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Sample records for leg flexion exercise

  1. Enhanced muscle blood flow with intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower leg during plantar flexion exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, K A; Prince, C N; Hughson, R L; Peterson, S D

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent compression of the lower limb would increase blood flow during exercise and postexercise recovery. Data were collected from 12 healthy individuals (8 men) who performed 3 min of standing plantar flexion exercise. The following three conditions were tested: no applied compression (NoComp), compression during the exercise period only (ExComp), and compression during 2 min of standing postexercise recovery. Doppler ultrasound was used to determine superficial femoral artery (SFA) blood flow responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac stroke volume (SV) were assessed using finger photoplethysmography, with vascular conductance (VC) calculated as VC = SFA flow/MAP. Compared with the NoComp condition, compression resulted in increased MAP during exercise [+3.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (mean ± SD)] but not during postexercise recovery (+1.6 ± 5.9 mmHg). SV increased with compression during both exercise (+4.8 ± 5.1 ml) and recovery (+8.0 ± 6.6 ml) compared with NoComp. There was a greater increase in SFA flow with compression during exercise (+52.1 ± 57.2 ml/min) and during recovery (+58.6 ± 56.7 ml/min). VC immediately following exercise was also significantly greater in the ExComp condition compared with the NoComp condition (+0.57 ± 0.42 ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ), suggesting the observed increase in blood flow during exercise was in part because of changes in VC. Results from this study support the hypothesis that intermittent compression applied during exercise and recovery from exercise results in increased limb blood flow, potentially contributing to changes in exercise performance and recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to working skeletal muscle is achieved in part through the rhythmic actions of the skeletal muscle pump. This study demonstrated that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, to mimic the mechanical

  2. Lack of age-specific influence on leg blood flow during incremental calf plantar-flexion exercise in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Heather; Lane, Louise M; Egaña, Mikel

    2018-03-03

    Age-related exercising leg blood flow (LBF) responses during dynamic knee-extension exercise and forearm blood flow responses during handgrip exercise are preserved in normally active men but attenuated in activity-matched women. We explored whether these age- and sex-specific effects are also apparent during isometric calf plantar-flexion incremental exercise. Normally active young men (YM, n = 15, 24 ± 2 years), young women (YW, n = 8, 22 ± 1 years), older men (OM, n = 13, 70 ± 7 years) and older women (OW, n = 10, 64 ± 7 years) were tested. LBF was measured between contractions using venous occlusion plethysmography. Peak force obtained was higher (P conductance [LVC = LBF/(MAP + hydrostatic pressure)] responses (YM; 6.0 ± 1.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OM; 5.5 ± 2.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , YW; 5.3 ± 2.1 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OW; 5.5 ± 1.6 ml min -1 mmHg -1 ) were similar among the four groups. Furthermore, the hyperaemic (YM; 8.8 ± 3.7 ml min -1  %F peak -1 OM; 8.3 ± 5.4 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 8.2 ± 3.5 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 9.6 ± 2.2 ml min -1  %F peak -1 ) and vasodilatory responses (YM; 0.053 ± 0.020 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OM; 0.048 ± 0.028 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 0.051 ± 0.019 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 0.055 ± 0.014 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 ) were not different among the four groups. These results were accompanied by similar resting LBF responses among groups and were not affected when data were normalised to estimated leg muscle mass. Our results demonstrate that exercising LBF responses during isometric incremental calf muscle exercise are preserved in older men and women, suggesting that the previously observed age-related attenuations in leg and forearm hyperaemia among women may be muscle-group specific.

  3. Quantification of muscle oxygenation and flow of healthy volunteers during cuff occlusion of arm and leg flexor muscles and plantar flexion exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Zhou, Chao; Lech, Gwen; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    A hybrid instrument combining near infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies was used to measure muscle oxygenation and blood flow dynamics during cuff occlusion and ischemia. Measurements were done on six healthy subjects on their arm and leg flexor muscles. Hemodynamic response was characterized for blood oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin concenration and relative blood flow speed. The characterization allowed us to define the normal response range as well as showing the feasibility of using a hybrid instrument for dynamic measurements.

  4. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  5. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program mea...

  6. Spine lateral flexion strength development differences between exercises with pelvic stabilization and without pelvic stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straton, Alexandru; Gidu, Diana Victoria; Micu, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Poor lateral flexor muscle strength can be an important source of lumbar/thoracic back pain in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pelvic stabilization (PS) and no pelvic stabilization (NoPS) lateral flexion strength exercise training on the development of isolated right and left lateral flexion strength. Isometric torque of the isolated right and left lateral flexion muscles was measured at two positions (0° and 30° opposed angle range of motion) on 42 healthy women before and after 8 weeks of PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise training. Subjects were assigned in three groups, the first (n=14) trained 3 times/week with PS lateral flexion strength exercise, the second (n=14) trained 3 times/week with NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise and the third (control, n=14) did not train. Post training isometric strength values describing PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength improved in greater extent for the PS lateral flexion strength exercise group and in lesser extent for the NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise group, in both angles (pstrength exercises; NoPS lateral flexion strength exercises can be an effective way of training for the spine lateral flexion muscles, if there is no access to PS lateral flexion strength training machines.

  7. Leg blood flow during static exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Persson, J

    1982-01-01

    Leg blood flow was studied with the constant infusion dye technique during static exercise of the thigh muscles (quadriceps) and during hand-grips at 15 and 25-30% of MVC. Blood flow and oxygen uptake in the leg increased in quadriceps exercise and reached their highest values (around 1.21/min and 165 ml/min respectively) at 25-30% of MVC, whereas leg vascular resistance decreased. Regional circulatory adaptations and the oxygen uptake - leg blood flow relationship were in close agreement with the responses found in dynamic leg exercise. In view of the marked rise in intramuscular pressure previously observed during quadriceps contractions, a restriction of blood flow and an increased vascular resistance had been expected. Involuntary activation of leg muscles other than the quadriceps may explain the finding. Contractions of the contralateral quadriceps induced a slight increase in leg blood flow, whereas hand-grips had no influence on blood flow or vascular resistance in the leg. The distribution of the cardiac output during static contractions is discussed, and it is concluded that during hand-grips the increase in blood flow is predominantly distributed to the upper part of the body.

  8. Effect of Ankle Positioning During Hamstring Stretches for Improving Straight Leg Hip Flexion Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G; Benjamin, Peter J; Selkow, Noelle M

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of stretching the hamstrings with the ankle in either a plantar-flexed (PF) or dorsiflexed (DF) position for improving straight leg hip flexion range of motion (ROM) over a 4-week period. Randomized, single-blinded, pretest, posttest design. Athletic training facility. Each limb of 34 asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 19 females) was randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups. Twenty-four limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in DF, 24 limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in PF, and 20 limbs received no stretch (control). Ankle position (PF, DF) during hamstring stretching. We measured pretest and posttest passive straight leg hip flexion ROM with the test ankle in a neutral position. For the intervention groups, the test limb was passively stretched with the ankle held in end range DF or PF for their respective group. Each stretch was held for 30 seconds for a total of 3 applications. Two treatment sessions were completed per week for a total of 4 weeks. The control limbs received no stretching during the 4-week period. We conducted 1-way analyses of covariance to determine significant changes in ROM between groups (P hamstrings in either PF or DF improve straight leg hip ROM compared with a control group. The results of this study should be considered by clinicians when determining the optimal stretching techniques aimed at increasing hamstring length.

  9. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Vinstrup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors.

  10. Influence of increasing knee flexion angle on knee-ankle varus stress during single-leg jump landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Ameer, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the peak knee flexion angle and knee-ankle varus stress in the landing phase of the single-leg jump during running. Methods: Fifteen male handball players from the first Saudi Arabian handball team were incorporated in this study. Each player performed a single-leg jump-land after running a fixed distance of 450 cm. The data were measured using a 3D motion analysis system. The maximum knee flexion angle, knee varus angle, centre of pressure pathway in the medio-lateral direction, and ankle varus moment were measured. Results: The Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed that a greater knee flexion angle was related to a greater lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (r = 0.794, P = 0.000, a greater ankle varus moment (r = 0.707, P = 0.003, and a greater knee varus angle (r = 0.753, P = 0.001. In addition, the greater ankle varus moment was related to the greater lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (r = 0.734, P = 0.002. Conclusions: These findings may help physical therapists and conditioning professionals to understand the impact of increasing knee flexion angle on the lower limb joints. Such findings may help to develop training protocols for enhancing the lateral body reaction during the landing phase of the single-leg jump, which may protect the knee and ankle joints from excessive varus stresses. Keywords: 3D motion analysis, Ankle kinetic, Centre of pressure pathway, Handball playing, Knee kinematic, Single-leg jump

  11. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo Déficit bilateral en los movimientos de flexion y extension de la pierna y flexion del codo Bilateral deficit in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht Chaves

    2004-12-01

    áxima (CM en la flexión y extensión de pierna e flexión del de codo aisladamente y entre la suma de esos dos resultados con aquel desarrollado simultaneamente por las dos piernas y los dos brazos, respectivamente. Sometemos a 60 indivíduos al ejercicio de flexión y extensión de pierna y a flexión de codo a un test de 1RM. Los resultados para los movimientos de flexión y extensión de pierna y flexión de codo izquierdos y derechos en la CM fueron de 31,6 (± 7,9, 32,0 (± 8,0, 20,2 (± 9,2, 20,2 (± 9,8, 29,3 (± 13,9 e 29,8 (± 14,1 kg respectivamente, y se mostraron similares (p > 0,05 y fuertemente asociados (r = 0,96, 0,96 e 0,98. Comparando la suma de los valores unilaterales con los de ejecución bilateral, la CM presentó una diferencia significativa para los movimientos de extensión de pierna (p = 0,04 y flexión de codo (p = 0,03, el mismo no fué observado en el movimiento de flexión de pierna (p = 0,75. Este resultado puede ser explicado por el menor incremento de carga - dos kilos y medio en este último movimiento en relación a los dos movimientos anteriores - cinco kilos. A pesar de la mayoría de los sujetos sean diestros, no hubo diferencias unilaterales en la CM a pesar de no todos estar entrenados. La suma de los resultados unilaterales fué mayor en 9,8% y 4,0% para los movimientos de extensión de la pierna y flexión del codo, respectivamente, de aquel obtenido bilateralmente, mostrando, probablemente una limitación central en la coordenación motora de un movimiento complejo hecho en máxima velocidad y con carga elevada. Por otro lado, en el movimiento de flexión de pierna, la suma de los resultados unilaterales fué inferior a la bilateral (-0,6%, presentando un posible aprendizage del movimiento y adaptación al entrenamiento con pesos a partir de las doce semanas.Endurance exercises (EE may be performed unilaterally and bilaterally. The objective was to compare the maximum load (ML in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion alone

  12. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  13. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  14. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  15. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    Six young, healthy male subjects were each studied in two experiments: (1) during resting conditions before and for 360 min after a meal (54% of energy as carbohydrate, 30% of energy as lipid, and 16% of energy as protein) comprising 25% of their total daily energy intake (M-->R); and (2) while...... exercising on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at 50% of the peak oxygen consumption commencing 60 min after the meal (M-->E) and then for another 240 min. Regional metabolism was measured by Fick's Principle in a leg and in the splanchnic tissue. The combination of food intake and exercise led to increased...... plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and clearance in the exercising legs immediately and for at least 4 h post-exercise, while food intake per se did not change leg plasma TAG uptake or clearance for up to 6 h. It is hypothesized that the effect of exercise on leg plasma TAG metabolism is a result...

  17. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Reinking, Mark F.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular patholog...

  18. Design of a wearable hand exoskeleton for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Inseong; Lee, Jeongsoo; Park, Yeongyu; Bae, Joonbum

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, design of a wearable hand exoskeleton system for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers, is proposed. The exoskeleton was designed with a simple and wearable structure to aid finger motions in 1 degree of freedom (DOF). A hand grasping experiment by fully-abled people was performed to investigate general hand flexion/extension motions and the polynomial curve of general hand motions was obtained. To customize the hand exoskeleton for the user, the polynomial curve was adjusted to the joint range of motion (ROM) of the user and the optimal design of the exoskeleton structure was obtained using the optimization algorithm. A prototype divided into two parts (one part for the thumb, the other for rest fingers) was actuated by only two linear motors for compact size and light weight.

  19. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P hemoglobin to be 50% saturated (P50: r = 0.93, P ...Hg, respectively. Because conditions for O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are similar in leg and arm muscles, the observed differences in maximal arm and leg O2 extraction should be attributed to other factors, such as a higher heterogeneity in blood flow distribution, shorter mean transit time, smaller...

  20. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...... release by the arm of approximately 2.1 mmol/min, which was balanced by a similar net lactate uptake by the leg. Whole body and limb lactate oxidation during Continuous Arm + Leg was approximately 45% at rest and approximately 95% of disappearance rate and limb lactate uptake, respectively. Limb lactate...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  2. Do isolated leg exercises improve dyspnea during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William

    2013-09-01

    Dyspnea, the subjective feeling of shortness of breath, is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs aim to improve dyspnea, thereby increasing exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. Exercise training is proven to be an essential component of PR; however, there is no consensus regarding which training modality confers the greatest therapeutic benefit. Secondary to pulmonary impairment, many COPD patients develop limb muscle dysfunction (LMD), particularly in the leg muscles. Mounting evidence suggests that peripheral limitation to exercise as a result of LMD is frequent in patients with COPD. LMD of the legs, or lower limb muscle dysfunction, has been shown to markedly influence ventilatory and dyspnea responses to exercise. Accordingly, isolated training of leg muscles may contribute to reducing dyspnea and increase exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. Indeed, relative to the largely irreversible impairment of the pulmonary system, the leg muscles are an important site by which to improve patients' level of function and quality of life. Isolated leg exercises have been shown to improve LMD and may constitute an effective training modality to improve dyspnea and exercise tolerance in COPD within the context of PR.

  3. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

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    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  4. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  5. Double-leg isometric exercise training in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baross AW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthony W Baross,1 Jonathan D Wiles,2 Ian L Swaine21Sport and Exercise Science, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 2Sport and Exercise Science, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKAbstract: Double-leg isometric training has been demonstrated to reduce resting blood pressure in young men when using electromyographic activity (EMG to regulate exercise intensity. This study assessed this training method in healthy older (45–60 years. men. Initially, 35 older men performed an incremental isometric exercise test to determine the linearity of the heart rate versus percentage peak EMG (%EMGpeak and systolic blood pressure versus %EMGpeak relationship. Thereafter, 20 participants were allocated to a training or control group. The training group performed three double-leg isometric sessions per week for 8 weeks, at 85% of peak heart rate. The training resulted in a significant reduction in resting systolic (11 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.05 and mean arterial (5 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05 blood pressure. There was no significant change in resting systolic blood pressure for the control group or diastolic blood pressure in either group (all P > 0.05. These findings show that this training method, used previously in young men, is also effective in reducing resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure in older men.Keywords: electromyography, resting blood pressure, heart rate

  6. Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brad; Zhao, Mingjun; Shang, Yu; Uhl, Timothy; Thomas, D. Travis; Xenos, Eleftherios S.; Saha, Sibu P.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Occlusion calibrations and gating techniques have been recently applied by our laboratory for continuous and absolute diffuse optical measurements of forearm muscle hemodynamics during handgrip exercises. The translation of these techniques from the forearm to the lower limb is the goal of this study as various diseases preferentially affect muscles in the lower extremity. This study adapted a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system with a gating algorithm to continuously quantify hemodynamic responses of medial gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercises in 10 healthy subjects. The outcomes from optical measurement include oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, blood oxygen saturation, and relative changes in blood flow (rBF) and oxygen consumption rate (rV˙O2). We calibrated rBF and rV˙O2 profiles with absolute baseline values of BF and V˙O2 obtained by venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Results from this investigation were comparable to values from similar studies. Additionally, significant correlation was observed between resting local muscle BF measured by the optical technique and whole limb BF measured concurrently by a strain gauge venous plethysmography. The extensive hemodynamic and metabolic profiles during exercise will allow for future comparison studies to investigate the diagnostic value of hybrid technologies in muscles affected by disease.

  7. Individual Responses for Muscle Activation, Repetitions, and Volume during Three Sets to Failure of High- (80% 1RM versus Low-Load (30% 1RM Forearm Flexion Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D. M. Jenkins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared electromyographic (EMG amplitude, the number of repetitions completed, and exercise volume during three sets to failure of high- (80% 1RM versus low-load (30% 1RM forearm flexion resistance exercise on a subject-by-subject basis. Fifteen men were familiarized, completed forearm flexion 1RM testing. Forty-eight to 72 h later, the subjects completed three sets to failure of dumbbell forearm flexion resistance exercise with 80% (n = 8 or 30% (n = 7 1RM. EMG amplitude was calculated for every repetition, and the number of repetitions performed and exercise volume were recorded. During sets 1, 2, and 3, one of eight subjects in the 80% 1RM group demonstrated a significant linear relationship for EMG amplitude versus repetition. For the 30% 1RM group, seven, five, and four of seven subjects demonstrated significant linear relationships during sets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean EMG amplitude responses show that the fatigue-induced increases in EMG amplitude for the 30% 1RM group and no change in EMG amplitude for the 80% 1RM group resulted in similar levels of muscle activation in both groups. The numbers of repetitions completed were comparatively greater, while exercise volumes were similar in the 30% versus 80% 1RM group. Our results, in conjunction with those of previous studies in the leg extensors, suggest that there may be muscle specific differences in the responses to high- versus low-load exercise.

  8. Leg muscles activities during hyperventilation following a cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P; Mora, I; Terrien, J; Lelard, T; Petitjean, M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish how increased ventilation modifies postural stability, as characterized by body sway and leg muscle activities. Twelve healthy subjects had to perform six 30-second postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing gently and then one test every minute for the five minutes immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Subjects were asked to maintain an upright stance on a force plate for 30 s, with their eyes open. Movement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored in the time and spectral domains. Myoelectric activities of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were recorded using surface electromyography. Ventilatory parameters were measured with a portable, telemetric device. Postural changes related to respiratory variations were quantified by coherence analysis. The results showed that hyperventilation induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in postural parameters, indicating a reduction in postural stability following a change in ventilatory drive. Coherence analysis confirmed the ventilatory origin of the postural oscillations. The results suggest that ventilation may be an important factor in postural disturbance during physical activity. The observed increases in leg muscle activities were most likely related to musculo-articular stiffening.

  9. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans: leg vs arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Saltin, B; Boushel, R

    2015-12-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed during incremental upright arm cranking (AC) and leg pedalling (LP) to exhaustion (Wmax) in nine males. Systemic VC, peak cardiac output (Qpeak) (indocyanine green) and stroke volume (SV) were 18%, 23%, and 20% lower during AC than LP. The mean BP, the rate-pressure product and the associated myocardial oxygen demand were 22%, 12%, and 14% higher, respectively, during maximal AC than LP. Trunk VC was reduced to similar values at Wmax. At Wmax, muscle mass-normalized VC and fractional O2 extraction were lower in the arm than the leg muscles. However, this was compensated for during AC by raising perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari eKalliokoski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL (VI vs VL, p<0.05, whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p<0.05. Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four QF muscles in the exercising leg was 35±9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%, GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity.

  11. Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation D2 flexion and breathing exercises on lymphedema without a short stretch compression bandage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Chung, Sin Ho; Chung, Min Sung; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Kim, Taikon

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) D2 flexion and breathing exercises in a patient with lymphedema (LE). [Subject] This report describes a 57-year-old woman with LE in whom a short-stretch compression bandage (SSCB) could not be used for treatment because of skin itching and redness. [Methods] The patient received complex decongestive therapy without a SSCB. Next, PNF D2 flexion and breathing exercises were conducted three times per week for 14 weeks (36 times). [Results] As a result, the circumference of the armpit was reduced by 0.5 cm; that of 10 cm above the elbow, by 1 cm; that of the elbow, by 0.5 cm; that of 10 cm below the elbow, by 1 cm; and that of the back of the hand, by 0.5 cm. A total of 100 mL (9.4%) of body water was eliminated from the right upper extremity, and moisture ratio was reduced by 0.005%. Finally, range of motion was improved to 20° flexion, 60° abduction, 40° external rotation, and 10° internal rotation. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF D2 flexion and breathing exercises were effective in reducing LE and improving range of motion.

  12. Hemodynamic responses during graded and constant-load plantar flexion exercise in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Catherine; O'Connor, Eamonn; O'Shea, Donal; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    We tested the hypotheses that type 2 diabetes (T2D) impairs the 1) leg hemodynamic responses to an incremental intermittent plantar-flexion exercise and 2) dynamic responses of leg vascular conductance (LVC) during low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and high-intensity (70% MVC) constant-load plantar-flexion exercise in the supine posture. Forty-four middle-aged individuals with T2D (14 women), and 35 healthy nondiabetic (ND) individuals (18 women) were tested. Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured between each contraction using venous occlusion plethysmography. During the incremental test peak force (Fpeak) relative to MVC was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in men and women with T2D compared with their respective nondiabetic counterparts. Peak LBF and the slope of LBF relative to percentage Fpeak were also reduced (P < 0.05) in women with T2D compared with healthy women (peak blood flow, 460.6 ± 126.8 vs. 628.3 ± 347.7 ml/min; slope, 3.78 ± 1.74 vs. 5.85 ± 3.14 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)) and in men with T2D compared with nondiabetic men (peak blood flow, 621.7 ± 241.3 vs. 721.2 ± 359.7 ml/min; slope, 5.75 ± 2.66 vs. 6.33 ± 3.63 ml·min(-1)·%Fpeak (-1)). During constant-load contractions at 30% MVC T2D did not affect the dynamic responses of LVC (LBF/MAP). However, at 70% MVC [completed by a subgroup of participants (20 with T2D, 6 women; 13 ND, 6 women)] the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was longer and the amplitude of the first growth phase was lower (P < 0.05 for both) in men and women with T2D. The results suggest that the T2D-induced impairments in performance of the leg muscles are related to reductions in blood flow in both men and women. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. One-day low-intensity combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer exercise intervention : cardiorespiratory strain and gross mechanical efficiency in one-legged and two-legged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K; Wervelman, Thijs; de Vries, Hendrik S; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to research whether there is a difference in cardiorespiratory variables and gross mechanical efficiency (GE) in healthy individuals during low-intensity one-legged and two-legged exercise on the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer and whether motor learning occurs. The outcome of

  14. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between......One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared...

  15. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    arm cycling on two occasions and leg cycling exercise on a third day. Muscle biopsies were obtained from deltoid or triceps on the arm exercise days and from vastus lateralis on the leg cycling day. Resting PDH protein content and phosphorylation on PDH-E1 alpha sites 1 and 2 were higher (P

  16. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothelial function. Fifteen young healthy subjects completed three randomized experimental trials: (1) sitting without prior exercise; (2) sitting with prior exercise; and (3) standing without prior exercise. Following baseline popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements, subjects maintained a supine position for 45 min in the sitting and standing trials, without prior exercise, or performed 45 min of leg cycling before sitting (i.e. sitting with prior exercise trial). Thereafter, subjects were positioned into a seated or standing position, according to the trial, for 3 h. Popliteal artery FMD measures were then repeated. Three hours of sitting without prior exercise caused a significant impairment in popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 1.5±0.5%, P sitting was preceded by a bout of cycling exercise (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 3.6±0.7%, P >0.05). Three hours of standing did not significantly alter popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 4.1±0.4%, post-standing: 4.3±0.4%, P >0.05). In conclusion, prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction can be prevented by prior aerobic exercise. In addition, in the absence of exercise, standing represents an effective substitute to sitting for preserving leg conduit artery endothelial function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Comparable Neutrophil Responses for Arm and Intensity-matched Leg Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2017-08-01

    Arm exercise is performed at lower absolute intensities than lower body exercise. This may impact on intensity-dependent neutrophil responses, and it is unknown whether individuals restricted to arm exercise experience the same changes in the neutrophil response as found for lower body exercise. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the importance of exercise modality and relative exercise intensity on the neutrophil response. Twelve moderately trained men performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak arms) and cycling (V˙O2peak legs): 1) arm cranking exercise at 60% V˙O2peak arms, 2) moderate cycling at 60% V˙O2peak legs, and 3) easy cycling at 60% V˙O2peak arms. Neutrophil numbers in the circulation increased for all exercise trials, but were significantly lower for easy cycling when compared with arm exercise (P = 0.009), mirroring the blunted increase in HR and epinephrine during easy cycling. For all trials, exercising HR explained some of the variation of the neutrophil number 2 h postexercise (R = 0.51-0.69), epinephrine explaining less of this variation (R = 0.21-0.34). The number of neutrophils expressing CXCR2 decreased in the recovery from exercise in all trials (P Arm and leg exercise elicits the same neutrophil response when performed at the same relative intensity, implying that populations restricted to arm exercise might achieve a similar exercise induced neutrophil response as those performing lower body exercise. A likely explanation for this is the higher sympathetic activation and cardiac output for arm and relative intensity-matched leg exercise when compared with easy cycling, which is partly reflected in HR. This study further shows that the downregulation of CXCR2 may be implicated in exercise-induced neutrophilia.

  18. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  19. Effects of Shoes and a Prefabricated Medial Arch Support on Medial Gastrocnemius and Tibialis Anterior Activity while doing Leg Press Exercise in Normal Feet Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sheikhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, different types of exercise machines are being used in the field of athletic training, recreation, post-injury and post-operation rehabilitation. Leg press is a commonly-used one that retrains muscles and simulates natural functional activities. In this activity, feet are in contact with a footrest to exert muscular forces. In addition, the footrest inserts reactive forces to feet and from the feet load would transfer to structures that are more proximal. Any misalignment in foot structure may interfere its function. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of shoes and using a prefabricated medial arch support on the activity of Tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles while doing leg press exercise in normal feet subjects. Method: 14 men with normal Medial Longitudinal Arch and normal Body Mass Index aged between 18-35 years old, with at least 6 months experience of doing leg press volunteered to participate in this study.  Medial gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior activity were measured by surface electromyography while doing leg press with 70% of subjects 1 Repetition Maximum.  To increase accuracy, motion was divided into knee flexion and knee extension phases. Peak Amplitude, Time to Peak Amplitude and Root Mean Square variables were used for analysis. Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used to compare the results. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the electromyographic parameters of Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in any phases of motion, except for an increase in Tibialis anterior time to peak amplitude in shod condition compared with barefoot in knee extension phase of motion (p-value=0.008 and Tibialis anterior RMS in knee flexion phase in orthotic condition compared to shod (p-value=0.03. Conclusion: It seems that in high loads shoes or medial arch supports cannot change electromyographic parameters in Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in

  20. Impact of Running Exercise Duration on Leg Muscle Strength among the people Joining Indorunners Bandung Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaprita Eunike Sirait

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indorunners Bandung is a community for runners that has a routine exercise schedule for running around the city of Bandung. Exercise, like running, if is conducted in an accurate duration may improve physical fitness. One of the aspects of physical fitness is leg muscles strength. Many people fail to fathom the importance of exercise duration, so, they fail to get the benefit. The aim of this study was to discover the impact of running exercise duration on leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to 41 people, 31 males and 10 females, of Indorunners Bandung community from September to November 2015. Each participant filled a questionnaire about his/her personal data, and then was grouped by his/her duration of exercise per week, which were 150 minutes/week, 150–299 minutes/week, and 300 minutes/week or more. The respondents were measured for their leg muscles strength. The data collected were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: There was significant difference of lower extremities muscle strength both in men (p<0.001 and women (p=0.029. These results showed that there was a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week. Conclusions: There is a difference in leg muscles strength among the people joining Indorunners Bandung community with different exercise duration per week.

  1. Relation between peak knee flexion angle and knee ankle kinetics in single-leg jump landing from running: a pilot study on male handball players to prevent ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Mariam A; Muaidi, Qassim I

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between knee kinematics and knee-ankle kinetics during the landing phase of single leg jumping has been widely studied to identify proper strategies for preventing non-contact ACL injury. However, there is a lack of study on knee-ankle kinetics at peak knee flexion angle during jumping from running. Hence, the purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, ankle plantar flexion moment and ground reaction force in handball players in order to protect ACL from excessive stress during single leg jumping. In addition, the study also clarifies the role of calf muscles in relieving part of ACL stresses with different knee flexion angles during landing. Fifteen active male elite handball players of Saudi Arabia have participated in this study (Age = 22.6 ± 3.5years, Height = 182 ± 3.7 cm, Weight = 87.5 ± 10.2 kg). The players performed three successful landings of single-leg jump following running a fixed distance of about 450cm. The data were collected using a 3D motion capture and analysis system (VICON). Pearson product moment correlation coefficients showed that greater peak knee flexion angle is related significantly to both lesser knee extension moment (r = -.623, P = .013) and vertical component of ground reaction force (VGRF) (r = -.688, P = .005) in landing phase. Moreover, increasing the peak knee flexion angle in landing phase tends to increase the ankle plantar flexion moment significantly (r = .832, P = .000). With an increase of the peak knee flexion angle during single leg jump landing from running, there would be less knee extension moment, low impact force and more plantar flexion moment. As such, the clinical implication of this study is that there may be a possible protective mechanism by increasing the knee flexion angle during landing phase, which tends to protect the ACL from vigorous strain and injuries.

  2. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. An investigation of skin perfusion in venous leg ulcer after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlak, Omar; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J

    2018-01-01

    A venous leg ulcer (VLU) has a major impact on the quality of life and functional ability of individuals, but no single treatment is yet effective. This study investigates the changes induced by dorsiflexion exercise on skin perfusion in VLU patients to achieve a better understanding of venous ulcer pathophysiology. Seventy-eight venous leg ulcer patients were randomised into four groups. The non-exercise groups included a control group (n = 18) and a compression therapy group (n = 20) and the exercise groups included an exercise-only group (n = 20) and a compression and exercise group (n = 20). The exercise groups were expected to perform exercise for three months. Measurements included transcutaneous oximetry (tcPO 2 ) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Skin perfusion measurements for all groups were taken twice: at the beginning and end of the three-month period. Initially, all participants showed a low level of tcPO 2 . The exercise groups showed a significant increase after three months of exercise (pvenous leg ulcer and this effect may play a role in understanding the pathophysiology of VLU.

  4. Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, D. C.; Gaesser, G. A.; Hogan, M. C.; Knight, D. R.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Insights into muscle energetics during exercise (e.g., muscular efficiency) are often inferred from measurements of pulmonary gas exchange. This procedure presupposes that changes of pulmonary O2 (VO2) associated with increases of external work reflect accurately the increased muscle VO2. The present investigation addressed this issue directly by making simultaneous determinations of pulmonary and leg VO2 over a range of work rates calculated to elicit 20-90% of maximum VO2 on the basis of prior incremental (25 or 30 W/min) cycle ergometry. VO2 for both legs was calculated as the product of twice one-leg blood flow (constant-infusion thermodilution) and arteriovenous O2 content difference across the leg. Measurements were made 3-5 min after each work rate imposition to avoid incorporation of the VO2 slow component above the lactate threshold. For all 17 subjects, the slope of pulmonary VO2 (9.9 +/- 0.2 ml O2.W-1.min-1) was not different (P greater than 0.05) from that for leg VO2 (9.2 +/- 0.6 ml O2.W-1.min-1). Estimation of "delta" efficiency (i.e., delta work accomplished divided by delta energy expended, calculated from slope of VO2 vs. work rate and a caloric equivalent for O2 of 4.985 cal/ml) using pulmonary VO2 measurements (29.1 +/- 0.6%) was likewise not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that made using leg VO2 measurements (33.7 +/- 2.4%). These data suggest that the net VO2 cost of metabolic "support" processes outside the exercising legs changes little over a relatively broad range of exercise intensities. Thus, under the conditions of this investigation, changes of VO2 measured from expired gas reflected closely those occurring within the exercising legs.

  5. Chair rising exercise is more effective than one-leg standing exercise in improving dynamic body balance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, F; Iwamoto, J; Osugi, T; Yamazaki, M; Takakuwa, M

    2012-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of a one-leg standing exercise and a chair-rising exercise on body balance in patients with locomotive disorders. Thirty ambulatory patients (mean age: 66.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 in each group): a one-leg standing exercise group and a chair-rising exercise group. All the participants performed calisthenics of the major muscles, a tandem gait exercise, and a stepping exercise. The exercises were performed 3 days per week, and the study period was 5 months. Physical function was evaluated at baseline and at one-month intervals. No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. After the 5-month exercise program, the timed up and go, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait time improved significantly in the one-leg standing exercise group, while the walking time and chair-rising time in addition to above parameters improved significantly in the chair-rising exercise group. The improvements in the walking time, chair-rising time, and tandem gait time were significantly greater in the chair-rising exercise group than in the one-leg standing exercise group. The present study showed that the chair-rising exercise was more effective than the one-leg standing exercise for improving walking velocity and dynamic body balance.

  6. The perspectives of adults with venous leg ulcers on exercise: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Finlayson, K; Kerr, G; Edwards, H

    2014-10-01

    Exercise has the potential to offer a range of health benefits in addition to improving healing outcomes for people with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). However, despite evidence-based recommendations, most of these individuals do not engage in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives of adults with VLUs, in relation to exercise. This was a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Ten participants with venous leg ulceration volunteered to participate. Recruitment was through a specialist wound clinic. Verbatim data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured guide. Data saturation was reached after three group discussions and two interviews. A random selection of transcripts was sent back to the participants for verification. Thematic content analysis was used to determine major themes and categories. Two transcripts were independently analysed, categories and themes independently developed, cross checked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using the developed categories and codes. Regardless of their current exercise routine, participants reported exercising before venous leg ulceration and expressed an interest in either becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Overall, four themes emerged from the findings: i) participant understanding of the relationship between chronic venous insufficiency and exercise patterns; ii) fear of harm impacts upon positive beliefs and attitudes to exercise; iii) perceived factors limit exercise; and iv) structured management facilitates exercise. The value of exercise in improving outcomes in VLUs lies in its capacity to promote venous return and reduce the risk of secondary conditions in this population. Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with VLUs report many obstacles. Further exploration of mechanisms that assist this patient population and promote understanding about

  7. Energy metabolism during repeated sets of leg press exercise leading to failure or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Calbet, José A L

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of the number of repetitions per set on power output and muscle metabolism during leg press exercise. Six trained men (age 34 ± 6 yr) randomly performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions (10REP), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions (5REP) of bilateral leg press...... exercise, with the same initial load and rest intervals between sets. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before the first set, and after the first and the final sets. Compared with 5REP, 10REP resulted in a markedly greater decrease (P...

  8. Effects of ATP-induced leg vasodilation on VO2 peak and leg O2 extraction during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C; Sander, M

    2006-01-01

    O2 delivery and leg VO2 during near-maximal and maximal exercise in humans, seven men performed two maximal incremental exercise tests on the cycle ergometer. In random order, one test was performed with and one without (control exercise) infusion of ATP (8 mg in 1 ml of isotonic saline solution......) into the right femoral artery at a rate of 80 microg.kg body mass-1.min-1. During near-maximal exercise (92% of VO2 peak), the infusion of ATP increased leg vascular conductance (+43%, P...

  9. (31)P cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy during leg exercise at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudsmith, Lucy E; Tyler, Damian J; Emmanuel, Yaso; Petersen, Steffen E; Francis, Jane M; Watkins, Hugh; Clarke, Kieran; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Investigation of phosphorus ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy under stress conditions provides a non-invasive tool to examine alterations in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism that may not be evident at rest. Our aim was to establish cardiac (31)P MR spectroscopy during leg exercise at 3T. The increased field strength should provide a higher signal to noise ratio than at lower field strengths. Furthermore, relatively high temporal resolution at a sufficiently fine spatial resolution should be feasible. (31)P MR spectra were obtained with a 3D acquisition weighted chemical shift imaging sequence in 20 healthy volunteers at rest, during dynamic physiological leg exercise and after recovery at 3T. Haemodynamic measurements were made throughout and the rate pressure product calculated. With exercise, the mean heart rate increased by 73%, achieving a mean increase in rate pressure product of 115%. The corrected PCr/ATP ratio for subjects at rest was 2.02 +/- 0.43, exercise 2.14 +/- 0.67 (P = 0.54 vs. rest) and at recovery 2.03 +/- 0.52 (P = 0.91 vs. rest, P = 0.62 vs. exercise). A cardiac (31)P MR spectroscopy physiological exercise-recovery protocol is feasible at 3T. There was no significant change in high-energy cardiac phosphate metabolite concentrations in healthy volunteers at rest, during physiological leg exercise or during recovery. When applied to patients with heart disease, this protocol should provide insights into physiological and pathological cardiac metabolism.

  10. Effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise on spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob; Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Wynn, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a small pilot study that examined the effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling on spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample included 22 individuals with MS who were assigned using a quasi-experimental method into either exercise (n = 12) or control (n = 10) conditions. The exercise condition consisted of unloaded leg cycling for 30 minutes per session, 3 times per week, across a 4-week period. The control condition served as a control for passage of time and instrumentation effects. The H-reflex, modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88) were collected before, 1-day after, and 1 and 4 weeks after the 4-week period. The 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise was not associated with reductions in the H-reflex or MAS, whereas the exercise condition was associated with a reduction in MSSS-88 scores. This pattern of results suggests that chronic, unloaded leg cycling exercise is associated with improvements in spasticity from the participant's perspective, but neither improves nor worsens spasticity from electrophysiological and clinical perspectives.

  11. Interleukin-6 release is higher across arm than leg muscles during whole-body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Klein, Ditte K; Andersen, Thor Munch

    2011-01-01

    ± 7 and 47 ± 7 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) were lower, glucose uptake similar (51 ± 12 and 41 ± 8 mmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) and lactate release higher (82 ± 32 and -2 ± 12 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) in arms than legs, respectively, during exercise (P ....05). No correlations were present between IL-6 release and exogenous substrate uptakes. Muscle glycogen was similar in arms and legs before exercise (388 ± 22 and 428 ± 25 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)), but after exercise it was only significantly lower in the leg (219 ± 29 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)). The novel finding......Exercising muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the IL-6 release differs in arm and leg muscle during whole-body exercise, owing to differences in muscle metabolism. Sixteen...

  12. Exercise-induced leg pain: sifting through a broad differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkola, M; Amendola, A

    2001-06-01

    The causes of exertional leg pain are not always easily determined but are often linked to repetitive stress. Medial tibial stress syndrome or periostitis, tibial stress fractures, deep posterior compartment syndrome, exertional compartment syndrome, fascial hernias, peripheral neuropathy, and blood vessel entrapments have characteristic signs and symptoms. A complete history and exam coupled with wise use of adjunctive investigations will lead to the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Leg oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise is slowed by a marked reduction in oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings with moderate intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during intense exercise (86±3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26±1 years, mean±SEM) performed one-legged knee-e...

