieve an acceptable probability of successful completion of a mission and of safe return to an airport. It varies the redundancy of the inertial measurement unit (IMU), computers, and other time-critical elements. It also includes the reliability of the flight control electronics and of the nontime-critical sensors on a phase-by-phase basis. It shows that quadruple redundancy in certain subsystems, high quality parts, and cross-strapping on orbit are required.

  17. Architecture-driven Migration of Legacy Systems to Cloud-enabled Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Babar, Muhammad Ali


    With the widespread adoption of cloud computing, an increasing number of organizations view it as an important business strategy to evolve their legacy applications to cloud-enabled infrastructures. We present a framework, named Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe, for supporting the migration...... of legacy systems to cloud computing. The framework leverages the software reengineering concepts that aim to recover the architecture from legacy source code. Then the framework exploits the software evolution concepts to support architecture-driven migration of legacy systems to cloud-based architectures....... The Legacy-to-Cloud Migration Horseshoe comprises of four processes: (i) architecture migration planning, (ii) architecture recovery and consistency, (iii) architecture transformation and (iv) architecture-based development of cloud-enabled software. We aim to discover, document and apply the migration...

  18. A Library of Rad Hard Mixed-Voltage/Mixed-Signal Building Blocks for Integration of Avionics Systems for Deep Space (United States)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Blaes, B.; Kolawa, E. A.; Blalock, B. J.; Li, H. W.; Buck, K.; Houge, D.


    To build the sensor intensive system-on-a-chip for the next generation spacecrafts for deep space, Center for Integration of Space Microsystems at JPL (CISM) takes advantage of the lower power rating and inherent radiation resistance of Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI). We are developing a suite of mixed-voltage and mixed-signal building blocks in Honeywell's SOI process that can enable the rapid integration of the next generation avionics systems with lower power rating, higher reliability, longer life, and enhanced radiation tolerance for spacecrafts such as the Europa Orbiter and Europa Lander. The mixed-voltage building blocks are predominantly for design of adaptive power management systems. Their design centers around an LDMOS structure that is being developed by Honeywell, Boeing Corp, and the University of Idaho. The mixed-signal building blocks are designed to meet the low power, extreme radiation requirement of deep space applications. These building blocks are predominantly used to interface analog sensors to the digital CPU of the next generation avionics system on a chip. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap (United States)

    Hodson, Robert; McCabe, Mary; Paulick, Paul; Ruffner, Tim; Some, Rafi; Chen, Yuan; Vitalpur, Sharada; Hughes, Mark; Ling, Kuok; Redifer, Matt; hide


    As part of NASA's Avionics Steering Committee's stated goal to advance the avionics discipline ahead of program and project needs, the committee initiated a multi-Center technology roadmapping activity to create a comprehensive avionics roadmap. The roadmap is intended to strategically guide avionics technology development to effectively meet future NASA missions needs. The scope of the roadmap aligns with the twelve avionics elements defined in the ASC charter, but is subdivided into the following five areas: Foundational Technology (including devices and components), Command and Data Handling, Spaceflight Instrumentation, Communication and Tracking, and Human Interfaces.

  20. The Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Heliciopter - a Flexible and Versatile Vtol-Uas Experimental System (United States)

    Schulz, H.-W., , Dr.


    civil customers. These applications cover a wide spectrum from R&D programs for the military customer to special services for the civil customer. This paper focuses on the technical conversion of a commercially available VTOL-UAS to ESG's Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Helicopter (UMAT), its concept and operational capabilities. At the end of the paper, the current integration of a radar sensor is described as an example of the UMATs flexibility. The radar sensor is developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). It is integrated by ESG together with the industrial partner SWISS UAV.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H.-W. Schulz


    Full Text Available civil customers. These applications cover a wide spectrum from R&D programs for the military customer to special services for the civil customer. This paper focuses on the technical conversion of a commercially available VTOL-UAS to ESG's Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Helicopter (UMAT, its concept and operational capabilities. At the end of the paper, the current integration of a radar sensor is described as an example of the UMATs flexibility. The radar sensor is developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR. It is integrated by ESG together with the industrial partner SWISS UAV.

  2. EVA Communications Avionics and Informatics (United States)

    Carek, David Andrew


    The Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing technologies for communications, avionics, and information systems that will significantly enhance extra vehicular activity capabilities to support the Vision for Space Exploration. Several of the ongoing research and development efforts are described within this presentation including system requirements formulation, technology development efforts, trade studies, and operational concept demonstrations.

  3. Computer architecture for efficient algorithmic executions in real-time systems: New technology for avionics systems and advanced space vehicles (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Youngblood, John N.; Saha, Aindam


    Improvements and advances in the development of computer architecture now provide innovative technology for the recasting of traditional sequential solutions into high-performance, low-cost, parallel system to increase system performance. Research conducted in development of specialized computer architecture for the algorithmic execution of an avionics system, guidance and control problem in real time is described. A comprehensive treatment of both the hardware and software structures of a customized computer which performs real-time computation of guidance commands with updated estimates of target motion and time-to-go is presented. An optimal, real-time allocation algorithm was developed which maps the algorithmic tasks onto the processing elements. This allocation is based on the critical path analysis. The final stage is the design and development of the hardware structures suitable for the efficient execution of the allocated task graph. The processing element is designed for rapid execution of the allocated tasks. Fault tolerance is a key feature of the overall architecture. Parallel numerical integration techniques, tasks definitions, and allocation algorithms are discussed. The parallel implementation is analytically verified and the experimental results are presented. The design of the data-driven computer architecture, customized for the execution of the particular algorithm, is discussed.

  4. On the ergodic capacity of legacy systems in the presence of next generation interference

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda


    Next generation wireless systems facilitating better utilization of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate in the radio spectrum of existing legacy systems; yet unwanted interference at the legacy receivers is unavoidable. In order to design efficient next generation systems and to minimize their harmful consequences, it is necessary to realize their impact on the performance of legacy systems. In this work, a generalized framework for the ergodic capacity analysis of such legacy systems in the presence of interference from next generation systems is presented. The analysis is built around a model developed for the statistical representation of the interference at the legacy receivers, which is then used to evaluate the ergodic capacity of the legacy system. Moreover, this analysis is not limited to the context of legacy systems, and is in fact applicaple to any interference limited system. Findings of analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Goldfus, Haim; Meir, Isaac A.; Poch, Rosa M.; Throop, Heather L.; Vivoni, Enrique R.


    A legacy effect refers to the impacts that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Legacies have been recognized by many disciplines, from physiology and ecology to anthropology and geology. Within the context of climatic change, ecological legacies in drylands (eg vegetative patterns) result from feedbacks between biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude of the original phenomenon, (2) the time since the occurrence of the phenomenon, and (3) the sensitivity of the ecological–soil–geomorphic system to change. Here we present a conceptual framework for legacy effects at short-term (days to months), medium-term (years to decades), and long-term (centuries to millennia) timescales, which reveals the ubiquity of such effects in drylands across research disciplines.

  6. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System (United States)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.


    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  7. Remote Evaluation of the Coherence of Indirect Manipulation Interface Systems For Agent-Mediated Legacy Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schafer, Joseph


    Many information systems depend heavily on distributed legacy data sources. These data sources introduce a number of significant problems, especially when the sources must be combined and displayed to remote users...

  8. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology (United States)


    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  9. Waveform Developer's Guide for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto


    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx(Trademark) ML605 Virtex(Trademark)-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek(Trademark) eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications. The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  10. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview (United States)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav


    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  11. Avionics Architecture for Exploration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  12. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems (United States)

    Lemley, Todd A.


    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  13. From legacy and client/server systems to components in healthcare information systems in Finland. (United States)

    Mykkänen, J; Korpela, M; Eerola, A; Porrasmaa, J; Ruonamaa, H; Sormunen, M


    A strategy and toolset (FixIT) for migrating a specific type of legacy systems--based on the FileMan DBMS of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs--to a two-tier client/server and web browser-based architecture was presented in MEDINFO'98. In the current paper we discuss the further migration to a multitier software component architecture. A literature survey and industry contacts were used to specify an open, component-based target architecture for healthcare information systems to be reached by the year 2005, as well as a phased migration strategy from the present FileMan/FixIT-based systems towards the target. The target architecture is based on large-grained business components and accommodates heterogeneous elements on the intra-component, intra-application, intra-organization and inter-organizational levels. Four logical tiers are identified within a business component. Three migration paths are specified for different cases: the tier-by-tier, piece-by-piece, and web-wrapping paths. It is argued that the architecture, supported by off-the-shelf toolsets, application frameworks and a new software development process, makes it possible to turn legacy systems into a valuable asset, split monolithic applications into reusable components, and ultimately replace the legacy parts at a feasible pace

  14. Implementation Challenges of an Enterprise System and Its Advantages over Legacy Systems


    Dr. Nabie Y. Conteh; M. Jalil Akhtar


    This paper explores the implementation challenges of Enterprise Resource Planning in the industry and its advantages over legacy systems. The paper depicts the historical background of ERPs and their significance in facilitating coordination among the functional areas of organizations in the industry. It also discusses the role it plays in promoting the activities of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The paper presents empirical data on ERPs and their c...

  15. Multifiber optical connectors for avionics (United States)

    Lubowe, Anthony G.; Million, Troy P.; Sayegh, Emile G.; Baumann, Fred


    Until now, there has been no reasonably priced high-density avionics fiber optic connector. AVMACTM connector assemblies, designed to meet this need, consist of Berg AVMAC connectors (F/O contacts), Gore ribbon cable, and HiRelcoTM special self-locking plugs and receptacles. Berg Electronics' MACII multifiber array connector has been used in the telecommunications industry for over 10 years. The 18-fiber version was modified to meet the avionics environment, by using high temperature plastic and epoxy. Also, modified cable assembly techniques were developed for the special cable used. W.L. Core and Associates designed and manufactured the high temperature ruggedized ribbon cable, using patented GORE-TEXTM ribbon buffer to protect the 18 polyimide coated fibers in the harsh environments specified for avionics applications. New materials were introduced to the commercial Gore ribbon design to meet the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace temperature specifications. The HiRel connector design incorporates the optical fiber ribbon contact and cable assembly into a modified close tolerance Mil-C-83723 connection system to meet the environmental requirements and withstand the high vibration of modern aircraft, and also provide an environmental seal and strain relief. The ability to assemble the connector around a pre-terminated optical link is a key feature, which minimizes assembly and maintenance time over cable assembly life. McDonnell Douglas Aerospace is testing AVMAC qualification cables.

  16. Avionics : The main contributor to innovation in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, E.


    Avionics refers to Electronic systems used in Aviation, and the word itself is a blend of Aviation and Electronics. Avionics are not only essential for today’s commercial and military aircraft to fly, but also enable their integration into the overall traffic management system. For safety critical

  17. HH-65A Dolphin digital integrated avionics (United States)

    Huntoon, R. B.


    Communication, navigation, flight control, and search sensor management are avionics functions which constitute every Search and Rescue (SAR) operation. Routine cockpit duties monopolize crew attention during SAR operations and thus impair crew effectiveness. The United States Coast Guard challenged industry to build an avionics system that automates routine tasks and frees the crew to focus on the mission tasks. The HH-64A SAR avionics systems of communication, navigation, search sensors, and flight control have existed independently. On the SRR helicopter, the flight management system (FMS) was introduced. H coordinates or integrates these functions. The pilot interacts with the FMS rather than the individual subsystems, using simple, straightforward procedures to address distinct mission tasks and the flight management system, in turn, orchestrates integrated system response.

  18. Developing A Generic Optical Avionic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert


    We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility and supp......We propose a generic optical network design for future avionic systems in order to reduce the weight and power consumption of current networks on board. A three-layered network structure over a ring optical network topology is suggested, as it can provide full reconfiguration flexibility...... and support a wide range of avionic applications. Segregation can be made on different hierarchies according to system criticality and security requirements. The structure of each layer is discussed in detail. Two network configurations are presented, focusing on how to support different network services...

  19. Validation of fault-free behavior of a reliable multiprocessor system - FTMP: A case study. [Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processor avionics (United States)

    Clune, E.; Segall, Z.; Siewiorek, D.


    A program of experiments has been conducted at NASA-Langley to test the fault-free performance of a Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) avionics system for next-generation aircraft. Baseline measurements of an operating FTMP system were obtained with respect to the following parameters: instruction execution time, frame size, and the variation of clock ticks. The mechanisms of frame stretching were also investigated. The experimental results are summarized in a table. Areas of interest for future tests are identified, with emphasis given to the implementation of a synthetic workload generation mechanism on FTMP.

  20. Strategic avionics technology definition studies. Subtask 3-1A: Electrical Actuation (ELA) systems (United States)

    Pond, Charles L.; Mcdermott, William A.; Lum, Ben T. F.


    Electrical actuator (ELA) power efficiency and requirements are examined for space system application. Requirements for Space Shuttle effector systems are presented, along with preliminary ELA trades and selection to form a preliminary ELA system baseline. Power and energy requirements for this baseline ELA system are applicable to the Space Shuttle and similar space vehicles.

  1. The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of colonial proposals and legislations dating back to the early 19th century. The social sciences and humanities still carry disciplinary burdens that need revisiting as we attempt to think of new educational strategies for the 21st century.

  2. The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current system of higher education in India inherits the legacy of colonial proposals and legislations dating back to the early 19th century. The social sciences and humanities still carry disciplinary burdens that need revisiting as we attempt to think of new educational strategies for the 21st century.

  3. E VA Space Suit Power, Avionics, and Software Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in a reliable, robust, and low Size Weight and Power (SWAP) input device that will allow for EVA astronauts to navigate display menu systems. The...

  4. Ultra-Low Power Extreme Environment Capable Avionics System-on-a-Chip (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop ultra-low-power, wide-temperature (-150° C to +250 ° C), digital System-on-a-Chip (SOC) ASIC technology in a high resolution, inherently rad-hard IBM...

  5. The U.S. Army's Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) Product Line: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemente, Paul; Bergey, John


    This report is one in a series of Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute case studies of organizations that have adopted a software product line approach for developing a family of software-intensive systems. The U.S...

  6. Creation and implementation of the international information system for radiation legacy of the USSR 'RADLEG'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.


    The stating of radiological problem of the radiation legacy of the Soviet and Russian military and civil programs of the nuclear fuel cycle have became possible after 'cold war' termination. The objective of the 'RADLEG' project is 'Development of a sophisticated computer based data system for evaluation of the radiation legacy of the former USSR and setting priorities on remediation and prevention policy'. The goal of the 'RADLEG' Project Phase 1 was creation of a simple operational database to be linked to GIS, describing currently available information on radiation legacy of the former USSR. During the Project Phase 2 the public accessible database linked to GIS has been developed. This GIS data system containing comprehensive information on the radiation legacy of the former Soviet Union has been developed in order to aid policy makers in two principle areas: to identify and set priorities on radiation safety problems, and to provide guidance for the development of technically, economically and socially sound policies to reduce health and environmental impact of radioactively contaminated sites. (author)

  7. Development and testing of a magnetic position sensor system for automotive and avionics applications (United States)

    Jacobs, Bryan C.; Nelson, Carl V.


    A magnetic sensor system has been developed to measure the 3-D location and orientation of a rigid body relative to an array of magnetic dipole transmitters. A generalized solution to the measurement problem has been formulated, allowing the transmitter and receiver parameters (position, orientation, number, etc.) to be optimized for various applications. Additionally, the method of images has been used to mitigate the impact of metallic materials in close proximity to the sensor. The resulting system allows precise tracking of high-speed motion in confined metal environments. The sensor system was recently configured and tested as an abdomen displacement sensor for an automobile crash-test dummy. The test results indicate a positional accuracy of approximately 1 mm rms during 20 m/s motions. The dynamic test results also confirmed earlier covariance model predictions, which were used to optimize the sensor geometry. A covariance analysis was performed to evaluate the applicability of this magnetic position system for tracking a pilot's head motion inside an aircraft cockpit. Realistic design parameters indicate that a robust tracking system, consisting of lightweight pickup coils mounted on a pilot's helmet, and an array of transmitter coils distributed throughout a cockpit, is feasible. Recent test and covariance results are presented.

  8. Avionic Inertial and Radar Navigation Systems Career Ladder AFSC 328X4. (United States)


    DPAT 3 3 HQ SAC/DPATC (ATCLO) 1 1 HQ TAC/DPAT 3 3 HQ TAC/DPIATC I 1 HQ USAF/LEYM 1 1 HQ USAF/ MPPT 1 1 HQ USAFE/DPAT 3 3 HQ USAFE/DPATC I I HQ USMC (CODE...inspect computer maintenance panels (NSA-14V2) inspect system temperature and voltage monitor (NSA-14V2) 17 4 . q~;&U~~A:d:’::zc - .. ~ ~*~’’~%. *O 5 IV...OR REPLACE INU 96 W670 INSPECT SYSTEM TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE MONITOR (NSA-14V2) 96 J291 ISOLATE MALFUNCTIONS TO CHRONOMETERS 96 H232 REMOVE OR REPLACE

  9. Nano-Satellite Avionics (United States)

    Culver, Harry


    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  10. Development of advanced avionics systems applicable to terminal-configured vehicles (United States)

    Heimbold, R. L.; Lee, H. P.; Leffler, M. F.


    A technique to add the time constraint to the automatic descent feature of the existing L-1011 aircraft Flight Management System (FMS) was developed. Software modifications were incorporated in the FMS computer program and the results checked by lab simulation and on a series of eleven test flights. An arrival time dispersion (2 sigma) of 19 seconds was achieved. The 4 D descent technique can be integrated with the time-based metering method of air traffic control. Substantial reductions in delays at today's busy airports should result.

  11. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems (United States)

    Burns, R. R.


    The potential and functional requirements of fiber optic bus designs for next generation aircraft are assessed. State-of-the-art component evaluations and projections were used in the system study. Complex networks were decomposed into dedicated structures, star buses, and serial buses for detailed analysis. Comparisons of dedicated links, star buses, and serial buses with and without full duplex operation and with considerations for terminal to terminal communication requirements were obtained. This baseline was then used to consider potential extensions of busing methods to include wavelength multiplexing and optical switches. Example buses were illustrated for various areas of the aircraft as potential starting points for more detail analysis as the platform becomes definitized.

  12. Veterans Affairs Information Technology: Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations, Consolidate Data Centers, and Retire Legacy Systems (United States)


    Veterans Affairs, Volume 1: Integrated Report (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 1, 2015). This assessment was conducted in response to a requirement in the Veterans...VETERANS AFFAIRS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations...Management Attention Needed to Improve Critical System Modernizations, Consolidate Data Centers, and Retire Legacy Systems What GAO Found GAO

  13. Getting Objects Methods and Interactions by Extracting Business Rules from Legacy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar El Beggar


    Full Text Available The maintenance of legacy systems becomes over the years extremely complex and highly expensive due to the incessant changes of company activities and policies. In this case, a new or an improved system must replace the previous one. However, replacing those systems completely from scratch is also very expensive and it represents a huge risk. The optimal scenario is evolving those systems by profiting from the valuable knowledge embedded in them. This paper aims to present an approach for knowledge acquisition from existing legacy systems by extracting business rules from source code. In fact, the business rules are extracted and assigned next to the domain entities in order to generate objects methods and interactions in an object-oriented platform. Furthermore, a rules translation in natural language is given. The aim is advancing a solution for re-engineering legacy systems, minimize the cost of their modernization and keep very small the gap between the company business and the renovated systems.

  14. An Analysis of Electronic Commerce Acquisition Systems: Comparison of a New Pure Electronic Purchasing and Exchange System (Electronic Storefront) and Other Legacy On-line Purchasing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Arthur


    ... as they relate to contracting and purchasing of supplies and services, The issues and concerns with legacy on-line procurement systems will be compared to a newly developed Pure Electronic Ordering System...

  15. The use of unmanned aerial systems for the mapping of legacy uranium mines. (United States)

    Martin, P G; Payton, O D; Fardoulis, J S; Richards, D A; Scott, T B


    Historical mining of uranium mineral veins within Cornwall, England, has resulted in a significant amount of legacy radiological contamination spread across numerous long disused mining sites. Factors including the poorly documented and aged condition of these sites as well as the highly localised nature of radioactivity limit the success of traditional survey methods. A newly developed terrain-independent unmanned aerial system [UAS] carrying an integrated gamma radiation mapping unit was used for the radiological characterisation of a single legacy mining site. Using this instrument to produce high-spatial-resolution maps, it was possible to determine the radiologically contaminated land areas and to rapidly identify and quantify the degree of contamination and its isotopic nature. The instrument was demonstrated to be a viable tool for the characterisation of similar sites worldwide. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. REDLetr: Workflow and tools to support the migration of legacy clinical data capture systems to REDCap. (United States)

    Dunn, William D; Cobb, Jake; Levey, Allan I; Gutman, David A


    A memory clinic at an academic medical center has relied on several ad hoc data capture systems including Microsoft Access and Excel for cognitive assessments over the last several years. However these solutions are challenging to maintain and limit the potential of hypothesis-driven or longitudinal research. REDCap, a secure web application based on PHP and MySQL, is a practical solution for improving data capture and organization. Here, we present a workflow and toolset to facilitate legacy data migration and real-time clinical research data collection into REDCap as well as challenges encountered. Legacy data consisted of neuropsychological tests stored in over 4000 Excel workbooks. Functions for data extraction, norm scoring, converting to REDCap-compatible formats, accessing the REDCap API, and clinical report generation were developed and executed in Python. Over 400 unique data points for each workbook were migrated and integrated into our REDCap database. Moving forward, our REDCap-based system replaces the Excel-based data collection method as well as eases the integration into the standard clinical research workflow and Electronic Health Record. In the age of growing data, efficient organization and storage of clinical and research data is critical for advancing research and providing efficient patient care. We believe that the workflow and tools described in this work to promote legacy data integration as well as real time data collection into REDCap ultimately facilitate these goals. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Enterprise Framework for the Disciplined Evolution of Legacy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergey, John


    .... This report describes an enterprise framework that characterizes the global environment in which system evolution takes place and provides insight into the activities, processes, and work products...

  18. Migrating Legacy Systems in the Global Merger & Acquisition Environment (United States)

    Katerattanakul, Pairin; Kam, Hwee-Joo; Lee, James J.; Hong, Soongoo


    The MetaFrame system migration project at WorldPharma, while driven by merger and acquisition, had faced complexities caused by both technical challenges and organizational issues in the climate of uncertainties. However, WorldPharma still insisted on instigating this post-merger system migration project. This project served to (1) consolidate the…

  19. Corruption in Russia - Historic Legacy and Systemic Nature


    Schulze, Günther G.; Zakharov, Nikita


    This paper argues that corruption in Russia is systemic in nature. Low wage levels of public officials provide strong incentives to engage in corruption. As corruption is illegal, corrupt officials can be exposed any time, which enforces loyalty towards the powers that be; thus corruption is a method of governance. We trace the systemic corruption back to the Mongolian empire and demonstrate its persistence to the current regime. We show the geographic distribution of contemporary corruption ...

  20. Software for Avionics. (United States)


    Dr. T. G. Swann Marconi Avionics Ltd., Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Herts. WD6 lRX SUMMARY A myth is a traditional fiction that reveals a greater truth...myths. 1. INTRODUCTIORN A myth is a traditional fiction that reveals a greater truth. Once, long ago, a powerful king wished to buy a toy. He described...ressources machine, fiabilit6, sympt6mes visibles et mesurables oO le logiciel eat consid6rC corume une boite noire ;ayant 6t6 intensivement 6tudi~es elles

  1. Avionics Design for Reliability (United States)


    from having higher than essential reliability : some avionic failures will be catastrophic , some only critical, some of marginal importance. In every...vironnernent climatiques et mdcaniques proches des conditi-Ins rA- silos d’utilisation. Lee essais offectuds mont comparabios & cciii d~crita dana is...liquide mtcanlques et climatiques Varations CCTU O-01A .. esures a3riv rapides de 5 par 51 5 - 10-20-40 chaque s6rie temp~rature (. tthole A) de cycle

  2. DCE and Legacy Systems - An Experience Report What Really Happened (United States)

    Diehl, J.; Parlier, R.; Graham, T.


    The Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) in use at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was developed in the latter half of the 1980s. It was a major departure from the one-of-a-kind, non-distributed ground data system previously employed. Today, a project is underway to determine if the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) has a place in MGDS. The initial component targeted for replacement is an application layer built on top of TCP/IP which handles the MGDS message-passing requirements.

  3. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris


    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  4. Re-Engineering Complex Legacy Systems at NASA (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James; Meshkat, Leila


    The Flight Production Process (FPP) Re-engineering project has established a Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology and the technological infrastructure for the design and development of a reference, product-line architecture as well as an integrated workflow model for the Mission Operations System (MOS) for human space exploration missions at NASA Johnson Space Center. The design and architectural artifacts have been developed based on the expertise and knowledge of numerous Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The technological infrastructure developed by the FPP Re-engineering project has enabled the structured collection and integration of this knowledge and further provides simulation and analysis capabilities for optimization purposes. A key strength of this strategy has been the judicious combination of COTS products with custom coding. The lean management approach that has led to the success of this project is based on having a strong vision for the whole lifecycle of the project and its progress over time, a goal-based design and development approach, a small team of highly specialized people in areas that are critical to the project, and an interactive approach for infusing new technologies into existing processes. This project, which has had a relatively small amount of funding, is on the cutting edge with respect to the utilization of model-based design and systems engineering. An overarching challenge that was overcome by this project was to convince upper management of the needs and merits of giving up more conventional design methodologies (such as paper-based documents and unwieldy and unstructured flow diagrams and schedules) in favor of advanced model-based systems engineering approaches.

  5. Importance Of Penetration Testing For Legacy Operating System


    Poorvi Bhatt


    Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 wi...

  6. Why Replacing Legacy Systems Is So Hard in Global Software Development: An Information Infrastructure Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Stina; Bjørn, Pernille


    to be obvious explanations for why GSD tasks fail to reach completion; however, we account for the difficulties within the technical nature of software system task. We use the framework of information infrastructure to show how replacing a legacy system in governmental information infrastructures includes...... the work of tracing back to knowledge concerning law, technical specifications, as well as how information infrastructures have dynamically evolved over time. Not easily carried out in a GSD setup is the work around technical tasks that requires careful examination of mundane technical aspects, standards......, and bureaucratic forms, as well as the excavation work that keeps the information infrastructure afloat....

  7. Importance Of Penetration Testing For Legacy Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt


    Full Text Available Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 with Service Pack1 second host has windows XP with Service Pack 2 and third host has windows 2000 with service pack 4.

  8. Evaluation of New European Technologies for Future Avionics (United States)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Chevalier, Laurent; Monchaux, David; Le Meur, Patrick


    With the support of CNES DLA as operator, and Airbus DS Space System as architect, Airbus DS Electronics in Elancourt has developed a modular platform to evaluate new technologies for future avionics.This paper presents the Avionic-X project that has initiated this development, the modular platform itself and the status on this activity performed on this evaluation platform which has allowed the use of European technologies such as ARM processing cores or TTEthernet communication bus.

  9. Knowledge systems and the colonial legacies in African science education (United States)

    Ziegler, John R.; Lehner, Edward


    This review surveys Femi Otulaja and Meshach Ogunniyi's, Handbook of research in science education in sub-Saharan Africa, Sense, Rotterdam, 2017, noting the significance of the theoretically rich content and how this book contributes to the field of education as well as to the humanities more broadly. The volume usefully outlines the ways in which science education and scholarship in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be impacted by the region's colonial history. Several of the chapters also enumerate proposals for teaching and learning science and strengthening academic exchange. Concerns that recur across many of the chapters include inadequate implementation of reforms; a lack of resources, such as for classroom materials and teacher training; and the continued and detrimental linguistic, financial, and ideological domination of African science education by the West. After a brief overview of the work and its central issues, this review closely examines two salient chapters that focus on scholarly communications and culturally responsive pedagogy. The scholarly communication section addresses the ways in which African science education research may in fact be too closely mirroring Western knowledge constructions without fully integrating indigenous knowledge systems in the research process. The chapter on pedagogy makes a similar argument for integrating Western and indigenous knowledge systems into teaching approaches.

  10. Power, Avionics and Software Communication Network Architecture (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.


    This document describes the communication architecture for the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 2.0 subsystem for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobile Unit (AEMU). The following systems are described in detail: Caution Warn- ing and Control System, Informatics, Storage, Video, Audio, Communication, and Monitoring Test and Validation. This document also provides some background as well as the purpose and goals of the PAS project at Glenn Research Center (GRC).

  11. Reference Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements (United States)

    Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup


    Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the common Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on reference architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development process as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.

  12. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report. (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  13. From legacy systems via client/server to web browser technology in hospital informatics in Finland. (United States)

    Korpela, M


    The majority of hospital information system installations in Finland are based on a legacy technology from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This paper presents an architecture and a tool set which provide a migration path from terminal-based to client/server technology, conserving much of the investments in existing applications. It is argued, though, that a new technological revolution is required in the form of extending the web browser/server technology to operational information systems in hospitals. A blueprint is presented for a further migration path from client/server to browser/server technology. The browser technology is regarded as a major challenge to hospital information systems in the next few years.

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry (United States)

    Brewer, Denise


    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  15. NASA/Princeton digital avionics flight test facility (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Bryant, W. H.; Stengel, R. F.


