Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula
Roč. 20, č. 4 (2009), s. 319-324 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cypriniformes * Nemacheilidae * Schistura udomritthuji Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2009
Cheng, Chung-Yao; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Wen; Ueng, Yih-Tsong
In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), an endemic primary freshwater fish in Taiwan. This mitochondrial genome, consisting of 16,608 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region as those found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to that of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 26.28%, C 26.62%, A 30.26%, and G 16.85%, with a slight AT bias of 56.53%.
Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min
The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%.
Flerova, E A; Balabanova, L V
Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.
Peng, Shengfa; Lu, Jiang; Yang, Junxing; Chen, Xiaoli; Shi, Qiong
The horned Golden-line barbel, Sinocyclocheilus rhinocerous (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) is a species of ray-finned fish of the genus Sinocyclocheilus with specific features. For example, its forehead protrudes forward like a rhinoceros horn. Here, we first reported the complete mitochondrial genome of this semi-caved teleost. The whole mitochondrial genome was 16 588 bp, and composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a 933 bp control region. A phylogenetic tree with the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of S. rhinocerous together with 10 other affinis species was constructed. The newly achieved mitochondrial genome sequence seem to be useful for addressing taxonomic issues and studying related evolution events, which would contribute to enrich the fish mitochondrial genome resource and promote the biological research.
Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.
Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie
The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.
Roč. 50, č. 1 (2003), s. 98-101 ISSN 1341-8998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : cobitis taenia * spawning substrate * habitat preference Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2003
Papoušek, Ivo; Lusková, Věra; Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Povž, M.; Šumer, S.
Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 83-89 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Danubian spined loach * population diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/083-089_MS1291.pdf
Pukhtayevych P. P.
Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.
Li, Chen; He, Liping; Chen, Chong; Cai, Lingchao; Chen, Pingping; Yang, Shoubao
Sarcocheilichthys sinensis sinensis (Bleeker, 1871), is a small benthopelagic freshwater species with high nutritional and ornamental value. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. sinensis sinensis was determined; the phylogenetic analysis with another individual and closely related species of Sarcocheilichthys fishes was carried out. The complete mitogenome of S. sinensis sinensis was 16683 bp in length, consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions: (D-loop and OL). It indicated that D-loop, ND2, and CytB may be appropriate molecular markers for studying population genetics and conservation biology of Sarcocheilichthys fishes.
Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chang, Chia-Hao; Tsai, Chi-Li
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of two spotted barbs native to Taiwan: Puntius semifasciolatus and Puntius snyderi. The complete mitochondrial genomes are 16,594 and 16,578 bp in size, respectively. Both of them contain 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. They share the same gene arrangement pattern that was identical with most vertebrates. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 7.63%. These two spotted barbs show very close relationship based on the comparison of the characters of their mitochondrial genomes.
Beshera, Kebede A; Harris, Phillip M; Mayden, Richard L
Phylogenetic relationships within Labeobarbus, the large-sized hexaploid cyprinids, were examined using cytochrome b gene sequences from a broad range of geographic localities and multiple taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed novel lineages from previously unsampled drainages in central (Congo River), eastern (Genale River) and southeastern (Revue and Mussapa Grande rivers) Africa. Relationships of some species of Varicorhinus in Africa (excluding 'V.' maroccanus) render Labeobarbus as paraphyletic. 'Varicorhinus' beso, 'V.' jubae, 'V.' mariae, 'V.' nelspruitensis, and 'V.' steindachneri are transferred to Labeobarbus. Bayesian estimation of time to most recent common ancestor suggested that Labeobarbus originated in the Late Miocene while lineage diversification began during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene and continued to the late Pleistocene. The relationships presented herein provide phylogenetic resolution within Labeobarbus and advances our knowledge of genetic diversity within the lineage as well as provides some interesting insight into the hydrographic and geologic history of Africa.
Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T
For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.
Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004
Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Tan, H. H.; Britz, R.
Roč. 61, č. 3 (2011), s. 854-865 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pangio * eel loaches * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2011
Zapletal, T.; Mareš, J.; Jurajda, Pavel; Všetičková, Lucie
Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 15-22 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diet analysis * gut * biomanipulation * age groups Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2014 http://www.aiep.pl/volumes/2010/5_1/pdf/03_1421_F1.pdf
Full Text Available Telestes croaticus is a freshwater fish endemic in Croatia. It is a stygophile species, living above ground but occasionally retreating into subterranean waters. This species is found in the southwest region of Croatia, in the Lika-Jadova and Ričica drainages, in cold and clear waters in lowland habitats with little current, and in springs and associated wetlands. It is protected under Croatian law and was listed by the IUCN Red List as Endangered (EN. It has an extremely limited distribution which makes it vulnerable to different kind of traits such as habitat destruction, water extraction, dam construction, agricultural water pollution and especially the introduction of non-indigenous fish species. Suggested conservation actions for this species are: bans on watercourse regulation, reduction of pollution and eradication of alien fish species. Due to its fast decline in the last 10 years, it is our proposition that T. croaticus should be upgraded to a Critically Endangered species under criterion A2ace A4ace.
Graaf, de M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Dejen, E.; Wudneh, T.; Osse, J.W.M.; Sibbing, F.A.
Lake Tana, the source of the (Blue) Nile, is situated in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia and harbours an extraordinary diversity of cyprinid fishes. While cyprinid fishes are common and abundant throughout the world’s fresh water systems, the Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana form the only
Zhao, Na; Chen, Feng; Liao, Xiaolin
The complete mitochondrial genome of an endemic fish Ptychidio jordani is a circular molecular of 16,602 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand, expect for ND6 and eight tRNAs. The control region is 940 bp in length and is located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes. Of 13 PCGs, 7 genes (ND2, COII, ATPase 6, COIII, ND3, ND4, Cytb) had an incomplete stop codon. The complete mtDNA genome sequence obtained in this study would be useful for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics in Ptychidio jordani and related taxa in future.
Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari
Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.