  14. Leg blood flow is impaired during small muscle mass exercise in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2017-01-01

    -extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied. During knee-extensor exercise (10 W), leg blood flow was lower in the patients compared...... the formation of interstitial prostacyclin (vasodilator) was only increased in the controls. There was no difference between groups in the nitrite/nitrate levels (vasodilator) in plasma or interstitial fluid during exercise. Moreover, patients and controls showed similar vasodilatory capacity in response...

  15. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during dynamic leg exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1995-01-01

    There is virtually no published information on muscle fatigue, defined as a gradual decline in force-generating capacity, during conventional dynamic (D) leg exercise. To quantitate progression of fatigue, we developed 1) a model featuring integration of maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC.......05) for matched DKE work rates. To track fatigue, MVC (90 degrees knee angle) was performed every 2 min of DKE. After 4 min of DKE at work rates corresponding to (mean +/- SE) 66 +/- 2, 78 +/- 2, and 100% of peak DKE O2 uptake, MVC fell to 95 +/- 3, 90 +/- 5, and 65 +/- 7%* of MVC of rested muscle, respectively...... (*P fatigue during D leg exercise provides a framework to study the effects of a variety...

  16. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, Karen K. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Neuroendocrine Unit, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 {+-} 3.9 from 30.4 {+-} 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 {+-} 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 {+-} 4.7 from 6.5 {+-} 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 {+-} 0.14 from 7.17 {+-} 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. (orig.)

  17. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A; Thomas, Bijoy J; Miller, Karen K; Torriani, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 ± 3.9 from 30.4 ± 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 ± 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 ± 4.7 from 6.5 ± 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 ± 0.14 from 7.17 ± 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles.

  18. Gas exchange kinetics following concentric-eccentric isokinetic arm and leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Mookerjee, S; Steegmanns, A; Knicker, A; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240deg∙s -1 ) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO 2 ) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t 1/2 ) for oxygen uptake (V˙O 2 pulm), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO 2 pulm), and ventilation (V˙ E ). Significant differences of the t 1/2 values were identified between 60 and 150deg∙s -1 . Significant differences in the t 1/2 values were observed between V˙O 2 pulm and V˙CO 2 pulm and between V˙CO 2 pulm and V˙ E . The time to attain the first avDO 2 -peak showed significant differences between arm and leg exercise. The present study illustrates, that V˙O 2 pulm kinetics are distorted due to non-linear CO dynamics. Therefore, it has to be taken into account, that V˙O 2 pulm may not be a valuable surrogate for muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in the recovery phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Jazi, Shahrzad Khojandi; Karimian, Jahangir; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Restless leg syndrome prevalence is high among the patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to several side effects of medicational treatments, the patients prefer non-medicational methods. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of two methods of reflexology and stretching exercises on the severity of restless leg syndrome among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial that was done on 90 qualified patients undergoing hemodialysis in selected hospitals of Isfahan, who were diagnosed with restless leg syndrome through standard restless leg syndrome questionnaire. They were randomly assigned by random number table to three groups: Reflexology, stretching exercises, and control groups through random allocation. Foot reflexology and stretching exercises were conducted three times a week for 30–40 min within straight 4 weeks. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t-test, and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test]. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean scores of restless leg syndrome severity between reflexology and stretching exercises groups, compared to control (P restless leg syndrome severity were significantly higher in reflexology and stretching exercises groups compared to the control group (P restless leg syndrome. These two methods of treatment are recommended to the patients. PMID:27186197

  1. Effects of cervical stretching and cranio-cervical flexion exercises on cervical muscle characteristics and posture of patients with cervicogenic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kim, Je Ho; Kang, Da Hang; Park, Sam Heon; Yoon, Jong Hyuk

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to conduct a comparative analysis of changes in mechanical characteristics of cervical muscles and cervical posture in patients with cervicogenic headache following exercise program intervention in order to present effective treatment methods for such patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 patients with cervicogenic headache were recruited and 15 patients were allocated to cervical stretching exercise group and 15 to cervical stretching exercise and cranio-cervical flexion exercise group. After 3 weeks of exercise intervention, craniovertebral angle and tone (Hz) and stiffness (N/m) of the suboccipital and upper trapezius muscles were measured. [Results] After the exercise program intervention, a greater amount of change in tone of suboccipital and upper trapezius muscles was found in the experimental group, as compared to the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Greater amount of change in muscle stiffness and craniovertebral angle was found in the experimental group, as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Findings of the present study showed that cranio-cervical exercise was an effective form of exercise for changing muscle characteristics and posture in patients with cervicogenic headache. Such findings will be helpful in providing effective treatments for patients with cervicogenic headache.

  2. Dynamic interleaved 1H/31P STEAM MRS at 3 Tesla using a pneumatic force-controlled plantar flexion exercise rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerspeer, M.; Krššák, M.; Kemp, G.J.; Roden, M.; Moser, E.

    2016-01-01

    1 Objective To develop a measurement method for interleaved acquisition of 1H and 31P STEAM localised spectra of exercising human calf muscle. 2 Materials and Methods A nonmagnetic exercise rig with a pneumatic piston and sensors for force and pedal angle was constructed to enable plantar flexion measured in the 3 Tesla MR scanner, which holds the dual tuned (1H,31P) surface coil used for signal transmission and reception. 3 Results 31P spectra acquired in interleaved mode benefit from higher SNR (factor of 1.34± 0.06 for PCr) compared to standard acquisition due to the Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and substantial PCr/Pi changes during exercise can be observed in 31P spectra. 1H spectral quality is equal to that in single mode experiments and allows Cr2 changes to be monitored. 4 Conclusion The feasibility of dynamic interleaved localised 1H and 31P spectroscopy during plantar flexion exercise has been demonstrated using a custom-built pneumatic system for muscle activation. This opens the possibility of studying the dynamics of metabolism with multi nuclear MRS in a single run. PMID:16320091

  3. Muscle fatigue and exhaustion during dynamic leg exercise in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight...... healthy men performed exhaustive constant work rate knee extension (21 +/- 3 W, 79 +/- 2 and 87 +/- 2% of 1-leg knee extension O2 peak uptake for normoxia and hypobaria, respectively) from knee angles of 90-150 degrees at a rate of 1 Hz. MVC (90 degrees knee angle) was performed before dynamic exercise...... and during MVC force was 578 +/- 29 N in normoxia and 569 +/- 29 N in hypobaria before exercise and fell, at exhaustion, to similar levels (265 +/- 10 and 284 +/- 20 N for normoxia and hypobaria, respectively; P > 0.05) that were higher (P

  4. Greater bilateral deficit in leg press than in handgrip exercise might be linked to differences in postural stability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    Bilateral deficit is defined as the difference in the summed force between contracting muscles alone and contracting contralateral homologous muscles in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate how postural stability influences bilateral deficit by comparing an exercise requiring more postural stability (the leg press) with an exercise requiring less postural stability (the handgrip). Eight participants volunteered for the study (3 males, 5 females). Maximal strength was determined by a 1-repetition maximum for the leg press (weight machine) and handgrip (dynamometer) exercises. Electromyography was used to measure activation of the effectors (flexor carpi ulnaris for the handgrip and vastus lateralis for the leg press) and the core muscles (rectus abdominis and external obliques). Bilateral deficit was greater in the leg press (-12.08 +/- 10.22%) than the handgrip (-0.677 +/- 5.00%; p < 0.05). Muscle activation of the effectors and core muscles was not significantly different between unilateral and bilateral conditions for either exercise. However, core muscle activation was significantly greater during the leg press (48.30 +/- 19.60 microV) than during the handgrip (16.50 +/- 8.10 microV; p < 0.05) exercise. These results support the hypothesis that an exercise requiring more postural stability (e.g., the leg press) will have a larger deficit and greater activation of core muscles than an exercise requiring less postural stability (e.g., the handgrip). Since the bilateral deficit was only apparent for the leg press exercise, we conclude that postural stability requirements might influence the magnitude of bilateral deficit.

  5. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  6. Comparative Effects of Four Single Leg Squat Exercises in Subjects with Gluteus Medius Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Rim; Yi, Chung-Hwi; You, Sung-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lim, One-Bin; Son, Jae-Ik

    2017-07-17

    Of the weight bearing exercises, single leg squat (SLS) represents one of the most commonly used hip strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the four SLS exercises affects muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during four different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat, lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness. Repeated-measures experimental design. Research laboratory. Twenty-two subjects (11 males and 11 females) participated in this study and were compared using one-way repeated analysis of variance. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and onset time of the GMED, TFL, and AL, and 3-dimensional motion tracking system was used to measure the hip adduction and internal/external rotation angles during SLS exercises. One-way repeated analysis of variance was used at a significance level of p<0.05. The unilateral wall-squat produced higher GMED/TFL activity ratio and lower GMED/TFL onset time ratio than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). No difference in GMED/AL activity ratio and GMED/AL onset time ratio was observed. The hip adduction angle was greater in unilateral wall-squat than in the other three exercises (p<0.05). As for the hip internal/external rotation, lateral step-down exhibited higher hip internal rotation angle than front step-down (p<0.05). The unilateral wall-squat may be recommended as an effective exercise for the subjects with GMED weakness, but they should take care to avoid excessive hip adduction during the exercise.

  7. CORE STABILITY EXERCISE LEBIH BAIK MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS FUNGSIONAL DARI PADA WILLIAM’S FLEXION EXCERCISE PADA PASIEN NYERI PUNGGUNG BAWAH MIOGENIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Pramita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myogenic low back pain is pain around of the lower back mucle caused by disorder or abnormalities in the elements of muscles and tendons without neurological disorders. Myogenic low back pain may result in pain, muscle spasm and muscle imbalance, so that the stability of abdominal muscles and low back decreased, lumbar mobility is limited, resulting in a decrease in functional activity. The exercise was usually given in a hospital Short Wave Diathermy combined with William's Flexion Exercise (WFE. The existence of a new method of core stability exercise (CSE is very important for patients with myogenic low back pain. CSE was function to activate the harmonious movement between the four core muscle groups. The activation of these four core muscles will given stability on the lower back. The purpose of this study to determine core stability exercise is better than William's Flexion Exercise increases the functional activity in patients with myogenic low back pain. This study uses a quasi experimental design with pre-test and post-test control group design. The experiment was conducted in a clinic in Denpasar. Subjects were 28 patients who fulfill the criteria were established of the researchers. The increasing of functional activity was measured with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI before and after training. Subjects were divided into two groups, they are the treatment group was given SWD and CSE three times a week and a control group given SWD and WFE three times a week. The results of statistical test was obtained, occur of decreasing in ODI scores in the first group with p = 0.001 and in the second group with p = 0.001. It means that the first group and the second group alike can increase the functional activity significantly. From the comparative test data by t-test using the difference data in the two groups was obtained the value p=0.001, which means significantly. The difference mean value ODI in first group as 28,86% although the

  8. Electrical activity of external oblique and multifidus muscles during the hip flexion-extension exercise performed in the Cadillac with different adjustments of springs and individual positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Jefferson F; Melo, Monica O; Rosa, Cristina H; Santos, Artur B; La Torre, Marcelo; Silva, Yumie O

    2010-01-01

    Despite of the widepread use of Pilates in Physical Therapy, there are few studies that have assessed the muscle electrical activation during Pilates exercises. Verify the influence of different spring adjustments and individual positions on the electrical activation of multifidus (MU) and oblique external (OE) muscles during hip flexion-extension (HFE) exercise on the Cadillac. Eight women practicing Pilates exercises for at least six months performed 10 repetitions of HFE in the following situations: Lower Spring, spring fixed at 30 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Higher Spring, spring fixed at 90 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Near Position, distance of 10 cm from the fixed spring. Distant Position, distance of 30 cm from the fixed spring. Kinematic and eletromyographic data (EMG) were collected simultaneously and the MU and OE muscles were monitored. Each movement of HFE was splitted in two phases (extension and flexion). The EMG signal was calculated and normalized using the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The Wilcoxon test was used to investigate differences between the situations (p MVC, and the highest muscle activation in the lower spring and in the near position. OE muscles presented muscle activation values ranging from 20 to 45% MVC, and the highest values in the higher spring and in the distant position. MU and OE muscles presented a distinct electrical activation during different available spring adjustments and individual positions.

  9. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padjactivities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerobic Exercise Improves Signs of Restless Leg Syndrome in End Stage Renal Disease Patients Suffering Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mortazavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Restless leg syndrome (RLS is one of the prevalent complaints of patients with end stage renal diseases suffering chronic hemodialysis. Although there are some known pharmacological managements for this syndrome, the adverse effect of drugs causes a limitation for using them. In this randomized clinical trial we aimed to find a nonpharmacological way to improve signs of restless leg syndrome and patients’ quality of life. Material and Methods. Twenty-six patients were included in the study and divided into 2 groups of control and exercise. The exercise group used aerobic exercise during their hemodialysis for 16 weeks. The quality of life and severity of restless leg syndrome were assessed at the first week of study and final week. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. The difference of means of RLS signs at the first week of study and final week was in exercise group and in control group. There was not any statistical difference between control group and exercise group in quality of life at the first week of study and final week. Conclusions. We suggest using aerobic exercise for improving signs of restless leg syndrome, but no evidence was found for its efficacy on patient’s quality of life.

  11. Effects of bodyweight-based exercise training on muscle functions of leg multi-joint movement in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Junichiro; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishii, Naokata

    2009-09-01

    Because demands of functional exercise training with using own bodyweight for elderly individuals were increasing, the present study investigated the effects of bodyweight-based exercise training on muscle functions of leg multi-joint movements in elderly individuals. Twenty-seven untrained healthy elderly individuals (mean +/- standard deviation, 66.0 +/- 5.7 years) completed the training program for 10 months. The exercise program consisted mainly of exercises for large leg muscle groups without using external weight, performing 10-50 repetitions and 1-3 sets for each exercise. Before and after the training period, force-velocity relations of knee-hip extension movements were measured with a servo-controlled dynamometer and the maximum force (Fmax), velocity (Vmax) and power (Pmax) were determined. After the training, Fmax and Pmax increased and these increases represented 15% (P elderly individuals; however, the initial training status is important for progressive increases in muscle force.

  12. Changes in foot pressure elicited by 3D air balance exercise and pelvic stability exercise for functional leg-length discrepancy in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chan-Kyu

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization exercise and 3D equipment exercise on adult women with Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy (FLLD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female students in their 20's having FLLD without Structural Leg Length Discrepancy were selected. Exercise was performed for 50 min per session, three times a week, for six weeks. The Pelvic stabilization exercise (PSE) group performed pelvic stabilization exercises for 50 minutes, and the 3D exercise (3DE) group performed 3D Air Balance exercise for 10 minutes after performing the pelvic stabilization exercise program for 40 minutes. [Results] The PSE group showed statistically significant differences in tape measure method (TMM) and maximum pressure between pre-test and post-test, and 3DE showed statistically significant differences in TMM, the difference in maximum pressure, the difference in average pressure, and the difference in support area. At the end of the 6-week intervention, TMM, difference in maximum pressure, difference in average pressure, and difference in support area showed significantly greater reduction in the 3DE group. [Conclusion] The results show that 3D stabilization exercise was more effective at improving the stabilization of the deep muscles surrounding the pelvis and left-right muscular balance. We consider that 3D exercise should be included in exercise programs for improving pelvic cavity and spinal stability in the future.

  13. Reliability of a Novel High Intensity One Leg Dynamic Exercise Protocol to Measure Muscle Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    Full Text Available We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60, 100 (MVC100 and 140 (MVC140 deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s, 20 s (P20 and 40 s (P40 post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001. MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05 and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05. High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion.

  14. Femoral Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Blood Flow Restricted Leg Press Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Hackney, K.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Low load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (LBFR) causes muscle hypertrophy that may be stimulated by the local ischemic environment created by the cuff pressure. However, local blood flow (BF) during such exercise is not well understood. PURPOSE: To characterize femoral artery BF and cardiac output (CO) during leg press exercise (LP) performed at a high load (HL) and low load (LL) with different levels of cuff pressure. METHODS: Eleven subjects (men/women 4/7, age 31.4+/-12.8 y, weight 68.9+/-13.2 kg, mean+/-SD) performed 3 sets of supine left LP to fatigue with 90 s of rest in 4 conditions: HL (%1-RM/cuff pressure: 80%/0); LL (20%/0); LBFR(sub DBP) (20%/1.3 x diastolic blood pressure, BP); LBFR(sub SBP) (20%/1.3 x supine systolic BP). The cuff remained inflated throughout the LBFR exercise sessions. Artery diameter, velocity time integral (VTI), and stroke volume (SV) were measured using Doppler ultrasound at rest and immediately after each set of exercise. Heart rate (HR) was monitored using a 3-lead ECG. BF was calculated as VTI x vessel cross-sectional area. CO was calculated as HR x SV. The data obtained after each set of exercise were averaged and used for analyses. Multi-level modeling was used to determine the effect of exercise condition on dependent variables. Statistical significance was set a priori at p LL (9.92+/-0.82 cm3) > LBFR(sub dBP)(6.47+/-0.79 cm3) > LBFR(sub SBP) (3.51+/-0.59 cm3). Blunted exercise induced increases occurred in HR, SV, and CO after LBFR compared to HL and LL. HR increased 45% after HL and LL and 28% after LBFR (p<0.05), but SV increased (p<0.05) only after HL. Consequently, the increase (p<0.05) in CO was greater in HL and LL (approximately 3 L/min) than in LBFR (approximately 1 L/min). CONCLUSION: BF during LBFR(sub SBP) was 1/3 of that observed in LL, which supports the hypothesis that local ischemia stimulates the LBFR hypertrophic response. As the cuff did not compress the artery, the ischemia may have occurred

  15. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  16. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG......) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG....... Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: low...

  17. Features interference EMG leg extensor muscles of skilled players in the context of the special exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenko P.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of improvement of physical training of skilled players. The main instrumental method of the research is electromyography. The aim of the research is determination of the optimal angle of the provisions of legs on her hips for the appearance of a maximum of bioelectric activity of the muscles of the front panel hips in exercise unbending legs sitting on the mechanical simulator. In the course of research we have worked for electromyography 10 players of FC Metalist at the age of 19 – 30 years during the five-second of the submaximum contraction of these muscles as: musculus rectus femoris, musculus vastus medialis, musculus vastus lateralis. The results of the analysis of segments of electromyography allowed to make a conclusion, that we investigated the provisions of the angle of 140 degrees has the lowest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength. We have obtained data testify to the fact that the angle of 90 degrees is the position of the greatest preconditions for the appearance of muscle strength.

  18. Neural adjustment in the activation of the lower leg muscles through daily physical exercises in community-based elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Hiroshi; Murase, Azusa; Sunahori, Hitoshi; Kanetada, Yuji; Otani, Takuya; Yoshimura, Osamu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko

    2007-02-01

    Reflecting the rapidly aging population, community-based interventions in the form of physical exercise have been introduced to promote the health of elderly persons. Many investigation studies have focused on muscle strength in the lower leg as a potent indicator of the effect of physical exercises. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of long-term daily exercises on neural command in lower leg muscle activations. Twenty-six community-based elderly persons (13 men and 13 women; 69.8 +/- 0.5 years old) participated in this study. Daily exercise was comprised of walking for more than 30 min, stretching, muscle strengthening and balance exercise, and was continued for three months. Muscle strength and surface electromyography of the tibia anterior, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris were measured in maximum isometric voluntary contraction both before and after the intervention. The mean frequency of the firing of motor units was calculated based on fast Fourier transformation of the electromyography. As the results of the intervention, muscle strength increased significantly only in biceps femoris, whereas the mean frequency of motor units decreased significantly in every muscle, indicating that motor unit firing in lower frequency efficiently induces the same or greater strength compared with before the intervention. Thus, synchronization of motor units compensates for the lower frequency of motor unit firing to maintain muscular strength. In conclusion, long-term physical exercises in the elderly can modulate the neural adjustment of lower leg muscles to promote efficient output of muscle strength.

  19. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in normotensive African Americans is attenuated at rest and during dynamic leg exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Holwerda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests differences between African Americans (AA and Caucasian Americans (CA in cardiovascular responsiveness to physiological stressors. This study tested the hypothesis that carotid baroreflex (CBR control of heart rate (HR and blood pressure is reduced in AAs compared to CAs during exercise. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and HR were continuously recorded at rest and during leg cycling in 23 nonhypertensive male subjects (12 AA; 11 CA; age 19-26 yr. CBR control of HR and MAP was assessed with 5-sec pulses of neck pressure (NP, simulated hypotension and neck suction (NS, simulated hypertension ranging from +45 to -80 Torr. Across all NS stimuli (-20, -40, -60, -80 Torr at rest, the AA group demonstrated attenuated CBR-mediated reductions in HR (AA, -8.9 ± 1.9 vs. CA, -14.1 ± 2.3 bpm; P<0.001 and MAP (AA, -6.4 ± 1 vs. CA, -7.8 ± 0.8 mmHg; P<0.05. Despite similar gain and magnitude of resetting observed in the modeled stimulus response curves, an attenuation among AAs persisted in HR (AA, -8.2 ± 1.6 vs. CA, -11.8 ± 3 bpm; P<0.05 and MAP (AA, -6.8 ± 0.9 vs. CA, -8.2 ± 1.1 mmHg; P<0.05 responses to NS during exercise. No differences in CBR-mediated HR and MAP responses to NP were detected between groups at rest or during exercise. These data suggest impairment in the ability to defend against a hypertensive challenge among AAs during steady-state exercise compared to their CA counterparts.

  20. Are substrate use during exercise and mitochondrial respiratory capacity decreased in arm and leg muscle in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Ara, I; Rabøl, R

    2009-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate mitochondrial function, fibre type distribution and substrate oxidation in arm and leg muscle during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese and lean controls. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carboh...

  1. Infusion of ATP increases leg oxygen delivery but not oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Christensen, Peter Møller; Mortensen, Stefan Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether an increase in leg blood flow and oxygen delivery at the onset of intense exercise would speed the rate of rise in leg oxygen uptake. Nine healthy men (25 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) performed one-leg knee-extensor exercise (62 ± 3 W, 86 ± 3% of incremental test ...... release was lower after 60, 120 and 180 s of exercise with ATP infusion. These results suggest that O2 delivery is not limiting the rise in skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise....

  2. Modeling trajectories of perceived leg exertion during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; Therneau, Terry; McGrath, Patrick; Pianosi, Paolo

    2014-01-09

    between ratings of perceived exertion and work capacity normalized across individuals. Models including a delay term, a linear component, or a power function can describe these individual trajectories of perceived leg exertion during incremental exercise to voluntary exhaustion.

  3. Technology in Rehabilitation: Evaluating the Single Leg Squat Exercise with Wearable Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Darragh F; O'Reilly, Martin A; Ward, Tomás E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-03-23

    The single leg squat (SLS) is a common lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also frequently used as an evaluative exercise to screen for an increased risk of lower limb injury. To date athlete / patient SLS technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete / patient SLS technique. The aims of this study were to determine if in combination or in isolation IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thigh and shank are capable of: (a) distinguishing between acceptable and aberrant SLS technique; (b) identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. Eighty-three healthy volunteers participated (60 males, 23 females, age: 24.68 + / - 4.91 years, height: 1.75 + / - 0.09 m, body mass: 76.01 + / - 13.29 kg). All participants performed 10 SLSs on their left leg. IMUs were positioned on participants' lumbar spine, left shank and left thigh. These were utilized to record tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data during all repetitions of the SLS. SLS technique was labelled by a Chartered Physiotherapist using an evaluation framework. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data. These features were used to train and evaluate a variety of random-forests classifiers that assessed SLS technique. A three IMU system was moderately successful in detecting the overall quality of SLS performance (77 % accuracy, 77 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity). A single IMU worn on the shank can complete the same analysis with 76 % accuracy, 75 % sensitivity and 76 % specificity. Single sensors also produce competitive classification scores relative to multi-sensor systems in identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. A single IMU positioned on the shank can differentiate between acceptable and aberrant

  4. Dynamic31P-MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus MRSI ( 31 P-MRSI) using a spiral-trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole-body 7 T MR scanner using an MR-compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral-encoded MRSI provided 16-25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase-encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade-off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal-to-noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral-encoded 31 P-MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dynamic 31P–MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus MRSI (31P–MRSI) using a spiral‐trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole‐body 7 T MR scanner using an MR‐compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral‐encoded MRSI provided 16–25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase‐encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade‐off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal‐to‐noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral‐encoded 31P–MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:27862510

  6. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-03-01

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO2) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO2 was 73.0 ± 0.9 and 70.5 ± 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO2 decreased (69.1 ± 1.8 and 63.8 ± 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P muscle SmO2 and tHb.

  7. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO 2 was 73.0 ± 0.9 and 70.5 ± 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO 2 decreased (69.1 ± 1.8 and 63.8 ± 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P 2 and tHb

  8. Home-Based Leg Strengthening Exercise Improves Function One Year After Hip Fracture: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Kathleen K.; Craik, Rebecca L.; Palombaro, Kerstin M.; Tomlinson, Susan S.; Hofmann, Mary T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine the effectiveness of a short term leg strengthening exercise program compared to attentional control on improving strength, walking abilities, and function one year after hip fracture. Design Randomized controlled pilot study. Setting Interventions occurred in patients’ homes. Participants Community-dwelling older adults (n=26) six months post hip fracture at baseline. Intervention Exercise and control participants received interventions by physical therapists twice weekly for 10 weeks. The exercise group received high intensity leg strengthening exercises. The control group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and mental imagery. Measurements Isometric force production of lower extremity muscles; usual and fast gait speed, six minute walk (6-MW) distance, modified physical performance test (mPPT), and SF-36 physical function. Results The primary endpoint was at one year post fracture. Isometric force production (pmPPT (pmPPT scores, 0.56 for gait speed, 0.49 for 6-MW, and 0.30 for SF-36 scores. More patients in the exercise group made meaningful changes in gait speed and 6-MW distance than control patients (χ2: p=.004). Conclusion A 10-week home-based progressive resistance exercise program was sufficient to achieve moderate to large effects on physical performance and quality of life and may offer an alternative intervention mode for hip fracture patients who are unable to leave home at 6 months after the fracture. The effects were maintained at 3 months after completion of the training program. PMID:20929467

  9. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P Exercise increased HR (P exercise in the healthy controls but

  10. Supervised exercise training as an adjunctive therapy for venous leg ulcers: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Garry A; Michaels, Jonathan; Crank, Helen; Middleton, Geoff; Gumber, Anil; Klonizakis, Markos

    2015-10-06

    Venous leg ulcers are common, chronic wounds that are painful and reduce quality of life. Compression therapy is known to assist in the healing of venous leg ulceration. Supervised exercise training that targets an improvement in calf muscle pump function might be a useful adjunctive therapy for enhancing ulcer healing and other aspects of physical and mental health. However, the evidence of exercise for individuals with venous ulcers is sparse. Here, we describe the protocol for a study that aims to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled trial of a supervised exercise programme in people who are receiving compression for venous ulceration. This is a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded, two-centre, feasibility trial with two parallel groups. Eighty adults who are receiving lower-limb compression for a venous leg ulcer will be randomly assigned to receive usual care (compression only) or usual care plus a 12-week supervised exercise programme. Participants in the exercise group will be invited to undertake three, 60-minute sessions of supervised exercise each week, and each session will involve a combination of treadmill walking, upright cycling and strength and flexibility exercises for the lower limbs. Participants will be assessed before randomisation and 3, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Primary outcomes include rates of recruitment, retention and adherence. Secondary outcomes include time to ulcer healing, proportion of participants healed, percentage and absolute change in ulcer size, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L and VEINES-QOL/Sym), lower-limb cutaneous microvascular function (laser Doppler flowmetry coupled with iontophoresis) and physical fitness (30-second sit-to-stand test, chair sit and reach test, 6-minute walk test and ankle range of motion). The costs associated with the exercise programme and health-care utilisation will be calculated. We will also complete interviews with a sub-sample of participants to

  11. Amount of health care and self-care following a randomized clinical trial comparing flexion-distraction with exercise program for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Gudavalli, M Ram; McGregor, Marion; Jedlicka, James; Keenum, Michael; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Patwardhan, Avinash G; Furner, Sylvia E

    2006-08-24

    Previous clinical trials have assessed the percentage of participants who utilized further health care after a period of conservative care for low back pain, however no chiropractic clinical trial has determined the total amount of care during this time and any differences based on assigned treatment group. The objective of this clinical trial follow-up was to assess if there was a difference in the total number of office visits for low back pain over one year after a four week clinical trial of either a form of physical therapy (Exercise Program) or a form of chiropractic care (Flexion Distraction) for chronic low back pain. In this randomized clinical trial follow up study, 195 participants were followed for one year after a four-week period of either a form of chiropractic care (FD) or a form of physical therapy (EP). Weekly structured telephone interview questions regarded visitation of various health care practitioners and the practice of self-care for low back pain. Participants in the physical therapy group demonstrated on average significantly more visits to any health care provider and to a general practitioner during the year after trial care (p therapist. Self-care was initiated by nearly every participant in both groups. During a one-year follow-up, participants previously randomized to physical therapy attended significantly more health care visits than those participants who received chiropractic care.

  12. Amount of health care and self-care following a randomized clinical trial comparing flexion-distraction with exercise program for chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenum Michael

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous clinical trials have assessed the percentage of participants who utilized further health care after a period of conservative care for low back pain, however no chiropractic clinical trial has determined the total amount of care during this time and any differences based on assigned treatment group. The objective of this clinical trial follow-up was to assess if there was a difference in the total number of office visits for low back pain over one year after a four week clinical trial of either a form of physical therapy (Exercise Program or a form of chiropractic care (Flexion Distraction for chronic low back pain. Methods In this randomized clinical trial follow up study, 195 participants were followed for one year after a four-week period of either a form of chiropractic care (FD or a form of physical therapy (EP. Weekly structured telephone interview questions regarded visitation of various health care practitioners and the practice of self-care for low back pain. Results Participants in the physical therapy group demonstrated on average significantly more visits to any health care provider and to a general practitioner during the year after trial care (p Conclusion During a one-year follow-up, participants previously randomized to physical therapy attended significantly more health care visits than those participants who received chiropractic care.

  13. Managing nocturnal leg cramps — calf-stretching exercises and cessation of quinine treatment: a factorial randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Richard J; Wicke, Dorothy M; Little, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Background Quinine is a common treatment for nocturnal leg cramps but has potential side effects. An uncontrolled study suggested that calf-stretching exercises could prevent nocturnal leg cramps (night cramps) but these findings have never been confirmed. Aim To assess the effect of calf-stretching exercises and cessation of quinine treatment for patients with night cramps taking quinine. Design of study Randomised controlled trial. Setting Twenty-eight general practices in southern England. Method One hundred and ninety-one patients prescribed quinine for night cramps were randomised to one of four groups defined by two ‘advice’ factors: undertake exercises and stop quinine. After 6 weeks they were advised that they could take quinine and undertake the exercises freely. Documentation of cramp at 12 weeks was achieved in 181 (95%) patients. Main outcome measures were: symptom burden score, and frequency of night cramps and quinine usage. Results At 12 weeks there was no significant difference in number of cramps in the previous 4 weeks (exercise = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −3.01 to 6.90; quinine cessation = 3.45, 95% CI = −1.52 to 8.41) nor symptom burden or severity of cramps. However, after 12 weeks 26.5% (95% CI = 13.3% to 39.7%) more patients who had been advised to stop quinine treatment reported taking no quinine tablets in the previous week (odds ratio [OR] = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.37 to 8.06), whereas advice to do stretching exercises had no effect (OR = 0.73, 95% CI =0.27 to 1.98]). Conclusions Calf-stretching exercises are not effective in reducing the frequency or severity of night cramps. Advising those on long-term repeat prescriptions to try stopping quinine temporarily will result in no major problems for patients, and allow a significant number to stop medication. PMID:15808033

  14. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Alessandro [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Quaresima, Valentina [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Pifferi, Antonio [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Biscotti, Giovanni [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Spinelli, Lorenzo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Taroni, Paola [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Marco [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Cubeddu, Rinaldo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO{sub 2} was 73.0 {+-} 0.9 and 70.5 {+-} 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO{sub 2} decreased (69.1 {+-} 1.8 and 63.8 {+-} 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO{sub 2} and tHb.

  15. The effects of a weight belt on trunk and leg muscle activity and joint kinematics during the squat exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A J; Whiting, W C; Vincent, W J; McLaine, A J

    2001-05-01

    Fourteen healthy men participated in a study designed to examine the effects of weight-belt use on trunk- and leg-muscle myoelectric activity (EMG) and joint kinematics during the squat exercise. Each subject performed the parallel back squat exercise at a self-selected speed according to his own technique with 90% of his IRM both without a weight belt (NWB) and with a weight belt (WB). Myoelectric activity of the right vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, adductor magnus, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae was recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were videotaped from a sagittal plane view while standing on a force plate. WB trials were completed significantly faster (p squat exercise may affect the path of the barbell and speed of the lift without altering myoelectric activity. This suggests that the use of a weight belt may improve a lifter's explosive power by increasing the speed of the movement without compromising the joint range of motion or overall lifting technique.

  16. Home-based leg-strengthening exercise improves function 1 year after hip fracture: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Kathleen K; Craik, Rebecca L; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Tomlinson, Susan S; Hofmann, Mary T

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a short-term leg-strengthening exercise program with that of attentional control on improving strength, walking abilities, and function 1 year after hip fracture. Randomized controlled pilot study. Patients' homes. Community-dwelling older adults (n=26) 6 months after hip fracture at baseline. Exercise and control participants received interventions from physical therapists twice a week for 10 weeks. The exercise group received high-intensity leg-strengthening exercises. The control group received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and mental imagery. Isometric force production of lower extremity muscles, usual and fast gait speed, 6-minute walk (6-MW) distance, modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Survey (SF-36) physical function. The primary endpoint was 1 year after fracture. Isometric force production (P=.006), usual (P=.02) and fast (P=.03) gait speed, 6-MW distance (P=.005), and mPPT score (PmPPT score, 0.56 for gait speed, 0.49 for 6-MW, and 0.30 for SF-36 score. More patients in the exercise group made meaningful changes in gait speed and 6-MW distance than control patients (chi-square P=.004). A 10-week home-based progressive resistance exercise program was sufficient to achieve moderate to large effects on physical performance and quality of life and may offer an alternative intervention mode for patients with hip fracture who are unable to leave home by 6 months after the fracture. The effects were maintained at 3 months after completion of the training program. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg movements through microswitch-aided programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the use of microswitch-aided programs to help three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg responses. Those responses served to activate a largely neglected part of the participants' body, with possibly positive physical implications (e.g., for blood circulation, swelling, and muscle strength). Intervention focused on the left and right foot-leg response, separately. Eventually, sessions with one response were alternated with sessions with the other response. Responses were monitored via microswitches and followed by 8s of preferred stimulation (e.g., music and vibrotactile stimulation), which was automatically delivered. The results showed that all three participants had high levels of foot-leg responses during the intervention phases and a 3-week post-intervention check. The participants also displayed expressions of positive involvement during those study periods (i.e., engaged in behaviors, such as music-related head movements, smiles, or touching the vibratory devices) that could be interpreted as forms of interest/pleasure and happiness. These results are in line with previous findings in this area and can be taken as an important confirmation of the strength and dependability of the approach in motivating non-ambulatory persons with multiple disabilities to engage in foot-leg movements. The practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated Management of Exercise Intervention at the Point of Care: Application of a Web-Based Leg Training System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in information and communication technology have prompted development of Web-based health tools to promote physical activity, the key component of cardiac rehabilitation and chronic disease management. Mobile apps can facilitate behavioral changes and help in exercise monitoring, although actual training usually takes place away from the point of care in specialized gyms or outdoors. Daily participation in conventional physical activities is expensive, time consuming, and mostly relies on self-management abilities of patients who are typically aged, overweight, and unfit. Facilitation of sustained exercise training at the point of care might improve patient engagement in cardiac rehabilitation. In this study we aimed to test the feasibility of execution and automatic monitoring of several exercise regimens on-site using a Web-enabled leg training system. The MedExercise leg rehabilitation machine was equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor its usage by the rise of temperature in the resistance unit (Δt°). Personal electronic devices such as laptop computers were fitted with wireless gateways and relevant software was installed to monitor the usage of training machines. Cloud-based software allowed monitoring of participant training over the Internet. Seven healthy participants applied the system at various locations with training protocols typically used in cardiac rehabilitation. The heart rates were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters. Exercising in home chairs, in bed, and under an office desk was made feasible and resulted in an intensity-dependent increase of participants' heart rates and Δt° in training machine temperatures. Participants self-controlled their activities on smart devices, while a supervisor monitored them over the Internet. Individual Δt° reached during 30 minutes of moderate-intensity continuous training averaged 7.8°C (SD 1.6). These Δt° were used as personalized daily doses of exercise with

  19. What is the effect of exercise on wound healing in patients with venous leg ulcers? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daisy; Lane, Rebecca; McGinnes, Rosemary; O'Brien, Jane; Johnston, Renea; Bugeja, Lyndal; Team, Victoria; Weller, Carolina

    2018-02-15

    Standard best practice for the treatment of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) is compression bandaging of the lower leg to reduce hydrostatic pressure. There is considerable variation in reported healing rates when using this gold-standard approach; therefore, a systematic and robust evaluation of other interventions is required. Exercise interventions, in addition to standard compression therapy, could improve wound-healing time and prevent their recurrence. We have conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of exercise on wound characteristics, including time to heal, size and recurrence, pain, quality of life, adverse events, and economic outcomes. This review was registered with PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016046407. A systematic search of Ovid Medline, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PEDro was conducted on January 30, 2017, for randomised control trials to examine the effects of exercise on time to heal, size and recurrence, pain, quality of life, adverse events, and economic outcomes. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but all had design flaws leading to biases, most commonly performance and selective reporting bias. Three studies compared a progressive resistance exercise programme (PREG) plus compression with compression alone for a period of 12 weeks. Low-quality evidence indicates the following: possibly no difference in the proportion of ulcers healed (risk ratio [RR] 1.14, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.84, I 2 36%; 3 trials, 116 participants); probably no difference in quality of life (mean difference [MD] 3 points better on 100 point scale with exercise, 95% CI -1.89 to 7.89, 1 trial, 59 participants); possible increase in the risk of adverse events with exercise (OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.85, 1 RCT, 40 participants); and no difference in ankle range of motion and calf muscle pump. Evidence was downgraded due to susceptibility to bias and imprecision. Recurrence, pain, and economic outcomes were not measured in these

  20. The effect of age and unilateral leg immobilization for 2 weeks on substrate utilization during moderate‐intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, M.; Dybboe, R.; Kuhlman, A. B.; Prats, C.; Greenhaff, P. L.; Constantin‐Teodosiu, D.; Birk, J. B.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Dela, F.; Helge, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points This study aimed to provide molecular insight into the differential effects of age and physical inactivity on the regulation of substrate metabolism during moderate‐intensity exercise.Using the arteriovenous balance technique, we studied the effect of immobilization of one leg for 2 weeks on leg substrate utilization in young and older men during two‐legged dynamic knee‐extensor moderate‐intensity exercise, as well as changes in key proteins in muscle metabolism before and after exercise.Age and immobilization did not affect relative carbohydrate and fat utilization during exercise, but the older men had higher uptake of exogenous fatty acids, whereas the young men relied more on endogenous fatty acids during exercise.Using a combined whole‐leg and molecular approach, we provide evidence that both age and physical inactivity result in intramuscular lipid accumulation, but this occurs only in part through the same mechanisms. Abstract Age and inactivity have been associated with intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) accumulation. Here, we attempt to disentangle these factors by studying the effect of 2 weeks of unilateral leg immobilization on substrate utilization across the legs during moderate‐intensity exercise in young (n = 17; 23 ± 1 years old) and older men (n = 15; 68 ± 1 years old), while the contralateral leg served as the control. After immobilization, the participants performed two‐legged isolated knee‐extensor exercise at 20 ± 1 W (∼50% maximal work capacity) for 45 min with catheters inserted in the brachial artery and both femoral veins. Biopsy samples obtained from vastus lateralis muscles of both legs before and after exercise were used for analysis of substrates, protein content and enzyme activities. During exercise, leg substrate utilization (respiratory quotient) did not differ between groups or legs. Leg fatty acid uptake was greater in older than in young men, and although young men demonstrated net

  1. Region-dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff-leg deadlift defined with high-density electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, A; Péter, A; Finni, T; Cronin, N J

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest region-specific metabolic activity in hamstring muscles during injury prevention exercises, but the neural representation of this phenomenon is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether regional differences are evident in the activity of biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during two common injury prevention exercises. Twelve male participants without a history of hamstring injury performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) and stiff-leg deadlift (SDL) while BFlh and ST activities were recorded with high-density electromyography (HD-EMG). Normalized activity was calculated from the distal, middle, and proximal regions in the eccentric phase of each exercise. In NHE, ST overall activity was substantially higher than in BFlh (d = 1.06 ± 0.45), compared to trivial differences between muscles in SDL (d = 0.19 ± 0.34). Regional differences were found in NHE for both muscles, with different proximal-distal patterns: The distal region showed the lowest activity level in ST (regional differences, d range = 0.55-1.41) but the highest activity level in BFlh (regional differences, d range = 0.38-1.25). In SDL, regional differences were smaller in both muscles (d range = 0.29-0.67 and 0.16-0.63 in ST and BFlh, respectively) than in NHE. The use of HD-EMG in hamstrings revealed heterogeneous hamstrings activity during typical injury prevention exercises. High-density EMG might be useful in future studies to provide a comprehensive overview of hamstring muscle activity in other exercises and high-injury risk tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during dynamic leg exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1995-01-01

    , a product of a contraction rate (1 Hz), force measured at the ankle, and distance of ankle movement from 90 degrees to 150 degrees of KE, was precisely controlled. Lack of rise in myoelectric activity in biceps femoris of the active leg during DKE and MVC was consistent with restriction of muscle action...