    This paper describes a general-aviation digital avionics flight-test facility being jointly developed by the Flight Dynamics Laboratory of Princeton University and NASA/Langley Research Center. This facility consists of the Princeton avionics research aircraft (ARA) and NASA/Langley's digital avionics research (DARE) system. The ARA is a fully instrumented five-degree-of-freedom fly-by-wire aircraft. The DARE system contains a state-of-the-art flight computer system and receiving equipment that permits use of the NASA/Wallops Flight Center's position-tracking ground-based display-generation and ground-to-air digital-data-link equipment. The DARE/ARA system will be used for flight evaluation of advanced control, guidance, and display concepts developed as part of NASA/Langley Research Center's general aviation terminal area operations program.

  16. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette


    and suspended sediment samples exceeded safety thresholds in 50% of the samples and the average contribution of legacy pesticides to the SumTUC.riparius was >90%. Our results suggest that legacy pesticides can be highly significant contributors to the current toxic exposure of stream biota, especially...

  17. Programmable Logic Device (PLD) Design Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.


    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. At the conclusion of the development, the software and hardware description language (HDL) code was delivered to JSC for their use in their iPAS test bed to get hands-on experience with the STRS standard, and for development of their own STRS Waveforms on the now STRS compliant platform.The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the HDL code for the FPGA portion of the iPAS STRS Radio particularly the design of the FPGA wrapper and the test waveform.

  18. A legacy endures. A Maine system emphasizes its sponsor's mission in all aspects of its work. (United States)

    Stapleton, Marguerite


    The Sisters of Charity Health System, Lewiston, ME, a member of Covenant Health Systems, Lexington, MA, remains deeply committed to the mission of service begun by its foundress, St. Marguerite d'Youville. Although St. Marguerite experienced a hard life, her resilience and her commitment to the poor and disadvantaged serve as an inspiration to those who continue her legacy of compassionate care. The founding work of St. Marguerite and the sisters has helped to foster a culture in which the mission of service thrives among the system's 2,000 employees. This culture can be attributed to two things: the system's organizational values of compassion, stewardship, respect, and excellence; and the recognition of those employees whose work embodies these values. From the boardroom to the patient room, mission is integrated into each decision and action. Every two years, each of Covenant Health System's member facilities engages in a mission assessment process that examines various aspects of mission, including Catholic identity, holistic care, care for the poor, mission values integration, ethics and employee relations. In addition, the Sisters of Charity Health System's board has its own standing Mission and Community Committee, which looks strategically at how creatively and faithfully the system is continuing to live its mission.

  19. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.


    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  20. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Marcel J.


    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks

  1. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination. (United States)

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter


    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. Compositional Schedulability Analysis of Multicore Modular Avionic Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil


    This paper presents a compositional schedulability analysis of multicore modular avionic systems (IMA). It provides a fine grained description of the software architecture and behavior to reduce the over-approximation, and a holistic analysis to check schedulability while considering computation...

  3. Wavelength and fiber assignment problems on avionic networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper solves the wavelength and fiber assignment problems with systems' isolation requirements on the avionic ring networks. The experiment results give a general glace of the numbers of the wavelengths and fibers are required under certain scale of networks. At the beginning of increasing...

  4. In water thermal imaging comparison of the Alcon legacy and AMO sovereign phacoemulsification systems. (United States)

    M Miller, Kevin; D Olson, Michael


    To compare the temperature profiles of 2 popular phacoemulsification units under similar operating conditions in water. The phacoemulsification probes of the Sovereign WhiteStar and Legacy AdvanTec were capped with water-filled test chambers and imaged side-by-side using a thermal camera. The highest temperature of each chamber was measured at several time points after power application. Testing was performed under conditions capable of producing a corneal burn. The Legacy was operated in pulse mode at 15 Hz; a 50% duty cycle; and console power settings of 10, 30, 50 and 100%. The Sovereign was operated at the same console settings in WhiteStar C/F pulse mode at 56 Hz and a 33% duty cycle. Under all conditions (powers of 10, 30, 50 and 100%; with or without irrigation/aspiration flow; and with or without sleeve compression), the Sovereign generated higher temperatures than the Legacy. At irrigation/aspiration flow rates ≥ 5 cc/min, the temperature profiles of the 2 units were indistinguishable. The Sovereign WhiteStar ran hotter than the Legacy AdvanTec under a variety of controlled low flow operating conditions. The Sovereign WhiteStar is more likely than the Legacy AdvanTec to produce a corneal burn under low flow conditions.

  5. Strategic avionics technology definition studies. Subtask 3-1A3: Electrical Actuation (ELA) Systems Test Facility (United States)

    Rogers, J. P.; Cureton, K. L.; Olsen, J. R.


    Future aerospace vehicles will require use of the Electrical Actuator systems for flight control elements. This report presents a proposed ELA Test Facility for dynamic evaluation of high power linear Electrical Actuators with primary emphasis on Thrust Vector Control actuators. Details of the mechanical design, power and control systems, and data acquisition capability of the test facility are presented. A test procedure for evaluating the performance of the ELA Test Facility is also included.

  6. Integrated Avionics Instrument and Flight Control Systems Career Ladder AFS 326X7A/B/C. (United States)


    3 3 HQ TAC/DPLATC 1 1 1 HQ TAC/DPAT 3 3 3 HQ USAF/ MPPT 1 1 1 HQ USAFE/DPAT 3 3 3 HQ USAFE/DPATC 1 1 1 RQ USMC/OU 1 1 LMDC/AN 1 LTTC 5 2 2h 9p* NODAC...pressure or temperature test sets perform operational checks of attitude heading reference system V (AMRS) remove or install UHP system LRUs remove or...FORM 797) 62 Q486 OPERATE PRESSURE OR TEMPERATURE TEST SETS 62 29 TABLE 15 EXAMPLES OF TASKS WHICH BEST DIFFERENTIATE 32637 AND 32657 FROM 32677

  7. Organization and use of a Software/Hardware Avionics Research Program (SHARP) (United States)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Kareemi, M. N.


    The organization and use is described of the software/hardware avionics research program (SHARP) developed to duplicate the automatic portion of the STOLAND simulator system, on a general-purpose computer system (i.e., IBM 360). The program's uses are: (1) to conduct comparative evaluation studies of current and proposed airborne and ground system concepts via single run or Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and (2) to provide a software tool for efficient algorithm evaluation and development for the STOLAND avionics computer.

  8. Next Generation Waste Tracking: Linking Legacy Systems with Modern Networking Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Resseguie, David R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.


    of existing legacy hazardous, radioactive and related informational databases and systems using emerging Web 2.0 technologies. These capabilities were used to interoperate ORNL s waste generating, packaging, transportation and disposal with other DOE ORO waste management contractors. Importantly, the DOE EM objectives were accomplished in a cost effective manner without altering existing information systems. A path forward is to demonstrate and share these technologies with DOE EM, contractors and stakeholders. This approach will not alter existing DOE assets, i.e. Automated Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Transportation Tracking and Communications System (TRANSCOM), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) demonstrated package tracking system, etc.

  9. Conception et analyse d'un systeme d'optimisation de plans de vol pour les avions (United States)

    Maazoun, Wissem

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an optimization method for the preparation of flight plans for aircrafts. The flight plan minimizes all costs associated with the flight. We determine an optimal path for an airplane from a departure airport to a destination airport. The optimal path minimizes the sum of all costs, i.e. the cost of fuel added to the cost of time (wages, rental of the aircraft, arrival delays, etc.). The optimal trajectory is obtained by considering all possible trajectories on a 3D graph (longitude, latitude and altitude) where the altitude levels are separated by 2,000 feet, and by applying a shortest path algorithm. The main task was to accurately compute fuel consumption on each edge of the graph, making sure that each arc has a minimal cost and is covered in a realistic way from the point of view of control, i.e. in accordance with the rules of navigation. To compute the cost of an arc, we take into account weather conditions (temperature, pressure, wind components, etc.). The optimization of each arc is done via the evaluation of an optimum speed that takes all costs into account. Each arc of the graph typically includes several sub-phases of the flight, e.g. altitude change, speed change, and constant speed and altitude. In the initial climb and the final descent phases, the costs are determined by considering altitude changes at constant CAS (Calibrated Air Speed) or constant Mach number. CAS and Mach number are adjusted to minimize cost. The aerodynamic model used is the one proposed by Eurocontrol, which uses the BADA (Base of Aircraft Data) tables. This model is based on the total energy equation that determines the instantaneous fuel consumption. Calculations on each arc are done by solving a system of differential equations that systematically takes all costs into account. To compute the cost of an arc, we must know the time to go through it, which is generally unknown. To have well-posed boundary conditions, we use the

  10. Using a scripted data entry process to transfer legacy immunization data while transitioning between electronic medical record systems. (United States)

    Michel, J; Hsiao, A; Fenick, A


    Transitioning between Electronic Medical Records (EMR) can result in patient data being stranded in legacy systems with subsequent failure to provide appropriate patient care. Manual chart abstraction is labor intensive, error-prone, and difficult to institute for immunizations on a systems level in a timely fashion. We sought to transfer immunization data from two of our health system's soon to be replaced EMRs to the future EMR using a single process instead of separate interfaces for each facility. We used scripted data entry, a process where a computer automates manual data entry, to insert data into the future EMR. Using the Center for Disease Control's CVX immunization codes we developed a bridge between immunization identifiers within our system's EMRs. We performed a two-step process evaluation of the data transfer using automated data comparison and manual chart review. We completed the data migration from two facilities in 16.8 hours with no data loss or corruption. We successfully populated the future EMR with 99.16% of our legacy immunization data - 500,906 records - just prior to our EMR transition date. A subset of immunizations, first recognized during clinical care, had not originally been extracted from the legacy systems. Once identified, this data - 1,695 records - was migrated using the same process with minimal additional effort. Scripted data entry for immunizations is more accurate than published estimates for manual data entry and we completed our data transfer in 1.2% of the total time we predicted for manual data entry. Performing this process before EMR conversion helped identify obstacles to data migration. Drawing upon this work, we will reuse this process for other healthcare facilities in our health system as they transition to the future EMR.

  11. A method of distributed avionics data processing based on SVM classifier (United States)

    Guo, Hangyu; Wang, Jinyan; Kang, Minyang; Xu, Guojing


    Under the environment of system combat, in order to solve the problem on management and analysis of the massive heterogeneous data on multi-platform avionics system, this paper proposes a management solution which called avionics "resource cloud" based on big data technology, and designs an aided decision classifier based on SVM algorithm. We design an experiment with STK simulation, the result shows that this method has a high accuracy and a broad application prospect.

  12. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam


    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  13. Towards plug-and-play integration of archetypes into legacy electronic health record systems: the ArchiMed experience. (United States)

    Duftschmid, Georg; Chaloupka, Judith; Rinner, Christoph


    The dual model approach represents a promising solution for achieving semantically interoperable standardized electronic health record (EHR) exchange. Its acceptance, however, will depend on the effort required for integrating archetypes into legacy EHR systems. We propose a corresponding approach that: (a) automatically generates entry forms in legacy EHR systems from archetypes; and (b) allows the immediate export of EHR documents that are recorded via the generated forms and stored in the EHR systems' internal format as standardized and archetype-compliant EHR extracts. As a prerequisite for applying our approach, we define a set of basic requirements for the EHR systems. We tested our approach with an EHR system called ArchiMed and were able to successfully integrate 15 archetypes from a test set of 27. For 12 archetypes, the form generation failed owing to a particular type of complex structure (multiple repeating subnodes), which was prescribed by the archetypes but not supported by ArchiMed's data model. Our experiences show that archetypes should be customized based on the planned application scenario before their integration. This would allow problematic structures to be dissolved and irrelevant optional archetype nodes to be removed. For customization of archetypes, openEHR templates or specialized archetypes may be employed. Gaps in the data types or terminological features supported by an EHR system will often not preclude integration of the relevant archetypes. More work needs to be done on the usability of the generated forms.

  14. Automatic implementation of TTEthernet-based time-triggered avionics applications


    Gorcitz, Raul Adrian; Carle, Thomas; Lesens, David; Monchaux, David; Potop-Butucaru, Dumitru; Sorel, Yves


    International audience; The design of safety-critical embedded systems such as those used in avionics still involves largely manual phases. But in avionics the definition of standard interfaces embodied in standards such as ARINC 653 or TTEthernet should allow the definition of fully automatic code generation flows that reduce the costs while improving the quality of the generated code, much like compilers have done when replacing manual assembly coding. In this paper, we briefly present such...

  15. Avionics Data Base. (United States)


    HSI 5 -BS 4r, INDICATOR $ 10076 REMOTE M;, TD UNIT 1.3 LB $1488 REMARKS 4 INCH SYSTEM FEATURING DIGITAL DME TIME -0 GC CP GS INFORMATION, EC : HE:5G...R AS 4~ 0, - NCL R PCK R )CTE MA 7 D / -:N5L ELi uN7; .ZC*R USE IN 1 NAV w"RRAN7Y IYR OF tT /L INDX 343 01 H, 3 :uOMPCNENN- NAME 33 :E2Y-:ER D NJ- iE... TD Dl I ThNPL;T ;AS DAITE 9/64 1xz 4302072 C mC0N EN T \\NE ~y’ NIPNJAE>P C ER EiENO:X YICZDEu ML S--𔃺 A FA 3 91/12, C0 C104 28~ SVDC 7., /;D & C\\J

  16. A critique of reliability prediction techniques for avionics applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad PANDIAN


    Full Text Available Avionics (aeronautics and aerospace industries must rely on components and systems of demonstrated high reliability. For this, handbook-based methods have been traditionally used to design for reliability, develop test plans, and define maintenance requirements and sustainment logistics. However, these methods have been criticized as flawed and leading to inaccurate and misleading results. In its recent report on enhancing defense system reliability, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences has recently discredited these methods, judging the Military Handbook (MIL-HDBK-217 and its progeny as invalid and inaccurate. This paper discusses the issues that arise with the use of handbook-based methods in commercial and military avionics applications. Alternative approaches to reliability design (and its demonstration are also discussed, including similarity analysis, testing, physics-of-failure, and data analytics for prognostics and systems health management.

  17. In-air thermal imaging comparison of Legacy AdvanTec, Millennium, and Sovereign WhiteStar phacoemulsification systems. (United States)

    Olson, Michael D; Miller, Kevin M


    To compare the temperature profiles of 3 popular phacoemulsification units (Alcon Legacy AdvanTec, Bausch & Lomb Millennium, and AMO Sovereign WhiteStar) under similar operating conditions in air. Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. Phacoemulsification probes from the 3 units were placed side by side in air and imaged in the infrared region using model P60 ThermaCAM (Flir Systems). The highest temperature produced by each probe was measured 10 seconds and 30 seconds after power application. Testing was performed under conditions that might produce a corneal burn during cataract surgery. Irrigation flow was set at the low rate of 1 cc/min to simulate a tight incision. Aspiration flow was set at 0 cc/min to simulate occlusion of the needle lumen. Wound compression was simulated in some tests by suspending 22.6 g weights by rubber bands from the silicone sleeves. Manufacturers' specific and identical silicone sleeves were used to evaluate possible variations in thermal conductivity. The AdvanTec Legacy and Millennium were operated in pulse mode at 15 Hertz; 50% duty cycle; and 10%, 30%, and 50% power. The Sovereign WhiteStar was operated in both C/F (56 Hz, 33% duty cycle) and C/L (33 Hz, 20% duty cycle) modes at the same console power settings. Temperature profiles were determined at a variety of power settings with each system operating in continuous and pulse mode. Under all experimental conditions (at 10%, 30%, and 50% powers; with and without external weights suspended from the phacoemulsification probes; with manufacturers' and identical silicone sleeves; and in continuous and pulse modes), the Millennium and the Sovereign WhiteStar generated higher temperatures than the Legacy AdvanTec. Under controlled operating conditions in air and under a variety of power, load, and duty-cycle settings, the Millennium and the Sovereign WhiteStar, operating in both pulse and

  18. Advanced Concepts for Avionics/Weapon System Design, Development and Integration: Conference Proceedings of the Avionics Panel Symposium (45th) Held at Ottawa, Canada on 18-22 April 1983. (United States)


    et volumes dans les technologies actuelles sont trop impoi .. ants . 4.4 - Alimentations Les alimentations doivent 6tre distributes vers chacun des... experiments on the human factors aspects of the display system for a television guided lock-on missile for use against ground targets, such as will be...development cycle. Methods of producing functional designs were illuminated and experience to date with the approach summarized. Paper number six was

  19. Validating Avionics Conceptual Architectures with Executable Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Fischer


    Full Text Available Current avionics systems specifications, developed after conceptual design, have a high degree of uncertainty. Since specifications are not sufficiently validated in the early development process and no executable specification exists at aircraft level, system designers cannot evaluate the impact of their design decisions at aircraft or aircraft application level. At the end of the development process of complex systems, e. g. aircraft, an average of about 65 per cent of all specifications have to be changed because they are incorrect, incomplete or too vaguely described. In this paper, a model-based design methodology together with a virtual test environment is described that makes complex high level system specifications executable and testable during the very early levels of system design. An aircraft communication system and its system context is developed to demonstrate the proposed early validation methodology. Executable specifications for early conceptual system architectures enable system designers to couple functions, architecture elements, resources and performance parameters, often called non-functional parameters. An integrated executable specification at Early Conceptual Architecture Level is developed and used to determine the impact of different system architecture decisions on system behavior and overall performance.

  20. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for processing legacy wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.


    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS

  1. Avionics Simulation, Development and Software Engineering (United States)


    During this reporting period, all technical responsibilities were accomplished as planned. A close working relationship was maintained with personnel of the MSFC Avionics Department Software Group (ED14), the MSFC EXPRESS Project Office (FD31), and the Huntsville Boeing Company. Accomplishments included: performing special tasks; supporting Software Review Board (SRB), Avionics Test Bed (ATB), and EXPRESS Software Control Panel (ESCP) activities; participating in technical meetings; and coordinating issues between the Boeing Company and the MSFC Project Office.

  2. A methodology based on openEHR archetypes and software agents for developing e-health applications reusing legacy systems. (United States)

    Cardoso de Moraes, João Luís; de Souza, Wanderley Lopes; Pires, Luís Ferreira; do Prado, Antonio Francisco


    In Pervasive Healthcare, novel information and communication technologies are applied to support the provision of health services anywhere, at anytime and to anyone. Since health systems may offer their health records in different electronic formats, the openEHR Foundation prescribes the use of archetypes for describing clinical knowledge in order to achieve semantic interoperability between these systems. Software agents have been applied to simulate human skills in some healthcare procedures. This paper presents a methodology, based on the use of openEHR archetypes and agent technology, which aims to overcome the weaknesses typically found in legacy healthcare systems, thereby adding value to the systems. This methodology was applied in the design of an agent-based system, which was used in a realistic healthcare scenario in which a medical staff meeting to prepare a cardiac surgery has been supported. We conducted experiments with this system in a distributed environment composed by three cardiology clinics and a center of cardiac surgery, all located in the city of Marília (São Paulo, Brazil). We evaluated this system according to the Technology Acceptance Model. The case study confirmed the acceptance of our agent-based system by healthcare professionals and patients, who reacted positively with respect to the usefulness of this system in particular, and with respect to task delegation to software agents in general. The case study also showed that a software agent-based interface and a tools-based alternative must be provided to the end users, which should allow them to perform the tasks themselves or to delegate these tasks to other people. A Pervasive Healthcare model requires efficient and secure information exchange between healthcare providers. The proposed methodology allows designers to build communication systems for the message exchange among heterogeneous healthcare systems, and to shift from systems that rely on informal communication of actors to

  3. Micro-Inspector Avionics Module (MAM): A Self-Contained Low Power, Reconfigurable Avionics Platform for Small Spacecrafts and Instruments (United States)

    Ashtijou, Mohammad; He, Yutao; Watson, R. Kevin; Bolotin, Gary S.


    This paper describes development of a radiation tolerant, low power, reconfigurable avionics module aimed at meeting the avionics needs of the JPL Micro-Inspector spacecraft. This module represents a complete avionics system, consisting of two PowerPC 405 CPUs embedded within a reconfigurable FPGA fabric of over 8 Million logic gates, 64MB of EDAC protected Flash storage and 128MB of EDAC protected DDR SDRAM or SDRAM memories, along with FPGA SEU mitigation logic, and all necessary power conversion. Processor SEU mitigation is achieved by running the two processors in a lock-step and compare configuration. All of these building blocks are integrated into a double sided circuit board that takes as little as 6 square inches of board space. This module can be embedded into a user system as part of a bigger circuit assembly or as a self contained module. This module is being developed as part of a JPL led Micro-Inspector Program, funded by NASA ESMD aimed at producing a 10Kg micro spacecraft.

  4. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry (United States)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  5. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan


    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  6. Outlook at the Future of the Airline Avionics Industry (United States)


    The aviation industry is slowly but surely changing its character. As airlines restructure, what they ask of, and how they relate to their suppliers (including avionics manufacturers) will greatly change as well. The avionics industry is currently fa...

  7. Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) is a common avionics architecture supporting microsatellites, launch vehicles, and upper-stage carrier...

  8. Flexible Low Cost Avionics for NanoSatellite Launch Vehicle Control and GPS Metric Tracking, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems LLC (Tyvak) will develop nano-launch vehicle avionics solutions based on the latest commercial electronics products...

  9. Within the triangle of healthcare legacies: comparing the performance of South-Eastern European health systems. (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Arsenijevic, Jelena; Pavlova, Milena; Verhaeghe, Nick; Laaser, Ulrich; Groot, Wim


    Inter-regional comparison of health-reform outcomes in south-eastern Europe (SEE). Macro-indicators were obtained from the WHO Health for All Database. Inter-regional comparison among post-Semashko, former Yugoslavia, and prior-1989-free-market SEE economies was conducted. United Nations Development Program Human Development Index growth was strongest among prior-free-market SEE, followed by former Yugoslavia and post-Semashko. Policy cuts to hospital beds and nursing-staff capacities were highest in post-Semashko. Physician density increased the most in prior-free-market SEE. Length of hospital stay was reduced in most countries; frequency of outpatient visits and inpatient discharges doubled in prior-free-market SEE. Fertility rates fell for one third in Post-Semashko and prior-free-market SEE. Crude death rates slightly decreased in prior-free-market-SEE and post-Semashko, while growing in the former Yugoslavia region. Life expectancy increased by 4 years on average in all regions; prior-free-market SEE achieving the highest longevity. Childhood and maternal mortality rates decreased throughout SEE, while post-Semashko countries recorded the most progress. Significant differences in healthcare resources and outcomes were observed among three historical health-policy legacies in south-eastern Europe. These different routes towards common goals created a golden opportunity for these economies to learn from each other.

  10. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.


    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  11. Avionic Sensor Systems and Aerospace Photographic Systems Repair Career Ladders AFSCs 322X2A, 322X2C, and 404X1. (United States)


    1 1 HQ USAF/LEYM 1 1 HQ USAF/ MPPT 1 1 HQ USAFE/DPAT 3 3 HQ USAFE/DPATC 1 1 HQ USMC (CODE TPI) 1 LMDC/AN 1 NODAC 1 3400 TCHTW/TTGX (LOWRY AFB CO) 3 3 3...infrared detectors, side-looking radar, data display systems, and associated sensor control systems. The 322X2C personnel perform duties related to electro...optical sensors, such as optical cameras, mounts, viewfinders, aircraft camera parameter controls , and associated control systems. Personnel in the

  12. Formal Safety and Security Assessment of an Avionic Architecture with Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Brunel


    Full Text Available We propose an approach based on Alloy to formally model and assess a system architecture with respect to safety and security requirements. We illustrate this approach by considering as a case study an avionic system developed by Thales, which provides guidance to aircraft. We show how to define in Alloy a metamodel of avionic architectures with a focus on failure propagations. We then express the specific architecture of the case study in Alloy. Finally, we express and check properties that refer to the robustness of the architecture to failures and attacks.

  13. Automatic Implementation of Ttethernet-Based Time-Triggered Avionics Applications (United States)

    Gorcitz, Raul Adrian; Carle, Thomas; Lesens, David; Monchaux, David; Potop-Butucaruy, Dumitru; Sorel, Yves


    The design of safety-critical embedded systems such as those used in avionics still involves largely manual phases. But in avionics the definition of standard interfaces embodied in standards such as ARINC 653 or TTEthernet should allow the definition of fully automatic code generation flows that reduce the costs while improving the quality of the generated code, much like compilers have done when replacing manual assembly coding. In this paper, we briefly present such a fully automatic implementation tool, called Lopht, for ARINC653-based time-triggered systems, and then explain how it is currently extended to include support for TTEthernet networks.

  14. Mission Planning Systems for Tactical Aircraft (Pre-Flight and In- Flight) (Systemes de Planification des Missions pour Avions Tactiques (Avant Vol et en Vol) (United States)


    electronics Communications may yield delays ( they has-c to be encrypted systems or items of communications-equipment when Transmissions may be corrupted ...tactical global soutions Thnis Process takes Into e’lnsiT, 11r 7,1 i Jia nticwork. The pilot interacts with the sysitt using a keybotard,. allow

  15. The new ICSU World Data System: Building on the 50 Year Legacy of the World Data Centers (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Minster, J.


    The International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data Center (WDC) system was established in 1957 in response to the data needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Its holdings included a wide range of solar, geophysical, environmental, and human dimensions data. The WDC system developed many innovative data management and data exchange procedures and techniques over the last 50 years, which mitigated effectively the impact of global politics on science. The beginning of the 21st century has seen new ICSU requirements for management of large and diverse scientific data from major international programs such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS), the International Polar Year (IPY), the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MEA), and the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observation Project (CEOP). As a consequence, a completely new ICSU data activity, the World Data System (WDS) is being created which will incorporate the major ICSU data activities including in particular the WDCs and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data- Analysis Services. Using the legacy of the WDC system, the WDS will place an emphasis on new information technology as applied to modern data management techniques and international data exchange. The new World Data System will support ICSU's enduring mission and objectives, ensuring the long-term stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community and other stakeholders. It will have a broader disciplinary and geographic base than the current ICSU networks and be recognized as a world-wide "community of excellence" for data issues. It will use state-of-the-art systems interoperability, international very high bandwidth capabilities and a coordinated focus on topics such as virtual observatories. It will also encourage the establishment of new data centers and services, using modern paradigms for their establishment


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Miguel Vergara Díaz


    Full Text Available La necesidad de diseñar el sistema de comunicaciones para la aviónica de un mini helicóptero robot basada en la arquitectura distribuida CAN es la propuesta presentada. El sistema de comunicaciones involucra los aspectos de hardware y software necesarios para permitir el intercambio de datos sobre una red o bus de aviónica desde los sensores y/o hacia los actuadores con el computador central o computador de vuelo. La principal característica de la arquitectura es que permite escalabilidad en la agregación de nuevos dispositivos, garantizando los requerimientos temporales necesarios para la adquisición de datos. Se presentan resultados de intercambio de datos sobre la red de aviónica mostrando las frecuencias de operación alcanzadas.This paper presents the design of the internal communication system for avionics of a robot mini-helicopter based on the CAN distributed architecture. The communication system involves several hardware and software aspects related to data exchange on avionics bus from sensors and actuators with the flight computer. The main characteristic of the architecture is scalability in the addition of new devices, maintaining time requirements for data acquisition. Results of data exchange on the avionics network showing the reached operating update rates for each node are shown.

  17. Comparison of Overridden Medication-related Clinical Decision Support in the Intensive Care Unit between a Commercial System and a Legacy System. (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Wright, Adam; Seger, Diane L; Amato, Mary G; Fiskio, Julie M; Bates, David


    Electronic health records (EHRs) with clinical decision support (CDS) have shown to be effective at improving patient safety. Despite this, alerts delivered as part of CDS are overridden frequently, which is of concern in the critical care population as this group may have an increased risk of harm. Our organization recently transitioned from an internally-developed EHR to a commercial system. Data comparing various EHR systems, especially after transitions between EHRs, are needed to identify areas for improvement. To compare the two systems and identify areas for potential improvement with the new commercial system at a single institution. Overridden medication-related CDS alerts were included from October to December of the systems' respective years (legacy, 2011; commercial, 2015), restricted to three intensive care units. The two systems were compared with regards to CDS presentation and override rates for four types of CDS: drug-allergy, drug-drug interaction (DDI), geriatric and renal alerts. A post hoc analysis to evaluate for adverse drug events (ADEs) potentially resulting from overridden alerts was performed for 'contraindicated' DDIs via chart review. There was a significant increase in provider exposure to alerts and alert overrides in the commercial system (commercial: n=5,535; legacy: n=1,030). Rates of overrides were higher for the allergy and DDI alerts (pcommercial system. Geriatric and renal alerts were significantly different in incidence and presentation between the two systems. No ADEs were identified in an analysis of 43 overridden contraindicated DDI alerts. The vendor system had much higher rates of both alerts and overrides, although we did not find evidence of harm in a review of DDIs which were overridden. We propose recommendations for improving our current system which may be helpful to other similar institutions; improving both alert presentation and the underlying knowledge base appear important.

  18. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    and problems of rural power situation in India. Writing books of science for children is his major preoccupation now. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla. 2. AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. Electrical power supply has grown enormously during this century. In 1950 the total capacity of generators producing.

  19. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - AC Power System and its Growth in India. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 69-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla - The AC System that he Helped to Usher in. D P Sen Gupta. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 54-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Avionics Configuration Assessment for Flightdeck Interval Management: A Comparison of Avionics and Notification Methods (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.