Full Text Available Cobitis keyvani is recently described from the sourhern Caspian Sea basin. Limited information is available about morphological features of C. keyvani, therefore this study was conducted to provide osteological characteristics and cranial myology of this species. For this purpose, nine specimens of C. keyvani were collected from the Talar River. The specimens were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for osteological examinations. The detailed skeletal structure and cranial muscles of C. keyvani were provided. Based on the results, C. keyvani can be distinguished from other members of the genus Cobitis by a contact between sphenotic and supraoccipital and a contact between pterosphenoid, parasphenoid, prootic and sphenotic in terms of osteological features.
Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula
Roč. 24, č. 1 (2013), s. 85-92 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Teleostei Nemacheilidae * basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of acute toxicity of malathion on behavioral and haematological parameters in the cyprinid Capoeta damascina. The specimens were collected from the Kordan River, Karaj, Iran in August, 2014 and were exposed to different concentrations of malathion at the laboratory (24, 48, 72 mg L‑1 based on 96h-LC (10; 30; 50; 90 which was 6.08 (5.22-7.18 mg L-1. The animals were then exposed to 0.76, 1.00 and 1.52 mg L-1 of malathion for 10 days. Blood samples were collected in days 1, 5 and 10. Red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (PVC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were measured. Behavioral abnormalities were observed in fishes exposed to high levels of malathion. The specimens exposed to malathion had significantly lower RBC, WBC, Hb, PVC but higher MCV and MCH than those of the control group. No significant difference was detected in MCHC the exposed and control specimens. Hematological parameters (except MCHC were significantly correlated with exposure time. In conclusion, malathion showed extensive haematological effects on C. damascina that might be used as bioindicator of this pesticide in flowing waters.
Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest
Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.
Carol E. Johnston; Charles L. Knight
Life-history aspects and behavioral ecology of the bluenose shiner (Pteronotropis welaka) were investigated from May 1993 to June 1994 in a small tributary of the lower Pearl River in Marion County, MS. Samples were taken monthly or biweekly to provide information about preferred habitat, reproductive biology, and demography. Observations were made during the breeding...
Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.
Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1062, was hitherto known from the holotype and one paratype only, both imported aquarium specimens. In this paper the type locality of the species is restricted. Additional distributional data from Surinam are given, together with records on the occurrence of H. lepturus
Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin
Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.
Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Šanda, Radek; Geiger, Matthias F.; Freyhof, Jörg; Machordom, Annie; Vukić, Jasna
In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence of their old origin and unconstrained evolutionary history. PMID:29227999
Bashir, Amir; Bisht, Balwant Singh; Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Kumar, Rohit; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh
In India the distribution of genus Triplophysa has been reported only in the upper drainage of the Indus River in Jammu and Kashmir and Lahul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh. There is no study on the taxonomic characterization of this genus from Kashmir Himalaya. Therefore the present study was aimed to characterize two important fish species Triplophysa marmorata and T. kashmirensis from Kashmir valley, by using morphometric and molecular tools. It is difficult to discriminate these two species due to the poor quality of original descriptions, and the lack of good reviews. Keeping this in view, a morphometric and molecular study was conducted. Morphometric data were analyzed by using univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses (Principal component analysis) and mtDNA marker Cytochrome oxidase 1 was used for molecular support. Altogether, 22 morphometric characters were used and 15 characters were found significantly variable (P Valley and will help them in planning strategies for conservation and management of these less studied small indigenous species along their natural range of distribution.
Baras, Etienne; Ginanjar, R.; Ahmad, M.; Permana, A.; Priyadi, A.; Legendre, Marc; Pouyaud, Laurent; Slembrouck, Jacques
International audience; The knowledge of how fish survive and grow at different temperatures, and how these traits vary between life stages, is essential to evaluate the effects of climate change on wild fish and implement effective strategies in aquaculture. These issues are addressed in this study through a series of experiments that evaluate the effect of temperature (23-34 degrees C) on the embryos and larvae of clown loach, Chromobotia macracanthus. This species is endemic to the rivers ...
Full Text Available Despite their great diversity and biological importance, evolutionary relationships among the endemic clade of East Asian Cyprinidae remain ambiguous. Understanding the phylogenetic history of this group involves many challenges. For instance, ecomorphological convergence may confound morphology-based phylogenetic inferences, and previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on single genes have often yielded contradictory and poorly supported trees. We assembled a comprehensive data matrix of 100 nuclear gene segments (∼ 71132 base pairs for representative species of the endemic East Asian cyprinid fauna and recovered a robust phylogeny from this genome-wide signal supported by multiple analytical methods, including maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Relaxed molecular clock analyses indicated species radiations of this clade concentrated at approximately 1.9-7.6 MYA. We provide evidence that the bursts of diversification in this fauna are directly linked to major paleoenvironmental events associated with monsoon evolution occurring from late Miocene to Pliocene. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals convergent morphological characters are hypothesized to be independent products of similar selective pressures in ecosystems. Our study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the enigmatic East-Asian cyprinids. The explicit molecular phylogeny provides a valuable framework for future research in genome evolution, adaptation and speciation of cyprinids.
Mir, Farooq Ahmad; Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Chandra, Suresh
Schizothorax curvifrons is a morphometrically and meristically most variable and economically valuable promising fish food from Kashmir Valley. Since there is a lack of information on stock structure of wild populations on this species, this study was aimed to investigate the intraspecific variation of this important snowtrout. For this, two rivers and one lake in Kashmir Himalaya were sampled from January 2011 to October 2012. Fish body measurements were taken and morphometric characters using the truss network system was constructed. Altogether, 506 fish specimens were collected. Data were subjected to principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis and univariate analysis of variance. The first principal component explained 63.44% of total variation, while second and third components explained 8.34% and 5.31%, respectively. The step-wise discriminant function analysis retained two variables that significantly discriminated the populations. Using these variables 83.4% of the original specimens were classified into their correct groups and 81.1% of the cross-validated (leave one out procedure) specimens were classified into their correct groups. All of the total 31 transformed truss measurements exhibited highly significant (pHimalaya area.
Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Dube, Kiran; Tiwari, Virendra K
The Indian hill trout cyprinid, Barilius bendelisis is a member of family Cyprinidae that dwells in shallow, cold, and clear water. In this study, growth parameters and reproductive biology of Indian hill trout, Barilius bendelisis from river Gaula, Central Himalaya region, India, were studied. The length-frequency data were grouped sex wise and were analyzed to determine the growth and mortality parameters using the computer software programme, FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tool (FISAT II). Altogether, 501 individuals were collected from river Gaula (November 2013-October 2014) and were preserved in formalin for further analysis. The results showed that the female outnumbered the male population. The minimum GSI of females was observed in the month of October (4.93 ± 0.26) and for males in the month of June and July (0.093 ± 0.12), whereas, the maximum value was in the month of April for both females (13.47 ± 0.52) and males (1.21 ± 0.12). Fluctuation in GSI values had a bimodal pattern showing two peaks during March-May and August-September in both the sexes, indicating the common spawning period of fish. The slope of regression showed the negative allometric growth for both males and females (b= 2.65 for male and b= 2.5 for female). A significant relationship between length and weight was observed in the present study (p < 0.05). The ELEFAN-I estimated L∞ and K of the von Bertalanffy growth factor for males (17.33 cm and 0.310 per year), females (17.33 cm and 0.3 per year) and pooled sexes (17.33 cm and 0.240 per year). The results indicated that Barilius bendelisis is a small sized fish having negative allometric growth that spawns twice a year. Thus, the present study on biological traits represents the baseline information for effective production, conservation and restoration planning.
Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula
Roč. 4205, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-72 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : morphology * taxonomy * Anhui Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016
Bohlen, Jörg; Freyhof, J.; Nolte, A.
Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 191-197 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : environmental sex determination * Fish er's principle * cobitine loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008
Carmona, José Ambrosio
Full Text Available A phylogeny of the species in the genera Chondrostoma and Squalius was constructed based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140pb. The molecular phylogeny was used to test the effect of the Mediterranean Lago Mare dispersal theory on the processes of divergence and speciation of European freshwater fishes. Phylogenetic relationships among Squalius samples and the molecular clock revealed that the ancestor of the current Iberian Squalius species inhabited a wide geographic area in the central and southwestern part of the former Iberian Peninsula during the Miocene before the Lago Mare phase. Similarly, the four main Iberian lineages of the genus Chondrostoma originated in the Middle-Upper Miocene. Hence, the Lago Mare phase of the Mediterranean Sea seems to have been a too recent paleogeographic event to have had any major impact on the dispersion of Squalius and Chondrostoma species. However, the reduction of the water-bodies during the Tortonian and Messinian may have intensified the isolation of populations. The Operational Biogeographic Units recovered from the Squalius and Chondrostoma phylogenies also reject the Lago Mare dispersal theory and support the idea that the differentiation processes were due to both the formation of the current hydrographical basin during the Plio-Pleistocene as well as to an earlier endorrheism event that occurred prior to hydrographical configuration.Realizamos una filogenia de los géneros Chondrostoma y Squalius mediante el estudio de la secuencia completa del gen mitocondrial citocromo b (1140pb. La filogenia molecular fue usada para comprobar el efecto que la teoría de dispersión del Mediterráneo Lago Mare ha tenido sobre los procesos de divergencia y especiación en los peces de agua dulce europeos. Las relaciones filogenéticas entre las muestras de Squalius y la aplicación del reloj molecular pusieron de manifiesto que el ancestro de las actuales especies ibéricas de Squalius habitaba una amplia área del centro y suroeste de la Península Ibérica durante el Mioceno antes de la fase Lago Mare. Del mismo modo, los cuatro grandes linajes ibéricos del género Chondrostoma tuvieron su origen en el Mioceno Medio-Superior. La fase Lago Mare del Mediterráneo parece un hecho demasiado reciente como para haber tenido un impacto importante en la dispersión de las especies de los géneros Squalius y Chondrostoma. No obstante, la reducción de los cuerpos de agua durante el Tortoniense y Mesiniense pudo haber intensificado el aislamiento de las poblaciones. Las Unidades Biogeográficas Operativas obtenidas de las filogenias de los géneros Squalius y Chondrostoma también rechazan la teoría de la dispersión en la fase Lago Mare y sugieren que los procesos de diferenciación de la fauna de peces de agua dulce se debieron al aislamiento de las cuencas hidrográficas, y a fenómenos antiguos de endorreísmo que se produjeron antes de la configuración de las cuencas hidrográficas.
Triplophysa anterodorsalis is a genus Triplophysa. (Rendahl) fish which belongs to the family Balitoridae, sub- family Nemacheilinae. There are 112 nominal species in the genus Triplophysa all over the world, and ∼60% of species are found in China (Chen and Yang 2005; Froese R. and. Pauly D. 2008 FishBase: ...
S.M. Zakiur Rahman
Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.
Formation of germinal epithelium during gonodal morphogenesis and differentiation in Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei:Cypriniformes) : a structural and ultrastructural analysis of the germ and somatic cells
Talita Sarah Mazzoni
Resumo: Numa nova visão da morfogênese gonadal, sua descrição em Cyprinus carpio, mostra como a proliferação e diferenciação de células germinativas e somáticas a partir do primórdio gonadal levam à formação das diferentes estruturas ovarianas e testiculares e à constituição do epitélio germinativo que margeia as lamelas ovígeras e os túbulos testiculares. Em C. carpio, o primórdio gonadal é formado por células germinativas primordiais (CGPs) rodeadas por células somáticas. Após sucessivas di...
Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel
Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.
Kienle, Cornelia; Koehler, H.-R.; Filser, Juliane; Gerhardt, Almut
We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl 2 .6H 2 O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic exposure: hatching rate, deformations, locomotory activity (at 5, 8 and 11 days) and mortality. In acute exposures nickel chloride (7.5-15 mg Ni/L) caused decreasing locomotory activity. Oxygen depletion (≤2.45 ± 0.16 mg O 2 /L) also resulted in significantly reduced locomotory activity. In the subchronic test, exposure to ≥10 mg Ni/L resulted in delayed hatching at an age of 96 h, in decreased locomotory activity at an age of 5 days, and increased mortality at an age of 11 days (LC 20 = 9.5 mg Ni/L). The observed LOEC for locomotory activity (7.5 mg Ni/L) is in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations. Since locomotory activity was already affected by acute exposure, this parameter is recommended to supplement commonly recorded endpoints of toxicity. - Increasing concentrations of nickel chloride and decreasing concentrations of oxygen lead to reduced vitality and locomotory activity in Danio rerio embryos and larvae
Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek
As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.
Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.
Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.
Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.
Ossa-López, Paula A; Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J; Rivera-Páez, Fredy A
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most studied aquatic organisms for water biomonitoring, due to its sensitivity to environmental degradation and resistance to toxic substances. This study determined the presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes, and assessed the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3) and metallothionein 1 (MT-1) in the gills and liver of D. rerio. The study fish (n = 45) were exposed to water collected from two stations with mining impact (E2 and E3) and a reference station without evident mining contamination (E1), all located in La Elvira stream (Manizales-Colombia). In addition, a positive control (PC) with HgCl 2 (50 μg/L) and negative control (NC) with tap water were included. The fish from the PC and E2 and E3 treatments displayed genotoxic effects and changes in gene expression, with significant differences in micronuclei formation and the presence of blebbed nuclei. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as reference and proved to be stable compared to the β-actin and 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) genes. In gills, CASP-3 expression was higher in the PC, and MT-1 expression was higher in the PC and E3 treatment. In liver, CASP-3 was expressed in the E2 treatment, and MT-1 expression was low. These results show that the genotoxic effects and differential gene expression observed in fish exposed to water from La Elvira stream could also be affecting the organisms present in this habitat.
Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a no......The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes...
Berendzen, P B; Dugan, J F; Gamble, T
Genetic variation was examined within the Ozark minnow Notropis nubilus using complete mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences from 160 individuals representing 30 localities to test hypotheses on the origin of the distribution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three strongly supported clades of haplotypes consistent with geographic distributions: a clade from the Western Ozarks, a clade from the Southern Ozarks and a clade from the Northern Ozarks and upper Mississippi River basin. The estimated mean ages of these clades indicated that they diverged during pre-Illinoian glacial cycles extending from the late Pliocene into the early Pleistocene. Results of demographic analyses based on coalescent approaches supported the hypothesis that the Paleozoic Plateau was not a refugium for N. nubilus during periodic glacial advances. There is evidence of a genetic signature of northern expansion into the Paleozoic Plateau from a Southern Ozarkian refugium. Populations expanded out of drainages in the Northern Ozarks into the Paleozoic Plateau during the late Pleistocene. Subsequently, the two regions were isolated due to the recent extirpation of intervening populations caused by the loss of suitable habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Morphological and molecular data for a new species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) in the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) in central Mexico.
García-Varela, Martín; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Choudhury, Anindo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Pomphorhynchus purhepechus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Catostomidae) in central Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from the other seven described species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the Americas by a subspherical proboscis and 14 longitudinal rows with 16-18 hooks each; the third and the fourth row of hooks are alternately longest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA (including the domains D2-D3) were used to corroborate the morphological distinction between the new species and Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli Linkins in Van Cleave, 1919, a species widely distributed in several freshwater fish species across Canada, USA, and Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and the isolates of P. bulbocolli ranged between 13 and 14% for cox1, and between 0.6 and 0.8% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of each dataset showed that the isolates of P. bulbocolli parasitising freshwater fishes from three families, the Catostomidae, Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae, represent a separate lineage, and that the acanthocephalans collected from two localities in central Mexico comprise an independent lineage. In addition, our analysis of the genetic variation of P. bulbocolli demonstrates that individuals of this acanthocephalan from different host species are conspecific. Finally, the distribution, host-association, and phylogenetic relationship of the new species, when placed in the context of the region's geological history, suggest that both host and parasite underwent speciation after their ancestors became isolated in Central Mexico.
Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, J.; Pekárik, L.; Janko, Karel
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0146872-e0146872 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GPP506/12/P857; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : in-situ hybridization * fresh water fish * unisexual salamanders Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016
Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.
Magdalena Katarzyna Socha
After 24 h of incubation there was no significant difference in the percentage of live eggs between groups either in experiment with Aroclor 1254 or Delor 103. In the case of hatching rate tested PCBs mixtures had no effect in both variants of water harness. Delor 103 had no effect on the percentage of deformed larvae of Prussian carp in both hard and soft water. Only the observation of the number of deformed larvae showed higher teratogenic influence of Aroclor 1254 in hard water. Summing up, our results showed that Delor 103 is not harmful to the development of activated Prussian carp eggs in both hard and soft water, but in the case of Aroclor 1254 diluted in hard water increased teratogenic effect was observed.
Elza Ferreira Goldman Pinheiro
Full Text Available The Stannius corpuscles of Prochilodus scrofa are studied microscopically (both optically and electronically as well as macroscopically. Two CS, and sometimes 3 or 4, are found per animal. They are pink-coloured organs, rounded in shape and scattered laterally in the first anterior third of the kidney. Each CS is enveloped by a thick connective tissue capsule. The grandular parenchyma consists of only one cellular (PAS-/AF- type, cylindrical in shape, with oval or rounded nucleus located eccentrically with visible nucleolus. The ultrastructural description is as follows: well developed Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in moderate quantities. Electron-dense granules numerous. CS highly vascularized.
Fedorčák, J.; Koščo, J.; Halačka, Karel; Manko, P.
Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 125-132 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : annulus * back-calculated length * loach * clone * polyploidy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.670, year: 2016
Chi, Wei; Ma, Xufa; Niu, Jiangong; Zou, Ming
Molecular adaptation to the severe environments present during the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has attracted the attention of researchers. The divergence of the three specialization groups of schizothoracins (Primitive, Specialized and Highly Specialized) may correspond to the three phases of plateau uplift. Based on the transcripts of representative species of the three specialized groups and an outgroup, genes in schizothoracins that may have played important roles during the adaptation to new environments were investigated. The contigs of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis were compared with those of Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis and the outgroup Sinocyclocheilus angustiporus, and 5,894 ortholog groups with an alignment length longer than 90 nt after deleting gaps were retained. Evolutionary analyses indicated that the average evolutionary rate of the branch leading to the Specialized group was faster than that of the branch leading to the Highly Specialized group. Moreover, the numbers of gene categories in which more than half of the genes evolved faster than the average values of the genome were 117 and 15 along the branches leading to the Specialized and Highly Specialized groups, respectively. A total of 40, 36, and 55 genes were likely subject to positive selection along the branches leading to the Primitive, Specialized and Highly Specialized groups, respectively, and many of these genes are likely relevant to adaptation to the cold temperatures, low oxygen concentrations, and strong ultraviolet radiation that result from elevation. By selecting representative species of the three groups of schizothoracins and applying next-generation sequencing technology, several candidate genes corresponding to adaptation to the three phases of plateau uplift were identified. Some of the genes identified in this report that were likely subject to positive selection are good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional analyses of adaptation to high altitude.
Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: Evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species
Chang, H.-C.; Li, F.; Shao, K.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Morosawa, T.; Kim, S.; Koo, H.; Kim, W.; Lee, J.-S.; He, S.; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, M.; Sado, T.; Uehara, K.; Lavoué, S.; Chen, W.-J.; Mayden, R. L.
Roč. 81, December (2014), s. 182-194 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * Cyprinidae * Cryptic species * Nuclear loci * Cytochrome b * European bitterling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014
Remarkable phylogenetic resolution of the most complex clade of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): a proof of concept of homology assessment and partitioning sequence data integrated with mixed model Bayesian analyses.
Tao, Wenjing; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping
Despite many efforts to resolve evolutionary relationships among major clades of Cyprinidae, some nodes have been especially problematic and remain unresolved. In this study, we employ four nuclear gene fragments (3.3kb) to infer interrelationships of the Cyprinidae. A reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the family using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses is presented. Among the taxa within the monophyletic Cyprinidae, Rasborinae is the basal-most lineage; Cyprinine is sister to Leuciscine. The monophyly for the subfamilies Gobioninae, Leuciscinae and Acheilognathinae were resolved with high nodal support. Although our results do not completely resolve relationships within Cyprinidae, this study presents novel and significant findings having major implications for a highly diverse and enigmatic clade of East-Asian cyprinids. Within this monophyletic group five closely-related subgroups are identified. Tinca tinca, one of the most phylogenetically enigmatic genera in the family, is strongly supported as having evolutionary affinities with this East-Asian clade; an established yet remarkable association because of the natural variation in phenotypes and generalized ecological niches occupied by these taxa. Our results clearly argue that the choice of partitioning strategies has significant impacts on the phylogenetic reconstructions, especially when multiple genes are being considered. The most highly partitioned model (partitioned by codon positions within genes) extracts the strongest phylogenetic signals and performs better than any other partitioning schemes supported by the strongest 2Δln Bayes factor. Future studies should include higher levels of taxon sampling and partitioned, model-based analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes). M Ramesh, R Srinivasan, M Saravanan. Abstract. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the acute toxicity of atrazine (ATR) a herbicide on an economically important fish, Cyprinus carpio.
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. ZHONGJIE CHANG. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 89 Issue 2 August 2010 pp 183-192 Research Article. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes) · Xiaohua Xia Jie Zhao Qiyan Du Zhongjie Chang.
Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula
Roč. 4250, č. 1 (2017), s. 90-100 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cypriniformes * Cobitoidea * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016
Aug 6, 2010 ... cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in. Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes). XIAOHUA XIA, JIE ZHAO, QIYAN DU and ZHONGJIE CHANG. ∗. Molecular and Genetic Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, 46 East of Construction Road,. Xinxiang ...
Full Text Available We report the results of an ichthyofaunal inventory carried out in the Achankovil Reserve Forest in the southern Western Ghats as part of a Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund Project on lesser known freshwater fishes of Kerala . Forty-six species of freshwater fish, belonging to 17 families and 31 genera were collected from 11 sites inside the Achankovil Reserve Forest. Family Cyprinidae dominated with 21 species, followed by Bagridae, Balitoridae and Channidae (three species each. Out of the 46 species, 14 were endemic to the Western Ghats, three were endemic to Kerala region and one was exotic to the country. In this paper, we also report the range extension of an endemic cyprinid, Puntius chalakkudiensis to the Achankovil River and the Achankovil Reserve Forest. The fish diversity of this region is higher than many protected areas within southern Western Ghats, and stresses the need for immediate protection and monitoring programs.
Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Gao, Dian; Xi, Bingwen; Yao, Weijian; Liu, Minliang
Two thousand four hundred fifty-eight fish comprised of 53 species were captured in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, in the northwestern part of Hubei Province, central China during 2004, to examine Camallanus cotti infections. We found that 19 cypriniform, 3 siluriforme, and 4 perciforme fishes were infected by the nematode. Our study revealed the species, Hemiculter bleekeri bleekeri, Culter oxycephaloide, Pseudolaubuca sinensis, Acanthobrama simony, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Gnathopogon imberbis, G. argentatus, Saurogobio dabryi, S. dumerili, Gobiobotia ichangensis, Liobagrus marginatoides, and Ctenogobius shennongensis as new hosts of the worm. The number and range of fish host species found in this survey were much greater than any of the previous investigations. The mean prevalence, prevalence, mean abundance, and intensity of infection varied in different fish species, indicating a possible host preference. Moreover, we suggest that this nematode is a native parasite of cypriniform fishes in China, perhaps initially in the reaches of the Yangtze River.
Bohlen, Jörg; Harant, R.
Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 295-300 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cypriniformes * fish * guangxi Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2010
Ye, Enqi; Xing, Yingchun; Zhang, Chunguang; Zhao, Yahui
A checklist of type specimens housed in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, is presented for research and scientific communication. Included are 80 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 1 neotype, 402 paratypes and 17 syntypes of 99 species belonging to 28 families and 12 orders. With 60 species, Cypriniformes has the largest representation. All of the specimens were collected in China and neighboring countries in the past 90 years.
Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov
Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.
Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun
older than the oldest fossils of each of these groups suggest. Some of these recent papers explicitly defend a Pangean origin for some otocephalan groups such as the Siluriformes or Cypriniformes. To know whether or not the otocephalans as a whole, and particularly the mainly freshwater, cosmopolitan....... The present study is thus, among the studies dealing with molecular divergence times of teleosts, the one in which a greater number of otocephalan species are included. The divergence times obtained support that the major otocephalan groups had a much older origin than the oldest fossil records available...
Chai, Aihong; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Qingman; Yuan, Chunying
Onychostoma macrolepis, which belongs to the genus Onychostoma (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), is a benthopelagic fish that inhabits the flowing freshwaters in China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of O. macrolepis is 16,595 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition of the genome is 31.29% A, 24.53% T, 27.97 % C, and 16.21% G, showing considerable bias toward an A + T preference as 55.82%. The results can provide a basic database for analyzing the phylogenetic relationship and conservation genetics in the genus Onychostoma.
Vitas Atmadi Prakoso
Full Text Available Ikan uceng (Nemacheilus fasciatus tergolong ke dalam famili Balitoridae dan genus Nemacheilus. Ikan uceng memiliki potensi ekonomi yang cukup tinggi. Namun, ketersediaan ikan ini masih mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Untuk itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk memperoleh informasi tentang kemampuan beradaptasi dan keragaan pertumbuhannya sebagai kegiatan awal domestikasi. Koleksi ikan uceng ditangkap dari Sungai Progo, Temanggung, Jawa Tengah dengan ukuran panjang total 4,39 ± 0,35 cm dan bobot 0,66 ± 0,13 g. Ikan diangkut menggunakan sistem transportasi tertutup selama 12 jam menuju Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Tawar (BPPBAT, Bogor. Ikan dipelihara dan diadaptasikan di akuarium untuk mengetahui pengaruh transportasi terhadap sintasan pasca-transportasi. Selain itu, ikan uceng juga diadaptasikan dengan pemberian pakan alami berupa cacing sampai ikan tersebut dapat beradaptasi dengan pemberian pakan buatan (pellet. Uji keragaan pertumbuhan ikan uceng dilakukan dalam akuarium berukuran 40 cm x 25 cm x 25 cm dengan tiga perlakuan kepadatan, yaitu 1; 1,5; dan 2 ekor/L dengan tiga ulangan pada masing-masing perlakuan. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pelet terapung dengan kandungan protein 30% sebanyak 5% dari biomassa dengan frekuensi dua kali sehari. Pengambilan data pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari sekali selama 80 hari masa pemeliharaan. Kualitas air yang diamati meliputi: suhu air, pH, oksigen terlarut, nitrat, nitrit, CO2, dan TAN. Parameter yang diukur meliputi: pertambahan panjang, bobot, laju pertumbuhan spesifik (SGR, biomassa, dan sintasan (SR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat tebar optimal untuk pertumbuhan ikan uceng adalah 1,5 ekor/L. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa ikan uceng sangat mungkin didomestikasi dan selanjutnya dilakukan perbaikan mutu genetiknya. Barred loach (Nemacheillus fasciatus from Family of Balitoridae and Genus Nemacheilus has considerable economic
Peng, Zuogang; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping
in most other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses for 13 otophysan fishes were performed using Bayesian method based on the concatenated mtDNA protein-coding gene sequence and the individual protein-coding gene sequence data set. The competing otophysan topologies were then tested by using...... the approximately unbiased test, the Kishino-Hasegawa test, and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. The results show that the grouping ((((Characiformes, Gymnotiformes), Siluriformes), Cypriniformes), outgroup) is the most likely but there is no significant difference between this one and the other alternative hypotheses......The complete sequence of the 16,539 nucleotide mitochondrial genome from the single species of the catfish family Cranoglanididae, the helmet catfish Cranoglanis bouderius, was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA PCR) method. The nucleotide sequences of C. bouderius...
Gars (Lepisosteidae) are ray-finned fishes with controversial relationships to other actinopterygian lineages. When fossil taxa are considered, gars are grouped with Mesozoic macrosemiids and `semionotids' in the Semionotiformes, but the intra-relationships within this order are still elusive. Here, the evolutionary history of gars is reinvestigated using a set of well-preserved extinct semionotiform taxa in a phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that the gar lineage roots in a clade of Late Jurassic-Cretaceous semionotiform fishes. The closest relatives to gars were plant-eating and detritivorous freshwater fishes. The occurrence of semionotiform remains in Early and early Late Cretaceous continental deposits worldwide possibly reflects an important radiation of this group, comparable to the present-day diversification of cypriniforms. Other Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous semionotiform taxa are gathered in a single clade with weakly supported internal nodes, pointing out the necessity to better understand the osteology of these fishes.
Yuan, Chunying; Chai, Aihong; Cui, Qingman; Ye, Enqi; Zhang, Jie
Acrossocheilus stenotaeniatus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) is a barred cyprinid fish that inhabits the flowing freshwaters in China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. stenotaeniatus is 16,594 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The base composition of the genome is 31.22% A, 24.70% T, 28.02% C, and 16.07% G, which shows considerable bias to A + T (55.91%). Results of this study provide important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analysis and resource management not only for congeneric species but also for higher taxa of Cyprinid fish.
Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš
A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).
Hata, Hiroki; Hori, Michio
The inheritance patterns of asymmetry in mouth opening in zebrafish were investigated using crossing experiments. Zebrafish exhibit asymmetric laterality in mouth opening, with each individual having either a leftward (righty) or rightward (lefty) bias. All righty incrosses produced only righty F(1), whereas all lefty incrosses resulted in an F(1) L:R ratio of 2:1. All test crosses between lefty and righty individuals resulted in an F(1) L:R=1:1. These results were consistent with the hereditary pattern for Japanese medaka, three Tanganyikan cichlids, and a Japanese riverine goby. The pattern suggests a one-locus two-allele Mendelian model of inheritance, with the lefty allele being dominant over righty and the dominant homozygote being lethal. To determine the reason for the absence of lefty homozygotes, the survival rates of the offspring were examined according to developmental stage. Survival did not differ among combinations of parent laterality. Thus the mechanism underlying the lethality of the dominant homozygote remains unclear. This study showed that the mouth-opening laterality of zebrafish is genetically determined and that the direction follows a Mendelian inheritance pattern that is shared among cypriniform zebrafish, beloniform medaka, perciform cichlids, and a goby, suggesting a common genetic background in mouth-opening laterality among these species.