  3. Effect of Ladder Drill Exercise on Speed, Surrounding, and Power Leg Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Chandra Adinata Kusuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at finding the effect of ladder drill training upon: (1 run speed, (2 agility, and (2 power of leg muscle. This study is an experimental research. This study utilized one group pre test-post test design. There were total people as the subject of this research. Data collection technique used 30-meter sprint test to measure run speed, Illinois agility test to measure agility, and vertical jump test to measure power of leg muscle. Data analysis technique which was used for normality test, homogeneity test/F-test, and T-test with significant level 5% by using SPSS 16.0.0. Based on the finding, there was effect of ladder drill training upon run speed with sig value=0.007, agility and power of leg muscle with sig value=0.000. Based on the data analysis, it could be concluded that there was significant effect of ladder drill training upon run speed, agility and power of leg muscle.

  4. "Coveting thy neighbour's legs": a qualitative study of exercisers' experiences of intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-06-01

    Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.

  5. Gait, Balance, Leg Strength, and Sprint Speed After Bedrest with LBNP Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.

  6. The effectiveness of intradialytic leg ergometry exercise for improving sedentary life style and fatigue among patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay; Cheng, Sue-Yueh; Lin, Meeiliang; Gau, Fung-Yi; Chao, Yann-Fen C

    2010-11-01

    Over the past three decades, research has been carried out on the effects of exercise on chronic kidney disease patients for improving their physical potential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of intradialytic leg ergometry exercise for improving fatigue and daily physical activity levels among chronic kidney disease patients. A quasi-experimental clinical trial. Two hemodialysis units in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The leg ergometry exercise was performed within the first hour of each hemodialysis session for 30 min for 8 weeks. There were 36 subjects in the experimental group and 35 subjects in the control group who completed the study. Measurement on a fatigue scale and a physical activity log were done at the time of enrollment, and again on the fourth and eighth weeks. Active subjects demonstrated significantly less fatigue and higher physical activity levels than those with a sedentary lifestyle at baseline. During the 8 weeks of intervention, subjects in both the active and sedentary groups reduced their fatigue levels significantly, with the exception of sedentary subjects in the control group. Only active subjects in the experimental group demonstrated an increase in activity levels. The 36 subjects performed 3456 leg ergometry exercise sessions with three early terminations (sedentary subjects. Intradialytic leg ergometry is a safe exercise that is effective to reduce fatigue and improve physical fitness in already active chronic kidney disease patients and it also reduces fatigue in sedentary patients. Interventions to motivate sedentary patients to become active require further investigation. Exercise during hemodialysis does not cost patients extra time and is effective in reducing fatigue and increasing physical activity potential as demonstrated by our study; 30 min of intradialytic leg ergometer exercise can be considered as routine care while delivering hemodialysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexion Reflex Can Interrupt and Reset the Swimming Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Matthew S; Berkowitz, Ari

    2016-03-02

    The spinal cord can generate the hip flexor nerve activity underlying leg withdrawal (flexion reflex) and the rhythmic, alternating hip flexor and extensor activities underlying locomotion and scratching, even in the absence of brain inputs and movement-related sensory feedback. It has been hypothesized that a common set of spinal interneurons mediates flexion reflex and the flexion components of locomotion and scratching. Leg cutaneous stimuli that evoke flexion reflex can alter the timing of (i.e., reset) cat walking and turtle scratching rhythms; in addition, reflex responses to leg cutaneous stimuli can be modified during cat and human walking and turtle scratching. Both of these effects depend on the phase (flexion or extension) of the rhythm in which the stimuli occur. However, similar interactions between leg flexion reflex and swimming have not been reported. We show here that a tap to the foot interrupted and reset the rhythm of forward swimming in spinal, immobilized turtles if the tap occurred during the swim hip extensor phase. In addition, the hip flexor nerve response to an electrical foot stimulus was reduced or eliminated during the swim hip extensor phase. These two phase-dependent effects of flexion reflex on the swim rhythm and vice versa together demonstrate that the flexion reflex spinal circuit shares key components with or has strong interactions with the swimming spinal network, as has been shown previously for cat walking and turtle scratching. Therefore, leg flexion reflex circuits likely share key spinal interneurons with locomotion and scratching networks across limbed vertebrates generally. The spinal cord can generate leg withdrawal (flexion reflex), locomotion, and scratching in limbed vertebrates. It has been hypothesized that there is a common set of spinal cord neurons that produce hip flexion during flexion reflex, locomotion, and scratching based on evidence from studies of cat and human walking and turtle scratching. We show

  8. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload.......05). The exercise induced an average increase in blood flow (3.4-fold) equivalent to results previously obtained during regular dynamic heel raises (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the method is well suited to study the influence of standardized workload on the physiology and pathophysiology of the tissue around...

  9. Leg vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high-intensity exercise training are enhanced in the early postmenopausal phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1......Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined......) years of age were included. Before training, leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, and lactate release during knee-extensor exercise were similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training reduced (P

  10. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Exercise in Aging: Nine Weeks of Leg Press or Electrical Stimulation Training in 70 Years Old Sedentary Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients’ quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (pimprove the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is demonstrated to be a safe home-based method to counteract fast type fiber atrophy, typically associated with aging skeletal muscle. PMID:26913162

  12. Prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in young soldiers; a review of the literature and current practice in the Dutch Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Wes O; Helmhout, P H; Beutler, A

    2017-04-01

    Overuse injuries of the leg are a common problem for young soldiers. This article reviews the literature concerning the prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in military settings and presents the latest developments in proposed mechanisms and treatments. Current practice and treatment protocols from the Dutch Armed Forces are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most prevalent conditions of medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. The conclusion is that exercise related leg pain in the military is an occupational problem that deserves further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  14. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be significantly enhanced (up to 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively) by a voluntary hamstring

  15. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) assesses maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and is commonly performed on a leg cycle ergometer (LC). However, some individuals would rather perform the CPET on an arm cycle ergometer (AC). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to undertake...... in studies on older and less active populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a....

  16. Muscle fatigue and exhaustion during dynamic leg exercise in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight...

  17. Circulatory response evoked by a 3 s bout of dynamic leg exercise in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; Harms, M. P.; ten Harkel, A. D.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Sprangers, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced transient fall in arterial blood pressure evoked by a 3 s bout of bicycle exercise were investigated in twenty healthy young adults and four patients with hypoadrenergic orthostatic hypotension. 2. In healthy subjects a 3 s bout of upright cycling induced

  18. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  19. Physical Exercise in Aging: Nine Weeks of Leg Press or Electrical Stimulation Training in 70 Years Old Sedentary Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Löfler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Burggraf, Samantha; Cvečka, Ján; Hamar, Dušan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirptakova, Veronica; Šarabon, Nejc; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut

    2015-08-24

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type) which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling). Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients' quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP) exercise or electrical stimulation (ES). Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001), together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005). A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001). Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP) or passive (ES) to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES is

  20. Physical exercise in Aging: Nine weeks of leg press or electrical stimulation training in 70 years old sedentary elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zampieri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, reducing force generation and mobility in the elderlies. Contributing factors include a severe decrease in both myofiber size and number as well as a decrease in the number of motor neurons innervating muscle fibers (mainly of fast type which is sometimes accompanied by reinnervation of surviving slow type motor neurons (motor unit remodeling. Reduced mobility and functional limitations characterizing aging can promote a more sedentary lifestyle for older individuals, leading to a vicious circle further worsening muscle performance and the patients' quality of life, predisposing them to an increased risk of disability, and mortality. Several longitudinal studies have shown that regular exercise may extend life expectancy and reduce morbidity in aging people. Based on these findings, the Interreg IVa project aimed to recruit sedentary seniors with a normal life style and to train them for 9 weeks with either leg press (LP exercise or electrical stimulation (ES. Before and at the end of both training periods, all the subjects were submitted to mobility functional tests and muscle biopsies from the Vastus Lateralis muscles of both legs. No signs of muscle damage and/or of inflammation were observed in muscle biopsies after the training. Functional tests showed that both LP and ES induced improvements of force and mobility of the trained subjects. Morphometrical and immunofluorescent analyses performed on muscle biopsies showed that ES significantly increased the size of fast type muscle fibers (p<0.001, together with a significant increase in the number of Pax7 and NCAM positive satellite cells (p<0.005. A significant decrease of slow type fiber diameter was observed in both ES and LP trained subjects (p<0.001. Altogether these results demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise either voluntary (LP or passive (ES to improve the functional performances of aging muscles. Here ES

  1. Spinal manipulation and home exercise with advice for subacute and chronic back-related leg pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronfort, Gert; Hondras, Maria; Schulz, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 192 enrolled patients, 191 (99%) provided follow-up data at 12 weeks and 179 (93%) at 52 weeks. For leg pain, SMT plus HEA had a clinically important advantage over HEA (difference, 10 percentage points [95% CI, 2 to 19]; P = 0.008) at 12 weeks but not at 52 weeks...... (difference, 7 percentage points [CI, -2 to 15]; P = 0.146). Nearly all secondary outcomes improved more with SMT plus HEA at 12 weeks, but only global improvement, satisfaction, and medication use had sustained improvements at 52 weeks. No serious treatment-related adverse events or deaths occurred....... LIMITATION: Patients and providers could not be blinded. CONCLUSION: For patients with BRLP, SMT plus HEA was more effective than HEA alone after 12 weeks, but the benefit was sustained only for some secondary outcomes at 52 weeks. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services....

  2. A single-blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of 6 months of progressive aerobic exercise training in patients with uraemic restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karatzaferi, Christina; Maridaki, Maria D; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Founta, Paraskevi; Tsianas, Nikolaos; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K

    2013-11-01

    Uraemic restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects a significant proportion of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) therapy. Exercise training has been shown to improve RLS symptoms in uraemic RLS patients; however, the mechanism of exercise-induced changes in RLS severity is still unknown. The aim of the current randomized controlled exercise trial was to investigate whether the reduction of RLS severity, often seen after training, is due to expected systemic exercise adaptations or it is mainly due to the relief that leg movements confer during exercise training on a cycle ergometer. This is the first randomized controlled exercise study in uraemic RLS patients. Twenty-four RLS HD patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the progressive exercise training group (n = 12) and the control exercise with no resistance group (n = 12). The exercise session in both groups included intradialytic cycling for 45 min at 50 rpm. However, only in the progressive exercise training group was resistance applied, at 60-65% of maximum exercise capacity, which was reassessed every 4 weeks to account for the patients' improvement. The severity of RLS symptoms was evaluated using the IRLSSG severity scale, functional capacity by a battery of tests, while sleep quality, depression levels and daily sleepiness status were assessed via validated questionnaires, before and after the intervention period. All patients completed the exercise programme with no adverse effects. RLS symptom severity declined by 58% (P = 0.003) in the progressive exercise training group, while a no statistically significant decline was observed in the control group (17% change, P = 0.124). Exercise training was also effective in terms of improving functional capacity (P = 0.04), sleep quality (P = 0.038) and depression score (P = 0.000) in HD patients, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. After 6 months of the intervention, RLS severity (P = 0.017), depression score (P = 0.002) and

  3. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (Pafter the HEP (PAfter the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  4. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  5. Stretching exercises enhance vascular endothelial function and improve peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki; Kamiya, Kentaro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Misako; Nakamura-Ogura, Misao; Tabata, Minoru; Kamekawa, Daisuke; Akiyama, Ayako; Kato, Michitaka; Noda, Chiharu; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effects of a single session of stretching exercises on vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluated 32 patients (mean age, 66 ± 9 years) who received phase I cardiac rehabilitation after acute myocardial infarction. Five types of stretching exercises were performed on the floor: wrist dorsiflexion, close-legged trunk flexion, open-legged trunk flexion, open-legged lateral trunk bending, and cross-legged trunk flexion. Each exercise entailed a 30-second stretching followed by a 30-second relaxation, and was repeated twice. Low- and high-frequency components (LF and HF) of heart rate variability (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz; HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) were analyzed, and HF and LF/HF were used as indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activities, respectively. Reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) index was measured and used as a parameter for vascular endothelial function. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcPO2) on the right foot and chest was also measured, and the Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio was used as a parameter for peripheral circulation. The HF, RH-PAT index, and Foot-tcPO2/Chest-tcPO2 ratio were significantly higher after the exercises than before (P after stretching exercises. These findings demonstrate that stretching exercises improve vascular endothelial function and peripheral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Venogram - leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg; Angiogram - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at. An intravenous (IV) line is ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  8. Pneumatic muscle actuator for resistive exercise in microgravity: test with a leg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Jennifer L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Repperger, Daniel W; Gerschutz, Maria J

    2010-02-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration is described in which a DC servomotor (simulating the quadriceps of a human operator) rotated a pulley 90 degrees (simulating knee extension). A pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) generated an opposing force (antagonist) to the rotating pulley. One application of such a device is for use in microgravity environments because the PMA is compact, simple, and of relatively small mass (283 g). In addition, the operator can set a computer-controlled force-level range in response to individual user changes in exercise conditioning over time. A PMA was used in this study and interacted with a DC servomotor. For each trial, the PMA contracted in response to internal pressure. An input voltage profile activated the DC servomotor, resulting in the following three phases: an isokinetic counterclockwise pulley rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase I), the position was held for 5 s (Phase II), and an isokinetic clockwise rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase III). Root mean square error (RMSE) values were used to evaluate the pulley rotation. For Phase I, when the PMA pressures (in kPa) were 300, 450, and 575, the percent RMSE, respectively, were 5.24, 6.23, and 4.59. For Phase II, the percent RMSE were 2.81, 2.57, and 5.63, respectively. For Phase III, the percent RMSE were 5.69, 2.63, and 3.30, respectively. This study presents a demonstration of a PMA device that can enhance exercise by providing a wide range of resistive loads.

  9. Flexion in Abell 2744

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. P.; Goldberg, D. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first flexion-focused gravitational lensing analysis of the Hubble Frontier Field observations of Abell 2744 (z = 0.308). We apply a modified Analytic Image Model technique to measure source galaxy flexion and shear values at a final number density of 82 arcmin-2. By using flexion data alone, we are able to identify the primary mass structure aligned along the heart of the cluster in addition to two major substructure peaks, including an NE component that corresponds to previous lensing work and a new peak detection offset 1.43 arcmin from the cluster core towards the east. We generate two types of non-parametric reconstructions: flexion aperture mass maps, which identify central core, E, and NE substructure peaks with mass signal-to-noise contours peaking at 3.5σ, 2.7σ, and 2.3σ, respectively; and convergence maps derived directly from the smoothed flexion field. For the primary peak, we find a mass of (1.62 ± 0.12) × 1014 h-1 M⊙ within a 33 arcsec (105 h-1 kpc) aperture, a mass of (2.92 ± 0.26) × 1013 h-1 M⊙ within a 16 arcsec (50 h-1 kpc) aperture for the north-eastern substructure, and (8.81 ± 0.52) × 1013 h-1 M⊙ within a 25 arcsec (80 h-1 kpc) aperture for the novel eastern substructure.

  10. Intradialytic aerobic exercise training ameliorates symptoms of restless legs syndrome and improves functional capacity in patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Giorgos K; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karatzaferi, Christina; Maridaki, Maria D; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Mertens, Peter R; Rountas, Christos; Vlychou, Marianna; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    We present the first study on the influence of exercise training on restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Restless legs syndrome has been treated pharmacologically with satisfactory results; however, side effects and rebound phenomena have been reported. Intradialytic exercise training effectively counteracts uremia-induced catabolism; nevertheless, it remains unknown whether patients with RLS undergoing HD benefit from such programs. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the effect of 16-weeks aerobic exercise training in the severity of RLS and in the functional capacity and the quality of life of patients with RLS on HD. Fourteen patients on HD (four female, mean age 59 +/- 16 years) with untreated RLS were assigned, according to their will, to either the exercise group (Ex-group, n = 7), and participated in a 16-week supervised intradialytic aerobic exercise training, or to the control group (Con-group, n = 7), and continued usual activities. Primary aim was to compare the International RLS (IRLS) study group rating scale, functional ability, and quality of life in baseline and the end of the 16 weeks. Exercise training reduced IRLS score by 42% (p = 0.02). Furthermore, it significantly improved indices of functional ability (p = 0.02), exercise capacity (p = 0.01), quality of life (p = 0.03), and sleep quality (p = 0.01). In the Con-group no changes were observed. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training is safe and efficacious in reducing RLS symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with RLS on HD.

  11. Effects of Exercise Training on Restless Legs Syndrome, Depression, Sleep Quality, and Fatigue Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Ru-Jun; Diao, Yong-Shu; Chen, Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Lian

    2018-04-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients experience a heavy symptom burden that leads to a decreased quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is effective but costly and has adverse effects. Exercise is a promising approach for symptom management, but the effect of exercise on restless legs syndrome (RLS), depression, sleep quality, and fatigue in HD patients is still uncertain. This meta-analysis was conducted to identify whether exercise training is beneficial in the treatment of the symptoms of RLS, depression, poor sleep quality, and fatigue in patients receiving HD. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise training with routine care on RLS, depression, sleep quality, and fatigue among HD patients. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and RevMan 5.3 was used to analyze the data. Fifteen RCTs that met our inclusion criteria were included. The pooled effect size showed that exercise training was effective on RLS (P sleep quality were not performed owing to the sensitivity analysis results. Exercise training may help HD patients to reduce the severity of RLS, depression, and fatigue. More high-quality RCTs with larger samples and comparative RCTs focused on different exercise regimens are needed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Feedback Corrective Exercise on Knee Valgus and Electromyographic Activity of Lower Limb Muscles in Single Leg Squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Koorosh-fard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the effect of feedback correcting exercise in front of mirror during running on frontal plane knee and pelvic kinematic and electromyography activity of some lower extremity muscles in single leg squat (SLS. Materials & Methods: This study was quasi experimental. 23 active female subjects participated in two experimental and control groups with mean age (21.86± 2.43 years .experimental group contains subjects with knee valgus and pelvic drop angle more than a mean plus one standard deviation of the population in functional SLS. Muscular activity (RMS of gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and semitendinosus, angle of knee valgus and pelvic drop were register in end of SLS Pre and post of 8 training sessions. Comparing Variable has done with independent t statistical test between 2 groups and pair sample t test within each groups with significant level of 0.05. Results: Statistical analysis Before training showed no significant differences in pelvic drop between two groups (P&ge0.05, but knee valgus angle was significantly more than control group (P&le0.05. In spit that most muscle activities (% MVC except biceps femoris (P&le0.05, were greater in experimental group, no significant difference (P&ge0.05 has seen in two groups. Comparing pre and post test has showed no significant difference in knee valgus of experimental group, however it decreased around 2 degrees and although %MVC decreased in all muscles, just rectuse femoris has shown significant difference (P&le0.05. No significant difference has seen in control group in all variables (P&ge0.05. Conclusion: Findings showed poor neuromuscular control in experimental group which improved to some extent after training because lower muscle activity and energy consumption in specific movement with similar kinematic indicate improvement of motor control or cause learning. It seems that

  14. The influence of foot position on lower leg muscle activity during a heel raise exercise measured with fine-wire and surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Imai, Atsushi; Iizuka, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Naoto; Kaneoka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Exercises for lower leg muscles are important to improve function. To examine the influence of foot position on lower leg muscle activity during heel raises. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Laboratory. Fourteen healthy men participated in this study. The muscle activity levels of the tibialis posterior (TP), peroneus longus (PL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were measured. The heel raises consisted of three foot positions: 1) neutral, 2) 30° abduction, and 3) 30° adduction. The EMG data for five repetitions of each foot position were normalized to maximum voluntary contraction. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was employed for statistical analysis. The muscle activity level of TP, PL and FDL was significantly different between the three foot positions during the heel raises. TP and FDL showed the highest activity level in 30° foot adduction while PL demonstrated the highest activity level in 30° foot abduction. Heel raises with 30° foot adduction and abduction positions can change lower leg muscle activity; These findings suggest that altering foot posture during the heel raise exercise may benefit patients with impaired TP, PL or FDL function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of a Web-Enabled Leg Training System for the Objective Monitoring and Quantitative Analysis of Exercise-Induced Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V

    2016-08-22

    Sustained cardiac rehabilitation is the key intervention in the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. However, implementation of exercise programs can be challenging because of early fatigability in patients with chronic diseases, overweight individuals, and aged people. Current methods of fatigability assessment are based on subjective self-reporting such as rating of perceived exertion or require specialized laboratory conditions and sophisticated equipment. A practical approach allowing objective measurement of exercise-induced fatigue would be useful for the optimization of sustained delivery of cardiac rehabilitation to improve patient outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop and validate an innovative approach, allowing for the objective assessment of exercise-induced fatigue using the Web-enabled leg rehabilitation system. MedExercise training devices were equipped with wireless temperature sensors in order to monitor their usage by temperature rise in the resistance unit (Δ t °). Since Δ t ° correlated with the intensity and duration of exercise, this parameter was used to characterize participants' leg work output (LWO). Personal smart devices such as laptop computers with wireless gateways and relevant software were used for monitoring of self-control training. Connection of smart devices to the Internet and cloud-based software allowed remote monitoring of LWO in participants training at home. Heart rates (HRs) were measured by fingertip pulse oximeters simultaneously with Δ t ° in 7 healthy volunteers. Exercise-induced fatigue manifested as the decline of LWO and/or rising HR, which could be observed in real-time. Conversely, training at the steady-state LWO and HR for the entire duration of exercise bout was considered as fatigue-free. The amounts of recommended daily physical activity were expressed as the individual Δ t ° values reached during 30-minute fatigue-free exercise of moderate intensity resulting in a mean of 8

  16. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire for English- and Greek-Speaking Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Baliotis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Padhiar, Nat; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Clinical measurement. To translate the German version of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire (EILP-G) to Greek and English and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Greek version. The EILP-G was developed to evaluate the severity of symptoms and sports ability in individuals with exercise-induced leg pain (EILP). Translation of the questionnaire to other languages will provide a standard outcome measure across populations. The EILP-G questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to Greek and English, according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of the Greek version were assessed in 40 patients with EILP, 40 patients with other lower extremity injuries, 40 track-and-field athletes with no history of EILP, and 40 young adults without pathology. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and again after 7 to 10 days. The expert committee and the participants considered the questionnaire to have good face and content validity. Concurrent validity as assessed using the Schepsis score was almost perfect (rho = 0.947, PGreek version exhibited excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.995 for the EILP group) and internal consistency (Cronbach α = .942 for the EILP group). Finally, no ceiling or floor effects were found, as none of the individuals with EILP scored the maximum or minimum possible values on the questionnaire. The Greek version, adapted from the original EILP-G, is a valid and reliable questionnaire, and its psychometric properties are comparable with the original version.

  17. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J.; Hakansson, Nils A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Study Design Cross-Sectional Methods Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects’ gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. Results A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Conclusion Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation

  18. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Karamanidis

    Full Text Available Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS and quadriceps femoris (QF muscle-tendon unit (MTU capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly.Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry.Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention.This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly

  19. The effect of an intensive exercise programme on leg function in chronic stroke patients: a pilot study with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Roland; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of two weeks of intensive exercise on leg function in chronic stroke patients and to evaluate the feasibility of an intensive exercise programme in a group setting. Pilot study with one-group pre-test post-test design with two pre-tests and one-year follow-up. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twelve hemiparetic patients completed the intervention. Ten patients participated at one-year follow-up. Six hours of daily intensive exercise for two weeks with focus on weight-shifting towards the affected side and increased use of the affected extremity during functional activities. An insole with nubs in the shoe of the non-paretic limb was used to reinforce weight-shift toward the affected side. Timed Up and Go, Four Square Step Test, gait velocity, gait symmetry and muscle strength in knee and ankle muscles. Maximal gait velocity (P = 0.002) and performance time (seconds) on Timed Up and Go (mean, SD; 12.2, 3.8 vs. 9.4, 3.2) and Four Square Step Test improved from pre- to post-test (P = 0.005). Improvements remained significant at follow-up. Preferred gait velocity and gait symmetry remained unchanged. Knee extensor (Pstroke patients. Most improvements persisted at the one-year follow-up.

  20. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  1. The effects of squat exercises in postures for toilet use on blood flow velocity of the leg vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jun Ho; Chung, Sin Ho; Shim, Jae Hun

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of squat exercises performed in toilet-using postures on the blood flow velocity of the lower extremities for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students who were attending B University in Cheonan. They were divided into a group of 14 subjects of sitting toilet users and a group of 14 subjects of squat toilet users. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises in different toilet-using postures and we investigated the changes in blood flow velocity. [Results] The variations in blood flow velocities before and after the exercises showed significant differences in both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we consider squat exercises are effective at improving the variation in lower-extremity blood flow velocity when using a toilet.

  2. Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, R F; Fleisig, G S; Zheng, N; Lander, J E; Barrentine, S W; Andrews, J R; Bergemann, B W; Moorman, C T

    2001-09-01

    The specific aim of this project was to quantify knee forces and muscle activity while performing squat and leg press exercises with technique variations. Ten experienced male lifters performed the squat, a high foot placement leg press (LPH), and a low foot placement leg press (LPL) employing a wide stance (WS), narrow stance (NS), and two foot angle positions (feet straight and feet turned out 30 degrees ). No differences were found in muscle activity or knee forces between foot angle variations. The squat generated greater quadriceps and hamstrings activity than the LPH and LPL, the WS-LPH generated greater hamstrings activity than the NS-LPH, whereas the NS squat produced greater gastrocnemius activity than the WS squat. No ACL forces were produced for any exercise variation. Tibiofemoral (TF) compressive forces, PCL tensile forces, and patellofemoral (PF) compressive forces were generally greater in the squat than the LPH and LPL, and there were no differences in knee forces between the LPH and LPL. For all exercises, the WS generated greater PCL tensile forces than the NS, the NS produced greater TF and PF compressive forces than the WS during the LPH and LPL, whereas the WS generated greater TF and PF compressive forces than the NS during the squat. For all exercises, muscle activity and knee forces were generally greater in the knee extending phase than the knee flexing phase. The greater muscle activity and knee forces in the squat compared with the LPL and LPH implies the squat may be more effective in muscle development but should be used cautiously in those with PCL and PF disorders, especially at greater knee flexion angles. Because all forces increased with knee flexion, training within the functional 0-50 degrees range may be efficacious for those whose goal is to minimize knee forces. The lack of ACL forces implies that all exercises may be effective during ACL rehabilitation.

  3. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.

  4. Ultrasound measurement of the size of the anterior tibial muscle group: the effect of exercise and leg dominance

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreesh, Karen

    2011-09-13

    Abstract Background Knowledge of normal muscle characteristics is crucial in planning rehabilitation programmes for injured athletes. There is a high incidence of ankle and anterior tibial symptoms in football players, however little is known about the effect of limb dominance on the anterior tibial muscle group (ATMG). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of limb dominance and sports-specific activity on ATMG thickness in Gaelic footballers and non-football playing controls using ultrasound measurements, and to compare results from transverse and longitudinal scans. Methods Bilateral ultrasound scans were taken to assess the ATMG size in 10 Gaelic footballers and 10 sedentary controls (age range 18-25 yrs), using a previously published protocol. Both transverse and longitudinal images were taken. Muscle thickness measurements were carried out blind to group and side of dominance, using the Image-J programme. Results Muscle thickness on the dominant leg was significantly greater than the non-dominant leg in the footballers with a mean difference of 7.3%, while there was no significant dominance effect in the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the measurements from transverse or longitudinal scans. Conclusions A significant dominance effect exists in ATMG size in this group of Gaelic footballers, likely attributable to the kicking action involved in the sport. This should be taken into account when rehabilitating footballers with anterior tibial pathology. Ultrasound is a reliable tool to measure ATMG thickness, and measurement may be taken in transverse or longitudinal section.

  5. Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain. A secondary aim was to quantify bilateral asymmetry in both environments in affected and unaffected individuals using a symmetry index. Twenty individuals with unilateral knee pain and twenty healthy, matched controls performed body weight double- and single-leg squats in both environments while inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for environmental effects on movement depths and peak angles within the anterior knee pain group. Differences in their inter-limb symmetry in each environments was compared to the control group using analysis of variance tests. Water immersion allowed for greater movement depths during both exercises (double-leg squat: +7 cm, p  = 0.032, single-leg squat: +9 cm, p  = 0.002) for the knee pain group. The double-leg squat was symmetrical on land but water immersion revealed asymmetries in the lower body frontal plane movements. The single-leg squat revealed decreased hip flexion and frontal plane shank motions on the affected limb in both environments. Water immersion also affected the degree of lower limb asymmetry in both groups, with differences also showing between groups. Individuals with anterior knee pain achieved increased squat depth during both exercises whilst in water. Kinematic differences between the affected and unaffected limbs were often increased in water. Individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain appear to utilise different kinematics in the affected

  6. Adenosine contributes to blood flow regulation in the exercising human leg by increasing prostaglandin and nitric oxide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Nyberg, Michael; Thaning, Pia

    2009-01-01

    in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by determining the following: (1) the effect of adenosine receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia with and without simultaneous inhibition of prostaglandins (indomethacin; 0.8 to 1.8 mg/min) and NO (N(G)-mono-methyl-l-arginine; 29 to 52 mg...

  7. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  8. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men (32-42 yr) confined to bed rest (BR). One group (n = 5) had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise for 60 min/day (ITE; n = 7), and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise for 60 min/day (IKE; n = 7). Caloric intake was 2,678-2,840 kcal/day; mean body weight (n = 19) decreased by 0.58 +/- 0.35 (SE) kg during BR due to a negative fluid balance (diuresis) on day 1. Mean energy costs for the NOE, and IKE, and ITE regimens were 83 (3.6 +/- 0.2 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), 214 (8.9 +/- 0.5 ml.min-1.kg-1), and 446 kcal/h (18.8 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.kg-1), respectively. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes (1,752-1,846 ml/day) between groups were unchanged during BR. Resting changes in plasma volume (ml/kg) after BR were -1.5 +/- 2.3% (NS) in ITE, -14.7 +/- 2.8% (P less than 0.05) in NOE, and -16.8 +/- 2.9% (P less than 0.05) in IKE, and mean water balances during BR were +295, -106, and +169 ml/24 h, respectively. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. The significant chronic decreases in plasma volume in the IKE and NOE groups and its maintenance in the ITE group could not be accounted for by water balance or by responses of the plasma osmotic, protein, vasopressin, or aldosterone concentrations or plasma renin activity. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  10. Influence of Hip Joint Position on Muscle Activity during Prone Hip Extension with Knee Flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhisa; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the selective activation of the gluteus maximus during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise, with the hip joint in different positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 healthy, male volunteers. [Methods] Activities of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise. Measurements were mad...

  11. Muscle ion transporters and antioxidative proteins have different adaptive potential in arm than in leg skeletal muscle with exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Weihe, Pál

    2017-01-01

    It was evaluated whether upper-body compared to lower-body musculature exhibits a different phenotype in relation to capacity for handling reactive oxygen species (ROS), H(+), La(-), Na(+), K(+) and also whether it differs in adaptive potential to exercise training. Eighty-three sedentary...... premenopausal women aged 45 ± 6 years (mean ± SD) were randomized into a high-intensity intermittent swimming group (HIS, n = 21), a moderate-intensity swimming group (MOS, n = 21), a soccer group (SOC, n = 21), or a control group (CON, n = 20). Intervention groups completed three weekly training sessions...... for 15 weeks, and pre- and postintervention biopsies were obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis muscle. Before training, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), Na(+)/K(+) pump α2, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expressions were lower (P

  12. One session of strength exercise does not promote negative changes in the structure venous leg and thigh in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson de Araújo Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the venous diameter is associated with the incompetence of the venous system of lower limb. In order to analyze the acute effects of one session of strength exercise (SE on superficial venous diameter (VD of the lower limbs (LL. Twenty-two men (22 ± 2 years old, 81.2 ± 13.4kg weight, 173.0 ± 4.0 cm height and 18.6 ± 3.3% estimated body fat performed a circuit of  three SE, with 3 sets of 6 repetitions, controlled by metronome, with a load of 85% (1-RM and 3 minutes rest. The VDs of the internal saphenous vein (ISV, in right and left LL, were measured at baseline and immediately after each set with color eco-Doppler. Data were analyzed by means of a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. There was a significant effect of time for the right and left VSI (p= 0.001, the VDs at baseline were higher than in series for both. Furthermore, between sets, there was a significant decrease between the first and second (p= 0.009 and an increase between the second and third series (p= 0.027 for the right ISV. For the left ISV, only measured after the first and second are different (p= 0.001. There was a trend toward reduction in VD after the acute bout of strength exercise, indicating that their practice is efficient for the performance of this structure.

  13. The effectiveness of exercise on recovery and clinical outcomes of soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, and foot: A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitzik, Erin; Jacobs, Craig; Wong, Jessica J; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Randhawa, Kristi; Sutton, Deborah; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Brison, Robert J; Yu, Hainan; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Stern, Paula J; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne; Stupar, Maja; Mior, Silvano; Carroll, Linda J

    2015-10-01

    Soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, or foot are common and often treated by exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise for the management of soft tissue injuries of the leg, ankle, or foot. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. We searched five databases from 1990 to 2015. Relevant articles were critically appraised using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. The evidence from studies with low risk of bias was synthesized using the best-evidence synthesis methodology. We screened 7946 articles. We critically appraised ten randomized trials and six had a low risk of bias. The evidence suggests that for recent lateral ankle sprain: 1) rehabilitation exercises initiated immediately post-injury are as effective as a similar program initiated one week post-injury; and 2) supervised progressive exercise plus education/advice and home exercise lead to similar outcomes as education/advice and home exercise. Eccentric exercises may be more effective than an AirHeel brace but less effective than acupuncture for Achilles tendinopathy of more than two months duration. Finally, for plantar heel pain, static stretching of the calf muscles and sham ultrasound lead to similar outcomes, while static plantar fascia stretching provides short-term benefits compared to shockwave therapy. We found little evidence to support the use of early or supervised exercise interventions for lateral ankle sprains. Eccentric exercises may provide short-term benefits over a brace for persistent Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fascia stretching provides short-term benefits for plantar heel pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved knee flexion following high-flexion total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionberger David R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of new techniques and materials in total knee arthroplasty (TKA continue to be a primary focus in orthopedic surgery. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate post TKA total range of motion (ROM among a group of patients who received a gender specific high-flexion design modification implant compared to a control group of patients who received non-gender specific implants. Methods and results The control group was comprised of 39 TKAs that were recruited pre-operatively and received the non-gender specific implant while the study group consisted of 39 TKAs who received gender specific implants. The study group yielded an improvement in mean post-operative ROM of 21° at 12 months, whereas the mean improvement in ROM among the control group was 11°. Thus, the study group had a 10° increased ROM improvement (91% over the control group (p = 0.00060. In addition, 100% of the subjects with gender specific high-flexion implants achieved greater or equal ROM post-operatively compared to 82% for the control cohort. Lastly, women who exhibited greater pre-operative ROM and lower body mass index (BMI were found to benefit the most with the gender specific prosthesis. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that among subjects with a normal BMI, the gender specific high-flexion knee implant is associated with increased ROM as compared to the non-gender specific non-high-flexion implant designs.