    Flightdeck Interval Management is one of the NextGen operational concepts that FAA is sponsoring to realize requisite National Airspace System (NAS) efficiencies. Interval Management will reduce variability in temporal deviations at a position, and thereby reduce buffers typically applied by controllers - resulting in higher arrival rates, and more efficient operations. Ground software generates a strategic schedule of aircraft pairs. Air Traffic Control (ATC) provides an IM clearance with the IM spacing objective (i.e., the TTF, and at which point to achieve the appropriate spacing from this aircraft) to the IM aircraft. Pilots must dial FIM speeds into the speed window on the Mode Control Panel in a timely manner, and attend to deviations between actual speed and the instantaneous FIM profile speed. Here, the crew is assumed to be operating the aircraft with autothrottles on, with autopilot engaged, and the autoflight system in Vertical Navigation (VNAV) and Lateral Navigation (LNAV); and is responsible for safely flying the aircraft while maintaining situation awareness of their ability to follow FIM speed commands and to achieve the FIM spacing goal. The objective of this study is to examine whether three Notification Methods and four Avionics Conditions affect pilots' performance, ratings on constructs associated with performance (workload, situation awareness), or opinions on acceptability. Three Notification Methods (alternate visual and aural alerts that notified pilots to the onset of a speed target, conformance deviation from the required speed profile, and reminded them if they failed to enter the speed within 10 seconds) were examined. These Notification Methods were: VVV (visuals for all three events), VAV (visuals for all three events, plus an aural for speed conformance deviations), and AAA (visual indications and the same aural to indicate all three of these events). Avionics Conditions were defined by the instrumentation (and location) used to

  2. The Upgrade Path from Legacy VME to VXS Dual Star Connectivity for Large Scale Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C; Barbosa, F J; Dong, H; Gu, W; Jastrzembski, E; Kaneta, S R; Moffitt, B; Nganga, N; Raydo, B J; Somov, A; Taylor, W M


    New instrumentation modules have been designed by Jefferson Lab and to take advantage of the higher performance and elegant backplane connectivity of the VITA 41 VXS standard. These new modules are required to meet the 200KHz trigger rates envisioned for the 12GeV experimental program. Upgrading legacy VME designs to the high speed gigabit serial extensions that VXS offers, comes with significant challenges, including electronic engineering design, plus firmware and software development issues. This paper will detail our system design approach including the critical system requirement stages, and explain the pipeline design techniques and selection criteria for the FPGA that require embedded Gigabit serial transceivers. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250MHz clock with synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals distributed to each front end readout crate via the second switch slot in the 21 slot, dual star VXS backplane. The readout of the buffered detector signals relies on 2eSST over the standard VME64x path at >200MB/s. We have achieved 20Gb/s transfer rate of trigger information within one VXS crate and will present results using production modules in a two crate test configuration with both VXS crates fully populated. The VXS trigger modules that reside in the front end crates, will be ready for production orders by the end of the 2011 fiscal year. VXS Global trigger modules are in the design stage now, and will be complete to meet the installation schedule for the 12GeV Physics program.

  3. Software testability and its application to avionic software (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Keith W.; Payne, Jeffery E.


    Randomly generated black-box testing is an established yet controversial method of estimating software reliability. Unfortunately, as software applications have required higher reliabilities, practical difficulties with black-box testing have become increasingly problematic. These practical problems are particularly acute in life-critical avionics software, where requirements of 10 exp -7 failures per hour of system reliability can translate into a probability of failure (POF) of perhaps 10 exp -9 or less for each individual execution of the software. This paper describes the application of one type of testability analysis called 'sensitivity analysis' to B-737 avionics software; one application of sensitivity analysis is to quantify whether software testing is capable of detecting faults in a particular program and thus whether we can be confident that a tested program is not hiding faults. We so 80 by finding the testabilities of the individual statements of the program, and then use those statement testabilities to find the testabilities of the functions and modules. For the B-737 system we analyzed, we were able to isolate those functions that are more prone to hide errors during system/reliability testing.

  4. A Non-Intrusive Approach to Enhance Legacy Embedded Control Systems with Cyber Protection Features (United States)

    Ren, Shangping; Chen, Nianen; Yu, Yue; Poirot, Pierre; Kwiat, Kevin; Tsai, Jeffrey J. P.

    Trust is cast as a continuous re-evaluation: a system’s reliability and security are scrutinized, not just prior to, but during its deployment. This approach to maintaining trust is specifically applied to distributed and embedded control systems. Unlike general purpose systems, distributed and embedded control systems, such as power grid control systems and water treatment systems, etc., generally have a 24x7 availability requirement. Hence, upgrading or adding new cyber protection features into these systems in order to sustain them when faults caused by cyber attacks occur, is often difficult to achieve and inhibits the evolution of these systems into a cyber environment. In this chapter, we present a solution for extending the capabilities of existing systems while simultaneously maintaining the stability of the current systems. An externalized survivability management scheme based on the observe-reason-modify paradigm is applied, which decomposes the cyber attack protection process into three orthogonal subtasks: observation, evaluation and protection. This architecture provides greater flexibility and has a resolvability attribute- it can utilize emerging techniques; yet requires either minimal modifications or even no modifications whatsoever to the controlled infrastructures. The approach itself is general and can be applied to a broad class of observable systems.

  5. Using VME to leverage legacy CAMAC electronics into a high speed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, P.L.


    The authors report on the first full scale implementation of a VME based Data Acquisition (DAQ) system at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system was designed for use in the End Station A (ESA) fixed target program. It was designed to handle interrupts at rates up to 120 Hz and event sizes up to 10,000 bytes per interrupt. One of the driving considerations behind the design of this system was to make use of existing CAMAC based electronics and yet deliver a high performance DAQ system. This was achieved by basing the DAQ system in a VME backplane allowing parallel control and readout of CAMAC branches and VME DAQ modules. This system was successfully used in the Spin Physics research program at SLAC (E154 and E155)

  6. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne


    to model the propagation of a system in a "deployed" configuration versus a "stowed" configuration. The differences in relative field strength provide valuable information about the distribution of the field that can be used to engineer RF links with optimal radiated power and antenna configuration that accomplish the intended system reliability. Such modeling will be necessary in subsequent studies for managing multipath propagation characteristics inside a main cabin and to understand more complex environments, such as the inside wings, landing gear bays, cargo bays, avionics bays, etc. The results of the short research effort are described in the present document. The team puts forth a set of recommendations with the intention of informing the project and program leadership of the future work that, in the opinion of the EWAIC team, would assist the ECON team reach the intended goal of developing an all-wireless aircraft.

  7. Avionics Reliability, Its Techniques and Related Disciplines. (United States)


    est garanti dans les conditions d’utilisation suivantes: - Pequipement ne doit pas Wte utilise de faqon continue dans les conditions climatiques cxtr...les Oscarts de maintenance (formation du personnel, temps disponible entre deux vols pour lentretien etc... ) *les 6carts climatiques entre bases - to a failure of the avionics function indicated. Vulnerability, in the context of Fig. 2, is the probability of a catastrophic event being

  8. Data mining : open systems drill through layers of legacy data to manage the flow of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polczer, S.


    Information management challenges facing the petroleum and natural gas industry are discussed in conjunction with the increasing difficulty of accessing information because of the sheer volume of it, plus the fact that most data systems are proprietary 'closed' systems. In this context, reference is made to a newly developed software system named PetroDesk, developed by Merak Petroleum. PetroDesk is a geographical information browser used for integration and analysis of public, proprietary and personal data under a common interface. The software can be used to plot land position, chart productivity of wells, and produce graphs of decline rates, reserves and production. The software, which was originally designed for engineering data, also has been found useful in determining costs, revenue projections and other information needed to obtain a real-time net present worth of a company, and also in identifying business opportunities. 2 figs

  9. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems (United States)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  10. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research (United States)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  11. In-Building Wireless Distribution in legacy Multimode Fiber with an improved RoMMF system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visani, Davide; Petersen, Martin Nordal; Sorci, Francesca


    ). Experimental and theoretical results are reported showing that this scheme outperforms a RoMMF system employing a distributed feed-back (DFB) laser diode (LD) and/or a mode scrambler to achieve overfilled launch (OFL). Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal transmission is achieved with high quality in terms...

  12. Enabling Support of Collaborative Cross-enterprise Business Processes for Legacy ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundars Alksnis


    Full Text Available In order to create innovative business products, share knowledge between people and businesses, or increase the control and quality of services, more and more often enterprise business processes involve in collaborations by delegating or providing some pieces of work to other enterprises. Necessity to cooperate in the cross-enterprise setting leads to Collaborative Business Processes (CBPs. The difference between CBPs and Business Processes (BPs is in the decentralized coordination, flexible backward recovery, participants notification about the state, efficient adaptability to changes, presence of multiple information systems, and individual authorization settings. In the paper we consider a specific case of CBPs where multiple collaborating partners use Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system of the same vendor. The vendor can see (e.g., monitor the changes of data elements, but does not have explicit process awareness in the ERP system to support flow of activities in the cross-enterprise setting. The paper also discusses different settings of cross-enterprise CBP and shows simplified enterprise models behind the vendor possibilities to positively impact collaborative processes. The restrictions of the vendor are implicit information flows in BP, diversity of ERP integrations with third party Information Systems (IS, the lack of mechanisms for monitoring BP instances, backward recovery, user notification about the current state and tasks, and inability to make explicit changes in customers’ ISs.

  13. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrotta, Serena; D'Odorico, Valentina; Prochaska, J. Xavier


    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars...

  14. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.


    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  15. Transition from Legacy to Connectivity Solution for Infrastructure Control of Smart Municipal Systems (United States)

    Zabasta, A.; Kunicina, N.; Kondratjevs, K.


    Collaboration between heterogeneous systems and architectures is not an easy problem in the automation domain. By now, utilities and suppliers encounter real problems due to underestimated costs of technical solutions, frustration in selecting technical solutions relevant for local needs, and incompatibilities between a plenty of protocols and appropriate solutions. The paper presents research on creation of architecture of smart municipal systems in a local cloud of services that apply SOA and IoT approaches. The authors of the paper have developed a broker that applies orchestration services and resides on a gateway, which provides adapter and protocol translation functions, as well as applies a tool for wiring together hardware devices, APIs and online services.

  16. Transition from Legacy to Connectivity Solution for Infrastructure Control of Smart Municipal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabasta A.


    Full Text Available Collaboration between heterogeneous systems and architectures is not an easy problem in the automation domain. By now, utilities and suppliers encounter real problems due to underestimated costs of technical solutions, frustration in selecting technical solutions relevant for local needs, and incompatibilities between a plenty of protocols and appropriate solutions. The paper presents research on creation of architecture of smart municipal systems in a local cloud of services that apply SOA and IoT approaches. The authors of the paper have developed a broker that applies orchestration services and resides on a gateway, which provides adapter and protocol translation functions, as well as applies a tool for wiring together hardware devices, APIs and online services.

  17. The health systems funding platform and World Bank legacy: the gap between rhetoric and reality (United States)


    Global health partnerships created to encourage funding efficiencies need to be approached with some caution, with claims for innovation and responsiveness to development needs based on untested assumptions around the potential of some partners to adapt their application, funding and evaluation procedures within these new structures. We examine this in the case of the Health Systems Funding Platform, which despite being set up some three years earlier, has stalled at the point of implementation of its key elements of collaboration. While much of the attention has been centred on the suspension of the Global Fund’s Round 11, and what this might mean for health systems strengthening and the Platform more broadly, we argue that inadequate scrutiny has been made of the World Bank’s contribution to this partnership, which might have been reasonably anticipated based on an historical analysis of development perspectives. Given the tensions being created by the apparent vulnerability of the health systems strengthening agenda, and the increasing rhetoric around the need for greater harmonization in development assistance, an examination of the positioning of the World Bank in this context is vital. PMID:23497327

  18. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.


    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  19. Transforming Cobol Legacy Software to a Generic Imperative Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moraes, DinaL


    .... This research develops a transformation system to convert COBOL code into a generic imperative model, recapturing the initial design and deciphering the requirements implemented by the legacy code...

  20. Spacecraft Avionics Software Development Then and Now: Different but the Same (United States)

    Mangieri, Mark L.; Garman, John (Jack); Vice, Jason


    NASA has always been in the business of balancing new technologies and techniques to achieve human space travel objectives. NASA s historic Software Production Facility (SPF) was developed to serve complex avionics software solutions during an era dominated by mainframes, tape drives, and lower level programming languages. These systems have proven themselves resilient enough to serve the Shuttle Orbiter Avionics life cycle for decades. The SPF and its predecessor the Software Development Lab (SDL) at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) hosted flight software (FSW) engineering, development, simulation, and test. It was active from the beginning of Shuttle Orbiter development in 1972 through the end of the shuttle program in the summer of 2011 almost 40 years. NASA s Kedalion engineering analysis lab is on the forefront of validating and using many contemporary avionics HW/SW development and integration techniques, which represent new paradigms to NASA s heritage culture in avionics software engineering. Kedalion has validated many of the Orion project s HW/SW engineering techniques borrowed from the adjacent commercial aircraft avionics environment, inserting new techniques and skills into the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Orion program. Using contemporary agile techniques, COTS products, early rapid prototyping, in-house expertise and tools, and customer collaboration, NASA has adopted a cost effective paradigm that is currently serving Orion effectively. This paper will explore and contrast differences in technology employed over the years of NASA s space program, due largely to technological advances in hardware and software systems, while acknowledging that the basic software engineering and integration paradigms share many similarities.

  1. Integrated Modular Avionics for Spacecraft: Earth Observation Use Case Demonstrator (United States)

    Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Rossignol, Alain; Hyounet, Philippe


    Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) for Space, as European Space Agency initiative, aimed to make applicable to space domain the time and space partitioning concepts and particularly the ARINC 653 standard [1][2]. Expected benefits of such an approach are development flexibility, capability to provide differential V&V for different criticality level functionalities and to integrate late or In-Orbit delivery. This development flexibility could improve software subcontracting, industrial organization and software reuse. Time and space partitioning technique facilitates integration of software functions as black boxes and integration of decentralized function such as star tracker in On Board Computer to save mass and power by limiting electronics resources. In aeronautical domain, Integrated Modular Avionics architecture is based on a network of LRU (Line Replaceable Unit) interconnected by AFDX (Avionic Full DupleX). Time and Space partitioning concept is applicable to LRU and provides independent partitions which inter communicate using ARINC 653 communication ports. Using End System (LRU component) intercommunication between LRU is managed in the same way than intercommunication between partitions in LRU. In such architecture an application developed using only communication port can be integrated in an LRU or another one without impacting the global architecture. In space domain, a redundant On Board Computer controls (ground monitoring TM) and manages the platform (ground command TC) in terms of power, solar array deployment, attitude, orbit, thermal, maintenance, failure detection and recovery isolation. In addition, Payload units and platform units such as RIU, PCDU, AOCS units (Star tracker, Reaction wheels) are considered in this architecture. Interfaces are mainly realized through MIL-STD-1553B busses and SpaceWire and this could be considered as the main constraint for IMA implementation in space domain. During the first phase of IMA SP project, ARINC653

  2. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.


    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions

  3. Integrated Modular Avionics: The Challenges (United States)

    Charrier, O.


    The need to reduce Space, Weight, and Power (SWaP) across the embedded market leads many Systems Suppliers to run multiple applications on the same processor. The concept seems deceptively simple. However, a lack of experience using this approach, may lead to many mistakes, resulting in unacceptable system performance and unacceptable costs. The objective of this paper is to review the challenges of controlling the execution of multiple applications on the same processor in a Safety or Mission Critical context and, based on return of experiences, point out some of the common mistakes and the limit of what an operating system can control. As no-one has an unlimited budget, the ability to develop and verify such system at reasonable cost, reduced risk, and re-use of the expended effort will be emphasized.

  4. Optimisation d'un systeme d'antigivrage a air chaud pour aile d'avion basee sur la methode du krigeage dual (United States)

    Hannat, Ridha

    The aim of this thesis is to apply a new methodology of optimization based on the dual kriging method to a hot air anti-icing system for airplanes wings. The anti-icing system consists of a piccolo tube placed along the span of the wing, in the leading edge area. The hot air is injected through small nozzles and impact on the inner wall of the wing. The objective function targeted by the optimization is the effectiveness of the heat transfer of the anti-icing system. This heat transfer effectiveness is regarded as being the ratio of the wing inner wall heat flux and the sum of all the nozzles heat flows of the anti-icing system. The methodology adopted to optimize an anti-icing system consists of three steps. The first step is to build a database according to the Box-Behnken design of experiment. The objective function is then modeled by the dual kriging method and finally the SQP optimization method is applied. One of the advantages of the dual kriging is that the model passes exactly through all measurement points, but it can also take into account the numerical errors and deviates from these points. Moreover, the kriged model can be updated at each new numerical simulation. These features of the dual kriging seem to give a good tool to build the response surfaces necessary for the anti-icing system optimization. The first chapter presents a literature review and the optimization problem related to the antiicing system. Chapters two, three and four present the three articles submitted. Chapter two is devoted to the validation of CFD codes used to perform the numerical simulations of an anti-icing system and to compute the conjugate heat transfer (CHT). The CHT is calculated by taking into account the external flow around the airfoil, the internal flow in the anti-icing system, and the conduction in the wing. The heat transfer coefficient at the external skin of the airfoil is almost the same if the external flow is taken into account or no. Therefore, only the

  5. Proceedings Papers of the AFSC (Air Force Systems Command) Avionics Standardization Conference (2nd) Held at Dayton, Ohio on 30 November-2 December 1982. Volume 2 (United States)


    W-PAFB, OH A xxi Table of Contents Standardized Software Development Page System Planning Tool to Measure Cost Avoidance Resulting 1017 from... Programa Development SFecification for Ada integrated Environment: KAPSE/Database Type B-5, IR-678-1, interinetrics, Inc., 30 June 1982. 2. Computer

  6. Analysis of technology requirements and potential demand for general aviation avionics systems in the 1980's. [technology assessment and technological forecasting of the aircraft industry (United States)

    Cohn, D. M.; Kayser, J. H.; Senko, G. M.; Glenn, D. R.


    The trend for the increasing need for aircraft-in-general as a major source of transportation in the United States is presented (military and commercial aircraft are excluded). Social, political, and economic factors that affect the aircraft industry are considered, and cost estimates are given. Aircraft equipment and navigation systems are discussed.

  7. Caracterisation de la propagation sans-fil dans les avions commerciaux pour une transmission dediee aux services aux passagers et aux systemes avioniques (United States)

    Saghir, Hassane

    Aircraft systems are interconnected by cable bundles that may represent a hundred kilometres. Those wirings penalize the aircraft weight. Cable bundles favour electromagnetic interference on board aircraft and routing a new cable for integrating new equipment boxes in a sustained aircraft requires a lot of retrofit work. Consequently, the aviation industry and aerospace community are working in the scope of different projects on new alternatives that will better fit to the future generation of aircrafts and help to reduce interconnecting wires on board. Wireless technologies represent a coveted solution that could make significant improvements and benefits to new generations of aircrafts. This research work focuses on the study of the wireless propagation over some frequency bands inside commercial aircrafts. The main objective is to provide conclusions and recommendations on criteria that may help optimizing the wireless communication without impacting the existent systems. Targeted applications are the inflight entertainment (IFE) service and wireless sensing systems. This work was conducted in collaboration with Bombardier-Aerospace based in Montreal (QC) in the frame of AVIO-402 project under the grant of CRIAQ ( In this study, an experimental characterization of the propagation channel in the ISM band around 2.4 GHz frequency 5.8 GHz has been performed in a CRJ700 aircraft from Bombardier Aerospace. This characterization allowed to extract the parameters needed to analyze the channel behavior. The measurements results have shown that the propagation characteristics are close to those of both typical indoor medium in terms of the delay spread and a tunnel in terms of path loss. Then, a 3D channel modeling and simulation have been achieved with an RF prediction software (Wireless Insite Remcom). The simulations also consider the millimeter band around 60 GHz. The simulations yielded to analytical models of radio coverage which were

  8. Optimisation des trajectoires d'un systeme de gestion de vol d'avions pour la reduction des couts de vol (United States)

    Sidibe, Souleymane

    The implementation and monitoring of operational flight plans is a major occupation for a crew of commercial flights. The purpose of this operation is to set the vertical and lateral trajectories followed by airplane during phases of flight: climb, cruise, descent, etc. These trajectories are subjected to conflicting economical constraints: minimization of flight time and minimization of fuel consumed and environmental constraints. In its task of mission planning, the crew is assisted by the Flight Management System (FMS) which is used to construct the path to follow and to predict the behaviour of the aircraft along the flight plan. The FMS considered in our research, particularly includes an optimization model of flight only by calculating the optimal speed profile that minimizes the overall cost of flight synthesized by a criterion of cost index following a steady cruising altitude. However, the model based solely on optimization of the speed profile is not sufficient. It is necessary to expand the current optimization for simultaneous optimization of the speed and altitude in order to determine an optimum cruise altitude that minimizes the overall cost when the path is flown with the optimal speed profile. Then, a new program was developed. The latter is based on the method of dynamic programming invented by Bellman to solve problems of optimal paths. In addition, the improvement passes through research new patterns of trajectories integrating ascendant cruises and using the lateral plane with the effect of the weather: wind and temperature. Finally, for better optimization, the program takes into account constraint of flight domain of aircrafts which utilize the FMS.

  9. Predictors of disability in a childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus cohort: results from the CARRA Legacy Registry. (United States)

    Hersh, A O; Case, S M; Son, M B


    Objective Few descriptions of physical disability in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) exist. We sought to describe disability in a large North American cohort of patients with cSLE and identify predictors of disability. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Legacy Registry for patients with cSLE enrolled between May 2010 and October 2014. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) was used to assess disability and physical functioning. Chi-square tests were used for univariate analyses, and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess predictors of disability. Results We analyzed data for 939 patients with cSLE. The median and mean CHAQ scores were 0 and 0.25, respectively, and 41% of the cohort had at least mild disability. Arthritis and higher pain scores were significantly associated with disability as compared to those without disability ( p disability at baseline. Conclusions Disability as measured by baseline CHAQ was fairly common in cSLE patients in the CARRA Legacy Registry, and was associated with low household income, arthritis, and higher pain scores. In addition to optimal disease control, ensuring psychosocial supports and addressing pain may reduce disability in cSLE. Further study is needed of disability in cSLE.

  10. Avionics Applications on a Time-Predictable Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, André; Silva, Cláudio; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo


    Avionics applications need to be certified for the highest criticality standard. This certification includes schedulability analysis and worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. WCET analysis is only possible when the software is written to be WCET analyzable and when the platform is time......-predictable. In this paper we present prototype avionics applications that have been ported to the time-predictable T-CREST platform. The applications are WCET analyzable, and T-CREST is supported by the aiT WCET analyzer. This combination allows us to provide WCET bounds of avionic tasks, even when executing on a multicore...

  11. Spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control requirements for an intelligent plug-n-play avionics (PAPA) architecture (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje


    The objective of this research is to design an intelligent plug-n-play avionics system that provides a reconfigurable platform for supporting the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements for different elements of the space exploration mission. The focus of this study is to look at the specific requirements for a spacecraft that needs to go from earth to moon and back. In this regard we will identify the different GN&C problems in various phases of flight that need to be addressed for designing such a plug-n-play avionics system. The Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs provide rich literature in terms of understanding some of the general GN&C requirements for a space vehicle. The relevant literature is reviewed which helps in narrowing down the different GN&C algorithms that need to be supported along with their individual requirements.

  12. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)


    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  13. AVION: A detailed report on the preliminary design of a 79-passenger, high-efficiency, commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Mayfield, William; Perkins, Brett; Rogan, William; Schuessler, Randall; Stockert, Joe


    The Avion is the result of an investigation into the preliminary design for a high-efficiency commercial transport aircraft. The Avion is designed to carry 79 passengers and a crew of five through a range of 1,500 nm at 455 kts (M=0.78 at 32,000 ft). It has a gross take-off weight of 77,000 lb and an empty weight of 42,400 lb. Currently there are no American-built aircraft designed to fit the 60 to 90 passenger, short/medium range marketplace. The Avion gathers the premier engineering achievements of flight technology and integrates them into an aircraft which will challenge the current standards of flight efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Avion will increase flight efficiency through reduction of structural weight and the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion systems. Its design departs from conventional aircraft design tradition with the incorporation of a three-lifting-surface (or tri-wing) configuration. Further aerodynamic improvements are obtained through modest main wing forward sweeping, variable incidence canards, aerodynamic coupling between the canard and main wing, leading edge extensions, winglets, an aerodynamic tailcone, and a T-tail empennage. The Avion is propelled by propfans, which are one of the most promising developments for raising propulsive efficiencies at high subsonic Mach numbers. Special attention is placed on overall configuration, fuselage layout, performance estimations, component weight estimations, and planform design. Leading U.S. technology promises highly efficient flight for the 21st century; the Avion will fulfill this promise to passenger transport aviation.

  14. Avionics for Hibernation and Recovery on Planetary Surfaces (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Landers and rovers endure on the Martian equator but experience avionics failures in the cryogenic temperatures of lunar nights and Martian winters. The greatest...

  15. A Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) presented in this paper is an innovative solution for non-intrusively monitoring the state of health (SoH) and...

  16. Altmetrics, Legacy Scholarship, and Scholarly Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister


    Full Text Available When using alternative metrics (altmetrics to investigate the impact of a scholar’s work, researchers and librarians are typically cautioned that altmetrics will be less useful for older works of scholarship. This is because it is difficult to collect social media and other attention retroactively, and the numbers will be lower if the work was published before social media marketing and promotion were widely accepted in a field. In this article, we argue that altmetrics can provide useful information about older works in the form of documenting renewed attention to past scholarship as part of a scholar’s legacy. Using the altmetrics profile of the late Dr. Thomas E. Starzl, often referred to as “the father of modern transplantation”, we describe two cases where altmetrics provided information about renewed interest in his works: a controversy about race and genetics that shows the ongoing impact of a particular work, and posthumous remembrances by colleagues which reveal his scholarly legacy.

  17. Synchronous Modeling of Modular Avionics Architectures using the SIGNAL Language


    Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Gautier , Thierry


    This document presents a study on the modeling of architecture components for avionics applications. We consider the avionics standard ARINC 653 specifications as basis, as well as the synchronous language SIGNAL to describe the modeling. A library of APEX object models (partition, process, communication and synchronization services, etc.) has been implemented. This should allow to describe distributed real-time applications using POLYCHRONY, so as to access formal tools and techniques for ar...

  18. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®. (a...

  19. Creating legacy through evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Lynghøj, Hanne; Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    is how to stimulate cultural legacy in certain directions through the emphasis of specific values in the strategic objectives and evaluation criteria. Another perspective is how, to whom and for what purpose evaluation results are reported and implemented, and thus how evaluation may affect design, aims...

  20. Sediment-phosphorus dynamics can shift aquatic ecology and cause downstream legacy effects after wildfire in large river systems. (United States)

    Emelko, Monica B; Stone, Micheal; Silins, Uldis; Allin, Don; Collins, Adrian L; Williams, Chris H S; Martens, Amanda M; Bladon, Kevin D


    Global increases in the occurrence of large, severe wildfires in forested watersheds threaten drinking water supplies and aquatic ecology. Wildfire effects on water quality, particularly nutrient levels and forms, can be significant. The longevity and downstream propagation of these effects as well as the geochemical mechanisms regulating them remain largely undocumented at larger river basin scales. Here, phosphorus (P) speciation and sorption behavior of suspended sediment were examined in two river basins impacted by a severe wildfire in southern Alberta, Canada. Fine-grained suspended sediments (wildfire. Suspended sediment samples were collected from upstream reference (unburned) river reaches, multiple tributaries within the burned areas, and from reaches downstream of the burned areas, in the Crowsnest and Castle River basins. Total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate phosphorus forms (nonapatite inorganic P, apatite P, organic P), and the equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0 ) of suspended sediment were assessed. Concentrations of TPP and the EPC0 were significantly higher downstream of wildfire-impacted areas compared to reference (unburned) upstream river reaches. Sediments from the burned tributary inputs contained higher levels of bioavailable particulate P (NAIP) - these effects were also observed downstream at larger river basin scales. The release of bioavailable P from postfire, P-enriched fine sediment is a key mechanism causing these effects in gravel-bed rivers at larger basin scales. Wildfire-associated increases in NAIP and the EPC0 persisted 6 and 7 years after wildfire. Accordingly, this work demonstrated that fine sediment in gravel-bed rivers is a significant, long-term source of in-stream bioavailable P that contributes to a legacy of wildfire impacts on downstream water quality, aquatic ecology, and drinking water treatability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) Lab DEWESoft Display Creation (United States)

    Coffey, Connor


    The Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) Lab supports the testing of the Launch Control System (LCS), NASA's command and control system for the Space Launch System (SLS), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), and ground support equipment. The objectives of the year-long internship were to support day-to-day operations of the CAIDA Lab, create prelaunch and tracking displays for Orion's Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), and create a program to automate the creation of displays for SLS and MPCV to be used by CAIDA and the Record and Playback Subsystem (RPS).

  2. An assessment of General Aviation utilization of advanced avionics technology (United States)

    Quinby, G. F.


    Needs of the general aviation industry for services and facilities which might be supplied by NASA were examined. In the data collection phase, twenty-one individuals from nine manufacturing companies in general aviation were interviewed against a carefully prepared meeting format. General aviation avionics manufacturers were credited with a high degree of technology transfer from the forcing industries such as television, automotive, and computers and a demonstrated ability to apply advanced technology such as large scale integration and microprocessors to avionics functions in an innovative and cost effective manner. The industry's traditional resistance to any unnecessary regimentation or standardization was confirmed. Industry's self sufficiency in applying advanced technology to avionics product development was amply demonstrated. NASA research capability could be supportive in areas of basic mechanics of turbulence in weather and alternative means for its sensing.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  5. Reliability and the design process at Honeywell Avionics Division (United States)

    Bezat, A.