cDNAs encoding the appetite regulating peptides apelin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and orexin were isolated in red-bellied piranha and their mRNA tissue and brain distributions examined. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to that of other Characiforme fish, as well as to Cypriniformes. All peptides were widely expressed within the brain and in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract. In order to assess the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha, we compared the brain mRNA expression levels of these peptides, as well as the gut mRNA expression of CCK and PYY, between fed and 7-day fasted fish. Within the brain, fasting induced a significant increase in both apelin and orexin mRNA expressions and a decrease in CART mRNA expression, but there where were no significant differences for either PYY or CCK brain mRNA expressions between fed and fasted fish. Within the intestine, PYY mRNA expression was lower in fasted fish compared to fed fish but there was no significant difference for CCK intestine mRNA expression between fed and fasted fish. Our results suggest that these peptides, perhaps with the exception of CCK, play a major role in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel
This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.
Faria, M T; Carvalho, R F; Sevilhano, T C A; Oliveira, N A J; Silva, C F P; Oliveira, J E; Soares, C R J; Garcez, R; Santo, P R E; Bartolini, P
The cDNAs of the α-subunit of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones (GTHα) of fish of the order Osteoglossiformes or the superorder Osteoglossomorpha have never been sequenced. For a better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of PGHα in fish and for future biotechnological synthesis of the gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH), of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world, its GTHα cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction starting from total pituitary RNA. The ag-GTHα-subunit was found to be encoded by 348 bp, corresponding to a protein of 115 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature peptide of 91 amino acids. Ten cysteine residues, responsible for forming 5 disulfide linkages, 2 putative N-linked glycosylation sites and 3 proline residues, were found to be conserved on the basis of the known sequences of vertebrate gonadotrophic hormones. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of 38 GTHα-subunits, revealed the highest identity of A. gigas with members of the Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes and Cypriniformes (87.1-89.5 %) and the lowest with Gadiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (55.0 %). The obtained phylogenetic tree agrees with previous analysis of teleostei, since A. gigas, of the order of Osteoglossiformes, appears as the sister group of Clupeocephala, while Elopomorpha forms the most basal group of all other teleosts.
Best, Carol; Ikert, Heather; Kostyniuk, Daniel J; Craig, Paul M; Navarro-Martin, Laia; Marandel, Lucie; Mennigen, Jan A
While the field of epigenetics is increasingly recognized to contribute to the emergence of phenotypes in mammalian research models across different developmental and generational timescales, the comparative biology of epigenetics in the large and physiologically diverse vertebrate infraclass of teleost fish remains comparatively understudied. The cypriniform zebrafish and the salmoniform rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon represent two especially important teleost orders, because they offer the unique possibility to comparatively investigate the role of epigenetic regulation in 3R and 4R duplicated genomes. In addition to their sequenced genomes, these teleost species are well-characterized model species for development and physiology, and therefore allow for an investigation of the role of epigenetic modifications in the emergence of physiological phenotypes during an organism's lifespan and in subsequent generations. This review aims firstly to describe the evolution of the repertoire of genes involved in key molecular epigenetic pathways including histone modifications, DNA methylation and microRNAs in zebrafish, rainbow trout, and Atlantic salmon, and secondly, to discuss recent advances in research highlighting a role for molecular epigenetics in shaping physiological phenotypes in these and other teleost models. Finally, by discussing themes and current limitations of the emerging field of teleost epigenetics from both theoretical and technical points of view, we will highlight future research needs and discuss how epigenetics will not only help address basic research questions in comparative teleost physiology, but also inform translational research including aquaculture, aquatic toxicology, and human disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O. M. Kovalchuk
Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.
Full Text Available Nutraseutikal berbasis Fish Serum Albumin (FSA adalah produk komersial yang berasal dari sumber perairan. Namun, oleh karena produk ini secara umum diproduksi dari ikan gabus (Channa striata di alam, pasokan bahan baku dapat menjadi masalah pada produksi yang berkesinambungan. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan dengan menganalisis kandungan FSA dari 17 ikan air tawar budidaya, untuk mendapatkan bahan baku alternatif bagi produk nutraseutikal berbasis FSA. 3–10 individu ikan air tawar (150–500 g dari jenis ordo Perciformes, Anguilliformes, Cypriniformes, Osteoglossiformes, dan Siluriformes telah diambil secara acak dari lokasi budidaya ikan di Bogor dan Cianjur (Jawa Barat. Ekstraksi protein larut air dilakukan menggunakan Ultra Turax homogeniser dengan pelarut akuabides. Analisis FSA telah dilakukan menggunakan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar FSA dari 17 ekstrak air dari ikan berada pada rentang 42,51 to 215,57 mg/g, dengan kadar FSAikan gabus pembanding adalah 107,28 ± 3,2 mg/g. Konsentrasi FSA tertinggi ditemukan sebesar 215,57 ± 52,84 mg/g dari ekstrak air ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy. Analisis lebih lanjut terhadap komposisi asam amino menggunakan Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID menemukan bahwa ekstrak air ikan gabus memiliki konsentrasi asam amino esensial dan non-esensial yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan gurame. Hal ini menunjukkan banyaknya protein lain selain FSA pada ekstrak air ikan gabus dibandingkan ikan gurame. Berdasarkan hasil ini, ekstrak air ikan gurame memiliki konsentrasi FSA yang lebih besar dan relatif lebih murni dibandingkan ekstrak air ikan gabus, sehingga merupakan alternatif yang prospektif sebagai bahan baku untuk produk nutraseutikal berbasis FSA.
Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding
Youson, J H; Al-Mahrouki, A A; Amemiya, Y; Graham, L C; Montpetit, C J; Irwin, D M
The literature on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the endocrine pancreas of ray-finned fishes is summarized since the latest review in fish [Youson, J.H., Al-Mahrouki, A.A., 1999. Review. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the endocrine pancreas (islet organ) in fishes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 116, 303-335]. A basic description and a demonstration of the diversity of the fish islet organ is provided through new immunohistochemical data on islet tissue from a basal teleost, an osteoglossomorph, and a more derived teleost, a perciforme. Unlike the previous review, the present report provides a review and discussion of the utility of sequence data of insulin, somatostatin, and NPY- and glucagon-family peptides in phylogenetic analyses of jawed and jawless fishes. The present study also provides the first comparative analysis of sequences of preprohormones of endocrine peptides from closely related basal teleost species. Some nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data for preprosomatostatins (PPSS-I and/or -II) are compared for four species of bonytongues, Osteoglossomorpha, and with PPSSs of the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, representing Cypriniformes, a more generalized teleost order. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the PPSSs of these species and others from databases indicates good support for the monophyly of Osteoglossomorpha and some support for the present taxonomic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs examined, and also the white sucker. However, PPSS may have limited phylogenetic utility due to the relative short sequence, particularly in resolving relationships among lineages that diverged over a short period of time. Since in the few fish species examined we have just touched the surface in describing the diversity of structure of the islet organ, and likely the nature of the products of its cells, this report promotes the continued study of this organ.
Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea
Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further
Allner, Bernhard; Hennies, Mark; Lerche, Cristiano F; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Klaus; Willner, Marco; Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra
Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fish is a standardized endpoint in endocrine-disruption testing. To establish a nondestructive swab sampling method, VTG induction in the epidermis of Cypriniformes and Perciformes species was investigated. Both VTG and estrogen receptor genes are expressed in epidermal cells. Immunoaffinity and mass fingerprint analyses show induction of identical VTG peptides in liver and epidermis. Induction of VTG by estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the epidermis was quantified with homolog enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Initial values in juveniles and males were below 1 ng VTG/mL extraction buffer. Exposure to E2 led to values between 200 ng/mL and 4600 ng/mL in cyprinids and between 10 ng/mL and 81 ng/mL in perciforms. Exposure to BPA increased VTG amounts to 250 ng/mL in fathead minnows, 1360 ng/mL in goldfish, 100 ng/mL in zebrafish, and 12 ng/mL in bluegills. Serum VTG contents demonstrated a similar dose-response pattern in the epidermis and the blood. These results show that VTG induction may be reliably assessed in the skin mucus of fishes, demonstrating the suitability of this biological sample for investigating estrogenic activity in compliance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development standard protocols. This broadens the perspectives in toxicological screening and environmental monitoring, reducing the number of tested animals and minimizing harmful effects for animals, allowing for follow-up of individual induction profiles. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2916-2930. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
Amemiya, Yutaka; Irwin, David M; Youson, John H
Molecular cloning of teleost stanniocalcin (STC) cDNAs was undertaken in two species of order Osteoglossiformes of subdivision Osteoglossomorpha and one species of each of orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes within the subdivision Euteleostei. The elephantnose (Gnathonemus petersii) and the butterflyfish (Pantadon buchholzi) are basal teleosts in different osteoglossiforme suborders yet their 218 amino acid (aa) mature hormones, from prehormones of 249 and 251aa, respectively, have only 10 cysteine residues. A substitution for cysteine at the intermonomeric disulfide linkage site, implies that their STCs exist as monomeric peptides, as is the case with STC from another osteoglossormorph, arawana [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. The STC cDNA of the generalized teleost and cyprinid, the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), encodes a prehormone of 249aa with a signal peptide of 31aa and a mature protein of 218aa that possesses 11 cysteine residues. The latter feature is consistent with a previous analysis that white sucker mature STC is a glycosylated, homodimeric peptide [Amemiya, Y., Marra, L.E., Reyhani, N., Youson, J.H., 2002. Stanniocalcin from an ancient teleost: a monomeric form of the hormone and a possible extracorpuscular distribution. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188, 141-150]. An open reading frame of the STC cDNA of the derived teleost and perciforme, the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), encodes a prehormone of 255aa with a signal peptide of 33aa and a mature protein of 222aa. The position of the 11 cysteines in smallmouth bass STC suggests that it exists as a homodimeric peptide. A phylogenetic analysis, using the new STC-1 amino acid sequences and those in the gene data base provided strong support for monophyly of the Osteoglossomorpha and indicated, with positioning of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4, a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish, Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes, the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD and the DNA binding domain (DBD. Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be
Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie
Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may
Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae
Stanley H. Weitzman
Bryconadenos and Attonitus are discussed in relation to certain other inseminating characids, such as the species of Brittanichthys and Hollandichthys, that are not currently hypothesized to belong to Clade A and presumably acquired insemination independently. It is concluded that much additional data regarding the reproductive modes as well as other anatomical/physiological systems of characids currently included in and excluded from Clade A are necessary before a reasonably supported phylogeny of Clade A characids and their possible outgroup relatives can be advanced. The anal-fin gland cells of sexually active male Bryconadenos specimens are histologically indistinguishable from club cells (also called alarm substance cells found within the skin of cypriniforms, characiforms, catfishes, and other otophysan fishes. These cells occur at the skin's surface of the anal-fin gland in male Bryconadenos where they are organized into an organ. Many other adult male characids have club cells at the anal-fin's skin surface, often associated with anal-fin hooks, but were not found organized into an organ as in Bryconadenos. We hypothesize these cells to secrete a pheromone during courtship via holocrine secretion. Males of the genera Lophiobrycon , Glandulocauda, and Mimagoniates, tribe Glandulocaudini, were found to have club cells associated with their caudal-fin organ, but no specialized mucus cells were present as found in the caudal organ of males of the glandulocaudine Corynopoma riisei, tribe Stevardiini (= Corynopomini of past authors. In this species, males have hypertrophied mucus cells hypothesized to be modified for pheromone secretion. Evidence that the derived scales and fin rays of the caudal organ of males of the tribe Glandulocaudini are not homologous with that of other tribes of the Glandulocaudinae, as this subfamily was previously recognized, is discussed and it is concluded that the members of the tribe Glandulocaudini should be recognized as a separate subfamily