  15. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  16. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  17. Electromyographic Comparison of Elastic Resistance and Machine Exercises for High-Intensity Strength Training in Patients With Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether elastic resistance training can induce comparable levels of muscle activity as conventional machine training in patients with chronic stroke. Comparative study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Stroke patients (N=18) with hemiparesis (mean age, 57 ± 8y). Patients performed 3 consecutive repetitions at 10 repetition maximum of unilateral knee extension and flexion using elastic resistance and conventional machine training. Surface electromyography was measured in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus and was normalized to maximal electromyography (% of max) of the nonparetic leg. In the paretic leg, agonist muscle activity ranged from 18% to 24% normalized electromyography (% of max) (nEMG) during knee flexion and from 32% to 40% nEMG during knee extension. For knee extension, vastus lateralis nEMG was higher during machine exercise than during elastic resistance exercise (40% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 33-47] vs 32% [95% CI, 25-39]; P=.003). In the nonparetic leg, agonist muscle activity ranged from 54% to 61% during knee flexion and from 52% to 68% during knee extension. For knee flexion semitendinosus nEMG was higher (61% [95% CI, 50-71] vs 54% [95% CI, 44-64]; P=.016) and for knee extension vastus medialis nEMG was higher (68% [95% CI, 60-76] vs 56% [95% CI, 48-64]; Ptraining appears to induce slightly higher levels of muscle activity in some of the investigated muscles compared to elastic resistance during lower limb strength training in patients with chronic stroke. The higher level of coactivation during knee flexion when performed using elastic resistance suggests that elastic resistance exercises are more difficult to perform. This is likely due to a higher level of movement instability. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  19. Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SungChul; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Okada, Akiyoshi; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p power at D2 and D11 also increased (p Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

  20. Evaluation of hip flexion strength following lateral lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Po; Regev, Gilad J; Chan, Justin; Zhang, Bing; Taylor, William; Kim, Choll W; Garfin, Steven R

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is a minimally invasive procedure that is designed to achieve a solid interbody fusion while minimizing the damage to the surrounding soft tissue. Although short-term results have been promising, few data have been published to date regarding its risks and complication rate. The aim was to evaluate the extent of injury to the psoas muscle after the LIF procedure by measuring hip flexion strength. A prospective case series was used in the study. Hip flexion strength was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer while the patient was seated on a chair; the examiner held the device against the patient's attempt to flex the hip. Both sides were measured to compare the operated and nonoperated psoas muscles. Each side was measured three times and the average amount (in pounds) was recorded. Measurements were done before and after surgery on Day 2-3, at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and at 3 and 6 months. Thirty-three patients were recruited for this study. Mean preoperative hip flexion strength values were 20.7±3.47 lb and 21.3±4.31 lb for operated and nonoperated legs, respectively, with no significant difference (p=.85). With a mean of 11.2±2.24 lb postoperative measurements on Day 2, the operated side showed statistically significant reduction of strength (p=.0001). The nonoperated side was also weaker postoperatively, but not significantly (mean=19.12±1.74 lb; p=.097). From the first follow-up visit at 2 weeks, the values on the operated leg had returned to baseline values (20.6, p=.97) and were not significantly different from preoperative values on either side. Hip flexion was weakened immediately after the LIF procedure, which may be attributed to psoas muscle injury during the procedure. However, this damage was temporary, with almost complete return to baseline values by 2 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leg Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 31, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/leg-swelling/basics/definition/SYM-20050910 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Knee joint moments during high flexion movements: Timing of peak moments and the effect of safety footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Helen C; Tennant, Liana M; Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M

    2017-03-01

    (1) Characterize knee joint moments and peak knee flexion moment timing during kneeling transitions, with the intent of identifying high-risk postures. (2) Determine whether safety footwear worn by kneeling workers (construction workers, tile setters, masons, roofers) alters high flexion kneeling mechanics. Fifteen males performed high flexion kneeling transitions. Kinetics and kinematics were analyzed for differences in ascent and descent in the lead and trail legs. Mean±standard deviation peak external knee adduction and flexion moments during transitions ranged from 1.01±0.31 to 2.04±0.66% body weight times height (BW∗Ht) and from 3.33 to 12.6% BW∗Ht respectively. The lead leg experienced significantly higher adduction moments compared to the trail leg during descent, when work boots were worn (interaction, p=0.005). There was a main effect of leg (higher lead vs. trail) on the internal rotation moment in both descent (p=0.0119) and ascent (p=0.0129) phases. Peak external knee adduction moments during transitions did not exceed those exhibited during level walking, thus increased knee adduction moment magnitude is likely not a main factor in the development of knee OA in occupational kneelers. Additionally, work boots only significantly increased the adduction moment in the lead leg during descent. In cases where one knee is painful, diseased, or injured, the unaffected knee should be used as the lead leg during asymmetric bilateral kneeling. Peak flexion moments occurred at flexion angles above the maximum flexion angle exhibited during walking (approximately 60°), supporting the theory that the loading of atypical surfaces may aid disease development or progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  4. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a Question Reviewed by Barry J. Make, ...

  5. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  6. Acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Assis Saldanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men. The study included 10 normotensive and recreationally-trained men (25.40 ± 6.90 years performed the following three experimental protocols in a randomized order: a 60% of 8RM; b 80% of 8RM; c 100% of 8RM. All protocols performed six exercises (Leg Press, Vertical Bench Press, Leg Flexion, Close-Grip Seated Row, Leg Extension and Shoulder Press with three sets of eight repetitions for each exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and double product (DP were measured at rest, at the end of exercise and during the 60-minute post-exercise. The findings showed that there was a significant reduction in the faster SBP with a longer duration (p 0.05. There were significantly higher elevations in HR and DP for 100% of 8RM at all times (p<0.0001. We conclude that high intensities (100% of 8RM promote post-exercise hypotension with faster responses and greater duration and increase HR and DP in normotensive men.

  7. Biomechanical characteristics of the eccentric Achilles tendon exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Aaboe, Jens; Bliddal, Henning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eccentric exercise has been shown to provide good short-term clinical results in the treatment of painful mid-portion chronic Achilles tendinopathies. However, the mechanisms behind the positive effects of eccentric rehabilitation regimes are not known, and research into the biomechan......BACKGROUND: Eccentric exercise has been shown to provide good short-term clinical results in the treatment of painful mid-portion chronic Achilles tendinopathies. However, the mechanisms behind the positive effects of eccentric rehabilitation regimes are not known, and research....... No differences in Achilles tendon loads were found. INTERPRETATION: This descriptive study demonstrates differences in the movement biomechanics between the eccentric and concentric phases of one-legged full weight bearing ankle dorsal and plantar flexion exercises. In particular, the findings imply...

  8. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; de Haan, Arnold; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Houdijk, Han

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  9. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activity during single-leg landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-08-01

    Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  10. Night Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night leg cramps By Mayo Clinic Staff Night leg cramps, also called nocturnal leg cramps, are painful, involuntary contractions or spasms of muscles in your legs, usually occurring when you're in bed. Night ...

  11. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  12. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue......, and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  13. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p < 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9* +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.5%, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  14. Palmar Flexion Creases Variants among Nigerians | Adetona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Line formations of the palm (palmar flexion creases) as part of field of dermatoglyphics can be used for non-invasive investigations of congenital abnormalities. Numerous studies have found correlation between line patterns, diseases and psychological conditions. The pattern of palmar flexion creases had been studied in ...

  15. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Pilates includes a high volume of hamstring stretching and maximal trunk flexion with knees extended exercises. to perform a systematic review about Pilates practice effects and a detraining period on hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and trunk flexion in maximal trunk flexion with knees extended. it was analysed all the experimental or quasi-experimental designs written in English, Spanish or Portuguese and included in the following databases: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet and Research Gate. twenty-one papers were analysed. Most of them used a pre-test-post-test design with control group. The intervention programs applied were heterogeneous. Samples were composed mainly of women, both young and old. It was found that the Pilates practice, with different volume, significantly increased hamstring muscle extensibility and pelvic tilt in maximal trunk flexion. At least three training sessions peer week during six weeks were necessary in order to obtain a high trunk inclination. Studies which involved athletes showed contradictory results. By inducing a detraining period it was noticed a decrease in hamstring extensibility and trunk flexion from the second week. there is a moderate evidence that Pilates is an effective method to increase hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and the degree of trunk flexion in maximal flexion positions in sedentary and recreational active people and also to increase hamstring extensibility in athletes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Do early quadriceps exercises affect the outcome of ACL reconstruction? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Triston; Williams, Marie T; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of quadriceps exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A treatment group (Quadriceps exercise group) performed straight leg raises and isometric quadriceps contractions throughout the first two postoperative weeks, and a second group (No quadriceps exercise group) did not. A battery of outcome measures assessed subjects postoperatively at day one, two weeks, and one, three and six months. A total of 103 patients (Quadriceps exercise n = 48, No quadriceps exercise n = 55) commenced the study with 91 subjects available at final follow up (Quadriceps exercise n = 47, No quadriceps exercise n = 44). Performance of quadriceps exercises significantly improved a number of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurements (p = 0.01 to 0.04). No significant differences were found between the two groups at any postoperative period for quadriceps lag (p = 0.36), functional hop testing (p = 0.49 to 0.51), isokinetic quadriceps strength (p = 0.70 to 0.72), the majority of numerical analogue scores (p = 0.1 to 0.94) and Cincinnati scores (p = 0.10 to 0.84). Subjects performing quadriceps exercises reported significantly higher pain scores with exercise on the first postoperative day (p = 0.02). At six months postoperatively, the Quadriceps exercise subjects reported significantly more favourable Cincinnati scores for symptoms (p = 0.005) and problems with sport (p = 0.05). While average knee laxity was not significantly different between treatment groups over time (p = 0.27 to 0.94), quadriceps exercise performance was associated with a significantly lower incidence of abnormal knee laxity. Isometric quadriceps exercises and straight leg raises can be safely prescribed during the first two postoperative weeks and confer advantages for faster recovery of knee range of motion and stability. It remains to be proven whether the magnitude of differences between groups is

  17. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and to enhance countermeasure development. The DAP Musculoskeletal Modeling effort is developing computational models to inform exercise countermeasure development and to predict physical performance capabilities after a length of time in space. For example, integrated exercise device-biomechanical models can determine localized loading, which will be used as input to muscle and bone adaptation models to estimate the effectiveness of the exercise countermeasure. In addition, simulations of mission tasks can be used to estimate the astronaut's ability to perform the task after exposure to microgravity and after using various exercise countermeasures. The software package OpenSim (Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA) (Ref. 1) is being used to create the DAP biomechanical models and its built-in muscle model is the starting point for the DAP muscle model. During Exploration missions, such as those to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Therefore, the crew must have access to exercise countermeasures that can maintain their musculoskeletal and aerobic health. Exploration vehicles may have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities, even more so than the International Space Station (ISS). The exercise devices flown on Exploration missions must be designed to provide sufficient load during the performance of various resistance and aerobic/anaerobic exercises while meeting potential additional requirements of limited mass, volume and power. Given that it is not practical to manufacture and test (ground, analog and/or flight) all candidate devices, nor is it always possible to obtain data such as localized muscle and bone loading empirically, computational modeling can estimate the localized loading during various exercise modalities performed on

  18. Flexion and anterior knee pain after high flexion posterior stabilized or cruciate retaining knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Groes, Sebastiaan; van der Ven, Paul; Kremers-van de Hei, Keetie; Koëter, Sander; Verdonschot, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Special high-flexion prosthetic designs show a small increase in postoperative flexion compared to standard designs and some papers show increased anterior knee pain with these prosthesis. A prospective double blind randomized controlled trial investigates the difference in flexion and anterior knee pain between standard and high-flexion total knee arthroplasty. In total 47 patients were randomly allocated to a standard cruciate retaining fixed bearing design (CR) in 23 patients and to a high-flexion posterior stabilized mobile bearing design (HF-PS) in 24 patients. The HF-PS did show a significantly higher passive postoperative flexion; 120.8° (SD 10.3°) vs. 112.0° (SD 9.5°) for the CR group (p = 0.004). The active postoperative flexion, VAS-pain score and Feller score did not show significant differences between both groups. Sub analysis with the HF-PS group showed a higher VAS-pain for the patients achieving ≥130° of flexion; 30.5 (SD 32.2) vs. 12.2 (SD 12.5) (p = 0.16). The present study showed a significant higher passive flexion in the high-flexion prosthesis compared to the standard prosthesis. However this difference disappeared when comparing active flexion. No difference in anterior knee pain was found between both groups.

  19. Restless Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make symptoms worse. Lifestyle changes, such as regular sleep habits, relaxation techniques, and moderate exercise during the day can help. If those don't work, medicines may reduce the symptoms of RLS. Most ... usually during sleep. PLMD and RLS can also affect the arms. ...

  20. Yoga spinal flexion positions and vertebral compression fracture in osteopenia or osteoporosis of spine: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report is to raise awareness of the effect of strenuous yoga flexion exercises on osteopenic or osteoporotic spines. We previously described subjects with known osteoporosis in whom vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) developed after spinal flexion exercise (SFE) and recommended that SFEs not be prescribed in patients with spinal osteoporosis. This report describes 3 healthy persons with low bone mass and yoga-induced pain or fracture. All 3 patients had osteopenia, were in good health and pain-free, and had started yoga exercises to improve their musculoskeletal health. New pain and fracture areas occurred after participation in yoga flexion exercises. The development of pain and complications with some flexion yoga positions in the patients with osteopenia leads to concern that fracture risk would increase even further in osteoporosis. Although exercise has been shown to be effective for improving bone mineral density and decreasing fracture risk, our subjects had development of VCFs and neck and back pain with yoga exercises. This finding suggests that factors other than bone mass should be considered for exercise counseling in patients with bone loss. The increased torque pressure applied to vertebral bodies during SFEs may be a risk. Exercise is effective and important for treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis and should be prescribed for patients with vertebral bone loss. Some yoga positions can contribute to extreme strain on spines with bone loss. Assessment of fracture risk in older persons performing SFEs and other high-impact exercises is an important clinical consideration. © 2012 The Author. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of a self-management exercise intervention on wound healing, functional ability and health-related quality of life outcomes in adults with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jane; Finlayson, Kathleen; Kerr, Graham; Edwards, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Exercise that targets ankle joint mobility may lead to improvement in calf muscle pump function and subsequent healing. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of an exercise intervention in addition to routine evidence-based care on the healing rates, functional ability and health-related quality of life for adults with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This study included 63 patients with VLUs. Patients were randomised to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention with a telephone coaching component or usual care plus telephone calls at the same timepoints. The primary outcome evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in relation to wound healing. The secondary outcomes evaluated physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life measures between groups at the end of the 12 weeks. A per protocol analysis complemented the effectiveness (intention-to-treat) analysis to highlight the importance of adherence to an exercise intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses for the primary outcome showed 77% of those in the intervention group healed by 12 weeks compared to 53% of those in the usual care group. Although this difference was not statistically significant due to a smaller than expected sample size, a 24% difference in healing rates could be considered clinically significant. The per protocol analysis for wound healing, however, showed that those in the intervention group who adhered to the exercise protocol 75% or more of the time were significantly more likely to heal and showed higher rates for wound healing than the control group (P = 0·01), that is, 95% of those who adhered in the intervention group healed in 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes of physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life were not significantly altered by the intervention. Among the secondary outcomes (physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life), intention-to-treat analyses did not support the

  2. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  3. Differences in take-off leg kinetics between horizontal and vertical single-leg rebound jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyama, Yasushi; Hobara, Hiroaki; Zushi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the differences between the horizontal single-leg rebound jump (HJ) and vertical single-leg rebound jump (VJ) in terms of three-dimensional joint kinetics for the take-off leg, while focusing on frontal and transverse plane movements. Eleven male track and field athletes performed HJ and VJ. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using data recorded with a motion capture system and force platforms. The hip abduction torque, trunk lateral flexion torque (flexion for the swing-leg side), hip external and internal torque, trunk rotational torque, and the powers associated with these torques were larger when performing HJ because of resistance to the impact ground reaction force and because of pelvic and posture control. Pelvic rotation was noted in HJ, and this was controlled not only by the hip and trunk joint torque from the transverse plane but also by the hip abduction torque. Therefore, hip and trunk joint kinetics in the frontal and transverse plane play an important role in a single-leg jump, regardless of the jumping direction, and may also play a more important role in HJ than in VJ.

  4. The Lively Legs self-management programme increased physical activity and reduced wound days in leg ulcer patients: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Borm, G.F.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Evers, A.W.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effectiveness of the Lively Legs program for promoting adherence with ambulant compression therapy and physical exercise as well as effects on leg ulcer recurrence. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Eleven outpatient clinics for dermatology in the

  5. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  6. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, ...

  7. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  8. Venous leg ulcer patients: a review of the literature on lifestyle and pain-related interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Reimer, W.S. op; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Laat, H.E.W. de

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Having a leg ulcer has a major impact on daily life. Lifestyle is mentioned in most leg ulcer guidelines but mostly without much emphasis on the subject. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the effect of nutrition, leg elevation and exercise on the healing of leg ulcers was reconsidered.

  9. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of ...

  10. On voluntary rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control during pedalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E A

    2015-06-01

    The overall purpose of the present dissertation was to contribute to the understanding of voluntary human rhythmic leg movement behaviour and control. This was achieved by applying pedalling as a movement model and exposing healthy and recreationally active individuals as well as trained cyclists to for example cardiopulmonary and mechanical loading, fatiguing exercise, and heavy strength training. As a part of the background, the effect of pedalling frequency on diverse relevant biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysiological variables as well as on performance was initially explored. Freely chosen pedalling frequency is considerably higher than the energetically optimal pedalling frequency. This has been shown by others and was confirmed in the present work. As a result, pedal force is relatively low while rates of VO2 and energy turnover are relatively high during freely chosen pedalling as compared to a condition where a lower and more efficient pedalling frequency is imposed. The freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work, and by others, found to most likely be less advantageous than the lower energetically optimal pedalling frequency with respect to performance during intensive cycling following prolonged submaximal cycling. This stimulates the motivation to understand the behaviour and control of the freely chosen pedalling frequency during cycling. Freely chosen pedalling frequency was in the present work shown to be highly individual. In addition, the pedalling frequency was shown to be steady in a longitudinal perspective across 12 weeks. Further, it was shown to be unaffected by both fatiguing hip extension exercise and hip flexion exercise as well as by increased loading on the cardiopulmonary system at constant mechanical loading, and vice versa. Based on this, the freely chosen pedalling frequency is considered to be characterised as a highly individual, steady, and robust innate voluntary motor rhythm under primary influence of

  11. L-Arginine and L-Ornithine Supplementation Facilitates Angiogenesis and Causes Additional Effects on Exercise-induced Angiogenesis in Hind-leg Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Junichi, SUZUKI; Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Health and Sports Sciences, Course of Sports Education, Department of Education, Hokkaido University of Education

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of dietary L-arginine and L-ornithine supplementation with or without exercise on capillary angiogenesis in rats. Exercise training lasted for six weeks at 20m/min on a 15% gradient for 15-60min/day. Rats in the treated groups drank water containing 4% L-arginine and 2% L-ornithine. According to histochemical identification of the capillary profile, the supplementation significantly increased the capillary-to-fiber (C:F) ratio in mixed fib...

  12. Neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise in individuals with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem

    2013-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Change in knee flexor torque after fatiguing exercise identifies previous hamstring injury in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Ma'ayah, F; Blazevich, A J

    2018-03-01

    Muscular fatigue and interlimb strength asymmetry are factors known to influence hamstring injury risk; however, limb-specific exacerbation of knee flexor (hamstrings) torque production after fatiguing exercise has previously been ignored. To investigate changes in muscular force production before and after sport-specific (repeated-sprint) and non-specific (knee extension-flexion) fatiguing exercise, and explore the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic endurance (ie, muscle-specific) and single-leg vertical jump (ie, whole limb) tests to identify previous hamstring injury. Twenty Western Australia State League footballers with previous unilateral hamstring injury and 20 players without participated. Peak concentric knee extensor and flexor (180°∙s -1 ) torques were assessed throughout an isokinetic endurance test, which was then repeated alongside a single-leg vertical jump test before and after maximal repeated-sprint exercise. Greater reductions in isokinetic knee flexor torque (-16%) and the concentric hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratio (-15%) were observed after repeated-sprint running only in the injured (kicking) leg and only in the previously injured subjects. Changes in (1) peak knee flexor torque after repeated-sprint exercise, and (2) the decline in knee flexor torque during the isokinetic endurance test measured after repeated-sprint exercise, correctly identified the injured legs (N = 20) within the cohort (N = 80) with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Decreases in peak knee flexor torque and the knee flexor torque during an isokinetic endurance test after repeated-sprint exercise identified previous hamstring injury with 100% accuracy. Changes in knee flexor torque, but not SLVJ, should be tested to determine its prospective ability to predict hamstring injury in competitive football players. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of elastic band exercises on physical ability and muscular topography of elderlyfemales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Suk Bum; Kim, Seong Wook

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of band exercise types on the physical ability and muscular topography for elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six females older than 65 years were divided into the dynamic band exercise (DBE; n=13) group and the Static band exercise (SBE; n=13) group. Each participant performed 12 weeks of elastic band exercises. Physical abilities were measured by leg extension power, sitting trunk flexion, closed eyes foot balance, and time to get up. Changes in muscle topography were evaluated with Moire measurement equipment for the chest, abdomen, and lumbar region. All results were compared before and after 12 weeks of exercise. [Results] Changes in physical ability were significantly increased in both groups. The scores for the muscular topography of the chest, abdomen, lumbar region, and all body parts was significantly improved in both groups for closed eyes foot balance. There were more improvements in the DBE group. [Conclusion] Two types of static and dynamic elastic band exercises effectively changed the physical fitness and muscle topography of elderly females. Therefore, to increase the effects of exercise, dynamic band exercises are considered useful. Because band exercises are simple, they can be used to maintain the health of elderly people.

  15. Metabolism and inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous space measured by microdialysis during intermittent isometric exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D; Karamouzis, M

    1999-01-01

    1. The metabolic processes that occur around the tendon during mechanical loading and exercise are undescribed in man. These processes are important for understanding the development of overuse inflammation and injury. 2. A microdialysis technique was used to determine interstitial concentrations...... healthy humans were studied at rest, during 30 min of intermittent static plantar flexion of the ankle at a workload corresponding to individual body weight, and during 60 min of recovery. Microdialysis was performed in both legs with simultaneous determination of blood flow by 133Xe washout in the same...

  16. Influência de diferentes ângulos articulares obtidos na posição inicial do exercício pressão de pernas e final do exercício puxada frontal sobre os valores de 1RM Influencia en los diferentes ángulos articulares obtenidos en la posición inicial del ejercicio de presión de piernas y al final del ejercicio de puje frontal sobre los valores de 1RM The influence of different joint angles obtained in the starting position of leg press exercise and at the end of the frontal pull exercise on the values of 1RM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Reis de Moura

    2004-08-01

    initial position (80º, 90º and 100º degrees of knee flexion and in the final position of the frontal pull exercise (60º, 70º and 80º degrees of elbow flexion, thus each angle was tested on three different days for each of the exercises. The results indicate that the averages of the 1RM for the leg press exercises are statistically different (F = 30, 199; p = 0.000 amongst themselves (post hoc of Tukey. Although there were differences in the frontal pull exercise, they were not statistically significant (F = 1.330; p = 0.281. It can be concluded that different techniques used in the execution of exercises that involve different angles, mainly in their initial positions, must be rigorously controlled, since they can affect the amount of weight lifted.

  17. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-01-11

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e. exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 y) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with one minute of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 mmHg vs. 104 ± 9 mmHg; p<0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 mmHg vs. 101 ± 10 mmHg; p<0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single-leg and double-leg (267 ± 150 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm vs. 214 ± 169 μM[BULLET OPERATOR]cm; p=0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (p<0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3 ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1 ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  18. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  19. Flexion-relaxation response to gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael; Solomonow, Moshe; Li, Li

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report was to study the influence of the orientation of gravitational loading on the behavior of anterior and posterior trunk muscles during anterior trunk flexion-extension. Participants (N=13) performed five (5) cycles of trunk flexion-extension while standing with gravity parallel to the body axis and five (5) cycles while in the supine condition (e.g. sit-ups) with gravity perpendicular to the body axis. Surface electromyographic (EMG) patterns from lumbar paraspinal, rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, semimembranosis, and biceps femoris muscles were analyzed during each condition. EMG signals were synchronized with lumbar flexion and trunk inclination angles. Flexion-extension from the standing position resulted in a myoelectric silent period of the lumbar posterior muscles (e.g. flexion-relaxation phenomena (FRP)) as well as the hamstring muscles through deep angles during which activity was observed in abdominal muscles. Flexion-extension during sit-ups, however, resulted in a myoelectric silent period of the abdominal muscles and the quadriceps through deep angles during which the lumbar posterior muscles were active. In this condition, the FRP was not observed in posterior muscles. The new findings demonstrate the profound impact of the orientation of the gravity vector on the FRP, the abdominal muscles reaction to gravitational loads during sit-ups and its relationships with lumbar antagonists and thigh musculature. The new findings suggest that gravitational moments requirements dominate the FRP through the prevailing kinematics, load sharing and reflex activation-inhibition of muscles in various conditions. Lumbar kinematics or fixed sensory motor programs by themselves, however, are not the major contributor to the FRP. The new findings improve our insights into spinal biomechanics as well as understanding and evaluating low back disorders.

  20. Evaluation of electromyographic activity and heart rate responses to isometric exercise. The role played by muscular mass and type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the electromyographic (EMG activity and heart rate (HR responses induced by isometric exercise performed by knee extension (KE and flexion (KF in men. Fifteen healthy male subjects, 21 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD, were submitted to KE and KF isometric exercise tests at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The exercises were performed with one leg (right or left and with two legs simultaneously, for 10 s in the sitting position with the hip and knee flexed at 90o. EMG activity (root mean square values and HR (beats/min were recorded simultaneously both at rest and throughout the sustained contraction. The HR responses to isometric exercise in KE and KF were similar when performed with one and two legs. However, the HR increase was always significantly higher in KE than KF (P0.05 and KF (r = 0.15, P>0.05 contractions were not significant. These results suggest that the predominant mechanism responsible for the larger increase in HR response to KE as compared to KF in our study could be dependent on qualitative and quantitative differences in the fiber type composition found in each muscle group. This mechanism seems to demand a higher activation of motor units with a corresponding increase in central command to the cardiovascular centers that modulate HR control.

  1. Different fatigue-resistant leg muscles and EMG response during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static whole-body vibration (WBV) on the Electromyograhic (EMG) responses of leg muscles, which are fatigue-resistant in different manner. The study population was divided into two groups according to the values obtained by the Fatigue Index [Group I: Less Fatigue Resistant (LFR), n=11; Group II: More Fatigue Resistant (MFR), n=11]. The repeated electromyographic (EMG) activities of four leg muscles were analyzed the following determinants: (1) frequency (30 Hz, 35 Hz and 40 Hz); (2) stance position (static squat position); (3) amplitude (2 mm and 4 mm) and (4) knee flexion angle (120°), (5) vertical vibration platform. Vibration data were analyzed using Minitab 16 (Minitab Ltd, State College, PA, USA). The significance level was set at pmuscle fatigue (pEMG activation at higher frequencies (max at 40 Hz) and amplitudes (4 mm) (p<.05). The present study can be used for the optimal prescription of vibration exercise and can serve to guide the development of training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: a proof-of-principle study (TargET-Knee-Pain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laurence R J; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milica; Stynes, Siobhán; D'Cruz, Deborah; Mullis, Ricky; Whittle, Rebecca; Peat, George; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-01-29

    Therapeutic exercise is an effective intervention for knee pain and osteoarthritis (OA) and should be individualised. In a preliminary, proof-of-principle study we sought to develop a home exercise programme targeted at specific physical impairments of weak quadriceps, reduced knee flexion range of motion (ROM) and poor balance, and evaluate whether receipt of this was associated with improvements in those impairments and in patient-reported outcomes among older adults with knee pain. This community-based study used a single group, before-after study design with 12-week follow-up. Participants were 58 adults aged over 56 years with knee pain and evidence of quadriceps weakness, loss of flexion ROM, or poor balance, recruited from an existing population-based, observational cohort. Participants received a 12-week home exercise programme, tailored to their physical impairments. The programme was led, monitored and progressed by a physiotherapist over six home visits, alternating with six telephone calls. Primary outcome measures were maximal isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion ROM and timed single-leg standing balance, measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks by a research nurse blinded to the nature and content of participants' exercise programmes. Secondary outcome measures included the WOMAC. At 12 weeks, participants receiving strengthening exercises demonstrated a statistically significant change in quadriceps isometric strength compared to participants not receiving strengthening exercises: 3.9 KgF (95 % CI 0.1, 7.8). Changes in knee flexion ROM (2.1° (-2.3, 6.5)) and single-leg balance time (-2.4 s (-4.5, 6.7)) after stretching and balance retraining exercises respectively, were not found to be statistically significant. There were significant improvements in mean WOMAC Pain and Physical Function scores: -2.2 (-3.1, -1.2) and -5.1 (-7.8, -2.5). A 12-week impairment-targeted, home-based exercise programme for symptomatic knee OA appeared to be associated

  3. Effects of six-week exercise training protocol on pain relief in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Yazdani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paraspinal, abdominal, and core muscles are playing the main role in lumbar disc herniation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a 6 weeks exercise training protocol on pain relief in males and females with lumbar disc herniation. Methods: In this before-after trial study, 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation were assigned to a 6 weeks exercise training program. Training protocol included leg press, trunk lateral flexion, trunk rotation, trunk flexion/extension, and stretching exercises in two sessions a week with 25-30 minutes each. Pain was measured with visual analog scale (VAS at 1st, 6th, and 12th sessions. Results: A total of 64 patients (13 males with mean age 47.53 ± 11.71 years and 51 females with mean age 46.50 ± 11.76 years completed the protocol. The pain was significantly reduced in both males and females during sessions 6 and 12 in comparison with the first session (P = 0.001. The amount of pain relief in males was higher than females (P = 0.047. Conclusion: About 6 weeks exercise training program could reduce more pain in males with lumbar disc herniation compared to females. This core stabilizing exercise protocol could be a good recommendation for patients with disk herniated low back pain (LBP.

  4. Leg lengthening - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100127.htm Leg lengthening - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... with lengthening procedures are the bones of the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may ...

  5. Arterial bypass leg - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100155.htm Arterial bypass leg - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Overview The arteries which supply blood to the leg originate from the aorta and iliac vessels. Review ...

  6. Leg lengthening and shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm Leg lengthening and shortening To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to ...

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament strain and tensile forces for weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing exercises: a guide to exercise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Macleod, Toran D; Wilk, Kevin E; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-03-01

    There is a growing body of evidence documenting loads applied to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) for weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing exercises. ACL loading has been quantified by inverse dynamics techniques that measure anterior shear force at the tibiofemoral joint (net force primarily restrained by the ACL), ACL strain (defined as change in ACL length with respect to original length and expressed as a percentage) measured directly in vivo, and ACL tensile force estimated through mathematical modeling and computer optimization techniques. A review of the biomechanical literature indicates the following: ACL loading is generally greater with non-weight-bearing compared to weight-bearing exercises; with both types of exercises, the ACL is loaded to a greater extent between 10° to 50° of knee flexion (generally peaking between 10° and 30°) compared to 50° to 100° of knee flexion; and loads on the ACL change according to exercise technique (such as trunk position). Squatting with excessive forward movement of the knees beyond the toes and with the heels off the ground tends to increase ACL loading. Squatting and lunging with a forward trunk tilt tend to decrease ACL loading, likely due to increased hamstrings activity. During seated knee extension, ACL force decreases when the resistance pad is positioned more proximal on the anterior aspect of the lower leg, away from the ankle. The evidence reviewed as part of this manuscript provides objective data by which to rank exercises based on loading applied to the ACL. The biggest challenge in exercise selection post-ACL reconstruction is the limited knowledge of the optimal amount of stress that should be applied to the ACL graft as it goes through its initial incorporation and eventual maturation process. Clinicians may utilize this review as a guide to exercise selection and rehabilitation progression for patients post-ACL reconstruction.

  8. The Effect of Ankle Taping to Restrict Plantar Flexion on Ball and Foot Velocity During an Instep Kick in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasadai, Junpei; Urabe, Yukio; Maeda, Noriaki; Shinohara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Eri

    2015-08-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a common disorder in soccer players and ballet dancers. In soccer players, it is caused by the repetitive stress of ankle plantar flexion due to instep kicking. Protective ankle dorsiflexion taping is recommended with the belief that it prevents posterior ankle impingement. However, the relationship between ankle taping and ball-kicking performance remains unclear. To demonstrate the relationship between the restrictions of ankle taping and performance of an instep kick in soccer. Laboratory-based repeated-measures. University laboratory. 11 male university soccer players. The subjects' ankle plantar flexion was limited by taping. Four angles of planter flexion (0°, 15°, 30°, and without taping) were formed by gradation limitation. The subjects performed maximal instep kicks at each angle. The movements of the kicking legs and the ball were captured using 3 high-speed cameras at 200 Hz. The direct linear-transformation method was used to obtain 3-dimensional coordinates using a digitizing system. Passive ankle plantar-flexion angle, maximal plantar-flexion angle at ball impact, ball velocity, and foot velocity were measured. The data were compared among 4 conditions using repeated-measures ANOVA, and the correlations between ball velocity and foot velocity and between ball velocity and toe velocity were calculated. Ankle dorsiflexion taping could gradually limit both passive plantar flexion and plantar flexion at the impact. Furthermore, limitation of 0° and 15° reduced the ball velocity generated by instep kicks. Plantar-flexion-limiting taping at 30° has a potential to prevent posterior ankle impingement without decreasing the ball velocity generated by soccer instep kicks.

  9. Shape, shear and flexion: an analytic flexion formalism for realistic mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, P. D.; Fluke, C. J.

    2009-07-01

    Flexion is a non-linear gravitational lensing effect that arises from gradients in the convergence and shear across an image. We derive a formalism that describes non-linear gravitational lensing by a circularly symmetric lens in the thin-lens approximation. This provides us with relatively simple expressions for first- and second-flexion in terms of only the surface density and projected mass distribution of the lens. We give details of exact lens models, in particular providing flexion calculations for a Sérsic-law profile, which has become increasingly popular over recent years. We further provide a single resource for the analytic forms of convergence, shear, first- and second-flexion for the following mass distributions: a point mass, singular isothermal sphere (SIS); Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile; Sérsic-law profile. We quantitatively compare these mass distributions and show that the convergence and first-flexion are better indicators of the Sérsic shape parameter, while for the concentration of NFW profiles the shear and second-flexion terms are preferred. Research undertaken as part of the Commonwealth Cosmology Initiative (CCI:http://www.thecci.org), an international collaboration supported by the Australian Research Council. E-mail: plasky@astro.swin.edu.au (PDL); cfluke@astro.swin.edu.au (CJF)

  10. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  11. Can total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve its goal in knee flexion floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresuriyasawad, Viriya

    2012-10-01

    To study knee's angulation required for Thai Buddhist monks whose activity based on floor sitting basis. And to identify an inter-observer reliability of knee flexion measurement based on radiologic reading. Descriptive analysis study comprised of measuring bilateral knee flexing angulation in 4 postures of floor activities; kneeling, monk's position in both right and left manner and sit cross-legged position, in 35 Thai Buddhist monks at Priest Hospital using plain radiograph image. The radiograph imaging for each patient was performed by one radiologist and two orthopedics. The measurement result was also analyzed for inter-observer reliability. Mean knee flexion angle in kneel, left monk's position, right monk's position and sit cross-legged postures were 163.21, 146.49, 148.89 and 138.38 degree, respectively. No statistical difference between knee flexion measurements among 3 investigators. Daily floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks need more flexion capacity than that can achieve by total knee arthroplasty instrument using nowadays.

  12. Improving Pre-Operative Flexion in Primary TKA: A Surgical Technique Emphasizing Knee Flexion with 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward McPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study prospectively reviews a consecutive series of 228 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA procedures utilizing a technique to optimize knee flexion. The main features include: (1the use of a “patellar friendly” femoral component and reduced thickness patellar components, (2 patient individualized adjustment of the femoral component rotation set strictly to the anterior-posterior femoral axis, (3a rigorous flexion compartment debridement to remove non-essential posterior femoral bone with a Z-osteotome, and (4incorporation of a rapid recovery protocol with features to promote knee flexion. Results were categorized into three groups: low pre-op flexion (90 degrees and below, regular pre-op flexion (91-125 degrees, and high pre-op flexion (126 degrees and above. Average flexion in the low flexion group improved by 20 degrees at 6 weeks, 28 degrees at 3 months, 31 degrees at 1 year, and 30 degrees at 5 years. In the regular flexion group, average flexion improved by 2 degrees at 6 weeks, 10 degrees at 3 months, 12 degrees at 1 year, and 13 degrees at 5 years. Finally, in the high flexion group, average flexion decreased by 7 degrees at 6 weeks, regained preoperative levels at 3 months, and increased by 3 degrees at 1 year and 4 degrees at 5 years. In summary, a technique that emphasizes patellofemoral kinematics can consistently improve flexion in TKA in short and long-term follow-up.

  13. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of a pelvic wedge and belt on the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a pelvic wedge and belt and investigated their effects on the selective activation of medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine adults were enrolled. The participants performed exercises without and with the pelvic wedge and belt, and the electromyographic activities of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles were recorded. [Results] The activity of the medial hamstring was increased significantly when using the pelvic wedge and belt, while the activity of the lateral hamstring did not differ significantly. [Conclusion] The pelvic wedge and belt provide a self-locked position during knee flexion in the prone position. Prone knee flexion in this position is an effective self-exercise for balanced strengthening of the medial hamstring.

  15. Coronary Exercise Hyperemia Is Impaired in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda J; Gao, Zhaohui; Luck, Jonathan Carter; Blaha, Cheryl A; Cauffman, Aimee E; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects over 200 million people worldwide. The hallmark of PAD is ischemic leg pain and this condition is also associated with an augmented blood pressure response to exercise, impaired vascular function, and high risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coronary exercise hyperemia is impaired in PAD. Twelve patients with PAD and no overt coronary disease (65 ± 2 years, 7 men) and 15 healthy control subjects (64 ± 2 years, 9 men) performed supine plantar flexion exercise (30 contractions/min, increasing workload). A subset of subjects (n = 7 PAD, n = 8 healthy) also performed isometric handgrip exercise (40% of maximum voluntary contraction to fatigue). Coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery was measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously. Coronary blood velocity responses to 4 min of plantar flexion exercise (PAD: Δ2.4 ± 1.2, healthy: Δ6.0 ± 1.6 cm/sec, P = 0.039) and isometric handgrip exercise (PAD: Δ8.3 ± 4.2, healthy: Δ16.9 ± 3.6, P = 0.033) were attenuated in PAD patients. These data indicate that coronary exercise hyperemia is impaired in PAD, which may predispose these patients to myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical Rehabilitation for Disabled People with Insulin-independent Diabetes after Single Leg Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya A. Pilosyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the program of physical rehabilitation for the disabled people with insulin-independent diabetes, who came through single leg amputation. The program includes phantom-impulsive gymnastics, exercises for the remaining leg, back and shoulders, for the improvement of stump functional state, equilibrium exercises and exercises for arms supporting function development. Set of therapeutic exercises involves exercise machine training. The application of the developed physical rehabilitation program at the stage of preparation for fitting the prosthesis and learning to walk on prosthetic leg has proved its efficiency according to test results, biomedical methods of research and increases the motor activity of 100% percent of patients.