    The division's philosophy for designed-in reliability and a comparison of reliability programs for space, manned military aircraft, and commercial aircraft, are presented. Topics include: the reliability interface with design and production; the concept phase through final proposal; the design, development, test and evaluation phase; the production phase; and the commonality among space, military, and commercial avionics.

  6. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods


    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  7. Building an efficient surgical team using a bench model simulation: construct validity of the Legacy Inanimate System for Endoscopic Team Training (LISETT). (United States)

    Zheng, B; Denk, P M; Martinec, D V; Gatta, P; Whiteford, M H; Swanström, L L


    Complex laparoscopic tasks require collaboration of surgeons as a surgical team. Conventionally, surgical teams are formed shortly before the start of the surgery, and team skills are built during the surgery. There is a need to establish a training simulation to improve surgical team skills without jeopardizing the safety of surgery. The Legacy Inanimate System for Laparoscopic Team Training (LISETT) is a bench simulation designed to enhance surgical team skills. The reported project tested the construct validity of LISETT. The research question was whether the LISETT scores show progressive improvement correlating with the level of surgical training and laparoscopic team experience or not. With LISETT, two surgeons are required to work closely to perform two laparoscopic tasks: peg transportation and suturing. A total of 44 surgical dyad teams were recruited, composed of medical students, residents, laparoscopic fellows, and experienced surgeons. The LISETT scores were calculated according to the speed and accuracy of the movements. The LISETT scores were positively correlated with surgical experience, and the results can be generalized confidently to surgical teams (Pearson's coefficient, 0.73; p = 0.001). To analyze the influences of individual skill and team dynamics on LISETT performance, team quality was rated by team members using communication and cooperation characters after each practice. The LISETT scores are positively correlated with self-rated team quality scores (Pearson's coefficient, 0.39; p = 0.008). The findings proved LISETT to be a valid system for assessing cooperative skills of a surgical team. By increasing practice time, LISETT provides an opportunity to build surgical team skills, which include effective communication and cooperation.

  8. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang


    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  9. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn


    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  10. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna


    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  11. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions (United States)


    airborne mine neutralization system AoA analysis of alternatives API application programming interface ASuW anti-surface warfare ASW...upon stakeholder feedback, an operational scenario was developed and ACRS was selected as the primary MOE for comparison. Lifecycle cost and risks...MIW Team was unfamiliar with some of the more advanced features of ExtendSim, such as 3-D animation, application programming inter- faces ( APIs ) to

  12. Cognitive workload changes for nurses transitioning from a legacy system with paper documentation to a commercial electronic health record. (United States)

    Colligan, Lacey; Potts, Henry W W; Finn, Chelsea T; Sinkin, Robert A


    Healthcare institutions worldwide are moving to electronic health records (EHRs). These transitions are particularly numerous in the US where healthcare systems are purchasing and implementing commercial EHRs to fulfill federal requirements. Despite the central role of EHRs to workflow, the cognitive impact of these transitions on the workforce has not been widely studied. This study assesses the changes in cognitive workload among pediatric nurses during data entry and retrieval tasks during transition from a hybrid electronic and paper information system to a commercial EHR. Baseline demographics and computer attitude and skills scores were obtained from 74 pediatric nurses in two wards. They also completed an established and validated instrument, the NASA-TLX, that is designed to measure cognitive workload; this instrument was used to evaluate cognitive workload of data entry and retrieval. The NASA-TLX was administered at baseline (pre-implementation), 1, 5 and 10 shifts and 4 months post-implementation of the new EHR. Most nurse participants experienced significant increases of cognitive workload at 1 and 5 shifts after "go-live". These increases abated at differing rates predicted by participants' computer attitudes scores (p = 0.01). There is substantially increased cognitive workload for nurses during the early phases (1-5 shifts) of EHR transitions. Health systems should anticipate variability across workers adapting to "meaningful use" EHRs. "One-size-fits-all" training strategies may not be suitable and longer periods of technical support may be necessary for some workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linux OS integrated modular avionics application development framework with apex API of ARINC653 specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Korneenkova


    Full Text Available The framework is made to provide tools to develop the integrated modular avionics (IMA applications, which could be launched on the target platform LynxOs-178 without modifying their source code. The framework usage helps students to form skills for developing modern modules of the avionics. In addition, students obtain deeper knowledge for the development of competencies in the field of technical creativity by using of the framework.The article describes the architecture and implementation of the Linux OS framework for ARINC653 compliant OS application development.The proposed approach reduces ARINC-653 application development costs and gives a unified tool to implement OS vendor independent code that meets specification. To achieve import substitution free and open-source Linux OS is used as an environment for developing IMA applications.The proposed framework is applicable for using as the tool to develop IMA applications and as the tool for development of the following competencies: the ability to master techniques of using software to solve practical problems, the ability to develop components of hardware and software systems and databases, using modern tools and programming techniques, the ability to match hardware and software tools in the information and automated systems, the readiness to apply the fundamentals of informatics and programming to designing, constructing and testing of software products, the readiness to apply basic methods and tools of software development, knowledge of various technologies of software development.

  14. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park. (United States)

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L


    This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for sustainable waste management planning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing Avionics Hardware and Software for Rocket Engine Testing (United States)

    Aberg, Bryce Robert


    My summer was spent working as an intern at Kennedy Space Center in the Propulsion Avionics Branch of the NASA Engineering Directorate Avionics Division. The work that I was involved with was part of Rocket University's Project Neo, a small scale liquid rocket engine test bed. I began by learning about the layout of Neo in order to more fully understand what was required of me. I then developed software in LabView to gather and scale data from two flowmeters and integrated that code into the main control software. Next, I developed more LabView code to control an igniter circuit and integrated that into the main software, as well. Throughout the internship, I performed work that mechanics and technicians would do in order to maintain and assemble the engine.

  16. Electronics/avionics integrity - Definition, measurement and improvement (United States)

    Kolarik, W.; Rasty, J.; Chen, M.; Kim, Y.

    The authors report on the results obtained from an extensive, three-fold research project: (1) to search the open quality and reliability literature for documented information relative to electronics/avionics integrity; (2) to interpret and evaluate the literature as to significant concepts, strategies, and tools appropriate for use in electronics/avionics product and process integrity efforts; and (3) to develop a list of critical findings and recommendations that will lead to significant progress in product integrity definition, measurement, modeling, and improvements. The research consisted of examining a broad range of trade journals, scientific journals, and technical reports, as well as face-to-face discussions with reliability professionals. Ten significant recommendations have been supported by the research work.

  17. Political systems affect mobile and sessile species diversity--a legacy from the post-WWII period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A O Cousins

    Full Text Available Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political "map" of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  18. Political systems affect mobile and sessile species diversity--a legacy from the post-WWII period. (United States)

    Cousins, Sara A O; Kaligarič, Mitja; Bakan, Branko; Lindborg, Regina


    Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political "map" of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  19. Political Systems Affect Mobile and Sessile Species Diversity – A Legacy from the Post-WWII Period (United States)

    Cousins, Sara A. O.; Kaligarič, Mitja; Bakan, Branko; Lindborg, Regina


    Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political “map” of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world. PMID:25084154

  20. Advanced Avionics and the Military Aircraft Man/Machine Interface. (United States)


    DE PILOTABILITE Cette analyse rapide du comportement de Ilop~rateur humain permet alors de dresser une lite, non exhaustive, de r~gles de pilotabilit6...COMMUICATIOUS IIANAGIE A VITAL LINK Author: W.E. Brierley Marconi Avionics Limited, Airadio Products Division, Christopher Martin Road, Bas ild on, Essex... Christopher Martin Rd., Basildon, Essex. UK BROOKE, M.C. Sqdn. Ldr. ETPS., ADAEE Boscombe Down, Salisbury, Wilts., UK BROWNING, M R.S. Mr Westland

  1. Competition Between Aupark Shopping Center and Avion Shopping Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the establishment and historical development of shopping centres in Bratislava, Slovakia. In the framework of a case study we also describe the competition between Aupark and Avion Shopping Park, the two largest shopping centres in Slovakia. Our analysis is based on a field research and on a desk research as well. In the framework of the case study, 300 questionnaires were filled in, 150 in each centre.

  2. A Legacy for Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory Bateson’s contribution to 20th century thinking has appealed to scholars from a wide range of fields dealing in one way or another with aspects of communication and epistemology. A number of his insights were taken up and developed further in anthropology, psychology, evolutionary biology...... and communication theory. But the large, trans-disciplinary synthesis that, in his own mind, was his major contribution to science received little attention from the mainstream scientific communities. This book represents a major attempt to revise this deficiency. Scholars from ecology, biochemistry, evolutionary...... biology, cognitive science, anthropology and philosophy discuss how Bateson's thinking might lead to a fruitful reframing of central problems in modern science. Most important perhaps, Bateson's bioanthropology is shown to play a key role in developing the set of ideas explored in the new field...

  3. New Media, Legacy Media and Misperceptions Regarding Sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Diel


    Full Text Available Resource dependence theory and related theories of management suggest online-only news media may displace legacy news media, but until that happens the two systems are likely to be dependent on the same resource: news. This quantitative content analysis finds that the systems exist as parallel but distinctly separate entities. Websites associated with legacy news media such as newspapers publish mostly hard news or news analysis in the form of original work. New, online-only news media publish mostly unoriginal features, but the origins of much of the content published by onlineonly media are unclear.

  4. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh


    challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components.......We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...

  5. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh


    We describe a prototype test harness for an embedded system which is the control software for a modern marine diesel engine. The operations of such control software requires complete certification. We adopt Testing and Test Control Notation (TTCN-3) to define test cases for this purpose. The main...... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...... control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components....

  6. 78 FR 42898 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Airplanes (United States)


    ... Information Avions de Transport R gional has issued Service Bulletin ATR72-28-1026, dated February 26, 2013... exist or develop on other products of the same type design. Costs of Compliance Based on the service... Instructions of Avions de Transport R gional Service Bulletin ATR72-28-1026, dated February 26, 2013. (1) For...

  7. Reliable avionics design for deep space (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  8. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.


    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  9. Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia


    One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.

  10. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  11. The Legacy of S Chandrasekhar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 4. The Legacy of S. Chandrasekhar Remembering a Giant of Our Times. Kameshwar C Wali. General Article Volume 2 Issue 4 April 1997 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. From Event Planning to Legacy Planning


    Elo, Lauri


    The importance of legacy and legacy planning is increasing in the event industry. Mega-events are becoming so expensive to host that the opportunity costs decreases the amount of potential future hosts. The events aim to surpass the costs by creating positive legacies, impacts that last longer than the event itself. Small-events can also have legacies and the positive affects can be even more significant than with the mega-events. Event planning must change to legacy planning in the future, b...

  13. A Study of Avionics Time Division Multiplex Bus Simulation. (United States)


    STUDY OF AVIONICS TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEX BUS SIMULATION, For Period Covering ’? *-" . (. I Janu wry k~t-4-31 Decoe 380 tP_: Final Report -, - / -AFOSR...simulation modeling is a type of art work, and therefore requires a talented engineer. Furthermore, the complexity of the sys- tem may be such that it is...used to synchronize the movement of the assembly set. Operand: X field specifies the block number of a MATCH block. Condition for entry acceptance: It

  14. Legacy to Industry 4.0: A Profibus Sniffer (United States)

    Tsegaye Mamo, Fesseha; Sikora, Axel; Rathfelder, Christoph


    Legacy industrial communication protocols are proved robust and functional. During the last decades, the industry has invented completely new or advanced versions of the legacy communication solutions. However, even with the high adoption rate of these new solutions, still the majority industry applications run on legacy, mostly fieldbus related technologies. Profibus is one of those technologies that still keep on growing in the market, albeit a slow in market growth in recent years. A retrofit technology that would enable these technologies to connect to the Internet of Things, utilize the ever growing potential of data analysis, predictive maintenance or cloud-based application, while at the same time not changing a running system is fundamental.

  15. Wireless Avionics Packet to Support Fault Tolerance for Flight Applications (United States)

    Block, Gary L.; Whitaker, William D.; Dillon, James W.; Lux, James P.; Ahmad, Mohammad


    In this protocol and packet format, data traffic is monitored by all network interfaces to determine the health of transmitter and subsystems. When failures are detected, the network inter face applies its recover y policies to provide continued service despite the presence of faults. The protocol, packet format, and inter face are independent of the data link technology used. The current demonstration system supports both commercial off-the-shelf wireless connections and wired Ethernet connections. Other technologies such as 1553 or serial data links can be used for the network backbone. The Wireless Avionics packet is divided into three parts: a header, a data payload, and a checksum. The header has the following components: magic number, version, quality of service, time to live, sending transceiver, function code, payload length, source Application Data Interface (ADI) address, destination ADI address, sending node address, target node address, and a sequence number. The magic number is used to identify WAV packets, and allows the packet format to be updated in the future. The quality of service field allows routing decisions to be made based on this value and can be used to route critical management data over a dedicated channel. The time to live value is used to discard misrouted packets while the source transceiver is updated at each hop. This information is used to monitor the health of each transceiver in the network. To identify the packet type, the function code is used. Besides having a regular data packet, the system supports diagnostic packets for fault detection and isolation. The payload length specifies the number of data bytes in the payload, and this supports variable-length packets in the network. The source ADI is the address of the originating interface. This can be used by the destination application to identify the originating source of the packet where the address consists of a subnet, subsystem class within the subnet, a subsystem unit

  16. Legacy, resource mobilisation and the olympic movement | Girginov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a growing interest in legacies of the Olympic Games focusing on external tangible outcomes, such as the number of sport competitions, participants and jobs created. Little is still known about the equally valuable internal benefits to individuals and organisational capacities of national sport systems.

  17. An object-oriented framework for managing cooperating legacy databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H; de Brock, EO


    We describe a general semantic framework for precise specification of so-called database federations. A database federation provides for tight coupling of a collection of heterogeneous legacy databases into a global integrated system. Our approach to database federation is based on the UML/OCL data

  18. FPGA for Power Control of MSL Avionics (United States)

    Wang, Duo; Burke, Gary R.


    A PLGT FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is included in the LCC (Load Control Card), GID (Guidance Interface & Drivers), TMC (Telemetry Multiplexer Card), and PFC (Pyro Firing Card) boards of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft. (PLGT stands for PFC, LCC, GID, and TMC.) It provides the interface between the backside bus and the power drivers on these boards. The LCC drives power switches to switch power loads, and also relays. The GID drives the thrusters and latch valves, as well as having the star-tracker and Sun-sensor interface. The PFC drives pyros, and the TMC receives digital and analog telemetry. The FPGA is implemented both in Xilinx (Spartan 3- 400) and in Actel (RTSX72SU, ASX72S). The Xilinx Spartan 3 part is used for the breadboard, the Actel ASX part is used for the EM (Engineer Module), and the pin-compatible, radiation-hardened RTSX part is used for final EM and flight. The MSL spacecraft uses a FC (Flight Computer) to control power loads, relays, thrusters, latch valves, Sun-sensor, and star-tracker, and to read telemetry such as temperature. Commands are sent over a 1553 bus to the MREU (Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform Remote Engineering Unit). The MREU resends over a remote serial command bus c-bus to the LCC, GID TMC, and PFC. The MREU also sends out telemetry addresses via a remote serial telemetry address bus to the LCC, GID, TMC, and PFC, and the status is returned over the remote serial telemetry data bus.

  19. Legacies of the Manhattan Project (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel


    The Manhattan Project of World War II mobilized thousands of people, including many of the nation's leading physicists, and extensive material resources to design, develop, and manufacture the world's first nuclear weapons. It also established sprawling new facilities for the production of fissionable fuels - notably at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. It left a set of powerful legacies in the context of the Cold War - endowing scientists with conscience-taxing responsibilities in the nuclear arms race; promoting enormous patronage of academic research by defense and defense-related federal agencies, notably the Office of Naval Research and the Atomic Energy Commission; and turning its wartime facilities into major national laboratories that advanced the fields of high-energy and nuclear physics and stimulated local industrial economies but that in some cases, notably at Hanford, severely polluted the surrounding environment with radioactive waste and disrupted the livelihoods of native peoples. ``Legacies of the Manhattan Project''

  20. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.


    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  1. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design (United States)

    Laughter, Sean A.


    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  2. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J


    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  3. Mendel's Modern Legacy (United States)

    Dixon, James; Kuldell, Natalie


    Genetic engineering is taught in biology--but as a scientific tool and not as a means to explore engineering design. Yet, given the clever behaviors and patterns that can be found when examining living systems, biology classes seem well positioned to teach foundational engineering design principles (Kuldell 2007). This article examines a new,…

  4. Cassini: The Journey and the Legacy

    KAUST Repository

    Porco, Carolyn


    An international mission to explore, in depth, the Saturnian system ヨthe planet Saturn and its magnetosphere, glorious rings, and many moons- begun over 27 years ago. After seven years of development, the Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997, spent seven years trekking to Saturn, and finally entered Saturn orbit in the summer of 2004. In the course of its 13 years orbiting this ring world, Cassini returned over 450 thousand images, 635GB of data, and invaluable insights on the solar systemメs most splendid and scientifically rich planetary system. In this lecture, Carolyn Porco, the leader of the imaging science team on NASA\\'s Cassini mission, will delight her audience with a retrospective look at what has been learned from this profoundly successful mission and what its final legacy is likely to be.

  5. Celebrating the Tevatron legacy

    CERN Multimedia


    Fermilab hosted an exceptional event on 11 June: the Tevatron Impact symposium. More than 800 people attended to hear how the Tevatron advanced our understanding of fundamental physics.   A version of this "Director's Corner" by Pier Oddone first appeared in Fermilab Today on 12 June.   The development of accelerator technology for the Tevatron has influenced every subsequent major hadron accelerator. We heard reviews on the detector technologies and trigger systems developed with the Tevatron that are essential today for high-luminosity machines like the LHC. There were also talks on the superconducting-wire industry that made MRI magnets ubiquitous, and we discussed the major computational systems that use large farms of Linux-based commodity processors. Researchers who worked on the Tevatron also established multivariate analysis techniques that now allow us to squeeze the maximum information from complex data sets. One focus of the symposium was the ...

  6. Legacy application integration architecture


    Grom, Jure


    Information needs of modern businesses are constantly growing. Own development of a business information system is time consuming and expensive but, as an alternative, using smaller partial solutions doesn’t cover all user needs. Decision to buy a universal solution, often results in only part of it being actively and efficiently used. By application integration we manage to achieve efficient use of applications, since by linking them, we enable sharing of business logics among applications a...

  7. Rad-hard Smallsat / CubeSat Avionics Board, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VORAGO will design a rad-hard Smallsat / CubeSat Avionics single board that has the necessary robustness needed for long duration missions in harsh mission...

  8. Platform Independent Launch Vehicle Avionics with GPS Metric Tracking, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this award, Tyvak proposes to develop a complete suite of avionics for a Nano-Launch Vehicle (NLV) based on the architecture determinations performed during...

  9. Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV): Avionics and Software of the ESA Reentry Demonstrator (United States)

    Malucchi, Giovanni; Dussy, Stephane; Camuffo, Fabrizio


    The IXV project is conceived as a technology platform that would perform the step forward with respect to the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator (ARD), by increasing the system maneuverability and verifying the critical technology performances against a wider re- entry corridor.The main objective is to design, develop and to perform an in-flight verification of an autonomous lifting and aerodynamically controlled (by a combined use of thrusters and aerodynamic surfaces) reentry system.The project also includes the verification and experimentation of a set of critical reentry technologies and disciplines:Thermal Protection System (TPS), for verification and characterization of thermal protection technologies in representative operational environment;Aerodynamics - Aerthermodynamics (AED-A TD), for understanding and validation of aerodynamics and aerothermodyamics phenomena with improvement of design tools;Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC), for verification of guidance, navigation and control techniques in representative operational environment (i.e. reentry from Low Earth Orbit);Flight dynamics, to update and validate the vehicle model during actual flight, focused on stability and control derivatives.The above activities are being performed through the implementation of a strict system design-to-cost approach with a proto-flight model development philosophy.In 2008 and 2009, the IXV project activities reached the successful completion of the project Phase-B, including the System PDR, and early project Phase-C.In 2010, following a re-organization of the industrial consortium, the IXV project successfully completed a design consolidation leading to an optimization of the technical baseline including the GNC, avionics (i.e. power, data handling, radio frequency and telemetry), measurement sensors, hot and cold composite structures, thermal protections and control, with significant improvements of the main system budgets.The project has successfully closed the

  10. Apollo's scientific legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.


    The scientific value and importance of the Apollo lunar programme is assessed in the light of data obtained both from the lunar surface itself and also from the command modules which orbited above. It is stated that much of the material they returned still awaits a detailed examination and that the cooperative teams set up to handle the lunar material have established new methods and standards of analysis, which are currently revitalising the old science of meteoritics. The new forms of organised research have also been carried over in the rapidly developing subject of planetary science. It is concluded that whatever the motives for launching the Apollo missions, planetary scientists have been in a much better position to understand the Solar System since then. (UK)

  11. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perricos, Demetrius


    of Iraq was a case of late detection of undeclared activities, the case of DPRK was a case of prompt detection of discrepancies in the initial declaration through implementation of modem detection techniques, such as environmental sampling, and access to information. Access to the Security Council became important in view of the protracted process of non-compliance. The Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) agreed in 1997 incorporates the results of the efforts to strengthen the safeguards system and as such provides the possibility for more transparency by the States and more access to locations by the inspectors on the basis of information. It does not provide the broad and intrusive access rights as in the case of Iraq, since such rights are unprecedented and the result of a cease-fire arrangement involving the Security Council. But the expectations are that the broad implementation of the Additional Protocol will result in an effective and efficient safeguards verification system for the future. The on-site verification systems on a national, regional or multinational basis that have been put into operation in the past or are being discussed by States for the implementation of disarmament and non-proliferation conventions related to weapons of mass destruction whether nuclear, chemical or biological, have benefited and will benefit in the future from the guiding experience - both from the strengths and weaknesses -of the IAEA verification system. This is hopefully a legacy for the future of verification

  12. Nouvelle methode d'optimisation du cout d'un vol par l'utilisation d'un systeme de gestion de vol et sa validation sur un avion Lockheed L-1011 TriStar (United States)

    Gagne, Jocelyn

    Usually, flights optimization and planning will take place before flight, on ground. However, it is not always feasible to do such optimization, or sometime unpredictable events may force pilots to change the flight path. In those circumstances, the pilots can only rely on charts or their Flight Management System (FMS) in order to maintain an economic flight. However, those FMS often rely on those same charts, which will not take into consideration different parameters, such as the cost index, the length on the flight or the weather. Even if some FMS take into consideration the weather, they may only rely on manually entered or limited data that could be outdated, insufficient or incomplete. The alleviate these problems, the function program's that was developed is mainly to determine the optimum flight profile for an aircraft, or more precisely, at the lowest overall cost, considering a take-off weight and weather conditions. The total cost is based on the value of time as well as the cost of fuel, resulting in the use of a ratio called the cost index. This index allows both to prioritize either the time or fuel consumption according to the costs related to a specific flight and/or airline. Thus, from a weight, the weather (wind, temperature, pressure), and the cost index, the program will calculate from the "Performance DataBase" (PDB) of a specific airplane an optimal flight profile over a given distance. The algorithm is based on linear interpolations in the performances tables using the Lagrange method. Moreover, in order to fully optimize the flight, the current program can, according to departure date and coordinates, download the latest available forecast from environment Canada website and calculate the optimum flight accordingly. The forecast data use by the program take the form of a 0.6 × 0.6 degrees grid in which the effects of wind, pressure and temperature are interpolated according to the aircraft geographical position and time. Using these tables

  13. An Approach to Peabody's Gifts and Legacies. (United States)

    Parker, Franklin


    One in a collection of papers on self-made millionaire and educational philanthropist George Peabody offers a listing of his gifts and legacies, which fall into the categories of libraries, lyceums, athenaeum, art, music; science; model housing; education; exploration; patriotic causes; historical societies; hospitals; churches; legacies; and…

  14. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008 (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry


    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  15. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.


    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  16. Electromagnetic Effects of (Carbon) Composite Materials Upon Avionics Systems (United States)


    6taiout car6n~es at trait6oc par una peinture antiatatique A haute rfiaistiviti. Pans cette configuration, Ie niveau do perturbation 6tait tout d’ I celui do la partie frontalo impactfie do Ilavion ( peinture co0nductrice) ; It radame ftait traitg par un revitemont antistatique radiotrano...des peintures semi-canductrices pour la-e fengtres Alectromaon6tiquea (1 MOl < R < 10 Mnf). 16-5 Loe glaces frontales de la verrigre sont recouvertes

  17. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.


    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  18. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement. (United States)

    Legg, David


    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The legacy of fossil fuels. (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo


    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Školski avion Lasta 95 i Višenamensko oklopno borbeno vozilo Lazar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša N. Gaćeša


    Full Text Available Domaći školski avion lasta 95 zvanično je predstavljen 9. aprila 2009. godine, u Tehničkom opitnom centru (TOC na batajničkom aerodromu. Ovo je letelica na kojoj će se ubuduće obučavati piloti Vojske Srbije i koja će u osnovnoj obuci zameniti avion Utva-75, a u delu osnovne obuke i avion supergaleb G-4. Na vojnom poligonu Nikinci, 6. februara 2009. godine, zvanično je promovisano višenamensko oklopno borbeno vozilo lazar, domaće proizvodnje. Lazar predstavlja komercijalni projekat kompanije Jugoimport SDPR i njenog tima istraživača i konstruktora.

  1. Assisted Emulation for Legacy Executables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods


    Full Text Available Emulation is frequently discussed as a failsafe preservation strategy for born-digital documents that depend on contemporaneous software for access (Rothenberg, 2000. Yet little has been written about the contextual knowledge required to successfully use such software. The approach we advocate is to preserve necessary contextual information through scripts designed to control the legacy environment, and created during the preservation workflow. We describe software designed to minimize dependence on this knowledge by offering automated configuration and execution of emulated environments. We demonstrate that even simple scripts can reduce impediments to casual use of the digital objects being preserved. We describe tools to automate the remote use of preserved objects on local emulation environments.  This can help eliminate both a dependence on physical reference workstations at preservation institutions, and provide users accessing materials over the web with simplified, easy-to-use environments. Our implementation is applied to examples from an existing collection of over 4,000 virtual CD-ROM images containing thousands of custom binary executables.

  2. Electrical distribution grids: from legacy to innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.


    The electrical distribution networks in general and distributed generation in particular are undergoing tremendous technological, economic and conceptual changes. Indeed, with the establishment of Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the environmental concerns of our modern societies, the needs of security and quality of supply and the emergence of new services related to the 'active energy customer' character have particularly highlighted the potential for innovation and development of distribution networks. Distribution networks are of particular importance because of their close link with the end user, their interface with distributed generation and their ability to facilitate and integrate new applications and services such as plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles or smart meters. On the other hand, they represent a large infrastructure that has become complex to manage with the emergence of this new energy paradigm. However, this strategic legacy is aging and the quality of supply, after years of improvement, begins to deteriorate again. It is therefore essential to increase investment in these assets at all levels whether in innovation, expansion or renovation to prepare the smarter grid of the future. (authors)

  3. The History and Legacy of BATSE (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.


    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  4. Legacy material work-off project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T.J.; Baker, D.H. IV


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation's (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory

  5. Minimizing the Risks of Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages: Evaluating Electronic Avionics Lifecycle Sustainment Strategies (United States)


    Geiser . (2002). “Determining Optimum Redesign Plans for Avionics Based on Electronic Part Obsolescence Forecasts” Proceedings World Aviation Congress...SAE Int’l. Singh, P., P. Sandborn, T. Geiser , and D. Lorensen. (2003). “Electronic Part Obsolescence Driven Design Refresh Planning” International

  6. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  7. An avionics touch screen-based control display concept (United States)

    Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark


    In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

  8. A Novel Technique for Running the NASA Legacy Code LAPIN Synchronously With Simulations Developed Using Simulink (United States)

    Vrnak, Daniel R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.


    This report presents a method for running a dynamic legacy inlet simulation in concert with another dynamic simulation that uses a graphical interface. The legacy code, NASA's LArge Perturbation INlet (LAPIN) model, was coded using the FORTRAN 77 (The Portland Group, Lake Oswego, OR) programming language to run in a command shell similar to other applications that used the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA) is a dynamic simulation that runs on a modern graphical operating system. The product of this work has both simulations, LAPIN and Simulink, running synchronously on the same computer with periodic data exchanges. Implementing the method described in this paper avoided extensive changes to the legacy code and preserved its basic operating procedure. This paper presents a novel method that promotes inter-task data communication between the synchronously running processes.

  9. Hydrochemical profiles in urban groundwater systems: New insights into contaminant sources and pathways in the subsurface from legacy and emerging contaminants. (United States)

    White, D; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E; Williams, P J


    It has long been known that groundwaters beneath urban areas carry a fingerprint from urban activities but finding a consistent tracer for anthropogenic influence has proved elusive. The varied sources of urban contaminants means that a single consistent and inexpensive means of tracing the fate of urban contaminants is not generally possible and multiple tracers are often required to understand the contaminant sources and pathways in these complex systems. This study has utilized a combination of micro-organic (MO) contaminants and inorganic hydrochemistry to trace recharge pathways and quantify the variability of groundwater quality in multi-level piezometers in the city of Doncaster, UK. A total of 23 MOs were detected during this study, with more compounds consistently detected during higher groundwater table conditions highlighting the importance of sampling under different hydrological conditions. Four of the compounds detected are EU Water Framework Directive priority substances: atrazine, simazine, naphthalene and DEHP, with a maximum concentration of 0.18, 0.03, 0.2, 16μg/l respectively. Our study shows that the burden of the banned pesticide atrazine persists in the Sherwood Sandstone and is detected at two of the three study sites. Emerging contaminants are seen throughout the borehole profiles and provide insights into transient pathways for contaminant migration in the sub-surface. Long term changes in inorganic hydrochemistry show possible changes in contaminant input or the dissolution of minerals. Nitrate was detected above 50mg/l but on the whole nitrate concentrations have declined in the intervening years either due to a reduction of nitrate application at the surface or a migration of peak nitrate concentrations laterally or to greater depth. This study shows that multiple tracers together with multi-level piezometers can give a better resolution of contaminant pathways and variable flow regimes within the relatively uncomplicated aquifer of

  10. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. The Timeless Legacy of Robert Koch - Founder of Medical Microbiology. Jaya S Tyagi. General Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 20-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2. (United States)

    Kirkaldy, James


    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  12. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy. (United States)

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  13. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy? (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.