  17. Influence of Hip Joint Position on Muscle Activity during Prone Hip Extension with Knee Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhisa; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the selective activation of the gluteus maximus during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise, with the hip joint in different positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 healthy, male volunteers. [Methods] Activities of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise. Measurements were made with the hip joint in each of 3 positions: (1) a neutral hip joint position, (2) an abduction hip joint position, and (3) an abduction with external rotation hip joint position. [Results] Gluteus maximus activity was significantly higher when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. Gluteus maximus activity was also significantly higher in the abduction hip joint position than in the neutral hip joint position. Hamstring activity was significantly lower when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. [Conclusion] Abduction and external rotation of the hip during prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise selectively activates the gluteus maximus.

  18. Acute effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the number of repetitions performed during a multiple set resistance exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Felipe; Farinatti, Paulo; Massaferri, Renato; Matos-Santos, Lenifran; Silva, Nadia; Monteiro, Walace

    2013-11-01

    It has been proposed that fatigue during strength exercise is negatively influenced by prior proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. However, it is possible that the effects of PNF on muscle endurance are affected by stretching duration. This study investigated the influence of PNF on the number of repetitions of the leg curl exercise performed with multiple sets and submaximal load. Nineteen men (age 25 ± 1 years, weight 75.8 ± 4.2 kg, height 178.1 ± 3.8 cm, 10-repetition maximum [RM] 78.3 ± 6.9 kg) performed 4 sets of leg curl with 10RM load with and without previous PNF (3 sets of hip flexion either with knees extended or flexed, duration ~2.5 minutes). The total number of repetitions decreased along sets in both situations (38.6% in control and 41.0% in PNF sessions, p < 0.001). However, no difference between control and PNF was detected for the number of repetitions in each set (first set, p = 0.330; second set, p = 0.072; third set, p = 0.061; fourth set, p = 0.150). In conclusion, the number of repetitions performed in multiple sets of the leg curl was not decreased by prior PNF stretching. Therefore, it appears that a moderate level of PNF could be used before resistance exercise with a minimal negative effect.

  19. Thick legs - not always lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Altmeyer, Peter; Stücker, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Due to its increased presence in the press and on television, the diagnosis of lipedema is on the way to becoming a trendy diagnosis for those with thick legs. Despite this, one must recognize that lipedema is a very rare disease. It is characterized by disproportional obesity of the extremities, especially in the region of the hip and the legs, hematoma development after minimal trauma, and increased pressure-induced or spontaneous pain. Aids for making the correct diagnosis are (duplex) sonography, the waist-hip index or the waist-height index and lymphoscintigraphy. Important differential diagnoses are constitutional variability of the legs, lipohypertrophy in obesity, edema in immobility, edema in chronic venous insufficiency and rheumatic diseases. The symptom-based therapy of lipedema consists of conservative (compression, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise) and surgical treatments (liposuction). Until now there is no curative therapy. Obesity is an important risk factor for the severity and prognosis of lipedema. Further studies for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of lipedema and in the end possible curative treatments are urgently needed. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. [Self-management programme for leg ulcer patients: increased physical activity and fewer wound days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Borm, G.F.; Vleuten, C.J. van der; Evers, A.W.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of the Lively Legs programme on patient adherence to compression therapy, walking behaviour and leg exercising, as well as on leg ulcer recurrence. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00184873). METHOD: A total of 184

  1. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Systematic Review. Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies.

  2. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  3. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on current data where substrate metabolism in arm and leg muscle is investigated and discuss the presence of higher carbohydrate oxidation and lactate release observed during arm compared with leg exercise. Furthermore, a basis for a possible difference in substrate...... partitioning between endogenous and exogenous substrate during arm and leg exercise will be debated. Moreover the review will probe if differences between arm and leg muscle are merely a result of different training status rather than a qualitative difference in limb substrate regulation. Along this line...... the review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise...

  4. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea; Adderley, Una

    2016-01-15

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0 in 1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20 in 1000 people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 116 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 63 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 43 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, four systematic reviews were updated and four RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 23 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 13 interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of advice to elevate leg, advice to keep leg active, compression stockings for prevention of recurrence, compression bandages and stockings to treat venous leg ulcers, laser treatment (low level), leg ulcer clinics, pentoxifylline, skin grafting, superficial vein surgery for prevention of recurrence, superficial vein surgery to treat venous leg ulcers, therapeutic ultrasound, and topical negative pressure.

  5. Parametric and cadaveric models of lumbar flexion instability and flexion restricting dynamic stabilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Louis C; Alamin, Todd F; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Havey, Robert M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2013-12-01

    Development of a dynamic stabilization system often involves costly and time-consuming design iterations, testing and computational modeling. The aims of this study were (1) develop a simple parametric model of lumbar flexion instability and use this model to identify the appropriate stiffness of a flexion restricting stabilization system (FRSS), and (2) in a cadaveric experiment, validate the predictive value of the parametric model. Literature was surveyed for typical parameters of intact and destabilized spines: stiffness in the high flexibility zone (HFZ) and high stiffness zone, and size of the HFZ. These values were used to construct a bilinear parametric model of flexion kinematics of intact and destabilized lumbar spines. FRSS implantation was modeled by iteratively superimposing constant flexion stiffnesses onto the parametric model. Five cadaveric lumbar spines were tested intact; after L4-L5 destabilization (nucleotomy, midline decompression); and after FRSS implantation. Specimens were loaded in flexion/extension (8 Nm/6 Nm) with 400 N follower load to characterize kinematics for comparison with the parametric model. To accomplish the goal of reducing ROM to intact levels and increasing stiffness to approximately 50 % greater than intact levels, flexion stiffness contributed by the FRSS was determined to be 0.5 Nm/deg using the parametric model. In biomechanical testing, the FRSS restored ROM of the destabilized segment from 146 ± 13 to 105 ± 21 % of intact, and stiffness in the HFZ from 41 ± 7 to 135 ± 38 % of intact. Testing demonstrated excellent predictive value of the parametric model, and that the FRSS attained the desired biomechanical performance developed with the model. A simple parametric model may allow efficient optimization of kinematic design parameters.

  6. Sleep-Related Leg Cramps: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry M

    2015-09-01

    Various medications and behavioral treatments for sleep-related leg cramps have been tried, but the quality of the evidence is low. Quinine seems to be effective, but dangerous. β-Agonists may be one of the more common causes of secondary leg cramps. Statins may not be implicated in leg cramps as much as has been believed. Potassium-sparing diuretics may have a higher incidence of sleep-related leg cramps than potassium-depleting diuretics. Plantar flexion of the feet may elicit most sleep-related leg cramps. More research into behavioral treatments is needed. A standardized sleep-related leg cramp questionnaire would be useful to expand research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Exercise Therapy with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Improvement of Pain and Function in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Akbari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: One of the most common disorders of the knee joint in adult is patellofemoral pain syndrome. Sometimes it becomes chronic and causes activity limitation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of exercise therapy with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on improvement of pain intensity, knee function, muscle atrophy and range of knee flexion. Materials & Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in Zahedan Razmejo-Moghadam Physiotherapy Clinic, in 2007. Thirty-two patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were recruited through simple non-probability sampling. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the equal groups, exercise therapy (including hip, knee, and leg muscles strengthening and stretching exercises or electrical stimulation group. Before and after intervention, we assessed pain through Visual Analog Scale (VAS (ordinal, function (ordinal with Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, thigh circumference with tape measure (centimeter and range of knee flexion with goniometer (degree. A 10 session treatment program, three sessions per week and one hour per session was performed for both groups. Independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U and paired t-test or Wilcoxon were used for comparison between the pretreatment and post treatment results between groups and within groups, in SPSS software, respectively. Results: The mean total score of knee function increased from 100.53±19.25 to 130.87±18.25 in the electrical stimulation group and from 107.67±22.69 to 131.47±15.11 in the exercise therapy group (p=0.001. The mean score of knee function subscales including symptoms, pain, functional limitation, recreational activity, and life style improved in both groups (p<0.05. The pain score and range of knee flexion improved in both groups (p<0.05. After treatment, range of knee flexion significantly increased in the exercise group compared with the electrical

  8. Knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics during a single-leg stop-jump task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; House, Anthony J; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the sensorimotor system in maintaining a stable knee joint has been recognized. As individual entities, knee-joint proprioception, landing kinematics, and knee muscles play important roles in functional joint stability. Preventing knee injuries during dynamic tasks requires accurate proprioceptive information and adequate muscular strength. Few investigators have evaluated the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. To examine the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifty physically active men (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 176.5 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 16.6 kg). Three tests were performed. Knee conscious proprioception was evaluated via threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM). Knee strength was evaluated with a dynamometer. A 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of a single-legged stop-jump task was used to calculate initial contact (IC) knee-flexion angle and knee-flexion excursion. The TTDPM toward knee flexion and extension, peak knee flexion and extension torque, and IC knee-flexion angle and knee flexion excursion. Linear correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of both proprioception and strength against landing kinematics. The α level was set a priori at .05. Enhanced TTDPM and greater knee strength were positively correlated with greater IC knee-flexion angle (r range = 0.281-0.479, P range = .001-.048). The regression analysis revealed that 27.4% of the variance in IC knee-flexion angle could be accounted for by knee-flexion peak torque and TTDPM toward flexion (P = .001). The current research highlighted the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Individuals with enhanced proprioception and muscular strength had better control of IC knee-flexion angle during a dynamic task.

  9. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, "Start," and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1-2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit.

  10. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    balanced itself in 31) using a tabular ctontrol sclwnme. With only thUiee actuated degrees it used a shuffling gait to balance that reminds one of Charlie ... Chaplin . * The present study explores the control of a physical one-legged hopping machine. The objective of using a machine with only one leg was to

  11. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  12. Rehabilitation exercise progression for the gluteus medius muscle with consideration for iliopsoas tendinitis: an in vivo electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Marc J; Decker, Michael J; Giphart, J Erik; Torry, Michael R; Wahoff, Michael S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    It is common for hip arthroscopy patients to demonstrate significant gluteus medius muscle weakness and concurrent iliopsoas tendinitis. Restoration of gluteus medius muscle function is essential for normal hip function. A progression of hip rehabilitation exercises to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle could be identified that minimize concurrent iliopsoas muscle activation to reduce the risk of developing or aggravating hip flexor tendinitis Descriptive laboratory study. Electromyography (EMG) signals of the gluteus medius and iliopsoas muscles were recorded from 10 healthy participants during 13 hip rehabilitation exercises. The indwelling fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted under ultrasound guidance. The average and peak EMG amplitudes, normalized by the peak EMG amplitude elicited during maximum voluntary contractions, were determined and rank-ordered from low to high. The ratio of iliopsoas to gluteus medius muscle activity was calculated for each exercise. Exercises were placed into respective time phases based on average gluteus medius EMG amplitude, except that exercises involving hip rotation were avoided in phase I (phase I, initial 4 or 8 weeks; phase II, subsequent 4 weeks; phase III, final 4 weeks). A continuum of hip rehabilitation exercises was identified. Resisted terminal knee extension, resisted knee flexion, and double-leg bridges were identified as appropriate for phase I and resisted hip extension, stool hip rotations, and side-lying hip abduction with wall-sliding for phase II. Hip clam exercises with neutral hips may be used with caution in patients with hip flexor tendinitis. Prone heel squeezes, side-lying hip abduction with internal hip rotation, and single-leg bridges were identified for phase III. This study identified the most appropriate hip rehabilitation exercises for each phase to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle after hip arthroscopy and those to avoid when iliopsoas pain or tendinitis is a concern.

  13. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Lewis

    Full Text Available The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm. The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003, but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030, than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029. While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001. Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98, but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96. The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a

  14. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P leg vascular resistance (P restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flück, Martin; Bosshard, Rebekka; Lungarella, Max

    2017-01-01

    Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice. Here we tested cardiovascular and muscular consequences of work-matched interval-type of leg exercise (target workload of 15 sets of 1-min bipedal cycles of knee extension and flexion at 30 rpm with 17% of maximal concentric power) on a soft robotic device in healthy subjects by concomitantly monitoring respiration, blood glucose and lactate, and power during exercise and recovery. We hypothesized that interval-type of eccentric exercise lowers strain on glucose-related aerobic metabolism compared to work-matched concentric exercise, and reduces cardiorespiratory strain to levels being acceptable for the cardiac patient. Eight physically active male subjects (24.0 years, 74.7 kg, 3.4 L O2 min -1 ), which power and endurance performance was extensively characterized, completed the study, finalizing 12 sets on average. Average performance was similar during concentric and eccentric exercise ( p = 0.75) but lower than during constant load endurance exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of peak aerobic power output (126 vs. 188 Watt) that is recommended for improving endurance capacity. Peak oxygen uptake (-17%), peak ventilation (-23%), peak cardiac output (-16%), and blood lactate (-37%) during soft robotic exercise were lower during eccentric than concentric exercise. Glucose was 8% increased after eccentric exercise when peak RER was 12% lower than during concentric exercise. Muscle power and RFD were similarly reduced

  16. Cardiovascular and Muscular Consequences of Work-Matched Interval-Type of Concentric and Eccentric Pedaling Exercise on a Soft Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Flück

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice. Here we tested cardiovascular and muscular consequences of work-matched interval-type of leg exercise (target workload of 15 sets of 1-min bipedal cycles of knee extension and flexion at 30 rpm with 17% of maximal concentric power on a soft robotic device in healthy subjects by concomitantly monitoring respiration, blood glucose and lactate, and power during exercise and recovery. We hypothesized that interval-type of eccentric exercise lowers strain on glucose-related aerobic metabolism compared to work-matched concentric exercise, and reduces cardiorespiratory strain to levels being acceptable for the cardiac patient. Eight physically active male subjects (24.0 years, 74.7 kg, 3.4 L O2 min−1, which power and endurance performance was extensively characterized, completed the study, finalizing 12 sets on average. Average performance was similar during concentric and eccentric exercise (p = 0.75 but lower than during constant load endurance exercise on a cycle ergometer at 75% of peak aerobic power output (126 vs. 188 Watt that is recommended for improving endurance capacity. Peak oxygen uptake (−17%, peak ventilation (−23%, peak cardiac output (−16%, and blood lactate (−37% during soft robotic exercise were lower during eccentric than concentric exercise. Glucose was 8% increased after eccentric exercise when peak RER was 12% lower than during concentric exercise. Muscle power and RFD were

  17. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot). PMID:25140875

  18. A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot.

  19. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee......-extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate...

  20. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  1. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, pplyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  2. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  3. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshiah, Saiprakash B; Ioachimescu, Octavian C

    2015-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an urge to move, and associated with uncomfortable sensations in the legs (limbs). Restless legs syndrome can lead to sleep-onset or sleep-maintenance insomnia, and occasionally excessive daytime sleepiness, all leading to significant morbidity. Brain iron deficiency and dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disorder, along with other nondopaminergic systems, although the exact mechanisms are still. Intensive care unit patients are especially vulnerable to have unmasking or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome because of sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disturbance, immobilization, iron deficiency, and use of multiple medications that can antagonize dopamine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Atividade elétrica dos músculos oblíquos externos e multífidos durante o exercício de flexoextensão do quadril realizado no Cadillac com diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo Electrical activity of external oblique and multifidus muscles during the hip flexion-extension exercise performed in the Cadillac with different adjustments of springs and individual positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson F. Loss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Apesar do amplo uso do Pilates na Fisioterapia, há poucos estudos que avaliaram a ativação elétrica dos músculos nos exercícios. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo sobre a ativação elétrica dos multífidos (MU e oblíquos externos (OE durante a flexoextensão do quadril (FEQ no Cadillac. MÉTODOS: Oito mulheres praticantes de Pilates por seis meses realizaram 10 repetições de FEQ nas situações: mola baixa (MB, mola fixada a 30 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; mola alta (MA, mola fixada a 90 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; posição próxima (PP, distância de 10 cm da fixação da mola; posição distante (PD, distância de 30 cm da fixação da mola. Dados cinemáticos e de eletromiografia (EMG foram coletados sincronizadamente, e os músculos monitorados bilateralmente foram os OE e os MU. Cada movimento de FEQ foi recortado em duas fases (extensão e flexão. O sinal de EMG foi calculado e normalizado usando a contração voluntária máxima (CVM. O Wilcoxon test foi usado para investigar diferenças entre as situações (pBACKGROUND: Despite of the widepread use of Pilates in Physical Therapy, there are few studies that have assessed the muscle electrical activation during Pilates exercises. OBJECTIVE: Verify the influence of different spring adjustments and individual positions on the electrical activation of multifidus (MU and oblique external (OE muscles during hip flexion-extension (HFE exercise on the Cadillac. METHODS: Eight women practicing Pilates exercises for at least six months performed 10 repetitions of HFE in the following situations: Lower Spring, spring fixed at 30 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Higher Spring, spring fixed at 90 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Near Position, distance of 10 cm from the fixed spring. Distant Position, distance of 30 cm from

  5. Cortical spectral activity and connectivity during active and viewed arm and leg movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKline

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: 1 both arms and legs, 2 just legs, and 3 just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and

  6. Peripheral fatigue limits endurance exercise via a sensory feedback-mediated reduction in spinal motoneuronal output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Venturelli, Massimo; Ives, Stephen J; McDaniel, John; Layec, Gwenael; Rossman, Matthew J; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether afferent feedback associated with peripheral muscle fatigue inhibits central motor drive (CMD) and thereby limits endurance exercise performance. On two separate days, eight men performed constant-load, single-leg knee extensor exercise to exhaustion (85% of peak power) with each leg (Leg1 and Leg2). On another day, the performance test was repeated with one leg (Leg1) and consecutively (within 10 s) with the other/contralateral leg (Leg2-post). Exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue was assessed by reductions in potentiated quadriceps twitch-force from pre- to postexercise (ΔQtw,pot) in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation. The output from spinal motoneurons, estimated from quadriceps electromyography (iEMG), was used to reflect changes in CMD. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded during exercise. Time to exhaustion (∼9.3 min) and exercise-induced ΔQtw,pot (∼51%) were similar in Leg1 and Leg2 (P > 0.5). In the consecutive leg trial, endurance performance of the first leg was similar to that observed during the initial trial (∼9.3 min; P = 0.8); however, time to exhaustion of the consecutively exercising contralateral leg (Leg2-post) was shorter than the initial Leg2 trial (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4 min; P fatigue and associated afferent feedback limits the development of peripheral fatigue and compromises endurance exercise performance by inhibiting CMD.

  7. The incidence and pattern of supernumerary digital flexion creases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and pattern of supernumerary digital flexion creases amongst the population of Ekpoma in Edo, Nigeria. ... This study on the incidence of supernumerary digital flexion crease was carried out among undergraduate students in the faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, ...

  8. In vivo metacarpophalanageal joint collateral ligament length changes during flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y C; Sheng, X M; Chen, J; Qian, Z W

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the in vivo length changes of the collateral ligaments of metacarpophalangeal joint during flexion. We obtained computed tomography scans of index, middle, ring and little fingers at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of joint flexion from six hands of six healthy adult volunteers. Three of them had their dominant right hand studied, and the other three had their non-dominant left hand studied. We measured and analysed the radial and ulnar collateral ligaments of each metacarpophalangeal joint from the reconstructed images. We found that the dorsal and middle portions of the both radial and ulnar collateral ligament lengthened progressively during digital flexion and reached the maximum at 90° flexion. The length of the volar portion increased from 0° to 30° flexion and then decreased from 30° to 60° flexion, reaching the minimum at 90°. In conclusion, three portions of collateral ligaments on both sides of the metacarpophalangeal joint have variable length changes during flexion, which act to stabilize the joint through its flexion arc.

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  10. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  11. Leg position influences early blood loss and functional recovery following total knee arthroplasty: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yong-Ming, Lv; Pei-jian, Ding; Jia, Li; Ying-ze, Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Hidden blood loss is a major factor influencing functional recovery and quality of life in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Special hip and knee flexion positions after have been reported to have promising results with respect to reducing perioperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postoperative leg position on blood loss and functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. We enrolled 46 consecutive patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee in this prospective, randomized study. The patients were randomly allocated to a flexion or an extension group. In the flexion group, the affected leg was elevated by 60° at the hip, and the knee was flexed by 60°, while in the extension group, the affected knee was fully extended postoperatively. Blood loss, hemoglobin level, knee circumference and range of motion (ROM) were recorded to determine the influence of postoperative leg position on clinical outcomes. Although the transfusion rate was similar between the two groups (P > 0.05), other parameters related to blood loss (including calculated blood loss, hidden blood loss and postoperative knee circumference) were significantly lower in the flexion group than in the extension group (P group had gained a better ROM in the affected knee than had patients from the extension group (P = 0.04). At 6 months, however, the ROM of the affected knee was similar in both groups. The hospital stay was 1.9 days shorter in the flexion group than in the extension group. Wound infection rates were similar in both groups, and no proven case of deep vein thrombosis was observed in either group. Elevation of the hip by 60° with 60° knee flexion is an effective and simple method to reduce blood loss after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty, and contributes to better recovery of the functional ROM in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Finger island flaps for treatment of dermato-desmogenic flexion contractures of proximal interphalangeal joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Antonova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue defect will form after operative treatment of the dermato-desmogenic flexion contractures of fingers interphalangeal joints of the 2–3 grades after excision of the scar. Using the island flaps (Littler at the central vascular pedicle is one of the classical methods of plastic closure of such defects. Goal. To study the effectiveness of the surgical treatment of dermato-desmogenic flexion contractures of proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers by using finger island flaps at the central vascular or neuro-vascular pedicle. Materials and methods. 14 operations were carried out on 13 patients for removing dermato-desmogenic flexion contractures of proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints of triphalangeal fingers over a 2-year period (2013–2015. The group included patients with a flexion contracture of the 2–3 grades PIP joints of triphalangeal fingers. Operations were performed on average 5 months after the injury (from 1.5 up to 16 months. Finger island flap in all cases was taken from adjacent finger by using the blood supply of their common finger artery. In all cases the island flap on the central pedicel was used, in 9 cases digital nerve was included in the pedicle (Littler. Closure of donor wound was made with free-skin grafts. Permanent splinting of the hand with extension of the interphalangeal joints and moderate flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints were performed during 7–8 days after surgery, then exercise therapy was prescribed. Results. The results were estimated 6 and 12 months after surgery. All the results were regarded as excellent. In 5 cases of using the flap on a vascular pedicle flap hypoesthesia was detected, that has not led to dysfunction of the hand. Contracture recurrence during follow-up was not observed. Conclusions. Using the surgery for treatment of dermato-desmogenic flexion contractures of proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers with the island flaps at the central vascular or neuro

  13. Clinical outcome of increased flexion gap after total knee arthroplasty. Can controlled gap imbalance improve knee flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailidis, P; Kuster, M S; Jost, B; Giesinger, K; Behrend, H

    2017-06-01

    Increased range of motion (ROM) while maintaining joint stability is the goal of modern total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A biomechanical study has shown that small increases in flexion gap result in decreased tibiofemoral force beyond 90° flexion. The purpose of this paper was to investigate clinical implications of controlled increased flexion gap. Four hundred and four TKAs were allocated into one of two groups and analysed retrospectively. In the first group (n = 352), flexion gap exceeded extension gap by 2.5 mm, while in the second group (n = 52) flexion gap was equal to the extension gap. The procedures were performed from 2008 to 2012. The patients were reviewed 12 months postoperatively. Objective clinical results were assessed for ROM, mediolateral and sagittal stability. Patient-reported outcome measures were the WOMAC score and the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS-12). After categorizing postoperative flexion into three groups (poor < 90°, satisfactory 91°-119°, good ≥ 120°) significantly more patients in group 1 achieved satisfactory or good ROM (p = 0.006). Group 1 also showed a significantly higher mean FJS-12 (group 1: 73, group 2: 61, p = 0.02). The mean WOMAC score was 11 in the first and 14 in the second group (n.s.). Increase in flexion gap did not influence knee stability. The clinical relevance of this study is that a controlled flexion gap increase of 2.5 mm may have a positive effect on postoperative flexion and patient satisfaction after TKA. Neither knee stability in the coronal and sagittal planes nor complications were influenced by a controlled increase in flexion gap. III.

  14. Exercise and NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne Germann; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).......The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)....

  15. Comparison of effects of static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and Mulligan stretching on hip flexion range of motion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, M S; Ozyurek, S; Tosun, Oç; Uzer, S; Gelecek, N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM) in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg · m(-2)) with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups performing (I) typical static stretching, (II) PNF stretching, (III) Mulligan traction straight leg raise (TSLR) technique, (IV) no intervention. Hip flexion ROM was measured using a digital goniometer with the passive straight leg raise test before and after 4 weeks by two physiotherapists blinded to the groups. 52 extremities of 26 subjects were analyzed. Hip flexion ROM increased in all three intervention groups (p<0.05) but not in the no-intervention group after 4 weeks. A statistically significant change in initial-final assessment differences of hip flexion ROM was found between groups (p<0.001) in favour of PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique in comparison to typical static stretching (p=0.016 and p=0.02, respectively). No significant difference was found between Mulligan TSLR technique and PNF stretching (p=0.920). The initial-final assessment difference of hip flexion ROM was similar in typical static stretching and no intervention (p=0.491). A 4-week stretching intervention is beneficial for increasing hip flexion ROM in bilateral hamstring tightness. However, PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique are superior to typical static stretching. These two interventions can be alternatively used for stretching in hamstring tightness.

  16. Noradrenaline spillover during exercise in active versus resting skeletal muscle in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G; Strange, S; Kiens, Bente

    1987-01-01

    Increases in plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration occur during moderate to heavy exercise in man. This study was undertaken to examine the spillover of NA from both resting and contracting skeletal muscle during exercise. Six male subjects performed one-legged knee-extension so that all...... in the exercising leg than in the resting leg both during 50% and 100% leg exercise. These results suggest that contracting skeletal muscle may contribute to a larger extent than resting skeletal muscle to increasing the level of plasma NA during exercise. Contractile activity may influence the NA spillover from...... measurements could be made both in the exercising and in the resting leg. Subjects exercised for 10 min at each of 50% and 100% of the peak performance capacity of the leg. Leg blood flow was measured by thermodilution and blood samples were drawn for the determination of plasma NA and adrenaline, first...

  17. Effect of a pelvic wedge and belt on the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a pelvic wedge and belt and investigated their effects on the selective activation of medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine adults were enrolled. The participants performed exercises without and with the pelvic wedge and belt, and the electromyographic activities of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles were recorded. [Results] The activity of the medial hamstring was increased significantly when using the pelvi...

  18. Correlation of isokinetic and novel hand-held dynamometry measures of knee flexion and extension strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Rod; Jacobsen, Phillip; Prior, Simon; Skazalski, Christopher; Otten, Roald; Johnson, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    Describe inter-rater reliability of, and correlations between a novel method of isometric knee extension and flexion and eccentric knee flexion strength using hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic testing for flexion/extension in the knees of athletic participants. Document strength data normalized to the individual's limb muscle mass. Observational and reliability study. Inter-rater reliability for each of the hand-held dynamometry measures was established in both legs of 10 volunteers (6 male). During routine annual screening, 216 male professional football (soccer) players were examined using these same measures in addition to performing an isokinetic evaluation of knee flexion and extension strength. Intra-class correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability, Pearson r correlations between hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic dynamometry were calculated. Peak torque, peak torque normalized to: body weight; lean body mass; and lean limb mass were documented. Excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with intra-class correlation₂,₁ values of 0.90, 0.91, and 0.96, for the eccentric hamstrings, isometric hamstrings, and isometric quadriceps measures respectively. Medium to high correlations (r=0.322-0.617) which were all significant (pdynamometry and isokinetic measures. We present 3 novel and reliable methods of examining knee flexion and extension strength using hand-held dynamometry which require less skill and strength on the part of the examiner than previous measures. Correlations between these measures and isokinetic dynamometry are documented. The hand-held dynamometry examinations took less than 4 min per player to conduct and may be useful in clinical practice where isokinetic examination can be difficult to implement. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The flexion synergy, mother of all synergies and father of new models of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eDuysens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing interest in the modular organization of leg movements, in particular those related to locomotion. One of the basic modules involves the flexion of the leg during swing and it was shown that this module is already present in neonates (Dominici, et al. 2011. In this paper, we question how these finding build upon the original work by Sherrington, who proposed that the flexor reflex is the basic building block of the flexion during swing phase. Similarly, the relation between the flexor reflex and the withdrawal reflex modules of Schouenborg et al. (1994 will be discussed. It will be argued that there is large overlap between these notions on modules and the older concepts of reflexes. In addition, it will be shown that there is a great flexibility in the expression of some of these modules during gait, thereby allowing for a phase-dependent modulation of the appropriate responses. In particular, the end of the stance phase is a period when the flexor synergy is facilitated. It is proposed that this is linked to the activation of circuitry that is responsible for the generation of locomotor patterns (CPG, central pattern generator. More specifically, it is suggested that the responses in that period relate to the activation of a flexor burst generator. The latter structure forms the core of a new asymmetric model of the CPG. This activation is controlled by afferent input (facilitation by a broad range of afferents, suppression by load afferent input. Meanwhile, many of these physiologic features have found their way in the control of very flexible walking bipedal robots.

  20. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  1. Shoulder- and back-muscle activation during shoulder abduction and flexion using a Bodyblade Pro versus dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joseph S; Straub, Rachel; Cipriani, Daniel J

    2012-08-01

    The Bodyblade Pro is used for shoulder rehabilitation after injury. Resistance is provided by blade Oscillations-faster oscillations or higher speeds correspond to greater resistance. However, research supporting the Bodyblade Pro's use is scarce, particularly in comparison with dumbbell training. To compare muscle activity, using electromyography (EMG), in the back and shoulder regions during shoulder exercises with the Bodyblade Pro vs dumbbells. Randomized crossover study. San Diego State University biomechanics laboratory. 11 healthy male subjects age 19-32 y. Subjects performed shoulder-flexion and -abduction exercises using a Bodyblade Pro and dumbbells (5, 8, and 10 lb) while EMG recorded activity of the deltoid, pectoralis major, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and erector spinae. Average peak muscle activity (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was separately measured for shoulder abduction and flexion in the range of 85° to 95°. Differences among exercise devices were separately analyzed for the flexed and abducted positions using 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The Bodyblade Pro produced greater muscle activity than all the dumbbell trials. Differences were significant for all muscles measured (all P dumbbell. EMG activity for the Bodyblade Pro exceeded 50% of the MVIC during both shoulder flexion and abduction. For the dumbbell conditions, only the 10-lb trials approached this effect. Using a Bodyblade during shoulder exercises results in greater shoulder- and back-muscle recruitment than dumbbells. The Bodyblade Pro can activate multiple muscles in a single exercise and thereby minimize the need for multiple dumbbell exercises. The Bodyblade Pro is an effective device for shoulder- and back-muscle activation that warrants further use by clinicians interested in its use for rehabilitation.

  2. Kinematic and kinetic comparisons of transfemoral amputee gait using C-Leg and Mauch SNS prosthetic knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Orendurff, Michael S; Klute, Glenn K; McDowell, Martin L; Pecoraro, Janice A; Shofer, Jane; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    The C-Leg (Otto Bock, Duderstadt, Germany) is a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee that may enhance amputee gait. This intrasubject randomized study compared the gait biomechanics of transfemoral amputees wearing the C-Leg with those wearing a common noncomputerized prosthesis, the Mauch SNS (Ossur, Reykjavik, Iceland). After subjects had a 3-month acclimation period with each prosthetic knee, typical gait biomechanical data were collected in a gait laboratory. At a controlled walking speed (CWS), peak swing phase knee-flexion angle decreased for the C-Leg group compared with the Mauch SNS group (55.2 degrees +/- 6.5 degrees vs 64.41 degrees +/- 5.8 degrees , respectively; p = 0.005); the C-Leg group was similar to control subjects' peak swing knee-flexion angle (56.0 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees ). Stance knee-flexion moment increased for the C-Leg group compared with the Mauch SNS group (0.142 +/- 0.05 vs 0.067 +/- 0.07 N"m, respectively; p = 0.01), but remained significantly reduced compared with control subjects (0.477 +/- 0.1 N"m). Prosthetic limb step length at CWS was less for the C-Leg group compared with the Mauch SNS group (0.66 +/- 0.04 vs 0.70 +/- 0.06 m, respectively; p = 0.005), which resulted in increased symmetry between limbs for the C-Leg group. Subjects also walked faster with the C-Leg versus the Mauch SNS (1.30 +/- 0.1 vs 1.21 +/- 0.1 m/s, respectively; p = 0.004). The C-Leg prosthetic limb vertical ground reaction force decreased compared with the Mauch SNS (96.3 +/- 4.7 vs 100.3 +/- 7.5 % body weight, respectively; p = 0.0092).

  3. Spinal reflex excitability changes after lumbar spine passive flexion mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulian, Ronald; Burke, Jeanmarie; Dishman, J Donald

    2002-10-01

    Flexion distraction has gained increased credibility as a therapeutic modality for treatment of low back pain. Although important work in the area has elucidated the intradiskal pressure profiles during flexion distraction, the accompanying neural responses have yet to be described. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess neural reflex responses to motion with 3 degrees of freedom applied to the lumbar spine and to evaluate H-reflex responses of the soleus. Subjects (n = 12) were measured for H-maximum reflexes determined from stimulus response recruitment curves measured in neutral prone position. The mean of 10 evoked H-waves (at H-maximum stimulus intensity) were measured in neutral position, flexion, left and right lateral flexion, and axial rotation of the trunk on an adjusting table. H-reflexes were expressed as a percentage of maximal M-wave for the criterion measure. Spinal range of motion was quantified by digitization. The data showed variation in some movement ranges, notwithstanding identical table positioning for all subjects. Mean H-reflex amplitude was decreased (15.2 +/- 5.8 mV to 13.8 +/- 5.8 mV), and the H/M ratio was also decreased in flexion compared with neutral (55.0% +/- 19.1% to 50.3% +/- 19.4%; P <.05). Trunk flexion is accompanied by inhibition of the motor neuron pool. Slight perturbations in numerous afferent receptors are known to significantly alter the H-reflex. The absence of measurable changes in lateral flexion and trunk rotation may indicate that both slow- and fast-adapting receptors could be involved in lumbar motion. These preliminary findings suggest the need for further dynamic motion studies of the flexion distraction neurophysiologic condition.

  4. Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

    2012-08-09

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgo, Noel; Eser, Prisca; de Groot, Patricia; Galea, Mary

    The effect of whole-body vibration dosage on leg blood flow was investigated. Nine healthy young adult males completed a set of 14 random vibration and non-vibration exercise bouts whilst squatting on a Galileo 900 plate. Six vibration frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz (5 Hz increments) were used

  6. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  7. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  8. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise therapy for knee pain and osteoarthritis remains a key element of conservative treatment, recommended in clinical guidelines. Yet systematic reviews point to only modest benefits from exercise interventions. One reason for this might be that clinical trials tend to use a one-size-fits-all approach to exercise, effectively disregarding the details of their participants' clinical presentations. This uncontrolled before-after study (TargET-Knee-Pain aims to test the principle that exercises targeted at the specific physical impairments of older adults with knee pain may be able to significantly improve those impairments. It is a first step towards testing the effectiveness of this more individually-tailored approach. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 participants from an existing observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain. Participants will all have at least one of the three physical impairments of weak quadriceps, a reduced range of knee flexion and poor standing balance. Each participant will be asked to undertake a programme of exercises, targeted at their particular combination and degree of impairment(s, over the course of twelve weeks. The exercises will be taught and progressed by an experienced physiotherapist, with reference to a "menu" of agreed exercises for each of the impairments, over the course of six fortnightly home visits, alternating with six fortnightly telephone calls. Primary outcome measures will be isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion range of motion, timed single-leg standing balance and the "Four Balance Test Scale" at 12 weeks. Key secondary outcome measures will be self-reported levels of pain, stiffness and difficulties with day-to-day functional tasks (WOMAC. Outcome measures will be taken at three time-points (baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks by a study nurse blinded to the exercise status of the participants. Discussion This study (Targ

  9. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise...... to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 33...... mmol kg(-1) dry weight, respectively) legs before and after 0, 2 and 5 h of recovery. Exercise induced a significant (P glycogen leg only. Although PDK4...

  10. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  11. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  13. A 5-year exercise program in children improves muscle strength without affecting fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jesper; Cöster, Marcus E; Stenevi-Lundgren, Susanna; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Dencker, Magnus; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2016-04-01

    High level of physical activity (PA) is associated with great muscle strength and high fracture risk. This prospective controlled population-based study evaluated how a pediatric PA intervention program influenced muscle strength and fracture risk. We carried out a school-based exercise intervention program with 200 min of PA per week for 5 years in 335 girls and 408 boys aged 6-9 years at study start. An age-matched control cohort including 756 girls and 782 boys continued with 60 min of PA per week. We registered fractures during the study period and calculated rate ratio. In a sub-sample, including 74 girls and 107 boys in the intervention and 51 girls and 54 boys in the control group, we measured knee flexion and extension strength by a computerized dynamometer and leg composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Group comparisons were adjusted for differences in age, baseline value for the measured parameter and changes in height. Children in the intervention group had a rate ratio to sustain a fracture of 1.03 (0.78, 1.36) (mean and 95 % confidence interval) (p = 0.79). The annual gain in flexion peak torque muscle strength was greater in both girls (at 60°/s) [1.1 Nm (0.5, 1.8), p strength without affecting the fracture risk.

  14. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  15. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...

  16. Restless Legs Syndrome Among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hao Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a sleep and movement disorder that affects 5–15% of the general population, with an increased prevalence among the elderly population. It not only affects quality of life but also increases risk of mortality among older adults. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms of the patient by four minimal essential criteria. Restless legs syndrome can be divided into primary or secondary causes. Examination should be performed to rule out potentially treatable illnesses, such as iron deficiency, renal failure or peripheral neuropathy, especially among elderly patients. The initial approach to restless legs syndrome should be nonpharmacologic management, such as good sleep hygiene, regular exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and avoidance of certain aggravating drugs. An algorithm based on scientific evidence and expert opinion was developed for guidance of treatment. Combination or change of medication can be applied to resistant or difficult cases. Since elderly patients are prone to treatment-related side effects, the best strategy is to start medication cautiously and at the lowest recommended dosage.

  17. Ammonia metabolism during intense dynamic exercise and recovery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T; Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics for ammonia (NH3) metabolism in human skeletal muscle during and after intense one-legged exercise. Subjects (n = 8) performed dynamic leg extensor exercise to exhaustion (3.2 min). MuscleNH3 release increased rapidly to a maximum of 314 +/- 42 mumol/min and...

  18. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Stager, Joel M; Abe, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate) intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.

  19. Changes in uterine flexion caused by cesarean section: correlation between post-flexion and deficient cesarean section scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Sakurai, Rina; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu; Morita, Masayoshi; Ayabe, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in uterine flexion after cesarean delivery in comparison with vaginal delivery, and their relationship with the presence of deficient cesarean section scars. In 147 women who had a vaginal delivery and 101 women who had a cesarean delivery, transvaginal ultrasonographic photographs of the uterus were obtained at the first trimester of pregnancy and at 1 month postpartum, and they were reviewed to determine changes in uterine flexion. The presence of a deficient cesarean section scar was also reviewed in women with a cesarean section. Changes in uterine flexion were observed more frequently among the woman with a cesarean delivery than in those with a vaginal delivery. The incidence of post-flexed uterus during puerperium tended to increase depending on the number of cesarean sections the woman had undergone. In the women with a cesarean section, changes in uterine flexion were more frequently observed in the women with a deficient cesarean section scar than in those without one. Changes in uterine flexion after birth occurred more frequently in the women who had a cesarean delivery than in those who had a vaginal delivery, especially in the presence of a deficient cesarean section scar.

  20. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Sadaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and those who were either obtunded or presented after cervical spine surgery. Adequacy of flexion and exten-sion views was checked by the neurosurgery and radiology team members. All these patients underwent cross-table cervical spine view followed by flexion/extension views based on the loss of lordosis on cross-table imaging and the presence of neck pain. Results: A total of 200 cases were reviewed, of whom 90 (45% underwent repeat X-rays because of either inadequate exposure or limited motion. None of the patients with loss of lordosis on cross-table view had positive flexion and extension views of cervical spine for instability. Conclusions: Our results show that in patients who underwent acute radiographic evaluation of blunt cervical spine trauma, flexion and extension views of the cervical spine are unlikely to yield positive results in the presence of axial neck pain and/or loss of cervical lordosis. We can also hypothesize that performing flexion and extension views will be more useful once the acute neck pain has settled. Key words: X-rays; Cervical vertebrae; Lordosis

  1. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  2. [Swollen leg with blisters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeiner, Ph; Templeton, A J; Vonesch, H J

    2005-10-05

    We report the case of a 84-year-old woman suffering from strong pain in her right leg initially resembling thrombosis of deep veins. Eight hours after admission a superficial blister developed at the calf with following hemorrhagic aspect and spontanous eruption of clear yellowish fluid. Later on a new blister appeared at the thigh. The patient died 33 hours after admission of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The latter was based on a necrotizing fasciitis. Streptoccus pyogenes (group A) could be cultivated from the blood and fluid of the blister. We discuss the clinical presentation of necrotizing fasciitis with "pain out of proportion" as characteristic complaint and the appropriate management.

  3. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  4. Leg movement tracking in automatic video-based one-leg stance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Jacek; Stępień, Paula; Kapko, Wojciech; Niedziela, Aleksandra; Derejczyk, Jarosław

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major risk in elder population. Early diagnosis is therefore an important step towards increasing the safety of elders. One of the common diagnostic tests is the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), consisting of 14 exercises arranged from the easiest (sitting-to-standing) to the most demanding (one-leg stance). In this study a novel approach to the automatic assessment of the time in which the patient can remain in the one-leg stance position without loosing balance is introduced. The data is collected using a regular video camera. No markers, special garments, or system calibration are required. Two groups are examined. The first group consists of 16 students: healthy, young adults (12 female, 4 male, avg. 20yrs±1). The second group consists of 50 elders (39 female, 11 male, avg. 78.8yrs±5.9). Data (short, one minute recordings) are collected in a controlled environment using a digital video recorder (50fps, 1920×1080) fixed to a tripod. Data are processed off-line. First, the region of interest is determined. Next, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracking is performed. Best tracks are selected based on the registered vertical movement and two tracks are obtained corresponding to the left and right leg movements. Tracks are later subjected to the sparse signal baseline estimation, denoising and thresholding to detect the raised leg. Results are compared frame-wise to the ground truth reference obtained in the manual processing procedure. Both legs are evaluated in the elder group (in all cases several attempts featuring both legs were registered), resulting in 89.18%±11.27% DICE, 93.07%±5.43% sensitivity and 96.94%±6.11% specificity values for both legs. The signal of a single leg is evaluated in the student group (in all cases only one attempt was needed to perform the full examination) resulting in 98.96%±1.2% DICE, 98.78%±1.65% sensitivity and 98.73%±2.69% specificity values. This is the first step towards a video-based system enabling the automatic

  5. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G K; Richter, Erik; Strange, S

    1989-01-01

    -legged knee extension either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. The range of work intensities varied between 24 and 71% (mean) of subjects' maximal aerobic capacity (% VO2max). Leg blood flow, measured in the femoral vein by thermodilution, was determined...... legs, with a steeper rise occurring approximately 70% VO2max. These increases were not associated with any significant changes in leg blood flow or leg vascular conductance at the exercise intensities examined. These results suggest that, as the total active muscle mass increases, the rise...

  6. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes' readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation ( r ). The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = -0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop test performance or isokinetic knee strength between graft types

  7. Prototype of a mechanical assistance device for the wrists' flexion-extension movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politti, Julio C; Puglisi, Lisandro J; Farfan, Fernando D

    2007-01-01

    Using CMU actuators, a Prototype of Mechanical Assistance Device for the Wrist's Flexion Movement (PMA) was developed and probed in a mechanical model, in order to be implemented in a future as a dynamic powered orthosis or as a rehabilitation assistant instrument. Two Mayor Actuators conformed by three CMU actuators arranged in a series configuration, allows to an artificial hand to be placed in four predefined positions: 0 0 , 20 0 , 40 0 and 60 0 . The synchronism and control of the actuators is achieved with the Programmable Control Module (PCM). It is capable to drive up to six CMU actuators, and possess two different modes of execution: a Manual mode and an Exercise mode. In the Manual Mode, the position of the hand responds directly to the commands of the keyboard of the front panel, and in the Exercise mode, the hand realizes a repetitive and programmed movement. The prototype was tested in 100 positions in the Manual Mode and for 225 works cycles in the Exercise Mode. The relative repetition error was less than 5% for both test. This prototype only consumes 4,15W, which makes it possible to be powered by small rechargeable batteries, allowing its use as a portable device

  8. Prototype of a mechanical assistance device for the wrists' flexion-extension movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politti, Julio C; Puglisi, Lisandro J; Farfan, Fernando D [Departamento de BioingenierIa - FaCEyT - UNT (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Using CMU actuators, a Prototype of Mechanical Assistance Device for the Wrist's Flexion Movement (PMA) was developed and probed in a mechanical model, in order to be implemented in a future as a dynamic powered orthosis or as a rehabilitation assistant instrument. Two Mayor Actuators conformed by three CMU actuators arranged in a series configuration, allows to an artificial hand to be placed in four predefined positions: 0{sup 0}, 20{sup 0}, 40{sup 0} and 60{sup 0}. The synchronism and control of the actuators is achieved with the Programmable Control Module (PCM). It is capable to drive up to six CMU actuators, and possess two different modes of execution: a Manual mode and an Exercise mode. In the Manual Mode, the position of the hand responds directly to the commands of the keyboard of the front panel, and in the Exercise mode, the hand realizes a repetitive and programmed movement. The prototype was tested in 100 positions in the Manual Mode and for 225 works cycles in the Exercise Mode. The relative repetition error was less than 5% for both test. This prototype only consumes 4,15W, which makes it possible to be powered by small rechargeable batteries, allowing its use as a portable device.

  9. [A man with a painful knee with restricted flexion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, L.J.; Zengerink, M.; Kampen, A. van

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented with knee pain and limited knee flexion. MRI showed a mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (celery stalk sign). This rare condition can be treated with arthroscopic debridement with volume reduction of the anterior cruciate ligament. In severe cases,

  10. Comparison of hyperpronation and supination‑flexion techniques in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Radial head subluxation, also known as 'pulled elbow', 'dislocated elbow' or 'nursemaid's elbow', is one of the most common upper extremity injuries in young children and a common reason to visit Emergency Department (ED). Aim: To compare supination of the wrist followed by flexion of the elbow (the traditional ...

  11. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  13. Comparison of cranio-cervical flexion training versus cervical proprioception training in patients with chronic neck pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Izquierdo, Tomás; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Lluch Girbés, Enrique; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez Caldentey, Ricardo; Mayor Melús, Rodrigo; Blanco Mariscal, Diego; Falla, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of cranio-cervical flexion vs cervical proprioception training on neuromuscular control, pressure pain sensitivity and perceived pain and disability in patients with chronic neck pain. Twenty-eight volunteers with chronic non-specific neck pain were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions and undertook 6 physiotherapist-supervised sessions over a period of 2 months. Both groups performed daily home exercise. Performance on the cranio-cervical flexion test, pressure pain thresholds and reported levels of pain and disability were measured before and immediately after the first treatment session, 1 month after starting treatment and 2 months after starting treatment (at completion of the intervention). At 2 months, both groups improved their performance on the cranio-cervical flexion test (p  0.05). Both groups showed a reduction in their pain at rest and disability at 2 months, but this was also not different between groups (p > 0.05). Pressure pain sensitivity did not change for either group. Both specific cranio-cervical flexion training and proprioception training had a comparable effect on performance on the cranio-cervical flexion test, a test of the neuromuscular control of the deep cervical flexors. These results indicate that proprioception training may have positive effects on the function of the deep cervical flexors.

  14. Effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults living with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Nixon, Stephanie A; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-04-26

    People with HIV are living longer with the health-related consequences of HIV, multi-morbidity, and aging. Exercise is a key strategy that may improve or sustain health for people living with HIV. Our aim was to examine the safety and effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. We searched databases up to April 2013. We included randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic exercise with no exercise or another intervention performed at least three times per week for at least four weeks among adults living with HIV. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility. Data were extracted from studies that met inclusion criteria using standardized forms. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Outcomes were analyzed as continuous and meta-analyses conducted using random effects models with Review Manager (RevMan) computer software. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria (n = 936 participants at study completion); the majority of participants were men (73 %) and the majority were taking antiretroviral therapy (19/24 included studies). The exercise intervention included aerobic exercise alone (11 studies) or a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise (13 studies) ranging from 5 to 52 weeks. Fifty-eight meta-analyses were performed. Main results indicated statistically significant improvements in selected outcomes of cardiorespiratory status (maximum oxygen consumption, exercise time), strength (chest press, knee flexion), body composition (lean body mass, percent body fat, leg muscle area), depression symptoms, and quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire) among exercisers compared with non-exercisers. No significant differences in change in CD4 count and viral load were found

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  17. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key pointsThe RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects.The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects.The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the intact

  18. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  19. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  20. The effects of performing a one-legged bridge with hip abduction and use of a sling on trunk and lower extremity muscle activation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuju; Bak, Jongwoo; Cho, Minkwon; Chung, Yijung

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs of healthy adults during a one-legged bridge exercise using a sling, and with the addition of hip abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy individuals participated in this study (14 males and 13 females). The participants were instructed to perform the bridge exercises under five different conditions. Trunk and lower limb muscle activation of the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured using surface electromyography. Data analysis was performed using the mean scores of three trials performed under each condition. [Results] There was a significant increase in bilateral EO and contralateral GM with the one-legged bridge compared with the one-legged bridge with sling exercise. Muscle activation of the ipsilateral GM and BF was significantly less during the one-legged bridge exercise compared to the one-legged bridge with sling exercise, and was significantly greater during the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of the contralateral GM and BF was significantly greater with the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the general bridge exercise. [Conclusion] With the one-legged bridge with hip abduction, the ipsilateral EO, GM and BF muscle activities were significantly greater than those of the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of all trunk and contralateral lower extremity muscles increased with the bridge with sling exercises compared with general bridge exercises.

  1. Adult Hip Flexion Contracture due to Neurological Disease: A New Treatment Protocol—Surgical Treatment of Neurological Hip Flexion Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nicodemo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital, traumatic, or extrinsic causes can lead people to paraplegia; some of these are potentially; reversible and others are not. Paraplegia can couse hip flexion contracture and, consequently, pressure sores, scoliosis, and hyperlordosis; lumbar and groin pain are strictly correlated. Scientific literature contains many studies about children hip flexion related to neurological diseases, mainly caused by cerebral palsy; only few papers focus on this complication in adults. In this study we report our experience on surgical treatment of adult hip flexion contracture due to neurological diseases; we have tried to outline an algorithm to choose the best treatment avoiding useless or too aggressive therapies. We present 5 cases of adult hips flexion due to neurological conditions treated following our algorithm. At 1-year-follow-up all patients had a good clinical outcome in terms of hip range of motion, pain and recovery of walking if possible. In conclusion we think that this algorithm could be a good guideline to treat these complex cases even if we need to treat more patients to confirm this theory. We believe also that postoperation physiotherapy it is useful in hip motility preservation, improvement of muscular function, and walking ability recovery when possible.

  2. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  3. LEGS AND TRUNK MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING WALK TRAINING WITH RESTRICTED LEG MUSCLE BLOOD FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikako Sakamaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min, with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measured upper (3.8%, P < 0.05 and lower leg (3.2%, P < 0. 05 muscle volume increased significantly, whereas the muscle volume of the gluteus maximus (-0.6% and iliopsoas (1.8% and the muscle CSA of the lumber L4-L5 (-1.0 did not change. There was no significant change in muscle volume in the walk training alone. Our results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles. Exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non- blood flow restricted muscles (gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles.

  4. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.; Hayashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion

  5. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Hayashi, K.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Material and Methods: Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 , 45 , and 90 of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Results: Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Conclusion: Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion. (orig.)

  6. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  7. Analytical shear and flexion of Einasto dark matter haloes

    OpenAIRE

    Retana-Montenegro, E.; Frutos-Alfaro, F.; Baes, M.

    2012-01-01

    N-body simulations predict that dark matter haloes are described by specific density profiles on both galactic- and cluster-sized scales. Weak gravitational lensing through the measurements of their first and second order properties, shear and flexion, is a powerful observational tool for investigating the true shape of these profiles. One of the three-parameter density profiles recently favoured in the description of dark matter haloes is the Einasto profile. We present exact expressions for...

  8. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  9. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  10. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  11. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern throughout flexion persists more strongly after cruciate-retaining than after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Kazunori; Oonishi, Yoshio; Kutsuna, Tatsuhiko; Watamori, Kunihiko; Iseki, Yasutake; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Miura, Hiromasa

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal knee kinematics is key to improving patient satisfaction and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of preoperative varus-valgus kinematics due to knee osteoarthritis on the postoperative kinematics is unclear. The function of the knee ligament contributes to both knee stability and kinematics. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in varus-valgus kinematics before and after TKA using a navigation system, in addition to comparing the pre- and postoperative changes in kinematic patterns between cruciate-retaining (CR)- and posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKAs. Forty knees treated with TKA were evaluated (CR-TKA 20; PS-TKA 20). Manual mild passive knee flexion was applied while moving the leg from full extension to flexion. The varus-valgus angle was automatically measured by a navigation system at every 10° of the flexion angle, and the kinematics were evaluated. Kinematic patterns throughout flexion can be classified into five types. The pre- and postoperative kinematic patterns were similar in 60% of patients who underwent CR-TKA, whereas they were similar in only 25% of those who underwent PS-TKA. The mean change in the size of the varus-valgus angle throughout flexion did not differ between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. However, the distribution of changes in the size of the varus-valgus angle differed between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. We obtained the following results: 1) some patterns of varus-valgus kinematics are noted under unloading conditions despite recovery of neutral alignment in extension and 2) the preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern persisted more strongly after CR-TKA than after PS-TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case of Painless Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome in Parkinson’s Disease Responsive to Dopaminergic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumihiro Kawajiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Painless Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome (PoLMT is a rare movement disorder characterized by flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and torsion of toes without pain. It is considered a variant of Painful Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome (PLMT, which is characterized by similar movements but with pain. Although neuropathy and several central nervous system (CNS involvements have been reported to be associated with PoLMT, the actual cause and mechanism remain unclear. Here we describe the first case of PoLMT in Parkinson’s Disease (PD, parallel to parkinsonism in severity, who demonstrated a good response to dopaminergic therapy.

  14. Biomechanical analysis of posterior cruciate ligament retaining high-flexion total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; van der Zanden, A.C.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Background High-flexion knee replacements have been developed to accommodate a large range of flexion (>120°) after total knee arthroplasty. Both posterior cruciate ligament retaining and sacrificing high-flexion knee designs have been marketed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the

  15. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Combined Exercises on Humoral Immune and Hematological Index in Inactive Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Old age is associated with irregularities in many aspects of body immune system function. During this period, the immune responses decline with increasing age. In other words, with decreasing number of immune cells, which are responsible for detecting and direct attack to contaminated cells, the immune response decreases and results in failure of the immune system. As sports activities could affect the immune system and old age is associated with progressive immune failure, the study of the effects of exercise on the immune system function in old age becomes important. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected combined exercises (aerobic and resistance training on the serum level of cortisol and immunoglobulins in inactive elderly men. Methods & Materials: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Their age and body mass index ranged 60–70 years and 22–25 kg/m2, respectively. Then, they were randomly assigned into 2 groups (experimental [n=12] and control [n=12]. The experimental group started the combined training exercise, and the control group continued their inactive usual routines. The combined training exercise (aerobic-resistance included running on a treadmill for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, with an intensity of 60% to 70% HRR. Furthermore, the resistance training comprised 10 circling stationary movements of leg flexion, leg extension, leg press, scott, underarm stretch, chest press, iron cross with dumbbells, biceps flexion, triceps extension, and rowing motion with rope. This training included an intensity of 60% to 70% of one maximum repetition with extra load and 10 repetitions in 2 successive times with 30 seconds rest between each repetition and 2 minutes’ rest between each movement. In this study, the blood samples were taken 24 hours before the exercise and 24 hours after the last session of

  16. Leg pain and gynecologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lilly; Stevens, Erin E

    2013-09-01

    Gynecologic malignancies affect more than 83 000 women in the United States, each year. Because the disease involves the pelvis, many patients have side effects distal to this area in their lower extremities. The differential diagnosis of leg pain can be divided into vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal causes. In this review article, we address numerous etiologies of leg pain, reviewing the prevalence of disease, physical examination findings, diagnostic as well as treatment modalities.

  17. Hip flexion deformity improves without psoas-lengthening after surgical correction of fixed knee flexion deformity in spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Erich; Gaston, Mark S; Tirosh, Oren; Brunner, Reinald

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear if psoas lengthening surgery is required in the treatment of patients with cerebral palsy (CP) with hip flexion deformity and previous studies show equivocal results with regard to functional outcome. This study retrospectively assessed 12 patients with a diagnosis of spastic diplegia who underwent single event multilevel surgery in order to correct deformities in the sagittal plane distal to the hip. Both clinical and instrument gait analysis results were recorded preoperatively, at one year (short term) and at five years (mid term) postoperatively. Clinically measured hip and knee movement improved at both short and mid term follow up. Correlations of clinically measured maximum hip and knee extension were significant at all three time points. Angles at terminal stance/toe off for hip and knee from kinematic data also showed significant correlations at all three time points. Our study demonstrates that the hip flexion deformities encountered in these patients will improve spontaneously when the distal fixed knee flexion deformity is surgically corrected. Therefore correction at the knee allows the ground reaction force to assume a more normal position resulting in correction at the hip over time. This then removes the need for surgery at the hip level. This fact is especially important when applied to psoas lengthening as this procedure can cause significant reduction in propulsion power.

  18. Altered flexion-relaxation responses exist during asymmetric trunk flexion movements among persons with unilateral lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2014-02-01

    Repetitive exposures to altered gait and movement following lower-limb amputation (LLA) have been suggested to contribute to observed alterations in passive tissue properties and neuromuscular control in/surrounding the lumbar spine. These alterations, in turn, may affect the synergy between passive and active tissues during trunk movements. Eight males with unilateral LLA and eight non-amputation controls completed quasi-static trunk flexion-extension movements in seven distinct conditions of rotation in the transverse plane: 0° (sagittally-symmetric), ±15°, ±30°, and ±45° (sagittally-asymmetric). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral lumbar erector spinae and lumbar kinematics were simultaneously recorded. Peak lumbar flexion and EMG-off angles were determined, along with the difference ("DIFF") between these two angles and the magnitude of peak normalized EMG activities. Persons with unilateral LLA exhibited altered and asymmetric synergies between active and passive trunk tissues during both sagittally-symmetric and -asymmetric trunk flexion movements. Specifically, decreased and asymmetric passive contributions to trunk movements were compensated with increases in the magnitude and duration of active trunk muscle responses. Such alterations in trunk passive and active neuromuscular responses may result from repetitive exposures to abnormal gait and movement subsequent to LLA, and may increase the risk for LBP in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustaining Behavior Changes Following a Venous Leg Ulcer Client Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charne; Kapp, Suzanne; Donohue, Lisa

    2014-09-04

    Venous leg ulcers are a symptom of chronic insufficiency of the veins. This study considered the sustainability of behavior changes arising from a client focus e-Learning education program called the "Leg Ulcer Prevention Program" (LUPP) for people with a venous leg ulcer. Data from two related studies were used to enable a single sample (n = 49) examination of behavior maintenance across an average 8 to 9 months period. Physical activity levels increased over time. Leg elevation, calf muscle exercises, and soap substitute use were seen to fluctuate over the follow up time points. The use of a moisturizer showed gradual decline over time. The provision of a client-focused venous leg ulcer program was associated with behavior changes that had varied sustainability across the evaluation period.

  20. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients' muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints' strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life.

  1. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Compulsive Exercise KidsHealth / For Parents / Compulsive Exercise What's in this ... for both physical and psychological problems. About Compulsive Exercise Compulsive exercise (also called obligatory exercise and anorexia ...

  2. Dissociation between lactate and proton exchange in muscle during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva

    1997-01-01

    1. Transport of lactate, H+ and fluid across muscle sarcolemma was studied in contracting muscles under varying blood acid-base conditions. 2. Subjects performed two-legged submaximal knee-extensor exercise for 29-35 min consisting of warming up for 5 min followed by 10 min of leg exercise (L1......), leg and arm exercise for 6-10 min (L2 + A) and leg exercise for 10 min (L3). The experimental protocol was performed on two occasions; inspiring air (normoxia, N) or breathing 14% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, H). Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood was sampled before and during...... each phase of exercise. 3. Arterial blood lactate concentration increased progressively during exercise to 5.9 +/- 0.8 (N) and 8.2 +/- 0.8 mmol l-1 (H) (P

  3. Vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Anke C.; Berger, Klaus; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalences of vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome increase with age. Prior studies analyzing the associations between vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and restless legs syndrome found controversial results. We therefore aim to evaluate the association between prevalent vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 22,786 participants of the US Physicians’ Health Studies I and II. Restless legs syndrome was classified according to the four minimal diagnostic criteria. Vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome symptoms were self-reported. Prevalent cardiovascular disease events including major cardiovascular disease, stroke and myocardial infarction were confirmed by medical record review. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease events and restless legs syndrome. Results The mean age of the cohort 67.8 years. Restless legs syndrome prevalence was 7.5% and increased significantly with age. Diabetes significantly increased the odds (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.21–1.65), while frequent exercise (OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67–0.91) and alcohol consumption of one or more drinks per day (OR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.69–0.92) significantly reduced the odds of restless legs syndrome in multivariable-adjusted models. Prevalent stroke showed an increased multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.40 (1.05–1.86) while men with prevalent myocardial infarction had a decreased OR of 0.73 (0.55–0.97) for restless legs syndrome. Conclusions The restless legs syndrome prevalence among US male physicians is similar to men of the same age group in other western countries. A history of diabetes is the most consistent risk factor associated with restless legs syndrome. Prevalent stroke and myocardial infarction are related to restless legs

  4. Relationship between flexion contractures of the joints of the lower extremities and the sagittal profile of the spine in patients with cerebral palsy: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Umnov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The considerable incidence of kyphosis in patients with cerebral palsy (CP causes back pain and aggravates movement disorders. However, few studies have investigated the pathogenesis of this condition. Aim. To identify the relationship between patient motor abilities, the severity of flexion contractures of the knee and hip joints and spinal sagittal profile changes, and the impact on the latter by surgical correction of flexion contracture of the knee joint. Material and methods. The study cohort included 17 pediatric CP patients (11 boys and 6 girls with a mean age of 13.1 ± 1.3 (range, 10–16 years and level 2–4 spastic diplegia according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The relationship between radiological indicators of the spine sagittal profile and motor abilities of children, as well as the severity of flexion contractures at the hip and knee, and the degree of insufficiency of the active extension of the knee were investigated. Of these 17 patients, 12 underwent surgery to correct flexion contracture of the knee, which involved lengthening of leg flexors, to analyze the impact of contracture on the sagittal profile of the spine. The following radiological indicators were assessed: angle of thoracic kyphosis (CC, lordosis angle (UL of the lumbar spine, and sacral inclination angle (SS. The study included patients with a CC of at least 30°. Results. Results of an X-ray study showed that the severity of kyphosis was 50.7° ± 2.1°, lordosis was 30.3° ± 4.3°, and SS was 30.5° ± 3.3°. There was a significant association between kyphosis and flexion contracture of the knee joint, as well as between lordosis and insufficient active extension of the knee joint. After elimination of the flexion contracture of the knee, the degree of severity of the CC (thoracic kyphosis was unchanged, while UL (lordosis angle and SS (sacral inclination angle increased by approximately 10°. Conclusion. The severity of

  5. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, T B and

  6. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  7. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders.

  8. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise...

  9. Physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Morris, Nathaniel; Sonne, Michael W; Zuniga, Amanda Farias; Keir, Peter J; Potvin, Jim R; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    We compared physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities. The primary hypothesis was that the counterweight method would elicit greater normalized power (i.e., power/active leg), greater electromyography (EMG) responses, and lower cardiorespiratory demand. Graded-exercise tests performed by 12 men (age: 21 ± 2 years; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) initially established that peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]; 76 ± 8.4%), expired ventilation ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), carbon dioxide production ([Formula: see text]; 71 ± 6.8%), heart rate (HRpeak; 91 ± 5.3%), and power output (PPO; 56 ± 3.6%) were lower during single-leg compared to double-leg cycling (main effect of mode; p cycling were performed at greater absolute power outputs but lower normalized power outputs compared to single-leg cycling (p  0.05), but semitendinosus was activated to a greater extent for single-leg cycling (p = 0.005). Single-leg interval and continuous cycling elicited lower mean [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], HR and ratings of perceived exertion compared to double-leg cycling (p cycling elicits lower cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses than double-leg cycling at greater normalized power outputs.

  10. The kinematic differences between off-spin and leg-spin bowling in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Spin bowling is generally coached using a standard technical framework, but this practice has not been based upon a comparative biomechanical analysis of leg-spin and off-spin bowling. This study analysed the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers using a Cortex motion analysis system to identify how aspects of the respective techniques differed. A multivariate ANOVA found that certain data tended to validate some of the stated differences in the coaching literature. Off-spin bowlers had a significantly shorter stride length (p = 0.006) and spin rate (p = 0.001), but a greater release height than leg-spinners (p = 0.007). In addition, a number of other kinematic differences were identified that were not previously documented in coaching literature. These included a larger rear knee flexion (p = 0.007), faster approach speed (p < 0.001), and flexing elbow action during the arm acceleration compared with an extension action used by most of the off-spin bowlers. Off-spin and leg-spin bowlers also deviated from the standard coaching model for the shoulder alignment, front knee angle at release, and forearm mechanics. This study suggests that off-spin and leg-spin are distinct bowling techniques, supporting the development of two different coaching models in spin bowling.

  11. Hop performance and leg muscle power in athletes: Reliability of a test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockum, Britta; Heijne, Annette I-L M

    2015-08-01

    To measure the absolute and relative reliability and the smallest real difference (SRD) in three commonly used hop tests, two leg-power tests and the single-leg squat jump. Methodological study. Clinical setting. Fourteen healthy athletes (seven women and seven men) were evaluated in a standardized test-retest design. The Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2.1), Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and SRD were calculated for the vertical jump, one-leg hop for distance, side-hop, single-leg squat jump and knee-flexion and knee-extension power tests. All tests showed good to excellent ICC (0.84-0.98). The SEM (%) ranged between 3.4 and 11.1 for the four hop tests and between 8.1 and 12.4 for the leg-power tests. The SRD (%) for the hop tests ranged between 9.3 and 30.7 and for the three power tests between 22.4 and 34.3. The absolute reliability of this test protocol showed good to excellent ICC values and measurement errors of approximately 10%. This instrument can be recommended for determining function in terms of power in healthy athletes or late in the rehabilitation process. The tests' methodological errors must be considered and caution should be taken regarding the standardization procedure during testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between the elbow flexion and the hand and wrist flexion after neurotization of the fascicles of the ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boso Escudero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Gain in elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury is extremely important. The transfer of a fascicle from the ulnar nerve to the motor branch of the musculocutaneous nerve (Oberlin surgery is a treatment option. However, in some patients, gain in elbow flexion is associated with wrist and finger flexion. This study aimed to assess the frequency of this association and the functional behavior of the limb. METHODS: Case-control study of 18 patients who underwent the Oberlin surgery. Group 1 included patients without disassociation of range of elbow flexion and that of the fingers and wrist; Group 2 included patients in whom this disassociation was present. In the functional evaluation, the Sollerman and DASH tests were used. RESULTS: It was observed that 38.89% of the patients did not present disassociation of elbow flexion with flexion of the wrist and fingers. Despite the existence of a favorable difference in the group with disassociation of the movement, when the Sollerman protocol was applied to the comparison between both groups, this difference was not statistically significant. With the DASH test, however, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of the group of patients who managed to disassociate the movement. CONCLUSION: The association of elbow flexion with flexion of the wrist and fingers, in the group studied, was shown to be a frequent event, which influenced the functional result of the affected limb.

  13. Effects of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver on muscle activity, pelvic motions, and knee flexion during active prone knee flexion in patients with lumbar extension rotation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Lee, Won-Hwee; Ha, Sung-Min; Kim, Su-Jung; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the effects of performing an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) during active prone knee flexion on the hamstrings and erector spinae muscle activity, the amounts of pelvic motion and knee flexion, and onset of pelvic movements. Comparative, repeated-measures study. University research laboratory. Men patients (N=18) with lumbar extension rotation syndrome. Subjects performed prone knee flexion in 2 conditions. To measure muscle activity, surface electromyogram (EMG) of both erector spinae and the medial and lateral hamstrings was performed. Kinematic data on the pelvic motion and knee flexion were measured using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Repeated 1-way analysis of variance was used for the statistical analysis. Significantly decreased electromyographic activity in the right and left erector spinae and significantly increased electromyographic activity in the medial and lateral hamstrings activity were shown during prone knee flexion in ADIM condition using the pressure biofeedback unit. In addition, the amounts of anterior pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation, knee flexion, and perceived pain decreased significantly during prone knee flexion in the ADIM condition compared with the same maneuver in the non-ADIM condition. The onset of anterior pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation occurred significantly earlier in the non-ADIM condition, compared with the ADIM condition. ADIM effectively increased activation of knee flexors, decreased activation of back extensors, and reduced the pelvic motions and low back pain during prone knee flexion in patients with lumbar extension rotation syndrome. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of a method to measure ankle plantar-flexion range of motion in the hook-lying position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; Bayer, Gabriela S; M R da Costa, Letícia; de Noronha, Marcos

    2012-10-11

    Physical therapists often have to measure ankle range of motion (ROM) to decide on intervention and investigate improvements. The most common method of measurement is goniometry, but it has been questioned due to its unsatisfactory levels of reliability. To investigate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of a new method of measuring plantar-flexion ROM. Prospective and descriptive. Laboratory. 20 healthy participants (12 women and 8 men). Ankle plantar flexion was measured by 3 observers (A, B, and C) with 3 methods (goniometry, measurement in hook-lying position [MHP], and static-image analysis [SIA]). Observer A was the most experienced therapist, and C, the least. MHP was performed with the participant in the supine position, knees flexed, and first and fifth metatarsals in contact with the treatment table. SIA was recorded and analyzed in the same position. Goniometry was performed with participant seated, lower legs unsupported, and axis positioned on the lateral malleolus. For the interobserver analysis, the ICC2,1 was high for the MHP (.88), high for SIA (.87), and moderate for goniometry (.57). For the intraobserver analysis, the ICC2,1 was high or very high for MHP (.91-.92), high for SIA (.79-.83), and low to moderate for goniometry (.18-.60). MHP is inexpensive, fast, and more reliable than goniometry for measuring plantar-flexion ROM.

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tighten your abdominal muscles, then reach through your legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees ... in. Maintaining abdominal wall drawn in, extend one leg (if your abdominal wall lifts up or your ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extend one leg (if your abdominal wall lifts up or your back arches, your leg is too ... side with knees bent at 90 degrees, prop up on your elbow, elongate neck away from shoulder, ...

  18. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  19. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  20. Similar metabolic response to lower- versus upper-body interval exercise or endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Graham, Matthew J; Parr, Evelyn B; Rehrer, Nancy J; Lucas, Samuel J E; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    To compare energy use and substrate partitioning arising from repeated lower- versus upper-body sprints, or endurance exercise, across a 24-h period. Twelve untrained males (24±4 y) completed three trials in randomized order: (1) repeated sprints (five 30-s Wingate, 4.5-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer (SIT Legs ); (2) 50-min continuous cycling at 65% V̇O 2 max (END); (3) repeated sprints on an arm-crank ergometer (SIT Arms ). Respiratory gas exchange was assessed before and during exercise, and at eight points across 22h of recovery. Metabolic rate was elevated to greater extent in the first 8h after SIT Legs than SIT Arms (by 0.8±1.1kJ/min, p=0.03), and tended to be greater than END (by 0.7±1.3kJ/min, p=0.08). Total 24-h energy use (exercise+recovery) was equivalent between SIT Legs and END (p = 0.55), and SIT Legs and SIT Arms (p=0.13), but 24-h fat use was higher with SIT Legs than END (by 26±38g, p=0.04) and SIT Arms (by 27±43g, p=0.05), whereas carbohydrate use was higher with SIT Arms than SIT Legs (by 32±51g, p=0.05). Plasma volume-corrected post-exercise and fasting glucose and lipid concentrations were unchanged. Despite much lower energy use during five sprints than 50-min continuous exercise, 24-h energy use was not reliably different. However, (i) fat metabolism was greater after sprints, and (ii) carbohydrate metabolism was greater in the hours after sprints with arms than legs, while 24-h energy usage was comparable. Thus, sprints using arms or legs may be an important adjunct exercise mode for metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can two-dimensional video analysis during single-leg drop vertical jumps help identify non-contact knee injury risk? A one-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Staes, Filip F

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies showed that the amount of hip flexion and the combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion, measured with two-dimensional video analysis, were related to three-dimensional measured knee joint moments during single-leg drop vertical jumps, but it remains unclear whether these measurements can be used to identify non-contact knee injury risk. Fifty injury-free female athletes participated in the study. Two-dimensional video analysis was used to measure hip flexion, knee valgus and lateral trunk motion angles during single-leg drop vertical jumps. Time loss non-contact knee injuries were registered during a one-year follow-up. Independent t-tests and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to analyze the predictive ability of the two-dimensional angles. Seven participants sustained a time loss non-contact knee injury. Hip flexion was not significantly different between groups (P>.05). The combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion was significantly smaller in the injured (P=.036) and non-injured legs (P=.009) of the future injured group compared with the respective matched leg of the non-injured group. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the combination of knee valgus and lateral trunk motion of the uninjured leg of the future injured group with the matched leg of the non-injured group (area under curve=0.803; P=.012). The measurement of a combination of increased knee valgus and ipsilateral trunk motion during the single-leg drop vertical jump with two-dimensional video analysis can be used to help identify female athletes with increased non-contact knee injury risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of modified electrical stimulation-induced leg cycle ergometer training for individuals with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.J.; Pringle, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Computer-controlled electrical stimulation (ES)-induced leg cycle ergometer (ES-LCE) exercise can be beneficial for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), but exercise performance is often insufficient for eliciting continuous gains in cardiopulmonary training adaptations. The first purpose of

  3. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    %) in muscle of the exercised and non-exercised leg in man. This coincided with increased Ser-757 phosphorylation of ULK1, which is suggested as an mTORC1 target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In response to 3 weeks...

  4. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  5. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  6. Entretien sur la psychanalyse: réflexions en marge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Martini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur propose ici un commentaire sur les points les plus importants de son entretien de février 2003 avec Paul Ricœur consacré aux rapports entre herméneutique et psychanalyse. Bien que le philosophe se situe dans une réelle continuité par rapport à sa contribution de 1965, il enrichit toutefois sa réflexion philosophique sur la psychanalyse en proposant plusieurs innovations, en ce qui concerne plus particulièrement les thèmes du récit, du soi et de l’éthique. Dans les conclusions de son commentaire, l’auteur souligne l’importance des concepts d’“irreprésentable” et d’“intraduisible”: non seulement, en effet, ces concepts sont dans la ligne de nombreuses contributions de la psychanalyse contemporaine, mais la profondeur de la réflexion ricœurienne augmente en outre leur potentiel théorique et même clinique.

  7. Do patients care about higher flexion in total knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten G; Husted, Henrik; Otte, Kristian Stahl

    2013-01-01

    result in a better patient perceived outcome. METHODS: The study is a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in which 36 patients (mean age: 67.2 yrs) undergoing one-stage bilateral TKA randomly received a standard cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA in one knee and a high-flex posterior-stabilized (PS......) TKA in the contra lateral knee. At follow-up ROM, satisfaction, pain, "feel" of the knee and the abilities in daily activities were assessed. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up we found an expected significantly higher degree of knee flexion of 7[degree sign] in the high-flex knees (p = 0.001). The high......-flex TKA's showed a mean active flexion of 121[degree sign]. In both TKA's the median VAS pain score was 0, the median VAS satisfaction score was 9, and the median VAS score of the patient "feel" of the knee was 9 at 1-year follow-up. Further, there were no significant differences between the knees...