    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  14. Asutosh Mukhopadhyay and his Mathematical Legacy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this article, we describe the life and career of the versatile genius, Asutosh Mukhopadhyay. The article offers a few glimpses of his mathe- matical talent and contributions to mathemat- ics, and of his efforts to propagate and foster the study of and research in mathematics. 1. Introduction. The legacy of Asutosh ...

  15. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning (United States)

    Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie


    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  16. The scientific legacy of Howard Vincent Malmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, Gary


    Howard Malmstadt was a true giant of Analytical Chemistry and clearly one of the most influential analytical chemists of the last 50 years. Howard, through his own work and that of his students (first generation) and their students (second generation) and their students' students (third generation) changed the course of Analytical Chemistry. His research interests were broad and ranged from analytical solution chemistry (titrimetry and reaction rates) and electrochemistry to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chemical instrumentation, clinical chemistry and automation. Howard was also one of the most innovative and influential educators of our time. He changed forever the analytical curriculum through his many books on Electronics for Scientists, most written in conjunction with Chris Enke and Stan Crouch. Their texts and short courses went from pioneering the application of tube-based analog electronics (servo systems and operational amplifiers) in scientific measurements to the impact that integrated circuits and digital electronics would have on laboratory measurements. He strongly believed in the importance of 'hands-on' in education. To this end, he expended considerable personal effort and time to see not only the development and commercialization of an effective laboratory infrastructure to support education in analog and digital electronics, but also oversaw the development of modular instrumentation for spectroscopy. Over the years he received many awards from the Analytical Chemistry community for his outstanding efforts and contributions to teaching and research. Many of Howard's students went on into academia. They and their students now represent the ongoing legacy for analytical chemistry that evolved from Howard's laboratory at Illinois. A remarkable diversity of research programs are underway in their laboratories. Topics range from atomic, laser, mass, and Raman spectroscopy to detection technology, analytical education, micro

  17. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games. (United States)

    Shipway, Richard


    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  18. Technology Insertion for Recapitalization of Legacy Systems (United States)


    Brucher, M. Perrot, and E. Duchesnay, "Scikit- learn : Machine learning in Python ," Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 12, pp. 2825- 2830, 2011...reproducible, 3. Must be easily learned - do not have to be a NDI certified technician to perform testing 4. Must be capable of handling the AA V torsion bar...1.3.1 Probabilistic model for usage This simple model is implemented in PyMC [11, 12], a probabilistic modelling library in Python . There are many

  19. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft (United States)


    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  20. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  1. Multi-objective optimisation of aircraft flight trajectories in the ATM and avionics context (United States)

    Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian


    The continuous increase of air transport demand worldwide and the push for a more economically viable and environmentally sustainable aviation are driving significant evolutions of aircraft, airspace and airport systems design and operations. Although extensive research has been performed on the optimisation of aircraft trajectories and very efficient algorithms were widely adopted for the optimisation of vertical flight profiles, it is only in the last few years that higher levels of automation were proposed for integrated flight planning and re-routing functionalities of innovative Communication Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. In this context, the implementation of additional environmental targets and of multiple operational constraints introduces the need to efficiently deal with multiple objectives as part of the trajectory optimisation algorithm. This article provides a comprehensive review of Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimisation (MOTO) techniques for transport aircraft flight operations, with a special focus on the recent advances introduced in the CNS+A research context. In the first section, a brief introduction is given, together with an overview of the main international research initiatives where this topic has been studied, and the problem statement is provided. The second section introduces the mathematical formulation and the third section reviews the numerical solution techniques, including discretisation and optimisation methods for the specific problem formulated. The fourth section summarises the strategies to articulate the preferences and to select optimal trajectories when multiple conflicting objectives are introduced. The fifth section introduces a number of models defining the optimality criteria and constraints typically adopted in MOTO studies, including fuel consumption, air pollutant and noise emissions, operational costs, condensation trails, airspace and airport operations

  2. Hardware Interface Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio Ssystem (STRS) Radio (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto


    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  3. Workstation-Based Avionics Simulator to Support Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Development (United States)

    Henriquez, David; Canham, Timothy; Chang, Johnny T.; McMahon, Elihu


    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the WorkStation TestSet (WSTS) to support flight software development. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC. This provides flight software developers with their own virtual avionics testbed and allows device-level and functional software testing when hardware testbeds are either not yet available or have limited availability. The WSTS has successfully off-loaded many flight software development activities from the project testbeds. At the writing of this paper, the WSTS has averaged an order of magnitude more usage than the project's hardware testbeds.

  4. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael


    This paper highlights some of the issues associated with the treatment of legacy materials linked to research into tritium over many years and also of materials used to contain or store tritium. The aim of the work is to recover tritium where practicable, and to leave the residual materials passively safe, either for disposal or for continued storage. A number of materials are currently stored at AWE which either contain tritium or have been used in tritium processing. It is essential that these materials are characterised such that a strategy may be developed for their safe stewardship, and ultimately for their treatment and disposal. Treatment processes for such materials are determined by the application of best practicable means (BPM) studies in accordance with the requirements of the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Clearly, it is necessary to understand the objectives of legacy material treatment / processing and the technical options available before a definitive BPM study is implemented. The majority of tritium legacy materials with which we are concerned originate from the decommissioning of a facility that was operational from the late 1950's through to the late 1990's when, on post-operative clear-out (POCO), the entire removable and transportable tritium inventory was moved to new, purpose built facilities. One of the principle tasks to be undertaken in the new facilities is the treatment of the legacy materials to recover tritium wherever practicable, and render the residual materials passively safe for disposal or continued storage. Where tritium recovery was not reasonably or technically feasible, then a means to assure continued safe storage was to be devised and implemented. The legacy materials are in the following forms: - Uranium beds which may or may not contain adsorbed tritium gas; - Tritium gas stored in containers; - Tritide targets for neutron generation; - Tritides of a broad spectrum of metals manufactured for research / long

  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Program Update, April-June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Welcome to the April-June 2009 issue of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Program Update. This publication is designed to provide a status of activities within LM. The Legacy Management goals are: (1) Protect human health and the environment through effective and efficient long-term surveillance and maintenance - This goal highlights DOE's responsibility to ensure long-term protection of people, the environment, and the integrity of engineered remedies and monitoring systems. (2) Preserve, protect, and make accessible legacy records and information - This goal recognizes LM's commitment to successfully manage records, information, and archives of legacy sites under its authority. (3) Support an effective and efficient work force structured to accomplish Departmental missions and assure continuity of contractor worker pension and medical benefits - This goal recognizes DOE's commitment to its contracted work force and the consistent management of pension and health benefits. As sites continue to close, DOE faces the challenges of managing pension plan and health benefits liability. (4) Manage legacy land and assets, emphasizing protective real and personal property reuse and disposition - This goal recognizes a DOE need for local collaborative management of legacy assets, including coordinating land use planning, personal property disposition to community reuse organizations, and protecting heritage resources (natural, cultural, and historical). (5) Improve program effectiveness through sound management - This goal recognizes that LM's goals cannot be attained efficiently unless the federal and contractor work force is motivated to meet requirements and work toward continuous performance improvement.

  6. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration


    Physics analyses at the LHC require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes, generally done with the most recent software releases. The trigger response simulation is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities and should be done with the same software release with which data were recorded. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulation scheme within the ATLAS software framework were examined and a proof-of-concept simulation chain has been successfully implemented. One of the greatest challenges was the choice of a data format which promises long term compatibility with old and new software releases. Over the time periods envisaged, data...

  7. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration


    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  8. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012


    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert


    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  9. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries


    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning


    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  10. Requalification of Legacy Radioactive Waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandt, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Paulina; Spicher, Gottfried; Filss, Martin; Schauer, Claudia


    Conclusion: • Large stocks of legacy radioactive waste exist, which do not comply with the requirements of the Konrad repository. • Requalification campaigns with thousands of waste packages have successfully been carried out. • Quality assurance plans contain all necessary steps of specific (requalification) campaigns and optimize the procedures for each campaign in advance. • When sophisticated measurement equipment was needed an iterative procedure was adopted. Repeated evaluations of the nondestructive res. destructive measurements limited the measures to the necessary limit.

  11. The Public Health Legacy of Polio Eradication in Africa. (United States)

    Craig, Allen S; Haydarov, Rustam; O'Malley, Helena; Galway, Michael; Dao, Halima; Ngongo, Ngashi; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Naqvi, Savita; Abid, Nima S; Pandak, Carol; Edwards, Amy


    The legacy of polio in Africa goes far beyond the tragedies of millions of children with permanent paralysis. It has a positive side, which includes the many well-trained polio staff who have vaccinated children, conducted surveillance, tested stool specimens in the laboratories, engaged with communities, and taken care of polio patients. This legacy also includes support for routine immunization services and vaccine introductions and campaigns for other diseases. As polio funding declines, it is time to take stock of the resources made available with polio funding in Africa and begin to find ways to keep some of the talented staff, infrastructure, and systems in place to work on new public health challenges. The partnerships that helped support polio eradication will need to consider funding to maintain and to strengthen routine immunization services and other maternal, neonatal, and child health programs in Africa that have benefitted from the polio eradication infrastructure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. A legacy building model for holistic nursing. (United States)

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla


    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  13. Historical Legacies, Information and Contemporary Water Science and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Vörösmarty


    Full Text Available Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years. However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1 How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2 Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America provide a suitable restoration target? and (3 How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  14. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management (United States)

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.


    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  15. Scientific Data as the Core Legacy of IPY (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.


    The interdisciplinary breadth of the International Polar Year is unprecedented. The IPY has explicit objectives to link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines and to strengthen international coordination of research and enhance international collaboration and cooperation. The IPY Data Policy and Management Subcommittee have developed a policy to help meet these objectives and an international collaboration of investigators and data managers, the IPY Data and Information Service, are working to make IPY data widely available. I will present an overview of the primary data management considerations for IPY and how diverse organizations are making IPY and related data available. Centralized discovery mechanisms for widely distributed data plus targeted access mechanisms for specific disciplines will be presented. These range from near real time access to satellite remote sensing data and GCM output to fair and appropriate access to traditional knowledge of the Arctic. These mechanisms reflect significant advancement in polar data management, but they belie the major challenges that remain. These challenges include fostering a culture change in science that puts greater value on data publication and open data access as well as developing sustained systems and business models for the long-term preservation of IPY data. This will be crucial to ensuring the legacy of IPY, a major objective of IPY sponsors, ICSU and WMO. New efforts to ensure this legacy include the development of the WMO Information System, the Sustained Arctic Observing Network, and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems; the reform of ICSU's World Data Center System; and the results of the Electronic Geophysical Year.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of legacy phosphorus and its spatial distribution. (United States)

    Lou, Hezhen; Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Shi, Liuhua; Wang, Yue; Ren, Xiaoyu; Bai, Juan


    A phosphorus resource crisis threatens the security of global crop production, especially in developing countries like China and Brazil. Legacy phosphorus (legacy-P), which is left behind in agricultural soil by over-fertilization, can help address this issue as a new resource in the soil phosphorus pool. However, issues involved with calculating and defining the spatial distribution of legacy-P hinder its future utilization. To resolve these issues, this study applied remote sensing and ecohydrological modeling to precisely quantify legacy-P and define its spatial distribution in China's Sanjiang Plain from 2000 to 2014. The total legacy-P in the study area was calculated as 579,090 t with an annual average of 38,600 t; this comprises 51.83% of the phosphorus fertilizer applied annually. From 2000 to 2014, the annual amount of legacy-P increased by more than 3.42-fold, equivalent to a 2460-ton increase each year. The spatial distribution of legacy-P showed heterogeneity and agglomeration in this area, with peaks in cultivated land experiencing long-term agricultural development. This study supplies a new approach to finding legacy-P in soil as a precondition for future utilization. Once its spatial distribution is known, legacy-P can be better utilized in agriculture to help alleviate the phosphorus resource crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Legacy of Nikola Tesla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Much water has flown down the Cauvery since then and AC systems have completely displaced DC ... or six lines suspended from insulators are commonly seen in the countryside and also inside some of the cities. .... extent possible and non-conventional, decentralized power gen- eration, especially to meet agricultural ...

  18. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    responsibilities. The DOE Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) has a central role in DOE records management by providing guidance, expertise, and coordination to all DOE offices and organizations and coordination with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). LM and the transfer site will complete an integrated transition plan which will integrate all transition elements including information and records. As part of the overall transition plan, an Information and Records Transition Plan will be developed consistent with the integrated transition plan for the site transfer and included as an attachment. The Information and Records Management Transition Plan will be developed to assist both organizations in organizing the tasks; establishing a timetable and milestones for their completion; and identifying manpower, funding and other resources that will be needed to complete the ownership transfer. In addition, the plan will provide a valuable exchange of institutional knowledge that will assist LM in meeting the obligations of responsibly managing legacy records. Guidance for the development of the plan is included in this document. Records management concerns that may arise during site closure, such as management support, contract language and agreements, interactions with the OCIO and NARA, resource and budget considerations, and procedures to safeguard records are addressed. Guidelines and criteria for records management transition activities are also provided. These include LM expectations for the inventory, scheduling, and disposition of records; the management and transfer of electronic files, including databases and software; records finding aids, indices, and recordkeeping systems; and the process for the transfer of hard copy and electronic records to LM

  19. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    information responsibilities. The DOE Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) has a central role in DOE records management by providing guidance, expertise, and coordination to all DOE offices and organizations and coordination with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). LM and the transfer site will complete an integrated transition plan which will integrate all transition elements including information and records. As part of the overall transition plan, an Information and Records Transition Plan will be developed consistent with the integrated transition plan for the site transfer and included as an attachment. The Information and Records Management Transition Plan will be developed to assist both organizations in organizing the tasks; establishing a timetable and milestones for their completion; and identifying manpower, funding and other resources that will be needed to complete the ownership transfer. In addition, the plan will provide a valuable exchange of institutional knowledge that will assist LM in meeting the obligations of responsibly managing legacy records. Guidance for the development of the plan is included in this document. Records management concerns that may arise during site closure, such as management support, contract language and agreements, interactions with the OCIO and NARA, resource and budget considerations, and procedures to safeguard records are addressed. Guidelines and criteria for records management transition activities are also provided. These include LM expectations for the inventory, scheduling, and disposition of records; the management and transfer of electronic files, including databases and software; records finding aids, indices, and recordkeeping systems; and the process for the transfer of hard copy and electronic records to LM.


    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Nelson, J. Lee


    Pregnancy has both short-term effects and long-term consequences. For women who have an autoimmune disease and subsequently become pregnant, pregnancy can induce amelioration of the mother’s disease, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, while exacerbating or having no effect on other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus. That pregnancy also leaves a long-term legacy has recently become apparent by the discovery that bi-directional cell trafficking results in persistence of fetal cells in the mother and of maternal cells in her offspring for decades after birth. The long-term persistence of a small number of cells (or DNA) from a genetically disparate individual is referred to as microchimerism. While microchimerism is common in healthy individuals and is likely to have health benefits, microchimerism has been implicated in some autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. In this paper, we will first discuss short-term effects of pregnancy on women with autoimmune disease. Pregnancy-associated changes will be reviewed for selected autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune thyroid disease. The pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis presents a window of opportunity for insights into both immunological mechanisms of fetal-maternal tolerance and pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity. A mechanistic hypothesis for the pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis will be described. We will then discuss the legacy of maternal-fetal cell transfer from the perspective of autoimmune diseases. Fetal and maternal microchimerism will be reviewed with a focus on systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), autoimmune thyroid disease, neonatal lupus and type I diabetes mellitus. PMID:18716941

  1. Ethernet for Space: An Enabler for Next Generation Avionics (United States)

    Pruvost, Clement; Planche, Thierry; Herpel, Hans-Juergen; Schuettauf, Andreas; Notebaert, Olivier; Rossignol, Alain


    This paper relies on work performed in the frame of the FP7 project "MISSION", the CNES study on system aspects of TTEthernet for satellites and the DLR study On-Board Computer System Architecture (OBC-SA). It does not reflect the complete outcome of these studies and goes beyond for some extent.

  2. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier. (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  3. Portuguese Cistercian Churches - An acoustic legacy (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiel G.; Lanzinha, João C. G.; Martins, Ana M. T.


    The Cistercian Order (11th century) stands out as an apologist of the simplicity and austerity of the space. According to the Order of Cîteaux, only with an austere space, without any distractions, the true spiritual contemplation is achieved. This Order was an aggregator and consolidator pole during the Christian Reconquest. Thus, as it happens with other Religious Orders, Cîteaux has a vast heritage legacy. This heritage is witness, not only of the historical, but also social, political, and spiritual evolution. This legacy resumes the key principles to an austere liturgy, which requirements, in the beginning, are based on the simplicity of worship and of the connection between man and God. Later, these requirements allowed the development of the liturgy itself and its relation with the believers. Consequently, it can be concisely established an empirical approach between the Cistercian churches and the acoustics conditioning of these spaces. This outcome is fundamental in order to understand the connection between liturgy and the conception of the Cistercian churches as well as the constructed space and its history. So, an analysis of these principles is essential to establish the relation between acoustic and religious buildings design throughout history. It is also a mean of understanding the knowledge of acoustics principles that the Cistercian Order bequeathed to Portugal. This paper presents an empirical approach on Cistercian monastic churches acoustics. These spaces are the place where the greatest acoustic efforts are concentrated and it is also the space where the liturgy reaches greater importance. On the other hand, Portugal is a country which has an important Cistercian legacy over several periods of history. Consequently, the Portuguese Cistercian monastic churches are representative of the development of the liturgy, the design of spaces and of the acoustic requirements of their churches since the 12th century until the 21st century and it is of

  4. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  5. Legacy Nitrate Impacts on Groundwater and Streams (United States)

    Tesoriero, A. J.; Juckem, P. F.; Miller, M. P.


    Decades of recharge of high-nitrate groundwater have created a legacy—a mass of high-nitrate groundwater—that has implications for future nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in streams. In the United States, inorganic nitrogen fertilizer applications to the land surface have increased ten-fold since 1950, resulting in sharp increases in nitrate concentrations in recharging groundwater, which pose a risk to deeper groundwater and streams. This study assesses the factors that control time lags and eventual concentrations of legacy nitrate in groundwater and streams. Results from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Project are presented which elucidate nitrate trends in recharging groundwater, delineate redox zones and assess groundwater and stream vulnerability to legacy nitrate sources on a regional scale. This study evaluated trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals based on groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams at 20 study sites across the United States. Median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years, from 4 to 7.5 mg N/L. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the redox zones encountered along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams. Delineating redox zones on a regional scale is complicated by the spatial variability of reaction rates. To overcome this limitation, we applied logistic regression and machine learning techniques to predict the probability of a specific redox condition in groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo study area in Wisconsin. By relating redox-active constituent concentrations in groundwater samples to indicators of residence time and/or electron donor availability, we were able to delineate redox zones on a regional scale

  6. Modélisation des forces de contact entre le pneu d’un avion et la piste


    Jones, Logan


    Lorsqu’un avion atterrit, la force principale nécessaire pour arrêter l’avion est obtenue par le freinage. Par une réduction de la vitesse de rotation des roues, les freins provoquent une vitesse de glissement entre les pneus et la piste. C’est cette différence de vitesse qui génère la force de freinage capable de stopper l’avion. La modélisation de cette force est essentielle pour l’estimation de la longueur de piste à l’atterrissage. Les modèles classiques utilisés par les avionneurs sont a...

  7. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Avionics Software Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krodel, Jim


    .... The motivation is even a bit beyond monetary resources as the scarcity of highly trained personnel that can develop such systems has also provided fuel to the attractiveness of considering reuse...

  8. A Usability Survey of GPS Avionics Equipment: Some Preliminary Findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph, Kurt


    The rapid introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for airborne navigation has outpaced the capacity of international aviation authorities to resolve human factors issues that concern safe and efficient use of such devices...

  9. A Real-Time Java Virtual Machine for Avionics (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armbruster, Austin; Pla, Edward; Baker, Jason; Cunei, Antonio; Flack, Chapman; Pizlo, Filip; Vitek, Jan; Proch zka, Marek; Holmes, David


    ...) in the DARPA Program Composition for Embedded System (PCES) program. Within the scope of PCES, Purdue University and the Boeing Company collaborated on the development of Ovm, an open source implementation of the RTSJ virtual machine...

  10. Modular, Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR effort was to prove the viability of an Ethernet version of the MicroSat Systems, Inc. (MSI) modular, plug and play (PnP) spacecraft...

  11. Radioactive legacies from medicine and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, R.; Rodriguez, J.


    Due to the unintended disposal of radioactive legacies (waste from medicine, industry or private persons) radioactive material occasionally enters the disposal ways of conventional waste. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and the Swiss accident Insurance Fund (Swiss) are the licensing authorities and regulatory agencies of the handling with radioactive materials for non-nuclear use. The aim is to avoid such incidents with concrete measures and so to preserve men and environment from the negative effect of not correctly disposed radioactive waste. (orig.)

  12. Eventscapes and the creation of event legacies


    Brown, G.; Lee, I.S.; King, Katherine; Shipway, Richard


    Attention is directed to the difference in event legacies created by mega-events which often cause dramatic physical changes in urban environments and those which accompany events which leave very little imprint on the landscape where they are held. The Tour Down Under cycle race, which is held annually in South Australia, is examined as an example of the latter. The spatial pattern of the event and the range of settings which support it are presented as an eventscape by drawing on concepts s...

  13. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage


    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  14. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg


    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  15. Jack Wescott and Donald F. Smith. The Legacy Project (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.; Wescott, Jack W.; Smith, Donald F.


    This is the tenth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged our profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize these leaders and…

  16. State of the art for digital avionics and controls, 1978 (United States)

    Smyth, R. K.


    A brief summary of a comprehensive state of the art survey is presented. The survey includes five broadly applicable technology areas: flight path management, aircraft control systems, crew station & human factors, integration & interfacing technology, and fundamental technology. In addition the survey included military technologies which have a technology transfer potential to the five broadly applicable technology areas.

  17. Legacy management: An old challenge with a new focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; ); Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham


    The NEA Expert Group on Legacy Management (EGLM) aims to promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations. NEA member countries share their experiences and approaches on legacy management and have submitted case studies to the EGLM that illustrate the common challenges and approaches of many countries. The first report of the expert group will be based on these case studies and will be released in late 2017. A new, broader focus on decommissioning and legacy management issues within the NEA is expected to take shape in early 2018, carrying forward the mission to develop and promote a practical and optimised approach for the regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites and installations

  18. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.


    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  19. Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are ... (United States)

    Long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced by short-chain PFASs and fluorinated alternatives. For ten legacy PFASs and seven recently discovered perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs), we report (1) their occurrence in the Cape Fear River (CFR) watershed, (2) their fate in water treatment processes, and (3) their adsorbability on powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the headwater region of the CFR basin, PFECAs were not detected in raw water of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), but concentrations of legacy PFASs were high. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s lifetime health advisory level (70 ng/L) for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was exceeded on 57 of 127 sampling days. In raw water of a DWTP downstream of a PFAS manufacturer, the mean concentration of perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (PFPrOPrA), a replacement for PFOA, was 631 ng/L (n = 37). Six other PFECAs were detected, with three exhibiting chromatographic peak areas up to 15 times that of PFPrOPrA. At this DWTP, PFECA removal by coagulation, ozonation, biofiltration, and disinfection was negligible. The adsorbability of PFASs on PAC increased with increasing chain length. Replacing one CF2 group with an ether oxygen decreased the affinity of PFASs for PAC, while replacing additional CF2 groups did not lead to further affinity changes. The USEPA’s recently completed Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR3) p

  20. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries. (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning


    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past.

  1. Improving Training Cost Information at the Naval Avionics Center (United States)


    Interviews with senior NAC managers were conducted to determine the most valuable courses. Senior managers at NAC (civil service GM 13-15) were interviewed...for the services rendered. The only additional training input to the Comptroller Department is the engineer’s weekly labor distribution card. From this...information exchange. 29 RECOMMENDED TRAINING COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM DIVISION DTIE REPORTS MANAGERS BY INDMDUAL REPORTS BY COST CENTER SOFWARE SOFTWARE N VAX

  2. Design and Implementation of USAF Avionics Integration Support Facilities (United States)


    are executive modules making decisions concerning global matters. Subordinate to the executive modules are worker mod- ules dealing with details of...all simulation/analysis displays and the values of all pertinent/ global simulation parameters on magnetic mass storage. If used with the ESS freeze...and service systems. It provides industrial engineers, buisness . analysts, and operat- ions researchers with a graphical vehicle for modeling analy

  3. The Legacy of Tomas Bata to the Information Processing for the Development of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Chvatal


    Full Text Available Businessman Tomas Bata was successful also because he was able to work with information efficiently. While it is difficult to compare the work with information twenties with today's information systems, but we can find elements that do not emphasize current systems because the information is accessible anytime, anywhere on-line. One such element is the regularity in information processing and its presentation. The article gives an overview of resources to draw from the legacy of Tomas Bata, the first comparison approach in creating and using of personnel and manufacturing information and how to deal with the legacy of Tomas Bata in information processing. This is done a methodology for upcoming research. Even it can be assumed that the corporation meets the characteristics of Tomas Bata „learning organisation" as we understand in the dimension of the information and knowledge society. Historical development is also confronted with the current state of the information system Bata Shoes Organisation.

  4. Avionics Evaluation Program: Multiple Aircraft, Multiple Sorties and Cost Accumulation (United States)


    flight profile, (b) lists the hardware makeup (all aircraft are identically equipped) and (c) defines the functions and associated performance for the...given period of days. The "system" is described by the vehicle hardware makeup , flight profile, and functions/subfunctions. All aircraft must be...known, let Coss [Y] - B IAB AS-sinB (30) Yi Y2 (31) L Y3 Since fX ] = L [Y] (32) and x -3 . H (33) 54 then L - -H/y3 (34) Knowing L the X, Y ground co

  5. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossberg, Thomas


    .... The present Phase II effort has harnessed new fabrication tools to perfect disruptive HBR-based multiplexer products for DoD avionics, optical communications systems computer data communications and local area networks...

  6. Development of Integrated Modular Avionics Application Based on Simulink and XtratuM (United States)

    Fons-Albert, Borja; Usach-Molina, Hector; Vila-Carbo, Joan; Crespo-Lorente, Alfons


    This paper presents an integral approach for designing avionics applications that meets the requirements for software development and execution of this application domain. Software design follows the Model-Based design process and is performed in Simulink. This approach allows easy and quick testbench development and helps satisfying DO-178B requirements through the use of proper tools. The software execution platform is based on XtratuM, a minimal bare-metal hypervisor designed in our research group. XtratuM provides support for IMA-SP (Integrated Modular Avionics for Space) architectures. This approach allows the code generation of a Simulink model to be executed on top of Lithos as XtratuM partition. Lithos is a ARINC-653 compliant RTOS for XtratuM. The paper concentrates in how to smoothly port Simulink designs to XtratuM solving problems like application partitioning, automatic code generation, real-time tasking, interfacing, and others. This process is illustrated with an autopilot design test using a flight simulator.

  7. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon


    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  8. Deconstructing a colonial legacy: An analysis of Indian secondary education policy


    Chopra, Priti


    The Indian secondary education system has, since independence in 1947, strived to transform in terms of policy but failed to transcend in practice the challenges presented by the colonial legacy it inherited. This study draws on Hodgson and Spours (2006) analytical policy framework to critically examine three key Indian secondary education policy initiatives: the Mudaliar Commission Report (1952-1953); the Kothari Commission Report (1964 -1966); and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012-2017). The...

  9. SONS: The JCMT legacy survey of debris discs in the submillimetre


    Holland, Wayne S.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant M.; Greaves, Jane S.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Booth, Mark; Bastien, Pierre; Bryden, Geoff; Butner, Harold; Chen, Christine H.; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Davies, Claire L.; Dent, William R. F.; Di Francesco, James; Duchene, Gaspard


    Debris discs are evidence of the ongoing destructive collisions between planetesimals, and their presence around stars also suggests that planets exist in these systems. In this paper, we present submillimetre images of the thermal emission from debris discs that formed the SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars (SONS) survey, one of seven legacy surveys undertaken on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope between 2012 and 2015. The overall results of the survey are presented in the form of 850 μm (...

  10. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas


    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  11. The Phenomenal Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Kushari Dyson


    Full Text Available Belonging to a generation of Bengalis who received Tagore as an acknowledged classic of their tradition, I grew up reading his books, listening to his music, watching his dance-dramas, and writing poetry under the inspiration of his words. This youthful appreciation of Tagore eventually led to a deeper understanding of his stature as an artist and thinker, but it was only when I entered Tagore studies in a more formal manner that I realized how truly spectacular his achievements were from an international perspective. Tagore was fortunate in that his time, place, and circumstances allowed him to give a good run to the natural versatility and fecundity of his genius. He has thereby secured a rich and diverse legacy for us, which tends to mean different things to different groups of people.

  12. Could Freemium Models Work for Legacy Newspapers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.


    The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has ...... not secured the revenues that industry players hoped for. This article discusses a number of the main principles of the freemium strategy and tactics, and highlights the critical points for legacy newspaper organisations.......The newspaper industry has long been looking for sustainable business models for their digital editions. One of their popular choices is the freemium business model based on free and premium content with a paywall. However, freemium has not yet lived up to the expectation of the industry and has...

  13. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann


    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  14. Combat Aircraft Noise held in Bonn, Germany on 23-25 October 1991 (Le Bruit Genere par les Avions de Combat) (United States)


    installer des et d’un avion d’entratnement frangais au dispositifs spiciaux i bord des avions do combat dicolla,- at I l’atterrissage, on prisentera...l’Ioignomont des oggloodrations ost suffisant. Le tableau do Ia figure I donne les niveaux 1o figure 3 momtro lI’volution du nivosu do do bruit calculis dons...126.5 120.0 108.5 115.0 108.0 96.0 TABLEAU 2 10-6 V - EXAMEN DES RESULTAl’S soumisos au bruit des avions (lorsqueolle est possible). Leoxamen do

  15. Legacy Interventions With Patients with Co-Occurring Disorders: Legacy Definitions, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Efficacy. (United States)

    Franklin, Felina C; Cheung, Monit


    Individuals with co-occurring disorders tend to avoid interaction with others. To instill hope, legacy intervention aims to highlight past experiences while managing life stressors for a positive outlook. Participants take part in legacy activities-crafting tangible projects and recording one's life events-in order to actualize a personal sense of legacy. This pre-posttest research tested whether legacy intervention in a partial hospital program (PHP) on reframing past experiences through creative activities could increase life satisfaction and self-efficacy among adults with co-occurring substance misuse and mental health symptoms. Eighty consented patients with co-occurring disorders were randomly assigned to two groups with 62 participants continuing: 37 in legacy intervention (LI) and 25 in partial hospital program only (PHP-only). LI participants were engaged in both PHP and legacy activities. Ten group sessions were held over the course of five weeks for cohorts of 10-15 adult patients in each intervention. Sense of legacy was measured to ensure that LI patients received the appropriate legacy dosage. With RANOVA analyses between and among three time points, life satisfaction was significantly higher in the LI group with group interaction effect over time. In terms of self-efficacy, both groups showed positive changes but no significant difference could be found between the two groups over time and the interaction (time X group) effect was not significant. The legacy definitions gathered from the LI group were consistent with existing literature and showed three additional themes: children's involvement, concreteness, and life continuation after death.

  16. Initial Comparison of Direct and Legacy Modeling Approaches for Radial Core Expansion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Radial core expansion in sodium-cooled fast reactors provides an important reactivity feedback effect. As the reactor power increases due to normal start up conditions or accident scenarios, the core and surrounding materials heat up, causing both grid plate expansion and bowing of the assembly ducts. When the core restraint system is designed correctly, the resulting structural deformations introduce negative reactivity which decreases the reactor power. Historically, an indirect procedure has been used to estimate the reactivity feedback due to structural deformation which relies upon perturbation theory and coupling legacy physics codes with limited geometry capabilities. With advancements in modeling and simulation, radial core expansion phenomena can now be modeled directly, providing an assessment of the accuracy of the reactivity feedback coefficients generated by indirect legacy methods. Recently a new capability was added to the PROTEUS-SN unstructured geometry neutron transport solver to analyze deformed meshes quickly and directly. By supplying the deformed mesh in addition to the base configuration input files, PROTEUS-SN automatically processes material adjustments including calculation of region densities to conserve mass, calculation of isotopic densities according to material models (for example, sodium density as a function of temperature), and subsequent re-homogenization of materials. To verify the new capability of directly simulating deformed meshes, PROTEUS-SN was used to compute reactivity feedback for a series of contrived yet representative deformed configurations for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor design. The indirect legacy procedure was also performed to generate reactivity feedback coefficients for the same deformed configurations. Interestingly, the legacy procedure consistently overestimated reactivity feedbacks by 35% compared to direct simulations by PROTEUS-SN. This overestimation indicates that the legacy procedures are in fact

  17. Legacies of 1917 in Contemporary Russian Public Health: Addiction, HIV, and Abortion. (United States)

    Rivkin-Fish, Michele


    I examine the legacies of Soviet public health policy and the socialist health care system and trace how the Soviet past figures in contemporary Russian policymaking and debates about drug use, HIV, and abortion. Drug policies and mainstream views of HIV reflect continuities with key aspects of Soviet-era policies, although political leaders do not acknowledge these continuities in justifying their policies. In abortion policy, by contrast, which is highly debated in the public realm, advocates represent themselves as differing from Soviet-era policies to justify their positions. Yet abortion activists' views of the past differ tremendously, reminding us that the Soviet past is symbolically productive for arguments about Russia's present and future. I describe key aspects of the Soviet approach to health and compare how current drug policy (and the related management of HIV/AIDS) and abortion policies are discursively shaped in relation to the Soviet historical and cultural legacy.

  18. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  19. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A


    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  20. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    of AMD is felt well beyond the mining district and the costs of prevention and remediation were found to be significant. Apart from environmental legacies, the mine also left a number of socio-economic legacies including: limited access to non-polluted water that results in San Sebastian residents...... devoting a high proportion of their income in obtaining water, lost opportunities due to the cessation of mining, uncertain land tenure situation and increasing growth of ASGM activities that exacerbate already existing environmental pollution due to use of mercury. The study also found that the state......The study seeks to enrich the growing literature on mine legacies by examining a case study of a small abandoned mine in Latin America. Using a combination of Rapid Rural Appraisal and secondary source analysis, this study assessed some of the most damaging legacies of the San Sebastian mine...

  1. Power, Avionics and Software - Phase 1.0:. [Subsystem Integration Test Report (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.


    This report describes Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This report covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies to exchange messages and to perform audio testing of both inbound and outbound channels. This report describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon


    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  3. Effects of management legacies on stream fish and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. (United States)

    Quist, Michael C; Schultz, Randall D


    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  4. Modeling and Simulation of Avionics Systems and Command, Control and Communications Systems (United States)


    BVL qui eat indipandant do l’application au nivoati du code. 11 slagit des programas sulvants geation dos interruptions t ceam modules ant pour...Is the performance of the "Direct Subsystem (DSS)," e.g., SIP (MK X. XXI ) Input to the teetbed? If yes, is this data obtained from reliable sources or

  5. Proven high-reliability assembly methods applied to avionics fiber-optics high-speed transceivers (United States)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas; Larose, Robert; Dion, Bruno


    Harsh environment avionics applications require operating temperature ranges that can extend to, and exceed -50 to 115°C. For obvious maintenance, management and cost arguments, product lifetimes as long as 20 years are also sought. This leads to mandatory long-term hermeticity that cannot be obtained with epoxy or silicone sealing; but only with glass seal or metal solder or brazing. A hermetic design can indirectly result in the required RF shielding of the component. For fiber-optics products, these specifications need to be compatible with the smallest possible size, weight and power consumption. The products also need to offer the best possible high-speed performances added to the known EMI immunity in the transmission lines. Fiber-optics transceivers with data rates per fiber channel up to 10Gbps are now starting to be offered on the market for avionics applications. Some of them are being developed by companies involved in the "normal environment" telecommunications market that are trying to ruggedize their products packaging in order to diversify their customer base. Another approach, for which we will present detailed results, is to go back to the drawing boards and design a new product that is adapted to proven MIL-PRF-38534 high-reliability packaging assembly methods. These methods will lead to the introduction of additional requirements at the components level; such as long-term high-temperature resistance for the fiber-optic cables. We will compare both approaches and demonstrate the latter, associated with the redesign, is the preferable one. The performance of the fiber-optic transceiver we have developed, in terms of qualification tests such as temperature cycling, constant acceleration, hermeticity, residual gaz analysis, operation under random vibration and mechanical shocks and accelerated lifetime tests will be presented. The tests are still under way, but so far, we have observed no performance degradation of such a product after more than

  6. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL) (United States)

    Wray, Richard B.


    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Camex-4 DC-8 Information Collection and Transmission System (ICATS) is designed to: 1) interface and process avionics and environmental paramaters from the...

  8. Does drought legacy alter the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought? (United States)

    Bahn, Michael; Hasibeder, Roland; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Ingrisch, Johannes; Ladreiter-Knauss, Thomas; Lair, Georg; Reinthaler, David; Richter, Andreas; Kaufmann, Rüdiger


    Climate projections suggest an increase in the frequency and the severity of extreme climatic events, such as droughts, with consequences for the carbon cycle and its feedbacks to the climate system. An important implication of increasing drought frequency is that possible legacies of previous droughts may increasingly affect ecosystem responses to new drought events, though this has been rarely tested. Based on a series of severe experimental droughts performed during nine subsequent years on a mountain grassland in the Austrian Alps, we present evidence of effects of drought legacies on the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Both single and recurrent droughts led to increased aboveground productivity during drought recovery relative to control plots, favoring the biomass production and leaf area of grass species more strongly than of forbs. Belowground productivity was significantly increased during recovery. This led to higher total root length, even though specific root length was strongly reduced during recovery, particularly after recurrent drought events. Following rewetting, the temperature dependence of soil respiration was increasingly diminished and the Birch effect declined with progressive recurrence of droughts. This was paralleled by a change in soil aggregate stability and soil porosity in plots repeatedly exposed to drought. Isotopic pulse-labelling experiments revealed effects of drought legacy on plant carbon uptake and belowground allocation and altered microbial turnover of recent plant-derived carbon during and after a subsequent drought. Shifts in tissue nitrogen concentration indicate that drought effects on soil nitrogen turnover and availability could play an important role in the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics following both single and recurrent droughts. In conclusion, drought legacies can alter the recovery of grassland carbon dynamics from drought, the effects increasing

  9. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian


    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  10. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López


    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  11. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian


    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  12. The intangible legacy of the Indonesian Bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nuraini


    Full Text Available The Sama-Bajau, or Bajo diaspora, extends from the southern Philippines and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo to the eastern part of Indonesia. The Indonesian Bajo, now scattered along the coasts of Sulawesi (Celebes and East Kalimantan, the Eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and Maluku, were once mostly nomadic fishermen of the sea or ocean freight carriers. Today, the Bajo are almost all fishermen and settled. Their former and present ways of life made them favour intangible forms of culture: it is impossible to transport bulky artefacts when moving frequently by boat, or when living in stilt houses, very close to the sea or on a reef. It is therefore an intangible legacy that is the essence of the Bajo’s culture. Sandro healers have a vast range of expertise that allows them to protect and heal people when they suffer from natural or supernatural diseases. On the other hand, music and especially oral literature are very rich. In addition to song and the pantun poetry contests, the most prestigious genre is the iko-iko, long epic songs that the Bajo consider to be historical rather than fictional narratives. The Bajo’s intangible heritage is fragile, since it is based on oral transmission. In this article, I give a description of this heritage, dividing it into two areas: the knowledge that allows them to “protect and heal” on the one hand, and to “distract and relax”, on the other.

  13. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public (United States)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.


    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  14. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto


    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  15. Nursing and the Public Health Legacies of the Russian Revolution. (United States)

    Grant, Susan


    The centenary of the October Revolution in 1917 provides a timely opportunity to assess the legacies of that event. I examine the role of the revolution in public health with a focus on nursing, assessing the Imperial Russian health care system, the development of Soviet nursing, and current plans for nursing and public health care in Putin's Russia. Analyzing nursing shows that there was a great deal of continuity in terms of medical personnel and ideas on how public health care service in Russia should operate. Nursing illuminates some of the complexities of Soviet health care and ideology, particularly the state's desire to create a socialist form of nursing in theory, despite the strong links with the prerevolutionary past in the form of personnel. This situation changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the new Russian state attempted to sever connections with the past, this time with the Soviet past. But as I show, making a clean break with the past is a difficult and often fraught process.

  16. Localisation à partir de données laser d'un robot naviguant autour d'un avion


    Frejaville, Jérémy; Larnier, Stanislas; Vetault, Stéphane


    National audience; This article discusses the pose estimation of the mobile platform Air-Cobot relative to the aircraft around which it operates. Autonomous and collaborative, this robot inspects aircrafts. It is equipped with distance sensors laser scans. The presented localization methods have been successfully tested in a real environment.; Cet article traite du calcul de la pose de la plateforme mobile Air-Cobot par rapport à l'avion autour duquel elle évolue. Autonome et collaboratif, ce...

  17. TechEdSat - An Educational 1U CubeSat Architecture Using Plug-and-Play Avionics (United States)

    Frost, Chad


    Mission Objectives: build a 1U cubesat within 6 months from kickoff to launch. Demonstrate and evaluate the Space Plug-and-Play avionics hardware and software from ÅAC Microtec; investigate both Iridium and Orbcomm intersatellite communication as a method of eliminating the requirement for a physical ground station in Nano satellite missions; demonstrate the capabilities of the JAXA J-SSOD aboard the ISS, and be one of the first cubesats to be deployed from the ISS.

  18. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation. (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M


    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald


    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop ( held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (

  20. Drought-induced legacy effects in wood growth across the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. are mediated by site climate, tree age, and drought sensitivity (United States)

    Kannenberg, S.; Maxwell, J. T.; Pederson, N.; D'Orangeville, L.; Phillips, R.


    systems - were the most prone to drought-induced legacy effects. Given that these reductions in wood growth are common across a wide range of sites and species, our results provide insight as to the consequences of drought for tree recovery, and knowledge of the ecosystems in which these effects predominate.

  1. Data Management Challenges and Development for Military Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceruti, Marion G


    ..., interoperation, and application of C41 systems. Specific topics include issues in integration and interoperability, joint standards, data access, data aggregation, information system component reuse, and legacy systems...

  2. Climate legacies drive global soil carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Karunaratne, Senani B; Trivedi, Pankaj; Reich, Peter B; Singh, Brajesh K


    Climatic conditions shift gradually over millennia, altering the rates at which carbon (C) is fixed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. However, legacy impacts of past climates on current soil C stocks are poorly understood. We used data from more than 5000 terrestrial sites from three global and regional data sets to identify the relative importance of current and past (Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene) climatic conditions in regulating soil C stocks in natural and agricultural areas. Paleoclimate always explained a greater amount of the variance in soil C stocks than current climate at regional and global scales. Our results indicate that climatic legacies help determine global soil C stocks in terrestrial ecosystems where agriculture is highly dependent on current climatic conditions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering how climate legacies influence soil C content, allowing us to improve quantitative predictions of global C stocks under different climatic scenarios.

  3. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose


    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  4. Fat, demented and stupid: An unrecognized legacy of pediatric urology? (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher S


    The human body is an unfathomably intricate structure consisting of many connected and intertwined systems. This makes it impossible for therapeutic interventions to selectively target only one physiologic system without some impact or side effects on all the other systems. The resiliency of the human body modifies and disguises side effects, some of which may be undetectable for years and not apparent without scientific investigation. Pediatric urologists employ relatively few medications for the common conditions they treat and in general these consist of antibiotics, anticholinergics, and anesthetics. Although harm from early side effects is well recognized, recent medical literature suggests there may be other side effects of these common interventions that aren't as well recognized. Antibiotics have been added to livestock feed as growth promoters for three-quarters of a century. Antibiotics alter the microbiota of the intestinal tract and these alterations have been demonstrated to impact growth, metabolism, and the risk of obesity in animals and humans. To date, the long-term impact of daily antibiotic prophylaxis in children with such pediatric urology conditions as vesicoureteral reflux or prenatal hydronephrosis have not been published. Similarly, there are no studies assessing long-term effects of anticholinergic use on cognition in children despite research demonstrating an increased risk of dementia in adults using anticholinergics. Research in animals and children recently led the FDA to issue a warning regarding the risk of lengthy use of general anesthesia on cognitive development in children. This review raises the possibility that antibiotics in children may alter growth, anticholinergics may increase their risk of dementia later in life, and anesthetics may impair their cognitive development. The possibility of such an unrecognized legacy from current therapeutic interventions should give all physicians, including pediatric urologists, pause for

  5. The NSIDC DAAC's Role in Sustaining the IPY Data Legacy (United States)

    Weaver, R. L.; Kaminski, M.


    NASA's Snow and Ice Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC DAAC) has been awarded a follow-on contract for the coming five years. The scope of this work is specific to NASA's Earth Observing Priorities but meshes well with International Polar Year needs. We will discuss the intended tasks for the NSIDC DAAC in relation to the needs for IPY data management, pointing out challenges to either the DAAC specifically or to the IPY community generally. The challenges to the NSIDC DAAC include better integration of our legacy data with our Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite mission data, and integration of our data and systems with the greater data management community and programs such as the IPY. We must continually improve the ways we describe and deliver our data to users, enhancing their ability to use it in innovative ways. Our approaches to meeting these objectives include: Adapting our data systems to the ever-changing user needs and technology landscape. Major thrusts include deriving gains in programmer and software engineer efficiency through greater standardization of software development processes; increasing use of subsetting to deliver larger quantities of data with available network bandwidth; standardizing metadata within the NSIDC DAAC and between our data center collaborators; harmonizing formats and spatial/temporal coverages for data and data types to enable more powerful visualization, online analysis and data integration. Implementing existing and new geophysical algorithms for cryospheric and polar processes including sea ice concentration and types, ice surface temperature, sea ice motion, ice sheet topography and ice volume change, surface albedo, snow extent, and snow water equivalent. Acquiring new data streams and developing new data products (including new data types and improved formats) to meet NASA and EOS science objectives for the cryosphere and polar regions.

  6. Modeling and characterization of VCSEL-based avionics full-duplex ethernet (AFDX) gigabit links (United States)

    Ly, Khadijetou S.; Rissons, A.; Gambardella, E.; Bajon, D.; Mollier, J.-C.


    Low cost and intrinsic performances of 850 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) compared to Light Emitting Diodes make them very attractive for high speed and short distances data communication links through optical fibers. Weight saving and Electromagnetic Interference withstanding requirements have led to the need of a reliable solution to improve existing avionics high speed buses (e.g. AFDX) up to 1Gbps over 100m. To predict and optimize the performance of the link, the physical behavior of the VCSEL must be well understood. First, a theoretical study is performed through the rate equations adapted to VCSEL in large signal modulation. Averaged turn-on delays and oscillation effects are analytically computed and analyzed for different values of the on- and off state currents. This will affect the eye pattern, timing jitter and Bit Error Rate (BER) of the signal that must remain within IEEE 802.3 standard limits. In particular, the off-state current is minimized below the threshold to allow the highest possible Extinction Ratio. At this level, the spontaneous emission is dominating and leads to significant turn-on delay, turn-on jitter and bit pattern effects. Also, the transverse multimode behavior of VCSELs, caused by Spatial Hole Burning leads to some dispersion in the fiber and degradation of BER. VCSEL to Multimode Fiber coupling model is provided for prediction and optimization of modal dispersion. Lastly, turn-on delay measurements are performed on a real mock-up and results are compared with calculations.

  7. After the Fall: The RHESSI Legacy Archive (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Zarro, Dominic M.; Tolbert, Anne K.


    Launched in 2002 the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) continues to observe the Sun with a nearly 50% duty cycle. During that time the instrument has recorded ~100,000 solar flares in energies from 4 keV to over 10 MeV.with durations of 10s to 1000s of seconds. However, for the reasons of the decline of the solar cycle, possible failure of the instrument, or the absence of funding, our operational phase will end someday. We describe here our plans to continue to serve this dataset in raw, processed, and analyzed forms to the worldwide solar community to continue our legacy of a stream of rich scientific results.We have and are providing a stream of quicklook lightcurves, spectra, and images that we mainly serve through a web interface as well as the data in raw form to be fully analyzed within our own branch of Solar Software written in IDL. We are in the process of creating higher quality images for flares in multiple energy bands on relevant timescales for those whose needs can be met without further processing. For users with IDL licenses we expect this software to be available far into the unknowable future. Together with a database of AIA cutouts during all SDO-era flares, along with software to recover saturated images by using the AIA diffraction fringes, these will be a highly used resource.We also are developing additional tools and databases that will increase the utility of RHESSI data to members of the community with and without either IDL licenses or full access to the RHESSI database. We will provide a database of RHESSI x-ray visibilities obtained during flares at a >4 second cadence over a broad range of detectable energies. With our IDL software those can be rendered as images for times and energies of nearly the analysts's choosing. And going beyond that we are converting our imaging procedures to the Python language to eliminate the need for an IDL license. We are also developing methods to allow the customization of these

  8. Nuclear legacy: Students of two atomic cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Gary


    Full text: Battelle Memorial Institute operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Within PNNL is the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) assigned to work on improving the safe operations of 67 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors in nine countries. One major mission of this program has been Chernobyl NPP activities, both for the operating plant, and for the Chernobyl Shelter. In conjunction with the activities at Chernobyl, several Battelle staff members have been living in Slavutych (the city closest to Chernobyl) for periods of up to two years. Through these personal relationships, Battelle began to take personal interest in students in Slavutych. In 1999 Battelle used private funding to support 20 students from Slavutych, Ukraine; and 20 students from Richland, Washington, U.S.A., in authoring a book called Nuclear Legacy: Students of Two Atomic Cities. This hard-bound book was researched, and written, entirely by these 40 13-to-15-year-old students. It is an amazing book, which describes the past, the present, and the future of two nuclear cities - Slavutych near Chernobyl, and Richland, near Hanford. It was written in two languages, with every article translated into both English and Ukrainian. It was published in June, 2000, and has now sold more than 2,600 copies in 14 countries. The book is primarily an educational publication designed to teach students how to write and publish a book on a sensitive subject - nuclear. It is not a political statement. However, the student researched and written articles do discuss politically sensitive nuclear topics in straightforward detail. The moving first hand accounts through the eyes of these young people of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, and interviews with scientists and engineers who worked on the 1940's Manhattan Project in the United States, make the book a unique collaboration on two nuclear cultures. What started as a one-semester project took a full

  9. Local meanings of a sport mega-event's legacies : Stories from a South African urban neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, Maikel; van den Bergh, Marjolein; van Eekeren, Frank


    Studies on sport mega-events and their legacies often seem only loosely connected to local experiences. Stories on sport mega-event legacy appear as a setting-the-scene or function as a reference to illustrate specific types of legacy. However, stories themselves are never the primary focus in these

  10. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Donna L.


    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  11. The Design, Development and Testing of Complex Avionics Systems: Conference Proceedings Held at the Avionics Panel Symposium in Las Vegas, Nevada on 27 April-1 May 1987 (United States)


    these guidelines must be specific, applications, not generic " motherhood - statements. Testing also needs improvement. In accordance with MIL-STD-461...the resultant climate tends not to induce flawed theories and myths which can themselves become further obstacles to understanding and progress. The

  12. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund


    Soils deliver important ecosystem services, such as nutrient provision for plants and the storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which are greatly impacted by drought. Both plants and soil biota affect soil C and N availability, which might in turn affect their response to drought, offering...... the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...

  13. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks (United States)

    Stewart, Loraine


    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  14. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, ...

  15. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTACT: The soil and groundwater of a legacy spill site in Eleme Local Government Authority Area of. Rivers Stae were investigated. The general land use of the area within 1500m radius of the spill site is devoted to farming, fishing and hunting. The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain,.

  16. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation (United States)

    Loveless, Sylvia


    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  17. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  18. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education" (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca


    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  19. Bridging the gap between legacy services and Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissyandé, Tegawendé; Réveillère, Laurent; Bromberg, Yérom-David


    itself. In this paper, we introduce a generative language based approach for constructing wrappers to facilitate the migration of legacy service functionalities to Web Services. To this end, we have designed the Janus domain-specific language, which provides developers with a high-level way to describe...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    colonialism and slavery” (2010, 168). Without question, colonial legacy contributed to the ... is the nature and mode of Shari'a implementation that is the issue. (2003, 144). This alludes to the influence of .... Syria, Iraq, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria,. South Africa, Kenya as well as elsewhere (2003, 533 ...

  1. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy implications for post-event safety and security. EC Perry, A Chunderduth, C Potgieter. Abstract. The trepidation over crime and safety concerns emerged as one of the main issues in relation to South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, prominent in the ...

  2. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality? (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia


    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  3. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life (United States)

    Rud, A. G.


    "Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…

  4. The Kemper History Project: From Historical Narrative to Institutional Legacy (United States)

    Hunzicker, Jana


    An "institutional legacy" can be understood as knowledge, values, and shared experiences transmitted by or received from a college or university for the benefit of all who have taught, served, researched, and/or learned there. This article describes a year-long, collaborative writing project carried out by one university to chronicle two…

  5. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin (United States)

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.


    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  6. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan


    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.

  7. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.


    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  8. Software-Defined Avionics and Mission Systems in Future Vertical Lift Aircraft (United States)


    with swelling unit acquisition-costs ( Dryden , Britt, & Binnings-Depriester, 1981), and support/ maintenance challenges (USAF Science and Advisory Board...first described in 1984 by noted computer scientist John Rushby (Parkinson & Baker, 2011). A MILS-type architecture is based on two high-credibility...A-4M [1] 10,800 840 7.8% 420 4.0% 10,380 3.9% SH-608 13648* 1,997* 14.6% 996 7.9% 12,652 7.3% [2][3] 1 Dryden , Britt, & Binnings-Depriester

  9. Enhancing Autonomy of Aerial Systems Via Integration of Visual Sensors into Their Avionics Suite (United States)


    boundary encompasses natural obstacles, ambient environmental factors such as temperature and wind speed, and the operating environment of the...The wind condition of the POE ranges from 0–27 knots. As Singapore may experience the occasional “Sumatra Squalls,” the upper limit of the wind ...Aircraft are Now Drones .” Popular Science, January 10. drones - now-account-nearly-one-third-militarys

  10. Validation of Digital Systems in Avionics and Flight Control Applications Handbook. Volume 1. (United States)


    measures, secondary task measures, spare mental capacity, and subjective opinion; (b) Physiological measures such as electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart...ELEVEN RECOMMENDED CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES ’.4 5- III C); -I. z m 4 IcU . -- 4 -4 -4..... -d -J 5- .4 9- J. 9, i 1 -.4 9 4 . . a-. ~ V S p

  11. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS). Volume I. Impact of DAIS Concept on Life Cycle Cost. (United States)


    vance eeoietPorm 12, KEY WORDS (Continue on1 roet aide it nec..ey and Identify by block number) Digital Avioie csII InfoitWi2IiIIII i ilha illl 121t-Ila1...nonrMaintenani-e 5l pport personnel (ind their ipporf tacilit ies (stich (is barracks, heat . ir l( tood). ilthoi Ih thev ( (n e p 1it ts ,o singje term. t). All

  12. Adaptable and Reconfigurable Modular Systems (GSFC) - Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to execute the President's Vision for Space Exploration, NASA must find ways to reduce spacecraft cost, complexity, and integration and test time while...

  13. Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masalehdani, M.N.N.; Mees, F.; Dubois, M.; Coquinot, Y.; Potdevin, J.L.; Fialin, M.; Blanc-Valleron, M.M. [University of Lille 1, Villeneuve Dascq (France)


    A coal-waste heap in Avion, northern France, that has been undergoing subsurface combustion for several decades, is marked by the occurrence of efflorescences at combustion sites where gas and water vapor escape from surficial cracks and vents. Analysis of the efflorescences show that twenty different species of mineral are present, comprising various sulfates, as well as halides and native sulfur. The constituents needed for the formation of these minerals are ultimately derived from the heap of coalmine waste, composed mainly of pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shale, coal and minor amounts of sandstone. They may be partly released by acid weathering of waste-heap materials prior to combustion, but largely by thermal decomposition and oxidation of those materials during combustion processes. Formation of the efflorescences near gas-discharge zones indicates transport of constituent to those zones from the inner part of the waste heap, which can occur in the gas phase for some elements (S, N, H and Cl), but would require droplets of water vapor as carriers for most cations. Interaction between condensate solutions and the local debris at the surface of the waste heap may also contribute to cations input prior to the formation of secondary minerals. Most minerals formed from a liquid phase along the rock-debris surface at low temperatures (T {<=}100 {sup o}C), as confirmed by the occurrence of fluid inclusions. Only salammoniac, native sulfur and mascagnite (where crystallized as a monocrystalline phase) were formed directly from a gas phase. The coal-waste heap shows great variations in mineral assemblages among sampling sites, which must be related to variations in waste composition and in conditions at the level at which the elements are released and where mineral formation takes place.

  14. Disability Case Adjudication and Review System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....

  15. The Land-Use Legacy Effect: Groundwater mechanisms behind ecosystem responses to land use/cover (United States)

    Martin, S. L.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.


    While many studies have linked land use/land cover (LULC) to aquatic ecosystem responses, only a few have linked the dynamics of changing LULC to water quality through a mechanistic understanding of flow paths and travel times. The Huron River Watershed, along with most of the rest of of Michigan has undergone extensive LULC change over the past century, shifting from a primarily agricultural to a suburban landscape, and includes sites that cover a range of historical LULC trajectories. We coupled a multi-temporal GIS database of LULC data (circa 1800, 1880, 1938, 1955, 1968, 1978, 1995, and 2006) with a model of groundwater flow paths to create a "Legacy Map" of LULC for each 109x109m model cell in the study area. We then investigate relationships between time-varying LULC and lake water chemistry, ranging from nutrients to conservative ions, using multiple linear regression over a range of spatial scales. Our study illustrates that there are large areas where there may be a temporal mismatch between LULC of the current landscape and LULC expressed in the lake via water chemistry. Specifically, watershed areas that have long groundwater pathways may be delivering water more representative of historical LULC than current LULC. Moreover, some water chemistry variables (SRP, Cl, Na) have stronger links to current LULC and others (NH4) have a stronger link to legacy LULC. This study highlights the important role that "groundwatersheds" play in linking the landscape to aquatic systems. We then zoom out to apply this concept to Michigan's Lower Peninsula to show the extent that groundwatersheds and surface watersheds are also spatially mismatched. These two perspectives suggest a need to consider both groundwater legacies and groundwatersheds in nutrient management and watershed planning.