  8. Facilitating Cervical Flexion Using a Feldenkrais Method: Awareness through Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, S; Kegerreis, S

    1992-01-01

    Feldenkrais methods appear to be gaining popularity and utilization by physical therapists. The need for scientific justification of their usage is indicated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the results of a Feldenkrais method-Awareness Through Movement-involving a neck flexion task. The study examined 30 normal subjects to determine if a Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement sequence would result in an increase in neck flexion range of motion and if the subjects would indicate a significantly lower level of perceived effort posttest. Measurements of range of motion were taken using a gravity-based cervical range of motion goniometer. The subjects recorded their perceived efforts on a visual analogue scale. The range of motion data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The visual analogue scale data were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U test. The data supported both hypotheses. Based on these findings, further investigation of Feldenkrais methods in the treatment of patients appears warranted. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(1):25-29.

  9. Maximum Velocities in Flexion and Extension Actions for Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessop David M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed of movement is fundamental to the outcome of many human actions. A variety of techniques can be implemented in order to maximise movement speed depending on the goal of the movement, constraints, and the time available. Knowing maximum movement velocities is therefore useful for developing movement strategies but also as input into muscle models. The aim of this study was to determine maximum flexion and extension velocities about the major joints in upper and lower limbs. Seven university to international level male competitors performed flexion/extension at each of the major joints in the upper and lower limbs under three conditions: isolated; isolated with a countermovement; involvement of proximal segments. 500 Hz planar high speed video was used to calculate velocities. The highest angular velocities in the upper and lower limb were 50.0 rad·s-1 and 28.4 rad·s-1, at the wrist and knee, respectively. As was true for most joints, these were achieved with the involvement of proximal segments, however, ANOVA analysis showed few significant differences (p<0.05 between conditions. Different segment masses, structures and locations produced differing results, in the upper and lower limbs, highlighting the requirement of segment specific strategies for maximal movements.

  10. Vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Anke C.; Schürks, Markus; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Berger, Klaus; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies evaluating the association between cardiovascular disease and vascular risk factors with restless legs syndrome showed inconsistent results, especially for the potential relation between various vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome. We therefore aimed to analyze the relationship between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 30,262 female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study (WHS). Restless legs syndrome was defined according to diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Study Group. Information on vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, exercise, family history of myocardial infarction) was self-reported. Cardiovascular disease events (coronary revascularization, myocardial infarction, stroke) were confirmed by medical record review. Prevalent major cardiovascular disease was defined as non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Results Of the 30,262 participants (mean age: 63.6 years), 3,624 (12.0%) reported restless legs syndrome. In multivariable-adjusted models, body mass index (OR for BMI ≥35kg/m2: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17–1.56), diabetes (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.04–1.35), hypercholesterolemia (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26), smoking status (OR for ≥15 cigarettes/day: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.19–1.66) and exercise (OR for exercise ≥ 4 times/week: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.74–0.95) were associated with restless legs syndrome prevalence. We found no association between prevalent cardiovascular disease (major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke) and restless legs syndrome prevalence. Women who underwent coronary revascularization had a multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.39 (1

  11. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; MacKinley, Elizabeth E; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA-approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  12. Cross-legged Gods and One-legged Foresters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovskaia, N.I.

    The present article is a re-evaluation of a marvellous element in a medieval Welsh romance, Chwedl Iarlles y Ffynnawn ‘Tale of the Lady of the Fountain’, also known as Owein. One of the characters encountered by the hero is a one-eyed one-legged dark giant forester who appears to have a particular

  13. Leg raise increases pressure in lower and upper esophageal sphincter among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitnar, P; Stovicek, J; Andel, R; Arlt, J; Arltova, M; Smejkal, M; Kolar, P; Kobesova, A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between posturally increased intra-abdominal pressure and lower/upper esophageal sphincter pressure changes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We used high resolution manometry to measure pressure changes in lower and upper esophageal sphincter during bilateral leg rise. We also examined whether the rate of lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure would increase during leg raise differentially in individuals with versus without normal resting pressure. Fifty eight patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease participated in the study. High resolution manometry was performed in relaxed supine position, then lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure was measured. Finally, the subjects were instructed to keep their legs lifted while performing 90-degree flexion at the hips and knees and the pressure was measured again. Paired t-test and independent samples t-test were used. There was a significant increase in both lower (P leg raise compared to the initial resting position. Individuals with initially higher pressure in lower esophageal sphincter (>10 mmHg) exhibited a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with initially lower pressure (pressure ≤10 mmHg; P = 0.002). Similarly individuals with higher resting upper esophageal sphincter pressure (>44 mmHg) showed a greater pressure increase during leg raise than those with lower resting pressure (≤44 mmHg; P leg activities on intraesophageal pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, indicating by means of high resolution manometry that diaphragmatic postural and sphincter function are likely interrelated in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of repetitive mckenzie lumbar spine exercises on cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: McKenzie exercises for the lumbar spine, which are done repeatedly, such as flexion in standing (FIS, extension in standing flexion in lying (FIL & extension in lying (EIL have been used in the management of low back pain for over three decades. The cardiovascular effects of exercises that involve postural stabilization, arm exercises and of exercises performed in lying are well known, but there are seldom studies performed to assess the cardiovascular effects of these commonly used McKenzie exercises. Therefore the study focused on evaluating the effects of 4 commonly used McKenzie exercises on the cardiovascular system. Methods: 80 subjects in the age group of 20-59 years were randomly assigned into 4 groups according to their age, such that such that each group comprised of an equal number of subjects & equal number of males & females. Each subject performed all the 4 exercises (FIS, EIS, FIL & EIL for 10, 15 & 20 repetitions respectively. Heart rate, blood pressure & rate pressure product were recorded before & after each set of repetitions & after each type of exercise. Results: Repetitive McKenzie lumbar spine exercises had cardiovascular effects in apparently healthy subjects (both male & female. Exercises performed in lying were hemodynamically more demanding than that performed in standing, also exercises involving flexion of the lumbar spine elicited greater cardiovascular demand as compared to extension exercises i.e. FIL>EIL>FIS>EIS irrespective of the number of repetitions, 10, 15 or 20. The cardiovascular demand for a given subject increased as the number of repetitions increased, for all the 4 exercises. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises when done repetitively have cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects.

  15. Crew Health And Recreation Gear Exercise Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid based exoskeleton leg demonstrator was developed to help long duration exploration mission crews obtain exercise with entertainment...

  16. Local NSAID infusion inhibits satellite cell proliferation in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Langberg, H; Helmark, I C

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the influence of these drugs on muscle satellite cells is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a local NSAID infusion on satellite cells after unaccustomed eccentric...... exercise in vivo in human skeletal muscle. Eight young healthy males performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. An NSAID was infused via a microdialysis catheter into the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg (NSAID leg) before, during, and for 4.5 h after exercise, with the other leg working...... cells (CD68(+) or CD16(+) cells) was not significantly increased in either of the legs 8 days after exercise and was unaffected by the NSAID. The main finding in the present study was that the NSAID infusion for 7.5 h during the exercise day suppressed the exercise-induced increase in the number...

  17. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes...... acid production was also 10-fold higher during exercise compared with that at rest (difference not significant). The net production rates of threonine, glycine and tyrosine and of the sum of the non-metabolized amino acids were about 1.5-2.5-fold higher during exercise with the leg with a low glycogen...... in the concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  18. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  19. Comparison of acute physiological adaptations between three variants of a basic head-out water exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the acute physiological adaptations to several variants of the same basic head-out aquatic exercise (only with legs actions, with simultaneous legs and arms actions, with simultaneous legs and arms actions using buoyancy dumb-bells. 16 young females, clinically healthy and with a regular level of physical activity were studied. Each subjected performed a basic head-out aquatic exercise named “rocking horse”. Before and after each 6 minutes exercise, rate of perceived exertion (RPE and blood lactate (La-] were evaluated. Before, during and after eachexercise, the maximal heart rate achieved (FCmax was measured and the percentage of maximal theoretical heart rate estimated (%FCmax. The subjects perceived an increasing exertion from the exercise only with legs actions to the exercise with simultaneous legs and arms actions, to the exercise with simultaneous legs and arms actions including dumb-bells. The cardiac workout (FCmax and %FCmax was significantly lower performing the exercise only with the legs than in the other two exercise conditions. The increasing number of limb’s actions and the adoption of dumb-bells promoted an increase ofthe blood lactate. In conclusion, the increasing number of simultaneous limb’s actions and the inclusion of materials, justlike buoyancy dumb-bells, increased the acute physiological response in head-out aquatic exercises.

  20. Haemodynamic responses to exercise, ATP infusion and thigh compression in humans: insight into the role of muscle mechanisms on cardiovascular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Mortensen, S.P.; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard

    2008-01-01

    on cardiovascular function during exercise, we determined leg and systemic haemodynamic responses in healthy men during (1) incremental one-legged knee-extensor exercise, (2) step-wise femoral artery ATP infusion at rest, (3) passive exercise (n=10), (4)femoral vein or artery ATP infusion (n=6), and (5) cyclic...

  1. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer's Walk Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2015-03-29

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer's walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  2. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  3. Kan leg skabe fremtidens vindere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Dansk Boldspil Union skruer ned for den præstationsorienterede tilgang til børnefodbold. I stedet skal børnenes leg med bolden i fokus. Målet er at forhindre massivt frafald i børne- og ungdomsfodbolden og højne niveauet hos topspillerne....

  4. Isometric exercises reduce temporal summation of pressure pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H B; Handberg, G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2015-01-01

    tolerance (PTT) and reduce TSP with greater effects after higher-intensity exercises. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six healthy subjects (18-65 years; 68 women) participated in two randomized crossover experiments with trials on two different days. PTT and TSP were assessed before and after bicycling...... when assessed at the leg (p reduced VAS scores to sequential stimulation at the arm and leg (p ... of hypoalgesia between aerobic and isometric exercises were found. Isometric exercises reduced temporal summation illustrating the potential for exercise as a rehabilitation procedure also targeting the central mechanisms....

  5. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  6. Existe déficit bilateral na realização de 10RM em exercícios de braços e pernas? ¿Hay déficit bilateral al realizar 10RM en ejercicios de brazos y piernas? Is there bilateral deficit in the practice of 10RM in arm and leg exercises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walace David Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    bilateral en los ejercicios seleccionados. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por el test t-Student pareado, para verificar la existencia de diferencia entre los miembros, bien como la suma de los dos miembros por separado en relación al trabajo realizado bilateralmente. Para todos los procedimientos se consideró como grado de significancia p Resistance exercises can be done uni or bilaterally. Depending on the way by which the movement is conducted, the presence of bilateral deficit (BD is observed. BD studies have concentrated their effort on the investigation of the phenomenon in exercises done with one single maximum repetition and little is known about their behavior in exercises with many repetitions. The aims of this study were: a to compare the load in 10 repetition maximum (10RM in the different sides of the body in exercises done with arms and legs. b To compare the sum of the unilateral actions with the bilateral results in the same exercises. Twenty trained women between 18 and 30 years old (24 ± 6 were evaluated in uni and bilateral 10RM test in the selected exercises. The statistics analysis was t-test paired, to verify the difference between limbs and the sum of the two limbs separately in relation to bilateral load. Significance level was p < 0.05 for all procedures. No difference was found in the manipulated loads in both members, the same not occurring with the sum of unilateral load compared to bilateral. This demonstrates that the practice of bilateral work in routine situation of training involving 10RM promotes a greater manipulation of load in relation to unilateral work, differently from what is seen in BD in 1RM. In conclusion, at least in the selected exercises, BD was not found. Future studies should be done for better understanding of the BD phenomenon during training routine.

  7. The Effect of Core Exercises on Transdiaphragmatic Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Strongoli, Lisa M.; Gomez, Christopher L.; Coast, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal exercises, such as sit ups and leg lifts, are used to enhance strength of the core muscles. An overlooked aspect of abdominal exercises is the compression the abdomen, leading to increased diaphragmatic work. We hypothesized that core exercises would produce a variety of transdiaphragmatic pressures. We also sought to determine if some of the easy exercises would produce pressures sufficient for a training stimulus to the diaphragm. We evaluated the effect of 13 different abdominal ...

  8. Effect of a foot pump device on lower leg swelling in physically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of using a foot pump device (FPD) on orthostatic lower leg swelling in physically inactive office workers. Thirty-four physically inactive office workers (age: 41.6 ± 8.9 years, 26 females, 8 males) volunteered for the study. They participated in two exercise days (day 1 and 2), ...

  9. Timing of muscle response to a sudden leg perturbation: comparison between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Valle

    Full Text Available Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test. In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability.

  10. Interdependence of torque, joint angle, angular velocity and muscle action during human multi-joint leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Herzog, Walter; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    Force and torque production of human muscles depends upon their lengths and contraction velocity. However, these factors are widely assumed to be independent of each other and the few studies that dealt with interactions of torque, angle and angular velocity are based on isolated single-joint movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine force/torque-angle and force/torque-angular velocity properties for multi-joint leg extensions. Human leg extension was investigated (n = 18) on a motor-driven leg press dynamometer while measuring external reaction forces at the feet. Extensor torque in the knee joint was calculated using inverse dynamics. Isometric contractions were performed at eight joint angle configurations of the lower limb corresponding to increments of 10° at the knee from 30 to 100° of knee flexion. Concentric and eccentric contractions were performed over the same range of motion at mean angular velocities of the knee from 30 to 240° s(-1). For contractions of increasing velocity, optimum knee angle shifted from 52 ± 7 to 64 ± 4° knee flexion. Furthermore, the curvature of the concentric force/torque-angular velocity relations varied with joint angles and maximum angular velocities increased from 866 ± 79 to 1,238 ± 132° s(-1) for 90-50° knee flexion. Normalised eccentric forces/torques ranged from 0.85 ± 0.12 to 1.32 ± 0.16 of their isometric reference, only showing significant increases above isometric and an effect of angular velocity for joint angles greater than optimum knee angle. The findings reveal that force/torque production during multi-joint leg extension depends on the combined effects of angle and angular velocity. This finding should be accounted for in modelling and optimisation of human movement.

  11. Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium. Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials demonstrated a 180-meter increase in treadmill walking distance in response to supervised exercise interventions compared with a nonexercising control group. Supervised treadmill exercise has been inaccessible to many patients with PAD because of lack of medical insurance coverage. However, in 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a decision memorandum to support health insurance coverage of 12 weeks of supervised treadmill exercise for patients with walking impairment due to PAD. Recent evidence also supports home-based walking exercise to improve walking performance in people with PAD. Effective home-exercise programs incorporate behavioral change interventions such as a remote coach, goal setting, and self-monitoring. Supervised treadmill exercise programs preferentially improve treadmill walking performance, whereas home-based walking exercise programs preferentially improve corridor walking, such as the 6-minute walk test. Clinical trial evidence also supports arm or leg ergometry exercise to improve walking endurance in people with PAD. Treadmill walking exercise appears superior to resistance training alone for improving walking endurance. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD by approximately 180 meters compared with no exercise. Recent evidence suggests that home-based exercise is also effective and preferentially improves over-ground walking performance, such as

  12. A comparison of one-legged and two-legged countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A J; Roebroeck, M.E.; Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1985-01-01

    Ten well-trained male volleyball players performed one-legged and two-legged vertical countermovement jumps. Ground reaction forces, cinematographic data, and electromyographic data were recorded. Jumping height in one-legged jumps was 58.5% of that reached in two-legged jumps. Mean net torques in

  13. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  14. Ammonia uptake in inactive muscles during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined NH3 (ammonia and ammonium) uptake in resting leg muscle. Six male subjects performed intermittent arm exercise at various intensities in two separate 32-min periods (part I and part II) and in one subsequent 20-min period in which one-legged exercise was also performed.......0 +/- 4.5, and 57.7 +/- 18.3 mumol/min. Throughout each exercise period a net uptake of NH3 was observed in the resting leg (P muscle NH3 concentration of 195.1 +/- 15.0 mumol/kg wet wt at rest was largely...... unchanged throughout the experiment. The present data suggest that resting muscles extract NH3 and contribute significantly to clearance of NH3 during exercise and in early recovery from exercise. The extracted NH3 appears to be metabolized within the resting muscles....

  15. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, S; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods...

  16. Activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles during prone hip extension with knee flexion in three hip abduction positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Ohyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Boram

    2013-08-01

    The direction of fiber alignment within a muscle is known to influence the effectiveness of muscle contraction. However, most of the commonly used clinical gluteus maximus (GM) exercises do not consider the direction of fiber alignment within the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hip abduction position on the EMG (electromyography) amplitude and onset time of the GM and hamstrings (HAM) during prone hip extension with knee flexion (PHEKF) exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the GM and HAM during PHEKF exercise in three hip abduction positions: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Thirty healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The results show that GM EMG amplitude was greatest in the 30° hip abduction position, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during PHEKF exercise. On the other hand, the HAM EMG amplitude at 0° hip abduction was significantly greater than at 15° and 30° hip abduction. Additionally, GM EMG onset firing was delayed relative to that of the HAM at 0° hip abduction. On the contrary, the GM EMG onset occurred earlier than the HAM in the 15° and 30° hip abduction positions. These findings indicate that performing PHEKF exercise in the 30° hip abduction position may be recommended as an effective way to facilitate the GM muscle activity and advance the firing time of the GM muscle in asymptomatic individuals. This finding provides preliminary evidence that GM EMG amplitude and onset time can be modified by the degree of hip abduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF LEG AND TRUNK STRENGTH AND REACTION TIMES OF HARD-STYLE MARTIAL ARTS PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver O'Donovan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT, choice reaction times (CRT and movement times (MT. Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05. During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts

  19. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  20. Cruciate ligament loading during common knee rehabilitation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Macleod, Toran D; Wilk, Kevin E; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-09-01

    Cruciate ligament injuries are common and may lead to dysfunction if not rehabilitated. Understanding how to progress anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament loading, early after injury or reconstruction, helps clinicians prescribe rehabilitation exercises in a safe manner to enhance recovery. Commonly prescribed therapeutic exercises include both weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise. This review was written to summarize and provide an update on the available literature on cruciate ligament loading during commonly used therapeutic exercises. In general, weight-bearing exercise produces smaller loads on the anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament compared with non-weight-bearing exercise. The anterior cruciate ligament is loaded less at higher knee angles (i.e. 50-100 degrees). Squatting and lunging with a more forward trunk tilt and moving the resistance pad proximally on the leg during the seated knee extension unloads the anterior cruciate ligament. The posterior cruciate ligament is less loaded at lower knee angles (i.e. 0-50 degrees), and may be progressed from level ground walking to a one-leg squat, lunges, wall squat, leg press, and the two-leg squat (from smallest to greatest). Exercise type and technique variation affect cruciate ligament loading, such that the clinician may prescribe therapeutic exercises to progress ligament loading safely, while ensuring optimal recovery of the musculoskeletal system.

  1. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  2. Study of nociceptive flexion reflex in healthy subjects and patients with chronic neuropathic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Turbina, L G; Zus'man, A A; Posokhov, S I

    2012-12-01

    Nociceptive flexion reflex was measured in healthy subjects and patients with chronic neuropathic pain (diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy). The study of nociceptive flexion reflex revealed reduction of subjective pain threshold and reflex threshold in patients compared with healthy persons reflecting deficit of descending antinociceptive influences in the CNS.

  3. Angioleiomyoma: A Rare Cause of Fixed Flexion Contracture of the Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Dramis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of a patient presented with a painless fixed flexion contracture of the elbow due to an angioleiomyoma. This benign smooth muscle tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flexion contractures of the elbow.

  4. The effect of asymmetrical limited hip flexion on seating posture, scoliosis and windswept hip distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ágústsson, Atli; Sveinsson, Þórarinn; Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet

    2017-12-01

    Postural asymmetries with seating problems are common in adults with cerebral palsy. To analyse the prevalence of asymmetrical limited hip flexion (90°. Asymmetrical limited hip flexion affects the seating posture and is associated with scoliosis and windswept hip distortion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of exercise modality on cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic indices during post-exercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2018-02-12

    This study investigated indirect measures of post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation (using heart-rate-variability, HRV) and sympathetic withdrawal (using systolic-time-intervals, STI) following upper- and lower-body exercise. Randomized, counter-balanced, crossover. 13 males (age 26.4±4.7years) performed maximal arm-cranking (MAX-ARM) and leg-cycling (MAX-LEG). Subsequently, participants undertook separate 8-min bouts of submaximal HR-matched exercise of each mode (ARM and LEG). HRV (including natural-logarithm of root-mean-square-of-successive-differences, Ln-RMSSD) and STI (including pre-ejection-period, PEP) were assessed throughout 10-min seated recovery. Peak-HR was higher (p=0.001) during MAX-LEG (182±7beatsmin -1 ) compared with MAX-ARM (171±12beatsmin -1 ), while HR (preflecting sympathetic withdrawal). Exercise modality appears to influence post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal in an intensity-dependent manner. These results highlight the need for test standardization and may be relevant to multi-discipline athletes and in clinical applications with varying modes of exercise testing. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  7. Electromyographic studies in abdominal exercises: a literature synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pañego, Manuel; Vera-García, Francisco J; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Sarti-Martínez, Maria Angeles

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the literature on studies that investigate electromyographic activity of abdominal muscles during abdominal exercises performance. MEDLINE and Sportdiscus databases were searched, as well as the Web pages of electronic journals access, ScienceDirect, and Swetswise, from 1950 to 2008. The terms used to search the literature were abdominal muscle and the specific names for the abdominal muscles and their combination with electromyography, and/or strengthening, and/or exercise, and/or spine stability, and/or low back pain. The related topics included the influence of the different exercises, modification of exercise positions, involvement of different joints, the position with supported or unsupported segments, plane variation to modify loads, and the use of equipment. Studies related to abdominal conditioning exercises and core stabilization were also reviewed. Eighty-seven studies were identified as relevant for this literature synthesis. Overall, the studies retrieved lacked consistency, which made it impossible to extract aggregate estimates and did not allow for a rigorous meta-analysis. The most important factors for the selection of abdominal strengthening exercises are (a) spine flexion and rotation without hip flexion, (b) arm support, (c) lower body segments involvement controlling the correct performance, (d) inclined planes or additional loads to increase the contraction intensity significantly, and (e) when the goal is to challenge spine stability, exercises such as abdominal bracing or abdominal hollowing are preferable depending on the participants' objectives and characteristics. Pertaining to safety criteria, the most important factors are (a) avoid active hip flexion and fixed feet, (b) do not pull with the hands behind the head, and (c) a position of knees and hips flexion during upper body exercises. Further replicable studies are needed to address and clarify the methodological doubts expressed in this

  8. Lifelong physical activity preserves functional sympatholysis and purinergic signalling in the ageing human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, S P; Nyberg, Michael; Winding, K

    2012-01-01

    and exercise hyperaemia in the leg and whether ATP signalling is altered by ageing and physical activity. Leg haemodynamics, interstitial [ATP] and P2Y(2) receptor content was determined in eight young (23 ± 1 years), eight lifelong sedentary elderly (66 ± 2 years) and eight lifelong active elderly (62 ± 2...... not alter the vasodilator response to ATP infusion in any of the three groups. Plasma [noradrenaline] increased more during tyramine infusion in both elderly groups compared to young (P physically active lifestyle can maintain an intact functional sympatholysis during exercise......Ageing is associated with an impaired ability to modulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis) and a reduced exercise hyperaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle can offset the impaired functional sympatholysis...

  9. "Popeye muscle" morphology in OBPI elbow flexion contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Maizlin, Zeev V; DeMatteo, Carol; Gjertsen, Deborah; Bain, James R

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of elbow flexion contracture (EFC) in obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) is not established. In basic science models, neonatal denervation leads to impaired muscle growth. In clinical studies, diminished growth is correlated with extent of denervation, and improved with surgical repair. In EFC, the biceps are clinically short and round vs the contralateral size, termed the "Popeye muscle". The objective of this study was to determine if the biceps morphology (muscle belly and tendon length) in arms with EFC secondary to OBPI is different vs the contralateral. This is a retrospective matched-cohort study. Patients with unilateral EFC (>20°) secondary to OBPI were identified (median = 6.6 years, range = 4.7-16.8). A blinded radiologist used computed tomography to measure length of the biceps short head muscle belly, and tendon bilaterally using standardised anatomical landmarks. Twelve patients were analyzed. The biceps muscle belly in the injured arm was shorter in all patients vs contralateral, mean difference = 3.6 cm (80%), p muscle belly and overall length, but longer tendon vs normal. This is termed the "Popeye muscle" for its irregular morphology. Findings are consistent with impaired limb growth in denervation.

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  13. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Lehnert, Michal; Zaatar, Amr; Svoboda, Zdenek; Xaverova, Zuzana; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q) is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB) weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years) performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer’s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM). Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus medius (Gmed) on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5. PMID:25964819

  14. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    as an acute phase reactant. Plasma calprotectin increased 5-fold following acute cycle ergometer exercise in humans, but not following IL-6 infusion. To identify the source of calprotectin, healthy males (n = 7) performed two-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 3 h with a work load of approximately 50...

  15. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolem...

  16. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quinine for Nocturnal Leg Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Wells, George; Lau, Anita

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE With respect to the use of quinine for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps, to determine whether the findings of a previously performed meta-analysis of published data are altered with the addition of unpublished data, and whether publication bias is present in this area. DESIGN A meta-analysis of eight (four published and four unpublished) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, seven of which had a crossover design. SETTING Randomized trials that were available as of July 1997. SUBJECTS Ambulatory patients (659) who suffered from regular nocturnal leg cramps. MAIN RESULTS When individual patient data from all crossover studies were pooled, persons had 3.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15, 5.05) fewer cramps in a 4-week period when taking quinine compared with placebo. This compared with an estimate of 8.83 fewer cramps (95% CI 4.16, 13.49) from pooling published studies alone. The corresponding relative risk reductions were 21% (95% CI 12%, 30%) and 43% (95% CI 21%, 65%), respectively. Compared with placebo, the use of quinine was associated with an increased incidence of side effects, particularly tinnitus. Publication bias is present in the reporting of the efficacy of quinine for this indication, as almost all published studies reported larger estimates of its efficacy than did unpublished studies. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that quinine is efficacious in the prevention of nocturnal leg cramps. However, its benefit may not be as large as reported from the pooling of published studies alone. Given the side effect profile of quinine, nonpharmacologic therapy (e.g., regular passive stretching of the affected muscle) is the best first-line treatment. For persons who find this ineffective and whose quality of life is significantly affected, a trial of quinine is warranted. Prescribing physicians must closely monitor the risks and benefits in individual patients. Publication bias is present in this area even though there is

  18. The Comparing the Leg Muscles Electromyography during Single Leg Drop Landing in Pesplanus and Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa bazvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: pesplanus is one of the changes that brings about changes in muscle activation patterns. Being aware of muscles activity changes in various standing positions among pesplanus patients provides insights into preventing lower extremity injuries in this population. The aim of this study was to compare leg muscles electromyography during various standing positions in pesplanus and normal subjects. Methods: 60 healthy male university students, 30 subjects with pesplanus deformity (with average age 23/54±3/57 year, average height 175/34±7/62 cm, average weight 74/87±10/72 kg and 30 normal subjects (with average age 22/97±2/38 year, average height 176/6±5/59 cm, average weight 73/58±8/36 kg participated in this comparative study. Deformity of pesplanus was assessed with navicular drop test. Each subject performed single-leg landing dropping from 30cm height onto a force platform where muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and Spss softwares were used and independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P &le 0/05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for the activities of the longus peroneus and anterior tibialis muscles ( p&le0/05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: The changes in the normal structure of the foot might affect muscle activities during standing, which can cause changes in the injury patterns. Therefore, it is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises and therapy plan can reduce these risks.

  19. [Effect of anterior cruciate ligament rupture on hamstring: quadriceps ratio during isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 30 degrees of flexion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-shi; Jiang, Yan-fang; Yang, Jie; Yu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yan; Ao, Ying-fang

    2015-10-18

    To evaluate the change in hamstring (H):quadriceps (Q) ratio following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture during isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 30 degrees of flexion which is important for knee dynamic function. A study was performed in 25 male complete unilateral ACL ruptures. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle tests in both the deficient knees and intact knees were performed at 60°/s, respectively. At 30 degrees of flexion, the average torque of quadriceps and hamstring, Qe:Qc ratios (ratios of eccentric quadriceps to concentric quadriceps muscle torque), He:Hc ratios (eccentric hamstring to concentric hamstring), Hc:Qc ratios (concentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps), He:Qc ratios (eccentric hamstring to concentric quadriceps), and Hc:Qe ratios (concentric hamstring to eccentric quadriceps) were calculated. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used. At 30 degrees of knee flexion, a significant reduction (Pquadriceps was observed at concentric and eccentric 60°/s produced by the deficient-side compared with the intact side. In addition, Hc:Qc, He:Qc, and Qe:Qc significantly increased on the ACL-deficient side. The change in H :Q ratio in the mode of isokinetic 60°/s at 30 degrees of knee flexion might therefore be a new tool to objectively document muscle function in ACL-deficient knee.

  20. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...... 76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Fused/Ankylosed Hip with Severe Flexion Deformity after Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Suwal

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: THA is an effective treatment for ankylosed hip with severe flexion deformity although complications are noted more than routine hip arthroplasties. Keywords: ankylosed hip; fused hip; severe flexion deformity; total hip arthroplasty. | PubMed

  2. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald P; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thomeé, Roland; Roos, Ewa M

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that may have a negative effect on

  3. Biomechanical Considerations in the Design of High-Flexion Total Knee Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, joint arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and improve functionality in a diseased or damaged joint. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA involves replacing the entire knee joint, both femoral and tibial surfaces, with anatomically shaped artificial components in the hope of regaining normal joint function and permitting a full range of knee flexion. In spite of the design of the prosthesis itself, the degree of flexion attainable following TKA depends on a variety of factors, such as the joint’s preoperative condition/flexion, muscle strength, and surgical technique. High-flexion knee prostheses have been developed to accommodate movements that require greater flexion than typically achievable with conventional TKA; such high flexion is especially prevalent in Asian cultures. Recently, computational techniques have been widely used for evaluating the functionality of knee prostheses and for improving biomechanical performance. To offer a better understanding of the development and evaluation techniques currently available, this paper aims to review some of the latest trends in the simulation of high-flexion knee prostheses.

  4. Correlation between cervical flexor muscle thickness and craniocervical flexion torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Watanabe, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the size of the cervical flexor muscles and craniocervical (CC) flexion torque. Thirty-eight healthy men participated in this study. Thickness of the deep cervical flexor (DCF) and sternocleidomastoid (SM) muscles were measured using ultrasonography. Maximal isometric CC flexion torque was measured using dynamometry. The DCF and SM muscle thickness and CC flexion torque were normalized relative to body weight. Correlations between normalized muscle thickness and normalized CC flexion torque were determined. A significant positive correlation was observed between normalized DCF muscle thickness and normalized CC flexion torque (r = 0.361, P = 0.028), whereas there was no significant correlation between normalized SM muscle thickness and normalized CC flexion torque (r = 0.233, P = 0.166). DCF muscle thickness appears to have potential clinical application in the performance of CC flexion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole body, long-axis rotational training improves lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2011-05-01

    Poor neuromuscular control during sports activities is associated with non-contact lower extremity injuries. This study evaluated the efficacy of progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training to improve lower extremity neuromuscular control during a single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either Training or Control groups. Electromyographic, ground reaction force, and kinematic data were collected from three pre-test, post-test trials. Independent sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were used to compare group mean change differences (P≤0.05/21≤0.0023). Training group gluteus maximus and gluteus medius neuromuscular efficiency improved 35.7% and 31.7%, respectively. Training group composite vertical-anteroposterior-mediolateral ground reaction force stabilization timing occurred 1.35s earlier. Training group knee flexion angle at landing increased by 3.5°. Training group time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing increased by 0.17s. Training group peak hip and knee flexion velocity were 21.2°/s and 20.1°/s slower, respectively. Time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing and peak hip flexion velocity mean change differences displayed a strong relationship in the Training group (r(2)=0.77, P=0.0001) suggesting improved dynamic frontal plane knee control as peak hip flexion velocity decreased. This study identified electromyographic, kinematic, and ground reaction force evidence that device training improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Further studies with other populations are indicated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoelastic examination of borosilicate glass discs used in the insulating legs for the NSF tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, W.J.; Cundy, D.

    1981-04-01

    The results are presented of a photoelastic stress analysis carried out to establish the effect of re-annealing borosilicate glass discs used in the insulating legs of the 30 MV tandem van de Graaff accelerator of the NSF. The results show that re-annealing of the glass discs has no measurable effect on reducing the high stress at inclusions and re-emphasise the need to exercise great care in selecting suitable discs for use in the insulating legs. (U.K.)

  7. Does lesser trochanter implication affect hip flexion strength in proximal femur fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprato, A; Lo Baido, R; Crosio, A; Matteotti, R; Grosso, E; Massè, A

    2015-10-01

    In pertrochanteric and intertrochanteric femoral fractures, the avulsion of the lesser trochanter by the pull of the iliopsoas muscle is not uncommon. This fragment is not commonly fixed because the avulsion of the lesser is tough to not influence the clinical outcome but up to date there is no evidence to support this statement. The aim of this study is to evaluate if lesser trochanter implication affects psoas muscle strength in proximal femur fracture. Patients with a consolidated intertrochanteric or pertrochanteric fracture associated or not with lesser trochanter fracture were enrolled, respectively, in group A and group B. Criteria of inclusion were the achievement of an anatomic reduction with gamma nail and a complete consolidation of the fracture. Criteria of exclusion were a follow-up shorter than 6 months and age over 65 years old at surgery. Patients were retrospectively reviewed for the purpose of this study. Range of motion, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), flexion strength with hip in neutral position, at 90° of flexion and in "figure four" position were evaluated on injured and healthy side. On the pre-operative X-rays, the vertical displacement of the lesser trochanter was calculated. Groups A and B showed no significant difference in age and follow-up. No statistical difference between the two groups was found in range of motion, mean mHHS, hip flexion strength at 90° of hip flexion. Lesser trochanter fracture group showed a significantly reduced strength in flexion with hip in neutral flexion (mean difference between two groups was 18.5 kgf). Lesser trochanter displacement showed a significant correlation with strength at 90° of flexion. Our results showed that lesser trochanter implication may result in decreased hip flexion strength. Lesser trochanter displacement is directly correlated with flexion strength. Further studies will be necessary to understand if lesser trochanter fixation may be a good solution for those patients.

  8. Effect of gender on the quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratio during different exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Soylu, A Ruhi; Ertan, Hayri; Ergun, Nevin; Mattacola, Carl G

    2014-02-01

    Coactivation ratio of quadriceps to hamstring muscles (Q:H) and medial to lateral knee muscles (M:L) contributes to the dynamic stability of the knee joint during movement patterns recommended during rehabilitation and important for daily function. To compare the quadriceps-to-hamstring and medial-to-lateral knee muscles' coactivation ratios between men and women during the following closed kinetic chain exercises performed on a balance board: forward lunge, side lunge, single-leg stance, and single-leg squat. Cross-sectional. 20 healthy subjects (10 female and 10 male). Surface electromyography was used to measure the activation level of quadriceps (vastus lateralis and medialis) and hamstrings (biceps femoris and medial hamstrings) during forward- and side-lunge, single-leg-stance, and single-leg-squat exercises. Subjects were instructed during each exercise to move into the test position and to hold that position for 15 s. EMG was recorded during the 15-s isometric period where subjects tried to maintain a "set" position while the foot was on a balance board. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. There was a significant exercise-by-gender interaction for Q:H ratio (F3,48 = 6.63, P = .001), but the exercise-by-gender interaction for M:L ratio was not significant (F3,48 = 1.67, P = .18). Women showed larger Q:H ratio in side-lunge exercises than men (P = .002). Both genders showed larger M:L and lower Q:H ratio in a single-leg-stance exercise than in the other exercises. The results indicate that the forward- and side-lunge and single-leg-squat exercises should not be recommended as exercise where a balanced coactivation between quadriceps and hamstring muscles is warranted. Single-leg-stance exercise could be used when seeking an exercise where the ratio is balanced for both women and men.

  9. Leg fluid accumulation during prolonged sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Rubianto, Jonathan; Popovic, Milos; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of fluid in the legs due to sedentariness can be a health risk in extreme cases. Negative health impacts associated with leg fluid accumulation include leg edema and risk of blood clots. Furthermore, fluid accumulating in the legs is accompanied by fluid shift into the upper body which is also associated with health risks such as: increased blood pressure when lying down, respiratory problems in people with heart failure, and increased sleep apnea. Understanding the pattern by which fluid accumulates in the legs can aid in the development of devices for reducing leg fluid accumulation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of fluid accumulation over a two-and-half-hour seated period. Non-obese participants with sleep apnea and no other co-morbidities were included in the sample as part of a larger study. Leg fluid was measured continuously using a method of bioelectrical impedance. Participants were first asked to lie supine for 30 minutes as a washout, and then sat with their legs still for two and a half hours. The main finding of this study is that the pattern of leg fluid accumulation differed in the first 45 minutes compared to the latter 105 minutes. In the first 45 minutes, fluid accumulated according to first order exponential function. In the latter period, fluid accumulated according to a linear function. The initial exponential accumulation is likely due to the large increase in capillary pressure caused by rapid blood flow into the legs due to gravity, leading to substantial filtration of blood plasma into the tissue spaces. The latter linear portion likely represents continued slow filtration of fluid out of the vasculature and into the tissue spaces. This is the first study to show that fluid accumulation in the legs is a combination of an exponential and linear functions. The linear increase identifies that there is no foreseeable point in which leg fluid stops accumulating while sitting for prolonged periods.

  10. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  11. Heat shock protein translocation and expression response is attenuated in response to repeated eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Bayer, M.L.; Overgaard, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study hypothesized that heat shock protein (HSP) translocation and upregulation is more probable to occur after eccentric exercise than after concentric exercise or repeated eccentric exercise. Fourteen young, healthy, untrained male subjects completed two bench-stepping exercise bouts with 8...... and cytoskeletal protein fractions. The first bout of exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P repeated eccentric exercise bout (P repeated bout adaptation. Increases in inducible...... HSP70 and HSP27 protein content in cytoskeletal fractions were observed exclusively after eccentric exercise (P repeated eccentric exercise bout...

  12. Flexion-Type Supracondylar Humeral Fractures: Ulnar Nerve Injury Increases Risk of Open Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kelly; Shah, Apurva S; Brusalis, Christopher M; Leddy, Kelly; Flynn, John M

    2017-09-06

    The vast majority of displaced pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures can be treated successfully with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The need for open reduction is difficult to determine a priori and is typically due to the failure of closed reduction attempts or persistent limb ischemia. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures, the rate of open reduction for flexion-type fractures, and the predictive impact of ulnar nerve injury on the need for open reduction for flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures. We developed a database of consecutive pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures treated operatively at a tertiary care pediatric trauma center from 2000 to 2015. Data recorded included age, mechanism of injury, fracture type (open or closed), fracture pattern (flexion-type or extension-type), concomitant skeletal injury, neurovascular injury, treatment, and surgeon. Radiographs of all flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures were reviewed in order to confirm the classification of the injury pattern. The rate of open reduction for fractures with a flexion-type injury pattern and for such fractures with and without ulnar nerve injury at presentation was assessed. Of 2,783 consecutive pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures treated by surgeons at our center, 95 (3.4%) were flexion-type fractures. Ulnar nerve injury was noted for 10 (10.5%) of the 95 flexion-type fractures. Open injuries were identified at presentation in 3 (3.2%) of the 95 cases. Among closed fractures, 21 (22.8%) of 92 flexion-type fractures required open reduction compared with 50 (1.9%) of 2,647 extension-type fractures (odds ratio [OR] = 15.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.8 to 27.0; p nerve injury and in 15 (18.3%) of 82 fractures without ulnar nerve injury (OR = 6.7; 95% CI = 1.7 to 26.7; p = 0.003). Among closed supracondylar humeral fractures, the flexion-type injury pattern was associated with a 15

  13. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- and Double-Leg Jump Landings in the Sagittal and Frontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Shultz, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    Double-leg forward or drop-jump landing activities are typically used to screen for high-risk movement strategies and to determine the success of neuromuscular injury prevention programs. However, research suggests that these tasks that occur primarily in the sagittal plane may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during unilateral foot contact or non-sagittal plane movements that are characteristic of many multidirectional sports. To examine the extent to which lower extremity biomechanics measured during a jump landing on a double leg (DL) after a sagittal plane (SAG) movement is representative of biomechanics measured during single-leg (SL) or frontal plane (FRONT) jump landing tasks. Controlled laboratory study. Lower extremity biomechanics were measured in 15 recreationally active females (mean age [±SD], 19.4 ± 2.1 years; mean height, 163.3 ± 5.9 cm; mean weight, 61.1 ± 7.1 kg) while performing SAGDL, SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL jump landing tasks. Repeated-measures analyses of variance examined differences in lower extremity biomechanics between the 4 tasks, and linear regressions examined the extent to which an individual's biomechanics during SAGDL were representative of their biomechanics during SAGSL, FRONTDL, and FRONTSL. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics differed by condition, with the SAGDL task generally eliciting greater hip and knee flexion angles and lower hip and knee forces than the other tasks (P plane jump landing tasks used to screen for ACL injury risk and the effectiveness of ACL injury prevention programs may not adequately represent the lower extremity biomechanics that occur during single-leg activities. These results support further investigation of single-leg multidirectional landings to identify high-risk movement strategies in female athletes playing multidirectional sports.

  15. Thigh-calf contact: Does it affect the loading of the knee in the high-flexion range?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; Barink, M.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Recently, high-flexion knee implants have been developed to provide for a large range of motion (ROM>120°) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Since knee forces typically increase with larger flexion angles, it is commonly assumed that high-flexion knee implants are subjected to larger loads than

  16. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high or mo...

  18. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do I have to exercise to gain health benefits? Even small amounts of exercise are better than none at all. Start with ... As you become used to exercising, try to exercise within your target heart rate zone so that you get the most benefit. To take your pulse, gently rest 2 fingers ...

  19. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed...... by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P

  20. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed...... by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P xanthine oxidase in microvascular endothelial cells and an invasion of leucocytes containing xanthine oxidase. 3...

  1. Plantar-flexion of the ankle joint complex in terminal stance is initiated by subtalar plantar-flexion: A bi-planar fluoroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seungbum; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cha, Young Joo

    2015-10-01

    Gross motion of the ankle joint complex (AJC) is a summation of the ankle and subtalar joints. Although AJC kinematics have been widely used to evaluate the function of the AJC, the coordinated movements of the ankle and subtalar joints are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify the individual kinematics of the ankle and subtalar joints in the intact foot during ground walking by using a bi-planar fluoroscopic system. Bi-planar fluoroscopic images of the foot and ankle during walking and standing were acquired from 10 healthy subjects. The three-dimensional movements of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were calculated with a three-dimensional/two-dimensional registration method. The skeletal kinematics were quantified from 9% to 86% of the full stance phase because of the limited camera speed of the X-ray system. At the beginning of terminal stance, plantar-flexion of the AJC was initiated in the subtalar joint on average at 75% ranging from 62% to 76% of the stance phase, and plantar-flexion of the ankle joint did not start until 86% of the stance phase. The earlier change to plantar-flexion in the AJC than the ankle joint due to the early plantar-flexion in the subtalar joint was observed in 8 of the 10 subjects. This phenomenon could be explained by the absence of direct muscle insertion on the talus. Preceding subtalar plantar-flexion could contribute to efficient and stable ankle plantar-flexion by locking the midtarsal joint, but this explanation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating plyometric exercises using time to stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Vanderzanden, Tyler; Wurm, Bradley J; Petushek, Erich J

    2010-02-01

    Plyometric exercises are frequently used in strength and conditioning and rehabilitation programs because the landing phase of these exercises requires dynamic stabilization. This study examined the differences in landing stability of a variety of plyometric exercises by assessing time to stabilization (TTS), its reliability, and sex differences therein. Forty-nine men and women performed a variety of plyometric exercises thought to represent a continuum of difficulty of dynamic stabilization during landing. Plyometric exercises included line hops, cone hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps, countermovement jumps, dumbbell countermovement jumps, and single leg countermovement jumps, each performed for 3 repetitions on a force platform. A 2-way mixed analysis of covariance with repeated measures for plyometric exercise type was used to evaluate the main effects for plyometric exercise type and the interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for TTS. Subject jumping ability was evaluated as a covariate. Results revealed significant main effects for plyometric exercise type (p plyometric exercise type and sex (p = 0.002). Bonferroni adjusted post hoc analysis demonstrated differences in TTS between a number of plyometric exercises for men and women. Reliability analysis revealed intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.86 with no significant difference between trials (p > 0.05). Practitioners who use plyometrics to train dynamic stability should create programs that progress the intensity of the exercises based on the results of this study. This study also demonstrated that TTS is moderately to highly reliable for a variety of jumping conditions for both men and women.

  3. Effect of modified bridge exercise on trunk muscle activity in healthy adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Oh; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-09-09

    This is a cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifteen healthy adults (mean age: 27.47 years) volunteered for this study. The individuals performed standard bridge exercise and modified bridge exercises with right leg-lift (single-leg-lift bridge exercise, single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface, and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise). During the bridge exercises, electromyography of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, erector spinae, and multifidus muscles was recorded using a wireless surface electromyography system. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (exercise by side) with post hoc pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni correction was used to compare the electromyography data collected from each muscle. Bilateral internal oblique muscle activities showed significantly greater during single-leg-lift bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-8.99 to -1.08, left internal oblique=-6.84 to -0.10), single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-7.32 to -1.78, left internal oblique=-5.34 to -0.99), and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-17.13 to -0.89, left internal oblique=-8.56 to -0.60) compared with standard bridge exercise. Bilateral rectus abdominis showed greater electromyography activity during single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-9.33 to -1.13, left rectus abdominis=-4.80 to -0.64) and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-14.12 to -1.84, left rectus abdominis=-6.68 to -0.16) compared with standard bridge exercise. In addition, the right rectus abdominis muscle activity was greater during single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise compared with single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval=-7.51 to

  4. Comparison of High-Flexion Fixed-Bearing and High-Flexion Mobile-Bearing Total Knee Arthroplasties-A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2018-01-01

    There is none, to our knowledge, about comparison of high-flexion fixed-bearing and high-flexion mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) in the same patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical results; radiographic and computed tomographic scan results; and the survival rate of a high-flexion mobile-bearing TKA is better than that of a high-flexion fixed-bearing TKA. The present study consisted of 92 patients (184 knees) who underwent same-day bilateral TKA. Of those, 17 were men and 75 were women. The mean age at the time of index arthroplasty was 61.5 ± 8.3 years (range 52-65 years). The mean body mass index was 26.2 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 (range 23-34 kg/m 2 ). The mean follow-up was 11.2 years (range 10-12 years). The Knee Society knee scores (93 vs 92 points; P = .531) and function scores (80 vs 80 points; P = 1.000), WOMAC scores (14 vs 15 points; P = .972), and UCLA activity scores (6 vs 6 points; P = 1.000) were not different between the 2 groups at 12 years follow-up. There were no differences in any radiographic and CT scan parameters between the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier survivorship of the TKA component was 98% (95% confidence interval, 93-100) in the high-flexion fixed-bearing TKA group and 99% (95% confidence interval, 94-100) in the high-flexion mobile-bearing TKA group 12 years after the operation. We found no benefit to mobile-bearing TKA in terms of pain, function, radiographic and CT scan results, and survivorship. Longer-term follow-up is necessary to prove the benefit of the high-flexion mobile-bearing TKA over the high-flexion fixed-bearing TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Gluteus Medius Vs. Thigh Muscles Strength Ratio and Their Relation to Electromyography Amplitude During a Farmer’s Walk Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stastny Petr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps (H/Q is associated with knee injuries as well as hip abductor muscle (HAB weakness. Sixteen resistance trained men (age, 32.5 ± 4.2 years performed 5 s maximal isometric contractions at 75° of knee flexion/extension and 15° of hip abduction on a dynamometer. After this isometric test they performed a Farmer´s walk exercise to find out if the muscle strength ratio predicted the electromyography amplitude expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC. The carried load represented a moderate intensity of 75% of the exercise six repetitions maximum (6RM. Electromyography data from the vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF and gluteus medius (Gmed on each leg were collected during the procedure. The groups selected were participants with H/Q ≥ 0.5, HQ < 0.5, HAB/H ≥ 1, HAB/H < 1, HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 and HAB/Q < 0.5. One way ANOVA showed that Gmed activity was significantly greater in the group with HAB/H < 1 (42 ± 14 %MVIC as compared to HAB/H ≥ 1 (26 ± 10 %MVIC and HAB/Q < 0.5 (47 ± 19 %MVIC compared to HAB/Q ≥ 0.5 (26 ± 12 %MVIC. The individuals with HAB/H < 1 were found to have greater activation of their Gmed during the Farmer’s walk exercise. Individuals with HAB/Q < 0.5 had greater activation of the Gmed. Gmed strength ratios predict the muscle involvement when a moderate amount of the external load is used. The Farmer’s walk is recommended as an exercise which can strengthen the gluteus medius, especially for individuals with a HAB/H ratio < 1 and HAB/Q < 0.5.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Straight Leg Raise and Slump Stretching in Subjects with Low Back Pain with Adverse Neural Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Malik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is a common problem in the present time. It is commonly associated with altered mechanical tension in the peripheral nerves as tested by straight leg raising or slump tests. These maneuvers are used for treatment of such disorders. Both the straight leg raise and slump stretching techniques have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of low back pain with distal symptoms. A comparison of the two techniques will determine if one technique is better than the other. Also, it will add to the evidence for their effectiveness in managing symptoms in patients with low back pain. Objective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of straight leg raise and slump stretching on pain and range of passive straight leg raise in subjects with low back pain. Methods and measures: 50 patients with low back pain, satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 was the straight leg raise group (n=15. Group 2 was the slump group (n=13. Group 3 was the control group (n=12. Baseline measurements of pain intensity as measured by the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS and range of passive straight leg raise (PSLR were taken. Group 1 received 6 sessions of straight leg raise stretching and lumbar stabilization exercises. Group 2 received 6 sessions of slump stretching and lumbar stabilization exercises. Group 3 received 6 sessions of lumbar stabilization exercises only. Statistical analysis: Paired t-test was used for within group analysis of NPRS and PSLR. ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis was employed for between group comparisons. Results: No significant difference was found in NPRS between straight leg raise and slump groups (p > 0.05 while they differed significantly in PSLR (p < 0.05. Both the groups showed significantly better results in PSLR when compared to the control group (P<0.05. Statistically significant improvements were found in all the 3 groups for both the outcome

  7. DANGEROUS EXERCISES

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Daneshmandi

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that many exercises are contraindicated and may do more harm thanbenefits. Many of the warm-up exercises we practiced each day have now found to be dangerous.While different levels of athletics do have different levels of stretching; it is necessary to knowwhat the dangerous exercises are and how to use safer alternatives. Certain exercises are toorisky and should not be performed at all. Exercises must be performed in certain ways and ifperformed incorrectly can cause inju...

  8. The ‘abdominal circulatory pump’: an auxiliary heart during exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eUva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its role as a flow generator for ventilation the diaphragm has a circulatory role. The cyclical abdominal pressure variations from its contractions cause swings in venous return from the splanchnic venous circulation. During exercise the action of the abdominal muscles may enhance this circulatory function of the diaphragm. Eleven healthy subjects (25±7yr, 70±11kg, 1.78±0.1m, 3F performed plantar flexion exercise at ∼4 METs. Changes in body volume (ΔVb and trunk volume (ΔVtr were measured simultaneously by double body plethysmography. Volume of blood shifts between trunk and extremities (Vbs was determined non-invasively as ΔVtr-ΔVb. Three types of breathing were studied: spontaneous (SE, rib cage (RCE, voluntary emphasized inspiratory rib cage breathing and abdominal (ABE, voluntary active abdominal expiration breathing.. During SE and RCE blood was displaced from the extremities into the trunk (on average 0.16± 0.33L and 0.48±0.55L, p<0.05 SE vs RCE, while during ABE it was displaced from the trunk to the extremities (0.22±0.20L p<0.001, p<0.05 RCE and SE vs ABE respectively. At baseline, Vbs swings (maximum to minimum amplitude were bimodal and averaged 0.13±0.08L. During exercise, Vbs swings consistently increased (0.42±0.34L, 0.40±0.26L, 0.46±0.21L, for SE, RCE and ABE respectively, all p<0.01 vs. baseline. It follows that during leg exercise significant bi-directional blood shifting occurs between the trunk and the extremities. The dynamics and partitioning of these blood shifts strongly depend on the relative predominance of the action of the diaphragm, the rib cage and the abdominal muscles. Depending on the partitioning between respiratory muscles for the act of breathing, the distribution of blood between trunk and extremities can vary by up to 1 L. We conclude that during exercise the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm might play a role of an ‘auxiliary heart’.

  9. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  10. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  11. Serial casting for elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, B J; Steenbeek, D; Nelissen, R G H H

    2016-09-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serial casting of elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed with a median follow-up of 5 years. Forty-one patients with elbow flexion contractures ≥ 30° were treated with serial casting until the contracture was ≤ 10°, for a maximum of 8 weeks. Range of motion, number of recurrences and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cox regression tests. Passive extension increased from a median of -40° (IQR -50 to -30) to -15° (IQR -10 to -20, p contractures, although recurrences were frequent. The severity of elbow flexion contracture is a predictor of recurrence. We recommend more research on muscle degeneration and determinants involved in elbow flexion contractures to improve treatment strategies and prevent side-effects.

  12. Trunk stabilization exercises for healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Vera-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p200   The aim of this study was to analyze the trunk muscular response during different variations of some of the most popular stabilization exercises: front-bridge, back-bridge, side-bridge, and bird-dog. Surface electromyography was bilaterally re-corded from rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique and erector spinae during 25 variations of the aforementioned exercises. Compared to the conventional form of the front- and side-bridge, performing these exercises kneeling on a bench or with elbows extended reduced the muscular challenge. Conversely, performing the back-bridge with elbows extended elicited higher muscular activation than the conventional exercise. While bridge exercises with double leg support produced the highest activation levels in those muscles that counteracted gravity, single leg support while bridging increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially internal oblique. The highest activation levels were found in three exercises: sagittal walkout in a front-bridge position, rolling from right side-bridge into front-bridge position, and side-bridge with single leg support on a BOSUTMbalance trainer. Although the exercises performed on unstable surfaces usu-ally enhanced the muscle activation, performing the exercises on the BOSUTMbalance trainer did not always increase the trunk muscle activity. Overall, this information may be useful to guide fitness instructors and clinicians when establishing stabilization exercise progressions for the trunk musculature.

  13. COMPARATIVE BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSES OF SQUAT JUMP WITHOUT AND WITH FLEXION IN KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bubanj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In sports hall of Faculty of sports and physical education in Niš, student demon- strated technique of squat jump – without and with flexion in knee joint. Elements of technique were recorded by using one digital video camera in sagital plane. By using comparative kinematics analyses, there were establish differences in values of kinema- tics parametres of different body segments. Bigger elevation of body centre of gravity was ascertain at bounce without flexion in knee joint.

  14. Modelling knee flexion effects on joint power absorption and adduction moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Tatsumi, Ichiroh; Sarashina, Eri; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is commonly associated with ageing and long-term walking. In this study the effects of flexing motions on knee kinetics during stance were simulated. Extended knees do not facilitate efficient loading. It was therefore, hypothesised that knee flexion would promote power absorption and negative work, while possibly reducing knee adduction moment. Three-dimensional (3D) position and ground reaction forces were collected from the right lower limb stance phase of one healthy young male subject. 3D position was sampled at 100 Hz using three Optotrak Certus (Northern Digital Inc.) motion analysis camera units, set up around an eight metre walkway. Force plates (AMTI) recorded ground reaction forces for inverse dynamics calculations. The Visual 3D (C-motion) 'Landmark' function was used to change knee joint positions to simulate three knee flexion angles during static standing. Effects of the flexion angles on joint kinetics during the stance phase were then modelled. The static modelling showed that each 2.7° increment in knee flexion angle produced 2.74°-2.76° increments in knee flexion during stance. Increased peak extension moment was 6.61 Nm per 2.7° of increased knee flexion. Knee flexion enhanced peak power absorption and negative work, while decreasing adduction moment. Excessive knee extension impairs quadriceps' power absorption and reduces eccentric muscle activity, potentially leading to knee osteoarthritis. A more flexed knee is accompanied by reduced adduction moment. Research is required to determine the optimum knee flexion to prevent further damage to knee-joint structures affected by osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  16. Vasoactive enzymes and blood flow responses to passive and active exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Meegan A.; Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by impaired leg blood flow, which contributes to claudication and reduced exercise capacity. This study investigated to what extent vasoactive enzymes might contribute to altered blood flow in PAD (Fontaine stage II). Methods: We...... than CON (1.04 ± 0.19 vs 0.50 ± 0.06 AU, P = 0.02), with no differences for other enzymes. Leg blood flow during exercise was correlated with prostacyclin synthase (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated NADPH oxidase indicates that oxidative stress may be a primary cause of low nitric oxide availability...... compared femoral artery blood flow during reactive hyperaemia, leg-extension exercise and passive leg movement, and determined the level of vasoactive enzymes in skeletal muscle samples from the vastus lateralis in PAD (n = 10, 68.5 ± 6.5 years) and healthy controls (CON, n = 9, 62.1 ± 12.3 years). Leg...

  17. Effect of Pilates Exercise on Range of Motion and Edema of Upper Limb in Mastectomy Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery.   Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise.   Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment.   Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema

  18. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  19. Flexion reminder device to discourage recurrent posterior dislocation of a total hip replacement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong King

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recurrent dislocation of a total hip replacement prosthesis is a frustrating complication for both the surgeon and the patient. For positional dislocations with no indications for revision surgery, the current best treatment is physiotherapy, the use of abduction braces and avoidance of unsafe hip positions. Abduction braces can be cumbersome and have poor compliance. We report the successful use of a new lightweight flexion reminder device that can be used to treat people with this condition. Case presentation A 64-year-old British woman experienced recurrent positional posterior dislocation after primary hip replacement, particularly when involved in activities involving unsafe flexion of the operated hip. She disliked using an abduction brace and hence was given a simple 'flexion reminder device' that could be strapped to the thigh. Beyond the safe flexion limit, the padded top end of the device hitched against the groin crease and reminded her not to flex further, to avoid dislocation. She experienced no discomfort in wearing the device continuously throughout the day and was very satisfied. She has had no further dislocations in the 2 years since she began using it. Conclusion In cases of arthroplasty dislocation caused mainly by an unsafe hip position, and with no indication for revision surgery, this new lightweight and easily worn flexion reminder device may be a good option for avoiding such positional dislocations, particularly those caused by unsafe flexion.

  20. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo Déficit bilateral en los movimientos de flexion y extension de la pierna y flexion del codo Bilateral deficit in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion movements

    OpenAIRE

    Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht Chaves; Cláudia Porto Corrêa Guerra; Silvia Regina Gonçalves de Moura; Antonio Izidoro Vieira Nicoli; Félix Idemar; Roberto Simão

    2004-01-01

    Os exercícios resistidos (ER) podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral. O objetivo foi comparar a carga máxima (CM) na flexão e extensão de perna e flexão de cotovelo isoladamente e entre a soma desses dois resultados com aquele desenvolvido simultaneamente pelas duas pernas e dois braços, respectivamente. Foram submetidos 60 indivíduos ao exercício de flexão e extensão de perna e a flexão de cotovelo ao teste de 1RM. Os resultados para os movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexã...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tighten your abdominal muscles, then reach through your legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body back to a standing position, then extend your arms and reach over ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and feet flat on the floor; rotate ... with your back to the wall). Tighten your abdominal muscles, then reach through your legs to touch the ...

  3. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl...

  4. Jogging biomechanics after exercise in individuals with ACL-reconstructed knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenze, Christopher; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur; Diduch, David R; Saliba, Susan; Hart, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Return to recreational activity is a common goal for the clinician and patient after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and structured rehabilitation. Decreased peak knee flexion angle and external knee flexion moment during walking and jogging have been indicated as significant contributors to cartilage degeneration over time after knee joint injury. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effects of 30 min of exercise on knee joint kinetics and kinematics in participants with a history of ACLR. ACLR participants (n = 20, 9 females and 11 males) and healthy controls (n = 23, 11 females and 12 males) participated in an observational laboratory study. Gait analysis was performed on all subjects before and after a 30-min exercise protocol. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematics and kinetics were measured in the involved limb in the ACLR group and compared with healthy control participants across the gait cycle using 90% confidence intervals. Significant differences between groups were established as a consecutive 3% of the gait cycle in which 90% confidence interval did not overlap. Preexercise, ACLR participants were more hip flexed with higher magnitude external hip flexion moments and lower magnitude external knee flexion moments during the stance phase compared with healthy controls. ACLR participants experienced preexercise to postexercise declines in hip flexion angle and external hip flexion moment along with increases in external knee flexion moment when compared with healthy controls. Exercise-related adaptations in hip and knee biomechanics are different in individuals with a history ACLR when compared with healthy controls despite a return to recreational activity. The biomechanical response to fatiguing exercise observed in this investigation may provide insight into one potential source of elevated knee injury risk and reduced long-term knee joint health after ACLR.

  5. Effect of leg length on ROM, VJ and leg dexterity in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, M A; Nevill, A M; Dekker, K; Brown, D D; Clarke, F; Pelly, J; Koutedakis, Y

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the associations between leg length and specific ballet movements in different skill groups. Volunteers were from an undergraduate dance programme (n=18), a pre-professional school (n=43) and from an elite classical ballet company (n=45). Individual data were collected for anthropometry, vertical jump, leg dexterity, and leg active and passive ROM. ANCOVA identified both main effects as significant with regard to vertical jump (gender Peffects with gender, skill or leg length. Active and passive range of motion noted gender (P=0.001) and skill (Peffects of leg length on fundamental ballet skills. The longer legs that benefit vertical jump have a negative influence on range of motion and leg dexterity except for highly skilled dancers, who through skill, seem to have overcome the effects of some of these dichotomies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  6. Electromyographic comparison of conventional machine strength training versus bodyweight exercises in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether bodyweight exercises can induce comparable levels of muscle activity as conventional machine exercises in chronic stroke patients. Eighteen patients performed three repetitions of bilateral- and unilateral machine leg press and the bodyweight exercises chair rise and hip thrust. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 10 lower extremity muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the non-paretic leg. For the paretic leg, the bodyweight exercises showed comparable levels of nEMG in 6 out of 10 muscles compared with the bilateral leg press. Vastus lateralis nEMG was higher during bilateral leg press compared with hip thrust (38% [95% CI 33-42] vs. 10% [95% CI 6-15], p hip thrust (34% [95%CI 27-40] vs. 8% [95% CI 2-15], p < 0.0001). Unilateral leg press showed higher nEMG compared with bilateral leg press in biceps femoris (28% [95% CI 23-34] vs. 19% [95% CI 13-24], p = 0.0009), gluteus maximus (32% [95% CI 23-41] vs. 25% [95% CI 16-34], p < 0.05), and vastus medialis (42% [95% CI 36-48] vs. 34% [95% CI 27-40], p = 0.0013). In patients with chronic stroke, bodyweight exercises activate the majority of the lower limb muscles to comparable levels as bilateral leg press performed in machine. In addition, unilateral leg press was superior to the bilateral leg press and both bodyweight exercises.

  7. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  8. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  9. Nerve transfers for restoration of finger flexion in patients with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Jayme A; Ghizoni, Marcos F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper was to report the authors' results with finger flexion restoration by nerve transfer in patients with tetraplegia. METHODS Surgery was performed for restoration of finger flexion in 17 upper limbs of 9 patients (8 male and 1 female) at a mean of 7.6 months (SD 4 months) after cervical spinal cord injury. The patients' mean age at the time of surgery was 28 years (SD 15 years). The motor level according to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) classification was C-5 in 4 upper limbs, C-6 in 10, and C-7 in 3. In 3 upper limbs, the nerve to the brachialis was transferred to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), which was separated from the median nerve from the antecubital fossa to the midarm. In 5 upper limbs, the nerve to the brachialis was transferred to median nerve motor fascicles innervating finger flexion muscles in the midarm. In 4 upper limbs, the nerve to the brachioradialis was transferred to the AIN. In the remaining 5 upper limbs, the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) was transferred to the AIN. Patients were followed for an average of 16 months (SD 6 months). At the final evaluation the range of finger flexion and strength were estimated by manual muscle testing according to the British Medical Research Council scale. RESULTS Restoration of finger flexion was observed in 4 of 8 upper limbs in which the nerve to the brachialis was used as a donor. The range of motion was incomplete in all 5 of these limbs, and the strength was M3 in 3 limbs and M4 in 1 limb. Proximal retrograde dissection of the AIN was associated with better outcomes than transfer of the nerve to the brachialis to median nerve motor fascicles in the arm. After the nerve to the brachioradialis was transferred to the AIN, incomplete finger flexion with M4 strength was restored in 1 limb; the remaining 3 limbs did not show any recovery. Full finger flexion with M4 strength was demonstrated in all 5 upper limbs in which the nerve

  10. Effect of position and alteration in synergist muscle force contribution on hip forces when performing hip strengthening exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara L; Sahrmann, Shirley A; Moran, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the magnitude and direction of joint forces generated by hip strengthening exercises is essential for appropriate prescription and modification of these exercises. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hip joint forces created across a range of hip flexion and extension angles during two hip strengthening exercises: prone hip extension and supine hip flexion. A musculoskeletal model was used to estimate hip joint forces during simulated prone hip extension and supine hip flexion under a control condition and two altered synergist muscle force conditions. Decreased strength or activation of specific muscle groups was simulated by decreasing the modeled maximum force values by 50%. For prone hip extension, the gluteal muscle strength was decreased in one condition and the hamstring muscle strength in the second condition. For supine hip flexion, the strength of the iliacus and psoas muscles was decreased in one condition, and the rectus femoris, tensor fascia lata, and sartorius muscles in the second condition. The hip joint forces were affected by hip joint position and partially by alterations in muscle force contribution. For prone hip extension, the highest net resultant force occurred with the hip in extension and the gluteal muscles weakened. For supine hip flexion, the highest resultant forces occurred with the hip in extension and the iliacus and psoas muscles weakened. Clinicians can use this information to select exercises to provide appropriate prescription and pathology-specific modification of exercise.

  11. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  12. Inflammatory Myopathy Causing Leg Pain in a Soccer Player: Case Report and Return-to-Play Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Daniel R; Howe, Benjamin M; Sellon, Jacob L

    2016-04-01

    Leg pain is a common condition in athletes as well as in the general population, and has a broad differential diagnosis that includes musculoskeletal, vascular, rheumatologic, and neurologic etiologies. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IM) is a relatively uncommon but recognized etiology of leg pain. In this case, we describe an acute presentation of IM in an athlete resulting in leg pain and activity limitation. The available literature suggests that moderate-intensity exercise is safe and beneficial in idiopathic IM, but studies to date have not assessed the effects of high-intensity exercise in IM or provided recommendations for return to competitive contact sport in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.’s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Usa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  14. Analog Exercise Hardware to Implement a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Newby, Nate; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Background: In order to evaluate novel countermeasure protocols in a space flight analog prior to validation on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is sponsoring a multi-investigator bedrest campaign that utilizes a combination of commercial and custom-made exercise training hardware to conduct daily resistive and aerobic exercise protocols. This paper will describe these pieces of hardware and how they are used to support current bedrest studies at NASA's Flight Analog Research Unit in Galveston, TX. Discussion: To implement candidate exercise countermeasure studies during extended bed rest studies the following analog hardware are being utilized: Stand alone Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulator (sZLS) -- a custom built device by NASA, the sZLS allows bedrest subjects to remain supine as they run on a vertically-oriented treadmill (0-15 miles/hour). The treadmill includes a pneumatic subject loading device to provide variable body loading (0-100%) and a harness to keep the subject in contact with the motorized treadmill to provide a ground reaction force at their feet that is quantified by a Kistler Force Plate. Supine Cycle Ergometer -- a commercially available supine cycle ergometer (Lode, Groningen, Netherlands) is used for all cycle ergometer sessions. The ergometer has adjustable shoulder supports and handgrips to help stabilize the subject during exercise. Horizontal Squat Device (HSD) -- a custom built device by Quantum Fitness Corp (Stafford, TX), the HSD allows for squat exercises to be performed while lying in a supine position. The HSD can provide 0 to 600 pounds of force in selectable 5 lb increments, and allows hip translation in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Prone Leg Curl -- a commercially available prone leg curl machine (Cybex International Inc., Medway, MA) is used to complete leg curl exercises. Horizontal Leg Press -- a commercially available horizontal leg press (Quantum Fitness Corporation) is

  15. Gross mechanical efficiency of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer : a comparison with the bicycle ergometer and handbike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K.; Borgesius, Emilie C.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Geertzen, Joannes; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    The combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer is assumed to be a relevant testing and training instrument in the rehabilitation of patients with a lower limb amputation. The efficiency and submaximal strain have not been established and thus cannot be compared with alternative common modes of exercise. A

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as ... doctor or physical therapist to prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is ...

  17. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ... a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO HERE © 2018 North American Spine Society | ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  1. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. If you miss a ... can also keep you accountable. Think of the benefits of regular exercise. Write down the benefits and goals, and keep ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain ... area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, ...

  4. Progressive Abduction Loading Therapy with Horizontal-Plane Viscous Resistance Targeting Weakness and Flexion Synergy to Treat Upper Limb Function in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Carmona, Carolina; Drogos, Justin; Dewald, Julius P A

    2018-01-01

    Progressive abduction loading therapy has emerged as a promising exercise therapy in stroke rehabilitation to systematically target the loss of independent joint control (flexion synergy) in individuals with chronic moderate/severe upper-extremity impairment. Preclinical investigations have identified abduction loading during reaching exercise as a key therapeutic factor to improve reaching function. An augmentative approach may be to additionally target weakness by incorporating resistance training to increase constitutive joint torques of reaching with the goal of improving reaching function by "overpowering" flexion synergy. The objective was, therefore, to determine the therapeutic effects of horizontal-plane viscous resistance in combination with progressive abduction loading therapy. 32 individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke were randomly allocated to two groups. The two groups had equivalent baseline characteristics on all demographic and outcome metrics including age (59 ± 11 years), time poststroke (10.1 ± 7.6 years), and motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer, 26.7 ± 6.5 out of 66). Both groups received therapy three times/week for 8 weeks while the experimental group included additional horizontal-plane viscous resistance. Quantitative standardized progression of the intervention was achieved using a robotic device. The primary outcomes of reaching distance and velocity under maximum abduction loading and secondary outcomes of isometric strength and a clinical battery were measured at pre-, post-, and 3 months following therapy. There was no difference between groups on any outcome measure. However, for combined groups, there was a significant increase in reaching distance (13.2%, effect size; d  = 0.56) and velocity (13.6%, effect size; d  = 0.27) at posttesting that persisted for 3 months and also a significant increase in abduction, elbow extension, and external rotation strength at posttesting that did not persist 3

  5. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Gi Duck

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720, Biospace, Korea), which utilizes bioelectrical impedance analysis. Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment [Isomed 2000, Back system, (Germany)], peak torque/body weight, total work and average power of flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. For lumbar stabilization exercises, an air cushion (Germany), jumper (Germany), and aero step (Germany) were employed. First, warm-up exercise was conducted for 10 minutes, followed by 10 sets of the 3 main exercises using the above tools with 10-second rest intervals. The main exercise was done for 40 minutes in total. [Results] The paired sample t-test showed significant in the Togu exercise group peak torque of flexion, peak torque of extension, total work of flexion, total work of extension, average power of flexion, average power of extension, after the exercise showed a significant difference in the Togu exercise group. [Conclusion] The trunk muscle actiation program for middle-aged women had a significant effect on muscle strength and low back pain. Therefore the trunk muscle activation program is effective at increasing muscular strength of middle-aged women, and the results suggest improve muscle strength is effectively stabilizaties the lumbar region.

  6. Changes in the flexion relaxation response induced by lumbar muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP is an interesting model to study the modulation of lumbar stability. Previous investigations have explored the effect of load, angular velocity and posture on this particular response. However, the influence of muscular fatigue on FRP parameters has not been thoroughly examined. The objective of the study is to identify the effect of erector spinae (ES muscle fatigue and spine loading on myoelectric silence onset and cessation in healthy individuals during a flexion-extension task. Methods Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study and performed blocks of 3 complete trunk flexions under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load (1, no fatigue/load (2, fatigue/no load(3, and fatigue/load (4. Fatigue was induced according to the Sorenson protocol, and electromyographic (EMG power spectral analysis confirmed that muscular fatigue was adequate in each subject. Trunk and pelvis angles and surface EMG of the ES L2 and L5 were recorded during a flexion-extension task. Trunk flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence was then compared across the different experimental conditions using 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Onset of myoelectric silence during the flexion motion appeared earlier after the fatigue task. Additionally, the cessation of myoelectric silence was observed later during the extension after the fatigue task. Statistical analysis also yielded a main effect of load, indicating a persistence of ES myoelectric activity in flexion during the load condition. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the presence of fatigue of the ES muscles modifies the FRP. Superficial back muscle fatigue seems to induce a shift in load-sharing towards passive stabilizing structures. The loss of muscle contribution together with or without laxity in the viscoelastic tissues may have a substantial impact on post fatigue stability.

  7. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, B.; Suetta, C.

    2005-01-01

    ).Methods. Fasted participants received a primed-constant infusion of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine. After 90 minutes of rest, the participants performed leg-resistance exercises followed by the oral supplementation. During the following 4 hours, net protein balance (NB) and rate of disappearance and appearance...... of phenylalanine were calculated from arterial–venous blood samples and blood flow measurements.Results. NB was elevated (p balance results were supported by kinetic...

  8. Similar acute physiological responses from effort and duration matched leg press and recumbent cycling tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steele

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press or ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80–100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5–10 s. Measurements included VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. Perceived effort was similar between conditions and thus both were well matched with respect to effort. There were no significant effects by ‘condition’ in any of the physiological responses examined (all p > 0.05. The present study shows that, when both effort and duration are matched, resistance training (leg press and ‘cardio’ exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry may produce largely similar responses in VO2, RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that both may offer a similar stimulus to produce chronic physiological adaptations in outcomes such as cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and hypertrophy. Future work should look to both replicate the study conducted here with respect to the same, and additional physiological measures, and rigorously test the comparative efficacy of effort and duration matched exercise of differing modalities with respect to chronic improvements in physiological fitness.

  9. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  10. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral vasodilata...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P ... vasodilatation in the regulation of cardiac output during steady-state exercise, we measured central and peripheral haemodynamics in 10 healthy male subjects, with and without atrial pacing (100–150 beats min(−1)) during: (i) resting conditions, (ii) one-legged knee extensor exercise (24 W) and (iii) femoral...

  11. Kinematic analysis of leg alignment during conventional versus navigated total knee arthroplasty: Initial results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current kinematic navigation systems provide real-time spatial analyses of leg alignments during total knee arthroplasty (TKA instead of delayed radiographic verification after surgery. A prospective study was conducted to investigate leg alignments of TKAs that underwent different surgical guidance [intramedullary (IM jig-based vs. navigation-assisted] using a kinematic navigation system. Since May 2007, patients admitted for primary TKA were considered for inclusion. Within 6 months, 38 sets of intraoperative analyses on the operated legs have been performed. Excluding seven unreliable data sets, 15 conventional IM jig-based TKAs and 16 navigation-assisted TKAs were available. The leg alignments in maximum knee extension were retrieved for comparison. Although similar final coronal alignments were accurately achieved in both groups (0.21 valgus in the IM group vs. 0.17 valgus in the NA group, p=0.993, a more flexed sagittal axis was constructed with conventional IM jigs (1.93 flexion in the IM group vs. 0.58 extension in the NA group, p<0.05. The study suggests that comparable coronal precision could be achieved with conventional IM jigs by trained surgeons, although computer-assisted navigation is a documented method to restore accurate alignment. Different sagittal alignments observed in this study indicate the inherent discrepancy between different surgical guides as well as their according concepts.

  12. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  13. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  14. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Peiyang; Zhu, Xuyang; Su, Steven W; Guo, Qing; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing), hip extension from a sitting position (sitting) and gait (walking) are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT) based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV), Root-Mean-Square (RMS), integrated EMG (iEMG), Zero Crossing (ZC)) and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF) and Median Frequency (MDF)) are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0.88% which

  15. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  16. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg......NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its...... importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature...

  17. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  18. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezucha, G R; Lenser, M C; Hanson, P G; Nagle, F J

    1982-12-01

    Eight healthy male adults (25-34 yr) were studied to compare hemodynamic responses to static exercise (30% MVC in leg extension), static-dynamic exercise (one-arm cranking, 66 and 79% VO2 max-arm), and dynamic exercise (two-leg cycling, 5