  16. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J Van Meter

    Full Text Available Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy. The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures.

  17. Multiple IMU system development, volume 1 (United States)

    Landey, M.; Mckern, R.


    A redundant gimballed inertial system is described. System requirements and mechanization methods are defined and hardware and software development is described. Failure detection and isolation algorithms are presented and technology achievements described. Application of the system as a test tool for shuttle avionics concepts is outlined.

  18. (Resurveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witcher


    Full Text Available Legacy data have always been important for Mediterranean archaeologists. Over the past decade, one specific category of legacy data, that deriving from regional survey, has become particularly important. Not only has the scale of research questions become larger (requiring greater reliance on others' data, but the surface archaeological record is deteriorating (diminishing the ability to recover good data. The legacy data from many individual surveys have now been subject to digitisation and GIS analysis, successfully redeploying data collected for one purpose within new theoretical and interpretive frameworks. However, a key research focus is now comparative survey - using the results of many different Mediterranean surveys side-by-side to identify regional variability in settlement organisation, economy and demography. In order to overcome the significant methodological differences between these surveys, attention has focused on the documentation of metadata. Yet, many legacy data lack vital information about their creation and hence how they might be (reinterpreted and compared. GIS has been advanced as an environment in which to contain, order and analyse the data necessary for comparative survey. However, there is a danger that the technology will facilitate inappropriate use of these datasets in a way that fails to acknowledge and understand the very real differences between them. Here, emphasis is placed upon the use of GIS as a space for exploratory data analysis: a process that encompasses and emphasises the integral processes of digitisation, visualisation and simple analysis for the characterisation of datasets in order to derive an alternative form of metadata. Particular emphasis is placed upon the interaction of past human behaviour (e.g. in the Roman period and archaeological recovery (i.e. the behaviour of archaeologists in the present, or recent past; these two sets of 'social action' combine to create distinctive archaeological

  19. Two tales of legacy effects on stream nutrient behaviour (United States)

    Bieroza, M.; Heathwaite, A. L.


    Intensive agriculture has led to large-scale land use conversion, shortening of flow pathways and increased loads of nutrients in streams. This legacy results in gradual build-up of nutrients in agricultural catchments: in soil for phosphorus (biogeochemical legacy) and in the unsaturated zone for nitrate (hydrologic legacy), controlling the water quality in the long-term. Here we investigate these effects on phosphorus and nitrate stream concentrations using high-frequency (10-5 - 100 Hz) sampling with in situ wet-chemistry analysers and optical sensors. Based on our 5 year study, we observe that storm flow responses differ for both nutrients: phosphorus shows rapid increases (up to 3 orders of magnitude) in concentrations with stream flow, whereas nitrate shows both dilution and concentration effects with increasing flow. However, the range of nitrate concentrations change is narrow (up to 2 times the mean) and reflects chemostatic behaviour. We link these nutrient responses with their dominant sources and flow pathways in the catchment. Nitrate from agriculture (with the peak loading in 1983) is stored in the unsaturated zone of the Penrith Sandstone, which can reach up to 70 m depth. Thus nitrate legacy is related to a hydrologic time lag with long travel times in the unsaturated zone. Phosphorus is mainly sorbed to soil particles, therefore it is mobilised rapidly during rainfall events (biogeochemical legacy). The phosphorus stream response will however depend on how well connected is the stream to the catchment sources (driven by soil moisture distribution) and biogeochemical activity (driven by temperature), leading to both chemostatic and non-chemostatic responses, alternating on a storm-to-storm and seasonal basis. Our results also show that transient within-channel storage is playing an important role in delivery of phosphorus, providing an additional time lag component. These results show, that consistent agricultural legacy in the catchment (high

  20. An overview of autonomous rendezvous and docking system technology development at General Dynamics (United States)

    Kuenzel, Fred

    The Centaur avionics suite is undergoing a dramatic modernization for the commercial, DoD Atlas and Titan programs. The system has been upgraded to the current state-of-the-art in ring laser gyro inertial sensors and Mil-Std-1750A processor technology. The Cruise Missile avionic system has similarly been evolving for many years. Integration of GPS into both systems has been underway for over five years with a follow-on cruise missile system currently in flight test. Rendezvous and Docking related studies have been conducted for over five years in support of OMV, CTV, and Advanced Upper Stages, as well as several other internal IR&D's. The avionics system and AR&D simulator demonstrated to the SATWG in November 1990 has been upgraded considerably under two IR&D programs in 1991. The Centaur modern avionics system is being flown in block upgrades which started in July of 1990. The Inertial Navigation Unit will fly in November of 1991. The Cruise Missile avionics systems have been fully tested and operationally validated in combat. The integrated AR&D system for space vehicle applications has been under development and testing since 1990. A Joint NASA / GD ARD&L System Test Program is currently being planned to validate several aspects of system performance in three different NASA test facilities in 1992.

  1. Geometry, mechanics, and dynamics the legacy of Jerry Marsden

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl; Patrick, George; Ratiu, Tudor


    This book illustrates the broad range of Jerry Marsden’s mathematical legacy in areas of geometry, mechanics, and dynamics, from very pure mathematics to very applied, but always with a geometric perspective. Each contribution develops its material from the viewpoint of geometric mechanics beginning at the very foundations, introducing readers to modern issues via illustrations in a wide range of topics. The twenty refereed papers contained in this volume are based on lectures and research performed during the month of July 2012 at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, in a program in honor of Marsden's legacy. The unified treatment of the wide breadth of topics treated in this book will be of interest to both experts and novices in geometric mechanics. Experts will recognize applications of their own familiar concepts and methods in a wide variety of fields, some of which they may never have approached from a geometric viewpoint. Novices may choose topics that interest them among the ...

  2. Georges Lema\\^itre: Life, Science and Legacy


    Mitton, Simon


    This paper celebrates the remarkable life, science and legacy of Abb\\'e Georges Lema\\^itre, the Belgian cleric and professor of physics; he was the architect of the fireworks model for the origin of the universe. He died half a century ago, three days after learning that Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had discovered the cosmic microwave background. Despite being gravely ill from leukaemia, Lema\\^itre lucidly praised this news, which confirmed the explosive genesis of our universe.

  3. Legacy Radioactive Waste Management Program in the Netherlands: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ménard, Gaël


    Petten site legacy waste: • sorted on waste streams, from the less to the more heterogeneous; • footprint reduction by sorting according to activity; • first two waste streams: limited number of material; • characterized using gamma measurements and computational nuclide vectors. •Waste acceptance criteria: modus vivendi with the storage facility and third parties (based on characterization results); • More heterogeneous waste: more complex by definition → optimization, development and adaptation of the characterization

  4. The Legacy of the High Reliability Organizations Project


    Bourrier, Mathilde


    This article looks back over two decades of work pioneered by Todd LaPorte and colleagues, under the banner of High Reliability Theory (HRT). The article revisits the American roots of the Berkeley-based group and comments on its early and decisive fieldwork choices. It revisits some of the elements that emerged through the controversy around findings and implications of HRT. It discusses the legacy of HRT and the ethnographical impetus given to "normal operations" studies. The use of ethnogr...

  5. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke


    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  6. The influence of marketing scholarship's legacy on nonprofit marketing


    Wymer, Walter


    This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...

  7. The Roman Empire legacy of Galen (129-200 AD). (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Ghabili, Kamyar; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Balch, Margaret Wood; Cuceu, Mariana


    Galen of Pergamum was the physician of Roman Emperors and contributed to our early understanding of medicine and anatomy. Herein, we present a short biography of Galen and review his multiple contributions to medicine and anatomy. Although it has been almost 2,000 years since Galen walked the streets of the Roman Empire, his legacy continues via multiple eponyms that bare his name.

  8. Virtualization of Legacy Instrumentation Control Computers for Improved Reliability, Operational Life, and Management. (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan E


    Laboratories tend to be amenable environments for long-term reliable operation of scientific measurement equipment. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find equipment 5, 10, or even 20+ years old still being routinely used in labs. Unfortunately, the Achilles heel for many of these devices is the control/data acquisition computer. Often these computers run older operating systems (e.g., Windows XP) and, while they might only use standard network, USB or serial ports, they require proprietary software to be installed. Even if the original installation disks can be found, it is a burdensome process to reinstall and is fraught with "gotchas" that can derail the process-lost license keys, incompatible hardware, forgotten configuration settings, etc. If you have running legacy instrumentation, the computer is the ticking time bomb waiting to put a halt to your operation.In this chapter, I describe how to virtualize your currently running control computer. This virtualized computer "image" is easy to maintain, easy to back up and easy to redeploy. I have used this multiple times in my own lab to greatly improve the robustness of my legacy devices.After completing the steps in this chapter, you will have your original control computer as well as a virtual instance of that computer with all the software installed ready to control your hardware should your original computer ever be decommissioned.

  9. Environmental legacy of copper metallurgy and Mongol silver smelting recorded in Yunnan Lake sediments. (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L; Abbott, Mark B; Yu, JunQing; Bain, Daniel J; Chiou-Peng, TzeHuey


    Geochemical measurements on well-dated sediment cores from Lake Er (Erhai) are used to determine the timing of changes in metal concentrations over 4500 years in Yunnan, a borderland region in southwestern China noted for rich mineral deposits but with inadequately documented metallurgical history. Our findings add new insight into the impacts and environmental legacy of human exploitation of metal resources in Yunnan history. We observe an increase in copper at 1500 BC resulting from atmospheric emissions associated with metallurgy. These data clarify the chronological issues related to links between the onset of Yunnan metallurgy and the advent of bronze technology in adjacent Southeast Asia, subjects that have been debated for nearly half a century. We also observe an increase from 1100 to 1300 AD in a number of heavy metals including lead, silver, zinc, and cadmium from atmospheric emissions associated with silver smelting. Culminating during the rule of the Mongols, known as the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 AD), these metal concentrations approach levels three to four times higher than those from industrialized mining activity occurring within the catchment today. Notably, the concentrations of lead approach levels at which harmful effects may be observed in aquatic organisms. The persistence of this lead pollution over time created an environmental legacy that likely contributes to known issues in modern day sediment quality. We demonstrate that historic metallurgical production in Yunnan can cause substantial impacts on the sediment quality of lake systems, similar to other paleolimnological findings around the globe.

  10. Asteroseismic inversions in the Kepler era: application to the Kepler Legacy sample (United States)

    Buldgen, Gaël; Reese, Daniel; Dupret, Marc-Antoine


    In the past few years, the CoRoT and Kepler missions have carried out what is now called the space photometry revolution. This revolution is still ongoing thanks to K2 and will be continued by the Tess and Plato2.0 missions. However, the photometry revolution must also be followed by progress in stellar modelling, in order to lead to more precise and accurate determinations of fundamental stellar parameters such as masses, radii and ages. In this context, the long-lasting problems related to mixing processes in stellar interior is the main obstacle to further improvements of stellar modelling. In this contribution, we will apply structural asteroseismic inversion techniques to targets from the Kepler Legacy sample and analyse how these can help us constrain the fundamental parameters and mixing processes in these stars. Our approach is based on previous studies using the SOLA inversion technique [1] to determine integrated quantities such as the mean density [2], the acoustic radius, and core conditions indicators [3], and has already been successfully applied to the 16Cyg binary system [4]. We will show how this technique can be applied to the Kepler Legacy sample and how new indicators can help us to further constrain the chemical composition profiles of stars as well as provide stringent constraints on stellar ages.

  11. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited) (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.


    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  12. An Invitation to the Improved Yohkoh Legacy data Archive (United States)

    Takeda, A.; Acton, L. W.; McKenzie, D.; Yoshimura, K.; Freeland, S. L.


    The Yohkoh Legacy data Archive (YLA) is a unique source of solar X-ray images and spectra obtained with the Yohkoh satellite(1991-2001). The archive consists of four levels of data products from raw to highly value added, with ample amount of documentation and user-friendly web interface ( The YLA is also unique in that quality and variety of the products and services have been constantly improved through these nine years after the completion of the satellite mission. Our recent improvements are: (1) Completion of the stray light correction, applied to the data after the SXT entrance filter failure in 1992. (2) Completion of the satellite attitude data correction. (3) E-mail based individual user support (E-consultant service). (4) New FITS header definition with World Coordinate System compliance. (5) Update of SXT response function based on the latest atomic data and models (Chianti 6.0.1). (6) Introduction of a new data category, Level 3, for co-aligned composite images suitable for browsing in movie mode. The main body of our archive (data from the Soft X-ray Telescope) are provided in both Yohkoh-specific (XDA) and FITS formats. The XDA format is convenient for analysis with existing SSW/Yohkoh software that runs under IDL. The more general FITS format enables use of advanced SSW applications developed in the various missions after Yohkoh. FITS products do not specifically require IDL to read and view images, which allows our products to be accessed from a wide range of communities. Our products can be accessed through our quick-look and data-search web services, and also through the Virtual Solar Observatory data search. Since 2009, YLA is funded as one of NASA's Resident Archives in Virtual Observatories for Heliophysics Data program. Through the funds, we take responsibility for maintaining the best corrected data sets, and providing the easy access and user support. The top page of the YLA web interface

  13. Sport mega-events: can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Coakley


    Full Text Available Sport mega-events (SMEs involve struggles to determine the definition of legacy and the outcome priorities that guide legacy planning, funding, and implementation processes. History shows that legacies reflect the interests of capital, and legacy benefits are enjoyed primarily, if not exclusively, by powerful business interests, a few political leaders, and organizations that govern high performance sports. This paper addresses challenges faced by cities and countries that host SMEs, and shows that fair and equitable legacies and developmental outcomes are achieved only when the voices and interests of the general population are taken into account and given priority during the process of planning, funding and implementation. It also explains how full representation in the process of defining and achieving legacies and developmental outcomes may be undermined by populist beliefs about the power of sport.

  14. 76 FR 47520 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes (United States)


    ... Service Information Avions de Transport R gional has issued Service Bulletin ATR42-55-0014, dated May 11... of Design Authority, we have been notified of the unsafe condition described in the MCAI and service... design. Differences Between This AD and the MCAI or Service Information We have reviewed the MCAI and...

  15. Direct and legacy effects of long-term elevated CO₂ on fine root growth and plant-insect interactions. (United States)

    Stiling, Peter; Moon, Daniel; Rossi, Anthony; Forkner, Rebecca; Hungate, Bruce A; Day, Frank P; Schroeder, Rachel E; Drake, Bert


    Increasing atmospheric CO₂ concentrations alter leaf physiology, with effects that cascade to communities and ecosystems. Yet, responses over cycles of disturbance and recovery are not well known, because most experiments span limited ecological time. We examined the effects of CO₂ on root growth, herbivory and arthropod biodiversity in a woodland from 1996 to 2006, and the legacy of CO₂ enrichment on these processes during the year after the CO₂ treatment ceased. We used minirhizotrons to study root growth, leaf censuses to study herbivory and pitfall traps to determine the effects of elevated CO₂ on arthropod biodiversity. Elevated CO₂ increased fine root biomass, but decreased foliar nitrogen and herbivory on all plant species. Insect biodiversity was unchanged in elevated CO₂. Legacy effects of elevated CO₂ disappeared quickly as fine root growth, foliar nitrogen and herbivory levels recovered in the next growing season following the cessation of elevated CO₂. Although the effects of elevated CO₂ cascade through plants to herbivores, they do not reach other trophic levels, and biodiversity remains unchanged. The legacy of 10 yr of elevated CO₂ on plant-herbivore interactions in this system appear to be minimal, indicating that the effects of elevated CO₂ may not accumulate over cycles of disturbance and recovery. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Creating a career legacy map to help assure meaningful work in nursing. (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Britton, Dorienda R; Coleman, Lael; Engh, Eileen; Humbel, Tina Kunze; Keller, Susan; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Menard, Johanna; Lee, Marlene A; Roberts-Turner, Renee; Walczak, Dory


    When nurses declare a professional legacy (or what they intend to be better in health care because of their efforts), they are likely to maintain a focus on achieving their legacy and to experience meaning in the process. We depict the legacy and involved steps in creating a legacy map, which is a concrete guide forward to intended career outcomes. Informed by the "meaningful work" literature, we describe a legacy map, its function, the process to create one, and the application of a legacy map to guide careers. We also describe an administrative benefit of the legacy map-the map can be used by team leaders and members to secure needed resources and opportunities to support the desired legacy of team members. Legacy mapping can be a self-use career guidance tool for nurses and other health care professionals or a tool that links the career efforts of a team member with the career support efforts of a team leader. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Cardoso


    Full Text Available Legacies – structures that are built for events and which remain after the same - are one of the major positive aspects paraded by mega sporting events organizers. This study´s purpose is to analyze the current situation of legacies promised by the many governmental instances for the city of São Paulo - host city of Fifa´s 2014 World Cup – and prospect which legacies will become effective in the city. Preliminary assessments may raise construction concerns, alert the public to keep an eye on undertaken obligations and encourage official actions (Mangan, 2008, p. 1,871. Data was obtained from National Audit Court (TCU reports, Ministry and United Nations documents, in addition to testimonials and information gathered from some of Brazil´s major press media. Data analysis was conducted by classifying legacies according to tangible and intangible legacy concepts (Kaplanidou and Karadakis, 2010 followed by an analysis of promised legacies versus current status during the period of analysis. Finally, discussions as to most probable to come about legacies were presented. Results indicate that a portion of promised legacies stand a fair chance of achievement. On the other hand, other projects lag behind schedule or have been cancelled. Preliminary surveys suggest full completion of promised legacies is not possible, there has been an overuse of public resources as opposed to that planned, and provide indicatives as to the investment´s high opportunity cost.

  18. Cairo's Creswell Collection: A Legacy of Love. (United States)

    Burns, Kristie


    Describes the Creswell Library of Islamic Art and Architecture, which is housed at the American University in Cairo. A history of the library collection and its founder, Sir Keppell Archibald Creswell, is presented; his cataloging system and controlled access to materials are described; and current plans for the library are discussed. (LRW)

  19. Radiation Hard Electronics for Advanced Communication Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced reconfigurable/reprogrammable communication systems will require use of commercial sub 100 nm electronics. Legacy radiation tolerant circuits fail to...

  20. Radiation Hard Electronics for Advanced Communication Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced reconfigurable/reprogrammable communication systems will require use of commercial sub 100 nm electronics. Legacy radiation tolerant circuits fail to...

  1. External Tank Program - Legacy of Success (United States)

    Pilet, Jeffery C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle; Welzyn, Kenneth


    The largest single element of Space Shuttle is the External Tank (ET), which serves as the structural backbone of the vehicle during ascent and provides liquid propellants to the Orbiter s three Main Engines. The ET absorbs most of the seven million pounds of thrust exerted by the Solid Rocket Boosters and Main Engines. The design evolved through several block changes, reducing weight each time. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. The initial configuration, the standard weight tank, weighed 76,000 pounds and was an aluminum 2219 structure. The light weight tank weighed 66,000 pounds and flew 86 missions. The super light weight tank weighed 58,500 pounds and was primarily an aluminum-lithium structure. The final configuration and low weight enabled system level performance sufficient for assembly of the International Space Station in a high inclination orbit, vital for international cooperation. Another significant challenge was the minimization of ice formation on the cryogenic tanks. This was essential due to the system configuration and the choice of ceramic thermal protection system materials on the Orbiter. Ice would have been a major debris hazard. Spray on foam insulation materials served multiple functions including thermal insulation, conditioning of cryogenic propellants, and thermal protection for the tank structure during ascent and entry. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, and handling, and transportation operations were developed. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir

  2. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Ben-David, S.; Brookshire, D.S.; Schulze, W.D.; Boldt, D.


    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  3. The scientific legacy of William Herschel

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents a modern scholarly analysis of issues associated with England’s most famous astronomer, William Herschel. The world’s leading experts on Herschel, discoverer of the planet Uranus, here offer their combined wisdom on many aspects of his life and astronomical research. Solar system topics include comets, Earth’s Moon, and the spurious moons of Uranus, all objects whose observation was pioneered by Herschel.  The contributors examine his study of the structure of the Milky Way and an in-depth look at the development of the front view telescopes he built. The popular subject of extraterrestrial life is looked at from the point of view of both William Herschel and his son John, both of whom had an interest in the topic. William’s personal development through the educational system of the late eighteenth-century is also explored, and the wide range of verse and satire in various languages associated with his discoveries is collected here for the first time. Hershel worked at a time of i...

  4. Solving the Software Legacy Problem with RISA (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Gabriel, C.


    Nowadays hardware and system infrastructure evolve on time scales much shorter than the typical duration of space astronomy missions. Data processing software capabilities have to evolve to preserve the scientific return during the entire experiment life time. Software preservation is a key issue that has to be tackled before the end of the project to keep the data usable over many years. We present RISA (Remote Interface to Science Analysis) as a solution to decouple data processing software and infrastructure life-cycles, using JAVA applications and web-services wrappers to existing software. This architecture employs embedded SAS in virtual machines assuring a homogeneous job execution environment. We will also present the first studies to reactivate the data processing software of the EXOSAT mission, the first ESA X-ray astronomy mission launched in 1983, using the generic RISA approach.

  5. The scientific legacy of Poincaré

    CERN Document Server

    Charpentier, Éric; Lesne, Annick; Bowman, Joshua


    Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) was one of the greatest scientists of his time, perhaps the last one to have mastered and expanded almost all areas in mathematics and theoretical physics. He created new mathematical branches, such as algebraic topology, dynamical systems, and automorphic functions, and he opened the way to complex analysis with several variables and to the modern approach to asymptotic expansions. He revolutionized celestial mechanics, discovering deterministic chaos. In physics, he is one of the fathers of special relativity, and his work in the philosophy of sciences is illuminating. For this book, about twenty world experts were asked to present one part of Poincaré's extraordinary work. Each chapter treats one theme, presenting Poincaré's approach, and achievements, along with examples of recent applications and some current prospects. Their contributions emphasize the power and modernity of the work of Poincaré, an inexhaustible source of inspiration for researchers, as illustrated by the...

  6. Mapping Natural Terroir Units using a multivariate approach and legacy data (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Bucelli, Piero; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.


    Natural Terroir Unit (NTU) is a volume of earth's biosphere that is characterized by a stable set of variables related to the topography, climate, geology and soil. Methods to study the association soil-climate-vines are numerous, but the main question is always: which variables are actually important for the quality and the typicality of grapevines, and then wine, for a particular scale? This work aimed to setting up a multivariate methodology to define viticultural terroirs at the province scale (1:125,000), using viticultural and oenological legacy data. The study area was the Siena province in the Tuscany region (Central Italy). The reference grapevine cultivar was "Sangiovese", which is the most important cultivar of the region. The methodology was based upon the creation of a GIS storing several viticultural and oenological legacy data of 55 experimental vineyards (vintages between 1989-2009), the long term climate data, the digital elevation model, the soil-landscapes (land systems) and the soil profiles with the soil analysis. The selected viticultural and oenological parameters were: must sugar content, sugar accumulation rate from veraison to harvest, must titratable acidity, grape yield per vine, number of bunches for vine, mean bunch weight, and mean weight of berries. The environmental parameters related to viticulture, selected by an explorative PCA, were: elevation, mean annual temperature, mean soil temperature, annual precipitation, clay, sand and gravel content of soils, soil water availability, redoximorphic features and rooting depth. The geostatistical models of the variables interpolation were chosen on the best of mean standardize error, obtained by the cross-validation, between "Simple cokriging with varying local mean", "Multicollocated simple cokriging with varying local mean" and "Regression kriging". These variables were used for a k-means clustering aimed to map the Natural Terroirs Units (NTUs). The viticultural areas of Siena province

  7. The Own Education: Between Catholic Legacies and Ethnical Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel González Terreros


    Full Text Available This paper points a proposal of own education which is implemented in the department of Cauca, in Colombia, which was born from the intention of strengthening the Indian movement and recuperating its culture, which is submerged in a traditional, confessional model of education. These conflicting perspectives –ethnical/confessional- in the mere way they are analyzed in the study, are part of a social-cultural conflict that underlies own education, in which also merge different sectors, stories, legacies and proposals.

  8. Software exorcism a handbook for debugging and optimizing legacy code

    CERN Document Server

    Blunden, Bill


    Software Exorcism: A Handbook for Debugging and Optimizing Legacy Code takes an unflinching, no bulls and look at behavioral problems in the software engineering industry, shedding much-needed light on the social forces that make it difficult for programmers to do their job. Do you have a co-worker who perpetually writes bad code that you are forced to clean up? This is your book. While there are plenty of books on the market that cover debugging and short-term workarounds for bad code, Reverend Bill Blunden takes a revolutionary step beyond them by bringing our atten

  9. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain. (United States)

    Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica


    The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.

  10. The legacy of the Olympics: economic burden or boon?


    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Wolla, Scott A.


    Competition, sportsmanship, and national pride are the foundations of the Olympics, but how much do the Olympics cost the host city and country? What are some of the economic benefits and costs? Is the investment in the Olympics worth it in the end? Read about previous host experiences with the economic side of the Olympics in this month's Page One Economics Newsletter “The Legacy of the Olympics: Economic Burden or Boon?” (see related graph: "Olympics-Related Temporary Increase in Employment...

  11. Operation of chemical incinerator for disposal of legacy chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Saha, S.; Pimple, M.V.; Naik, P.D.


    For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h -1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)

  12. Resident Archive Services of the Yohkoh Legacy Data Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Takeda


    Full Text Available The Yohkoh Legacy Data Archive (YLA is one of the first group of Resident Archives (RAs selected for funding for NASA's Virtual Observatories for the Heliophysics Data program. YLA provides the best corrected data set of solar X-ray images and spectra from the Yohkoh satellite with a user-friendly web interface. As a RA, we take responsibility to keep our products well maintained and easily accessible. In addition, we have launched the 'E-consultant service', an e-mail based support to individual users regarding data handling to bolster access and use from a wide range of communities.

  13. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810–1871) (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei


    Abstract The little that remains of Motschoulsky’s myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow’s Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing. PMID:25147455

  14. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810-1871). (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei


    The little that remains of Motschoulsky's myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow's Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing.

  15. Taiji Ruler: Legacy of the Sleeping Immortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Cohen


    Full Text Available This article describes the history, development, and principles of the two major Taiji Ruler lineages: one associated with the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE imperial family, and the other lesser known, Daoist lineage, transmitted by Hu Yaozhen and his successors, including the well known Chen Style Taijiquan teacher, Feng Zhiqiang. The Taiji Ruler is a traditional system of health-enhancing qigong that is attributed to the Song Dynasty Daoist recluse Chen Xiyi and was first taught publicly in the 1950s. The exercises may be practiced while holding a foot-long wooden object, the Ruler, or with a variety of training devices, such as a wooden or stone ball. Mr. Cohen began studying Taji Ruler with various teachers more than 30 years ago, but also bases his research on works in Chinese and English. Both the teachers and literature agree that the ultimate goal of the Ruler is to blend with the original qi of the universe and, in the process, to achieve vitality and longevity.    

  16. History and neuroscience: an integrative legacy. (United States)

    Casper, Stephen T


    The attitudes that characterize the contemporary "neuro-turn" were strikingly commonplace as part of the self-fashioning of social identity in the biographies and personal papers of past neurologists and neuroscientists. Indeed, one fundamental connection between nineteenth- and twentieth-century neurology and contemporary neuroscience appears to be the value that workers in both domains attach to the idea of integration, a vision of neural science and medicine that connected reductionist science to broader inquiries about the mind, brain, and human nature and in so doing supposedly resolved once and for all questions germane to the human sciences, humanities, and arts. How those attitudes were produced and reproduced first in neurology and then in neuroscience; in what way they were constructed and disciplined, thereby eventuating in the contested sciences and medicines of the mind, brain, and nervous system; and even how they garnered ever-wider contemporary purchase in cultures and societies are thus fascinating problems for historians of science and medicine. Such problems shed light on ethics, practices, controversies, and the uneasy social relations within those scientific and medical domains. But more to the point of this essay: they also account for the apparent epistemological weight now accorded "the neuro" in our contemporary moment. They thus illuminate in a rather different way why historians have suddenly discovered the value of "the neuro".

  17. The legacy of the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.


    More than fifty-two years have elapsed since the atomic bomb-was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Over this period, the United States and the Soviet Union have engaged in a constant nuclear arms-race, in an effort to build a growing number of warheads and launching systems of increasingly higher destructive power, reflecting the logic of the balance of terror and the threat of mutually assured destruction. The years of the Cold War have, in fact, been dominated by the incredibly rapid growth of nuclear arsenals. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, coincided with the beginning of the process of nuclear disarmament and a diversion of funds from the industrial military complex. Nevertheless, 45 years of development and sophistication in nuclear armaments can't be immediately wiped off, for many reasons, the most evident of which being that the nuclear materials that forms the heart of atomic weapons, more precisely known as weapon-grade materials, can't be simply eliminated, as will be explained later in this text. Their dismantlement requires special technical means, which are not yet available to all nuclear powers. There are also other reasons why nuclear disarmament is such a complex and uneven process

  18. A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience (Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non- Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions) (United States)


    A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience--Translation(Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non-Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

  19. International conference entitled Zdeněk Kopal’s Binary Star Legacy

    CERN Document Server



    An international conference entitled "Zdenek Kopal's Binary Star Legacy" was held on the occasion of the late Professor Kopal's 90th birthday in his home town of Litomyšl/Czech Republic and dedicated to the memory of one of the leading astronomers of the 20th century. Professor Kopal, who devoted 60 years of his scientific life to the exploration of close binary systems, initiated a breakthrough in this field with his description of binary components as non-spherical stars deformed by gravity, with surfaces following Roche equipotentials. Such knowledge triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by exciting objects such as cataclysmic variables, symbiotic stars or X-ray binaries. Contributions to this conference included praise of the achievements of a great astronomer and personal reminiscences brought forward by Kopal's former students and colleagues, and reflected the state of the art of the dyn...

  20. Forest legacies, climate change, altered disturbance regimes, invasive species and water (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.; Jarnevich, C.; Kumar, S.


    The factors that must be considered in seeking to predict changes in water availability has been examined. These factors are the following: forest legacies including logging, mining, agriculture, grazing, elimination of large carnivores, human-caused wildfire, and pollution; climate change and stream flow; altered disturbances such as frequency intensity and pattern of wildfires and insect outbreaks as well as flood control; lastly, invasive species like forest pests and pathogens. An integrated approach quantifying the current and past condition trends can be combined with spatial and temporal modeling to develop future change in forest structures and water supply. The key is a combination of geographic information system technologies with climate and land use scenarios, while preventing and minimizing the effects of harmful invasive species.

  1. Computing element evolution towards Exascale and its impact on legacy simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin de Verdiere, Guillaume J.L.


    In the light of the current race towards the Exascale, this article highlights the main features of the forthcoming computing elements that will be at the core of next generations of supercomputers. The market analysis, underlying this work, shows that computers are facing a major evolution in terms of architecture. As a consequence, it is important to understand the impacts of those evolutions on legacy codes or programming methods. The problems of dissipated power and memory access are discussed and will lead to a vision of what should be an exascale system. To survive, programming languages had to respond to the hardware evolutions either by evolving or with the creation of new ones. From the previous elements, we elaborate why vectorization, multithreading, data locality awareness and hybrid programming will be the key to reach the exascale, implying that it is time to start rewriting codes. (orig.)

  2. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J.; Bjerg, Poul L.


    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. - Highlights: • Findings comprised a range of contemporary and banned legacy pesticides in streams. • Groundwater is a significant pathway for some herbicides entering streams. • Legacy pesticides increased predicted aquatic toxicity by four orders of magnitude. • Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for ecotoxicity. • Stream monitoring programs should include legacy pesticides to assess impacts. - Legacy pesticides, particularly sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity impacting benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams

  3. Stakeholder reflections of the tourism and nation-branding legacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past decade there has been a growing awareness of the significant impact that hosting mega sport events can have on a nation's brand. This paper discusses the context of nation-branding as a tourism legacy and the role of mega sport events in generating a tourism and nation-branding legacy in relation to the ...

  4. Social Justice and Human Rights in Education Policy Discourse: Assessing Nelson Mandela's Legacy (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Abrehet; Joshi, Devin


    Twenty years after South Africa's democratisation, Nelson Mandela's passing has prompted scholars to examine his legacy in various domains. Here we take a look at his legacy in education discourse. Tracing Mandela's thoughts and pronouncements on education we find two major emphases: a view of education as a practical means to economic…

  5. Educational legacies of mega-sport events for Africa | Burnett | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... engagement (international to national and local) by stakeholders, form different configurations to allow space within physical education and school sport practices for sport mega-event educational legacy programmes. Keywords: Educational legacy; Olympic Games; Olympism; Sport-for-development; Physical education.

  6. Past as Prologue: Educational Psychology's Legacy and Progeny (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.


    On the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association, the legacies and progenies of the discipline of educational psychology are explored. To capture those legacies, transformational and influential contributions by educational psychologists to schools and society are described as key themes. Those themes entail: the…

  7. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.


    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  8. Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perring, Michael P.; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Baeten, Lander; Midolo, Gabriele; Blondeel, Haben; Depauw, Leen; Landuyt, Dries; Maes, Sybryn L.; Lombaerde, De Emiel; Carón, Maria Mercedes; Vellend, Mark; Brunet, Jörg; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dörfler, Inken; Durak, Tomasz; Frenne, De Pieter; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hommel, Patrick; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kirby, Keith J.; Kopecký, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan; Li, Daijiang; Máliš, František; Mitchell, Fraser J.G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Petřík, Petr; Reczyńska, Kamila; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Calster, Van Hans; Vild, Ondřej; Wagner, Eva Rosa; Wulf, Monika; Verheyen, Kris


    The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental

  9. A Heuristic for Improving Legacy Software Quality during Maintenance: An Empirical Case Study (United States)

    Sale, Michael John


    Many organizations depend on the functionality of mission-critical legacy software and the continued maintenance of this software is vital. Legacy software is defined here as software that contains no testing suite, is often foreign to the developer performing the maintenance, lacks meaningful documentation, and over time, has become difficult to…

  10. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.


    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  11. Coupled Calculations in Helical Steam Generator: Validation on Legacy Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzari, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yuan, Haomin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraus, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ferencz, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The NEAMS program aims to develop an integrated multi-physics simulation capability “pellet-to-plant” for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants. In particular, the Reactor Product Line code suite's multi-resolution hierarchy is being designed to ultimately span the full range of length and time scales present in relevant reactor design and safety analyses, as well as scale from desktop to petaflop computing platforms. Flow-induced vibration (FIV) is widespread problem in energy systems because they rely on fluid movement for energy conversion. Vibrating structures may be damaged as fatigue or wear occurs. Given the importance of reliable components in the nuclear industry, flow-induced vibration has long been a major concern in safety and operation of nuclear reactors. In particular, nuclear fuel rods and steam generators have been known to suffer from flow-induced vibration and related failures. Advanced reactors, such as integral Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) considered for Small Modular Reactors (SMR), often rely on innovative component designs to meet cost and safety targets. One component that is the subject of advanced designs is the steam generator, some designs of which forego the usual shell-and-tube architecture in order to fit within the primary vessel. In addition to being more cost- and space-efficient, such steam generators need to be more reliable, since failure of the primary vessel represents a potential loss of coolant and a safety concern. A significant amount of data exists on flow-induced vibration in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, and heuristic methods are available to predict their occurrence based on a set of given assumptions. In contrast, advanced designs have far less data available. Advanced modeling and simulation based on coupled structural and fluid simulations have the potential to predict flow-induced vibration in a variety of designs, reducing the need for expensive experimental

  12. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity. (United States)

    Earls, Felton


    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  13. The Midwifery Legacies Project: history, progress, and future directions. (United States)

    Moore-Davis, Tonia L; McGee, Karen B; Moore, Elaine M; Paine, Lisa L


    The Midwifery Legacies Project, formerly known as the OnGoing Group, was founded as an annual greeting card outreach aimed at maintaining contact with midwives as they approached retirement and beyond. In 2009, the importance of documenting personal and professional stories of midwives arose out of a bequest by a midwife who was relatively unknown outside of the community she served. The result has been the evolution of a robust collection of stories, which are known as the 20th Century Midwife Story Collection. Between 2009 and 2014, more than 120 US midwives aged 65 years or older were interviewed by a midwife, a student midwife, or a professional filmmaker. Collectively, these midwives' stories offer an intimate snapshot of the social, political, and cultural influences that have shaped US midwifery during the past half century. Individually, the stories honor and recognize midwives' contributions to the profession and the women they have served. This article details the development, progress, and future directions of the Midwifery Legacies Project. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.


    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  15. CALIFA, the Calar alto legacy integral field area survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.


    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 < z < 0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on th...... the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first publicCALIFA data at present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005 ... on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. The galaxies in DR1 already cover a wide range of properties in color-magnitude space, morphological type, stellar mass, and gas ionization conditions. This offers the potential to tackle a variety of open questions in galaxy evolution using spatially...

  16. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 2 (United States)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.


    The application of communication structures to advanced transport aircraft are addressed. First, a set of avionic functional requirements is established, and a baseline set of avionics equipment is defined that will meet the requirements. Three alternative configurations for this equipment are then identified that represent the evolution toward more dispersed systems. Candidate communication structures are proposed for each system configuration, and these are compared using trade off analyses; these analyses emphasize reliability but also address complexity. Multiplex buses are recognized as the likely near term choice with mesh networks being desirable for advanced, highly dispersed systems.

  17. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results (United States)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.


    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  18. An experimental Study using ACSL and Frama-C to formulate and verify Low-Level Requirements from a DO-178C compliant Avionics Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dordowsky


    Full Text Available Safety critical avionics software is a natural application area for formal verification. This is reflected in the formal method's inclusion into the certification guideline DO-178C and its formal methods supplement DO-333. Airbus and Dassault-Aviation, for example, have conducted studies in using formal verification. A large German national research project, Verisoft XT, also examined the application of formal methods in the avionics domain. However, formal methods are not yet mainstream, and it is questionable if formal verification, especially formal deduction, can be integrated into the software development processes of a resource constrained small or medium enterprise (SME. ESG, a Munich based medium sized company, has conducted a small experimental study on the application of formal verification on a small portion of a real avionics project. The low level specification of a software function was formalized with ACSL, and the corresponding source code was partially verified using Frama-C and the WP plugin, with Alt-Ergo as automated prover. We established a couple of criteria which a method should meet to be fit for purpose for industrial use in SME, and evaluated these criteria with the experience gathered by using ACSL with Frama-C on a real world example. The paper reports on the results of this study but also highlights some issues regarding the method in general which, in our view, will typically arise when using the method in the domain of embedded real-time programming.

  19. Strategies to Mitigate Obsolescence in Defense Systems Using Commercial Components (Strategies visant a attenuer l’obsolescence des systemes par l’emploi de composants du commerce) (United States)


    the-Shelf (COTS) Technology Insertion During the System Life Cycle Ruben A. Lebron Jr., Robert Rossi, and William Foor Naval Air Systems Command Naval...military aircraft, based on LRUs designed for special functions, represent a symbiosis of multiple LRUs. Thereby the high complexity of avionics systems

  20. Domain-Specific Acceleration and Auto-Parallelization of Legacy Scientific Code in FORTRAN 77 using Source-to-Source Compilation


    Vanderbauwhede, Wim; Davidson, Gavin


    Massively parallel accelerators such as GPGPUs, manycores and FPGAs represent a powerful and affordable tool for scientists who look to speed up simulations of complex systems. However, porting code to such devices requires a detailed understanding of heterogeneous programming tools and effective strategies for parallelization. In this paper we present a source to source compilation approach with whole-program analysis to automatically transform single-threaded FORTRAN 77 legacy code into Ope...

  1. A fitting LEGACY – modelling Kepler's best stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarslev Magnus J.


    Full Text Available The LEGACY sample represents the best solar-like stars observed in the Kepler mission[5, 8]. The 66 stars in the sample are all on the main sequence or only slightly more evolved. They each have more than one year's observation data in short cadence, allowing for precise extraction of individual frequencies. Here we present model fits using a modified ASTFIT procedure employing two different near-surface-effect corrections, one by Christensen-Dalsgaard[4] and a newer correction proposed by Ball & Gizon[1]. We then compare the results obtained using the different corrections. We find that using the latter correction yields lower masses and significantly lower χ2 values for a large part of the sample.

  2. Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.


    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents

  3. The Legacy of Seligman's "Phobias and Preparedness" (1971). (United States)

    McNally, Richard J


    Seligman's (1971) classic article, "Phobias and Preparedness," marked a break from traditional conditioning theories of the etiology of phobias, inspiring a line of research integrating evolutionary theory with learning theory. In this article, I briefly sketch the context motivating the preparedness theory of phobias before summarizing the initial wave of laboratory conditioning experiments pioneered by Öhman and conducted by his team and by others to test predictions derived from Seligman's theory. Finally, I review the legacy of Seligman's article, including theoretical developments embodied in Öhman and Mineka's fear module approach as well as alternatives for explaining "preparedness" phenomena, including the selective sensitization, expectancy, and nonassociative theories. Although Seligman himself soon moved on to other topics, his seminal article in Behavior Therapy continues to inspire research more than four decades later that has deepened our understanding of the etiology of phobias. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  5. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program (United States)

    Simon, Amy


    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  6. Ultracool dwarf legacy science with ESA's Euclid mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.


    Full Text Available Euclid is an medium-class ESA mission that will carry out a 5 year survey of the extragalactic sky. The science drivers for the survey are cosmological and extragalactic. Nevertheless, the unprecedented depth over such a large area and the diffraction limited spatial resolution of the Euclid survey will have a long lasting impact in many fields of Astrophysics. This paper outlines the legacy science that will come out from Euclid in the field of ultracool dwarfs. In particular, it is foreseen that Euclid will increase the number of resolved ultracool binaries by more than an order of magnitude, and hence it will provide a stringent constraint on models of formation of very low-mass objects. Euclid can also find significant number of rare objects such as young free-floating planets or population III ultracool dwarfs.

  7. Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander


    Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o

  8. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils (United States)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.


    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  9. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.


    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  10. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry. (United States)

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W M; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J


    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the "Olympic legacy" following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields.

  11. Harvesting software systems for MDA-based reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, T.; Geers, H.; Van Deursen, A.


    In this paper we report on a feasibility study in reengineering legacy systems towards a model-driven architecture (MDA). Steps in our approach consist of (1) parsing the source code of the legacy system according to a grammar; (2) mapping the abstract syntax trees thus obtained to a grammar model

  12. Software engineering of a navigation and guidance system for commercial aircraft (United States)

    Lachmann, S. G.; Mckinstry, R. G.


    The avionics experimental configuration of the considered system is briefly reviewed, taking into account the concept of an advanced air traffic management system, flight critical and noncritical functions, and display system characteristics. Cockpit displays and the navigation computer are examined. Attention is given to the functions performed in the navigation computer, major programs in the navigation computer, and questions of software development.

  13. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation. (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F


    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  14. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Bobrov, A F; Sneve, M K


    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical–Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. (paper)

  15. How do land-use legacies affect ecosystem services in United States cultural landscapes? (United States)

    Carly Ziter; Rose A. Graves; Monica G. Turner


    ContextLandscape-scale studies of ecosystem services (ES) have increased, but few consider land-use history. Historical land use may be especially important in cultural landscapes, producing legacies...

  16. To Defend and Deter: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Missile Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lonnquest, John


    Defense (DoD) Legacy Resource Management Program was established under the Defense Appropriations Act of 1991 to 'determine how to better integrate the conservation of irreplaceable biological, cultural...

  17. Identifying & Inventorying Legacy Materials for Digitization at the National Transportation Library (United States)


    As an all-digital repository of transportation knowledge, the National Transportation Library (NTL) has undertaken several digitization projects over the years to preserve legacy print materials and make them accessible to stakeholders, researchers, ...

  18. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian


    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addi......We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater......, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable...

  19. From combinatorics to philosophy the legacy of G.-C. Rota

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Ernesto; Marra, Vincenzo


    This book provides an assessment of G. -C. Rota's legacy to international research in mathematics, philosophy and computer science. It includes chapters by leading researchers as well as a number of invited research papers.

  20. Electronics system design techniques for safety critical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sterpone, Luca


    Addresses the development of techniques for the evaluation and the hardening of designs implemented on SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays. This title presents a design methodology solving industrial designer''s needs for implementing electronic systems using SRAM-based FPGAs in critical environments, like the space or avionic ones.

  1. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement (United States)


    Boeing 787 Dreamliner , Boeing began its GoldCare program, 2 J. R. Ashayeri et al., “Inventory Management of Repairable Service Parts for Personal...struggled with maintaining avi- onics systems on the airline’s legacy Boeing 737-300s and 737-400s.5 The turnover rate for avionics systems often far

  2. XDS-I Gateway Development for HIE Connectivity with Legacy PACS at Gil Hospital. (United States)

    Simalango, Mikael Fernandus; Kim, Youngchul; Seo, Young Tae; Choi, Young Hwan; Cho, Yong Kyun


    The ability to support healthcare document sharing is imperative in a health information exchange (HIE). Sharing imaging documents or images, however, can be challenging, especially when they are stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive that does not support document sharing via standard HIE protocols. This research proposes a standard-compliant imaging gateway that enables connectivity between a legacy PACS and the entire HIE. Investigation of the PACS solutions used at Gil Hospital was conducted. An imaging gateway application was then developed using a Java technology stack. Imaging document sharing capability enabled by the gateway was tested by integrating it into Gil Hospital's order communication system and its HIE infrastructure. The gateway can acquire radiology images from a PACS storage system, provide and register the images to Gil Hospital's HIE for document sharing purposes, and make the images retrievable by a cross-enterprise document sharing document viewer. Development of an imaging gateway that mediates communication between a PACS and an HIE can be considered a viable option when the PACS does not support the standard protocol for cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging. Furthermore, the availability of common HIE standards expedites the development and integration of the imaging gateway with an HIE.

  3. A Comparison of Bus Architectures for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems (United States)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)


    We describe and compare the architectures of four fault-tolerant, safety-critical buses with a view to deducing principles common to all of them, the main differences in their design choices, and the tradeoffs made. Two of the buses come from an avionics heritage, and two from automobiles, though all four strive for similar levels of reliability and assurance. The avionics buses considered are the Honeywell SAFEbus (the backplane data bus used in the Boeing 777 Airplane Information Management System) and the NASA SPIDER (an architecture being developed as a demonstrator for certification under the new DO-254 guidelines); the automobile buses considered are the TTTech Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA), recently adopted by Audi for automobile applications, and by Honeywell for avionics and aircraft control functions, and FlexRay, which is being developed by a consortium of BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola, and Philips.

  4. Župančič's Legacy and His Personal Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Trobec Zadnik


    Full Text Available The legacy of writer Oton Župančič, acquired by the City Museum of Ljubljana in 1985 with a donation of the artist’s family, is a rare so large and diverse among artistic legacies. Its key part is the furniture of two rooms from Župančič’s last homes with his personal library. This article presents an overview of museum work done, from the acquisition of the legacy to its first public presentation in the framework of the exhibition Župančičeva spominska zbirka in 1985 in the museum. The methodology of the inventarization and technical foundation for the second exhibition of Oton Župančič legacy in 2008 is described. It is one of the few museum exhibitions facilitating the lovers of literary art to be in touch with the artist’s legacy on a daily basis. More detailed description of the museum’s inventory of the personal library uncovered that books are not just a literal material but also the museum subjects that exhibit artist’s work and interests and as such are the mirror of time. Many books overwritten and painted became the artist’s notebooks and thus his personal belongings. In conclusion, the obtained results and limitations are discussed and plans for further consideration and presentation of the legacy are mentioned.

  5. Information report presented in application of article 145 of the regulation by the commission of national defense and armed forces about the propulsion system of the second aircraft carrier; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission de la defense nationale et des forces armees sur le mode de propulsion du second porte-avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the framework of the project of launching of a sister-ship to the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, this report makes an objective analysis of the different possible propulsion systems that can be considered for this battle ship according to different criteria: 1 - two possible energy sources and four possible configurations of aircraft carrier considered: alternative between nuclear propulsion and conventional propulsion, the two nuclear ships eventualities, the hypothesis of an entirely French-made classical propulsion ship, the opportunity of a French-British cooperation for a conventional aircraft carrier project; 2 - decision criteria: operational need, cost, industrial and technological stakes, constraints linked with daily ship and crew life; 3 - propulsion systems alternative: conventional propulsion and reinforcement of the European defense policy, nuclear propulsion for an operational superiority and for a complementarity with the Charles de Gaulle. (J.S.)

  6. Osprey: Operating system for predictable clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacha, Jan; Napper, Jeff; Mullender, Sape J.; McKie, Jim


    Cloud computing is currently based on hardware virtualization wherein a host operating system provides a virtual machine interface nearly identical to that of physical hardware to guest operating systems. Full transparency allows backward compatibility with legacy software but introduces

  7. Nutrient pressures and legacies in a small agricultural karst catchment (United States)

    Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Daly, Karen; Wall, David P.; Jahangir, Mohammad M.; Jordan, Phil; Hennessey, Deirdre; Huebsch, Manuela; Blum, Philipp; Vero, Sara; Richards, Karl G.


    Catchments with short subsurface hydrologic time lags are commonly at risk for leached losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Such catchments are suitable for testing the efficacy of mitigation measures as management changes. In some sites, however, N and P may be retained in the soil and subsoil layers, and then leached, mobilised or attenuated over time. This biogeochemical time lag may therefore have enduring effects on the water quality. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of N and P retention, attenuation and distribution of subsurface pathway in an intensively managed agricultural karst catchment with an oxidised aquifer setting, and also to inform how similar sites can be managed in the future. Results showed that in the years pre-2000 slurry from an on-site integrated pig production unit had been applied at rates of 33 t/ha annually, which supplied approximately 136 kg/ha total N and approximately 26 kg/ha total P annually. This practice contributed to large quantities of N (total N and NH4-N) and elevated soil test P (Morgan extractable P), present to a depth of 1 m. This store was augmented by recent surpluses of 263 kg N/ha, with leached N to groundwater of 82.5 kg N/ha and only 2.5 kg N/ha denitrified in the aquifer thereafter. Sub hourly spring data showed the largest proportion of N loss from small (54-88%) and medium fissure pathways (7- 21%) with longer hydrologic time lags, with smallest loads from either large fissure (1-13%) or conduit (1-10%) pathways with short hydrologic time lags (reaction time at the spring from onset of a rainfall event is within hours). Although soils were saturated in P and in mobile forms to 0.5 m, dissolved reactive P concentrations in groundwater remained low due to Ca and Mg limestone chemistry. Under these conditions a depletion of the legacy store, with no further inputs, would take approximately 50 years and with NO3-N concentrations in the source area dropping to levels that could sustain

  8. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials. (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo


    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90) (United States)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher; Hoq, Sadia


    We request Mopra time to complete MALT90, a large, volume-complete survey of high-mass star-forming cores. MALT90 is unique and exploits Mopra's capability for OTF mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90GHz. These molecular lines probe the cores' physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span their complete range in evolution. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1km/s) resolution. As in the previous years, fully reduced data products will be made available to the community through the ATOA. In order for MALT90 to be volume-complete, we require 1397 hours to map 942 remaining cores. This time allocation is necessary so that MALT90 is complete to all high-mass cores out to 7kpc: a carefully chosen distance limit to adequate sample a range of Galactic environments and to include all high-mass regions for which individual cores can be resolved with ALMA. When complete, MALT90 will provide an important legacy database for the community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass cores for ALMA.

  10. MALT 90: The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Foster, J.; Brooks, K.; Rathborne, J.; Longmore, S.


    We present the first season results of the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), which will image 3 mm molecular line emission from 3,000 dense star-forming cores. MALT90 exploits the capability of the ATNF Mopra 22 m telescope for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores’ physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 micron ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. We present preliminary results for four key science projects: (1) determining the kinematic distances and Galactic distribution of dense cores, (2) establishing the distribution and evolution of angular momentum in a large sample of high-mass cores, (3) investigating the chemical evolution of dense cores, and (4) comparing the extragalactic molecular line-infrared luminosity correlations with those in Galactic cores. MALT90 will provide the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  11. Historical legacies of river pollution reconstructed from fish scales. (United States)

    Morán, Paloma; Cal, Laura; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Almécija, Clara; Caballero, Pablo; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos


    Many rivers have been impacted by heavy metal pollution in the past but the long-term legacies on biodiversity are difficult to estimate. The River Ulla (NW Spain) was impacted by tailings from a copper mine during the 1970-1980s but absence of baseline values and lack of subsequent monitoring have prevented a full impact assessment. We used archived fish scales of Atlantic salmon to reconstruct levels of historical copper pollution and its effects on salmon fitness. Copper bioaccumulation significantly increased over baseline values during the operation of the mine, reaching sublethal levels for salmon survival. Juvenile growth and relative population abundance decreased during mining, but no such effects were observed in a neighbouring river unaffected by mining. Our results indicate that historical copper exposure has probably compromised the fitness of this Atlantic salmon population to the present day, and that fish scales are suitable biomarkers of past river pollution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The talent of mature women and their legacy for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Troncoso Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of facts about women who shone in their youth either for their research, their works of art, or their social and political activities, and who remained active in their later years, when they became what are commonly called senior citizens. It was during these years that these brilliant women managed to crystallise and consolidate the work they had done all of their life, bringing about changes in scientific, artistic, cultural and social fields, leaving behind a legacy of knowledge for future generations. A small host of women representing different disciplines has been chosen here, and all of these women were active in their later life. Many others who could have been included will not be found, not only because there is not enough space here to mention all of them here, but also because there is a lack of sources dealing with the millions of senior heroines who are anonymous; elderly women who play a vital role in the development of humanity when they pass on knowledge and values; women who remain active in their later years and who only retire the day they die

  13. Born Broken: Fonts and Information Loss in Legacy Digital Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown


    Full Text Available For millions of legacy documents, correct rendering depends upon resources such as fonts that are not generally embedded within the document structure. Yet there is a significant risk of information loss due to missing or incorrectly substituted fonts. Large document collections depend on thousands of unique fonts not available on a common desktop workstation, which typically has between 100 and 200 fonts. Silent substitution of fonts, performed by applications such as Microsoft Office, can yield poorly rendered documents. In this paper we use a collection of 230,000 Word documents to assess the difficulty of matching font requirements with a database of fonts. We describe the identifying information contained in common font formats, font requirements stored in Word documents, the API provided by Windows to support font requests by applications, the documented substitution algorithms used by Windows when requested fonts are not available, and the ways in which support software might be used to control font substitution in a preservation environment.

  14. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.


    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  15. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton. (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas


    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  16. Who cares? The lost legacy of Archie Cochrane. (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Sandset, Tony; Engebretsen, Eivind


    Over the last 20 years, the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has sought to develop standardised approaches to patient treatment by drawing on research results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration and its eponym, Archie Cochrane, have become symbols of this development, and Cochrane's book Effectiveness and Efficiency from 1972 is often referred to as the first sketch of what was to become EBM. In this article, we claim that this construction of EBM's historical roots is based on a selective reading of Cochrane's text. Through a close reading of this text, we show that the principal aim of modern EBM, namely to warrant clinical decisions based on evidence drawn from RCTs, is not part of Cochrane's original project. He had more modest ambitions for what RCTs can accomplish, and, more importantly, he was more concerned with care and equality than are his followers in the EBM movement. We try to reconstruct some of Cochrane's lost legacy and to articulate some of the important silences in Effectiveness and Efficiency From these clues it might be possible, we argue, to remodel EBM in a broader, more pluralistic, more democratic and less authoritarian manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba


    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  18. The raven flights: intersemiotic translations and legacy for media arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helciclever Barros da Silva Vitoriano


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop some comments and comparisons between Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” (1845 and his essay “Philosophy of Composition” (1846, as part of a semiotic translation of that poem, notably in the movie industry, visual arts, HQ and other productions intermedia, with the theoretical and critical pillars initially based on Poe’s poetry itself. In terms of methodology, inter-semiotic and intermediality translation studies played a major role. Among the findings of this article, there is the genetic potential of the crow to interartistical and inter-semiotic transpositions, which are strongly anchored to the Philosophy of Composition, which was and still is an ode to the meticulous artistic work, and, at the same time, the poetic modern tale and an important pre-media trail, to signal and anticipate some features still felt in the literary, visual, and cinematographic arts today. As of Poe´s legacy to the cinema, the first film directors and producers soon realized the strength of the seventh art to translate into few images larger contexts, as the biographical ones, and they also realized the cinematographic potential in merging real and fictional stories, documenting and aestheticizing reality. Cinema was, then, perceived as a new and strong expression, able to generate new meanings and lead the viewer, which was the way Poe used to refer to narrative and poetic literature.

  19. John Snow’s legacy: epidemiology without borders (United States)

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus


    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11–12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow’s example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world. PMID:23582396

  20. Post-fire drought effects and their legacy on soil functionality and microbial community structure in a Mediterranean shrubland (United States)

    Belen Hinojosa, M.; Parra, Antonio; Laudicina, V. Armando; Moreno, José M.


    Climate change in subtropical areas, like the Mediterranean, is projected to decrease precipitation and to lengthen the seasonal drought period. Fire danger is also projected to increase under the most severe conditions. Little is known about the effects of increasing drought and, particularly, its legacy when precipitation resumes to normal, on the recovery of burned ecosystems. Here we studied the effects of post-fire drought and its legacy two years after it stopped on soil microbial community structure and functionality of a Cistus-Erica shrubland. To do this, a manipulative experiment was setup in which rainfall total patterns were modified by means of a rain-out shelters and irrigation system in a fully replicated set of previously burned plots. The treatments were: environmental control (natural rainfall), historical control (average rainfall, 2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction of historical control, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). One set of unburned plots under natural rainfall served as an additional control. Availability of the main soil nutrients and microbial community composition and functionality were monitored over 4 years under these rainfall manipulation treatments. Thereafter, treatments were discontinued and plots were subjected to ambient rainfall for two additional years. Post-fire drought had not effect on total C or N. Fire increased soil P and N availability. However, post-fire drought reduced available soil P and increased nitrate in the short term. Post- fire reduction of available K was accentuated by continued drought. Fire significantly reduced soil organic matter, enzyme activities and carbon mineralization, mainly in drought treated soils. Fire also decreased soil microbial biomass and the proportion of fungi, while that of actinomycetes increased in the short term. Post-fire drought accentuated the decrease of soil total microbial biomass and fungi, with bacteria becoming more