WorldWideScience

Sample records for left-right independent role

  1. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning

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    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2013-01-01

    Consistent left-right (LR patterning of the heart and viscera is a crucial part of normal embryogenesis. Because errors of laterality form a common class of birth defects, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms and stage at which LR asymmetry is initiated. Frog embryos are a system uniquely suited to analysis of the mechanisms involved in orientation of the LR axis because of the many genetic and pharmacological tools available for use and the fate-map and accessibility of early blastomeres. Two major models exist for the origin of LR asymmetry and both implicate pre-nervous serotonergic signaling. In the first, the charged serotonin molecule is instructive for LR patterning; it is redistributed asymmetrically along the LR axis and signals intracellularly on the right side at cleavage stages. A second model suggests that serotonin is a permissive factor required to specify the dorsal region of the embryo containing chiral cilia that generate asymmetric fluid flow during neurulation, a much later process. We performed theory-neutral experiments designed to distinguish between these models. The results uniformly support a role for serotonin in the cleavage-stage embryo, long before the appearance of cilia, in ventral right blastomeres that do not contribute to the ciliated organ.

  2. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  3. Handedness of a motor program in C. elegans is independent of left-right body asymmetry.

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    Joanna C Downes

    Full Text Available Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or "motor handedness," often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ~1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans.

  4. Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left-right patterning is conserved across kingdoms.

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    Lobikin, Maria; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jingsong; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Lemire, Joan M; Levin, Michael

    2012-07-31

    Many types of embryos' bodyplans exhibit consistently oriented laterality of the heart, viscera, and brain. Errors of left-right patterning present an important class of human birth defects, and considerable controversy exists about the nature and evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanisms that allow embryos to reliably orient the left-right axis. Here we show that the same mutations in the cytoskeletal protein tubulin that alter asymmetry in plants also affect very early steps of left-right patterning in nematode and frog embryos, as well as chirality of human cells in culture. In the frog embryo, tubulin α and tubulin γ-associated proteins are required for the differential distribution of maternal proteins to the left or right blastomere at the first cell division. Our data reveal a remarkable molecular conservation of mechanisms initiating left-right asymmetry. The origin of laterality is cytoplasmic, ancient, and highly conserved across kingdoms, a fundamental feature of the cytoskeleton that underlies chirality in cells and multicellular organisms.

  5. Cell chirality: its origin and roles in left-right asymmetric development.

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    Inaki, Mikiko; Liu, Jingyang; Matsuno, Kenji

    2016-12-19

    An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by 'cortical inheritance'. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality. Intriguingly, chirality in cellular structures and functions is also found in metazoans. In Drosophila, intrinsic cell chirality is observed in various left-right (LR) asymmetric tissues, and appears to be responsible for their LR asymmetric morphogenesis. In other invertebrates, such as snails and Caenorhabditis elegans, blastomere chirality is responsible for subsequent LR asymmetric development. Various cultured cells of vertebrates also show intrinsic chirality in their cellular behaviours and intracellular structural dynamics. Thus, cell chirality may be a general property of eukaryotic cells. In Drosophila, cell chirality drives the LR asymmetric development of individual organs, without establishing the LR axis of the whole embryo. Considering that organ-intrinsic LR asymmetry is also reported in vertebrates, this mechanism may contribute to LR asymmetric development across phyla.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'.

  6. Is Left-Right Symmetry the Key?

    CERN Document Server

    Senjanovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Abdus Salam challenged the chiral gauge nature of the Standard Model by paving the road towards the Left-Right symmetric electro-weak theory. I describe here the logical and historical construction of this theory, by emphasising the pioneering and key role it played for neutrino mass. I show that it is a self-contained and predictive model with the Higgs origin of Majorana neutrino mass, in complete analogy with the SM situation regarding charged fermions.

  7. Cilia in vertebrate left-right patterning.

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    Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-19

    Understanding how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos is an important problem in developmental biology. In humans, a failure to align the left and right sides of cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal systems often results in birth defects. Evidence from patients and animal models has implicated cilia in the process of left-right patterning. Here, we review the proposed functions for cilia in establishing LR asymmetry, which include creating transient leftward fluid flows in an embryonic 'left-right organizer'. These flows direct asymmetric activation of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signalling pathway that guides asymmetric morphogenesis of developing organs. We discuss the leading hypotheses for how cilia-generated asymmetric fluid flows are translated into asymmetric molecular signals. We also discuss emerging mechanisms that control the subcellular positioning of cilia and the cellular architecture of the left-right organizer, both of which are critical for effective cilia function during left-right patterning. Finally, using mosaic cell-labelling and time-lapse imaging in the zebrafish embryo, we provide new evidence that precursor cells maintain their relative positions as they give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer. This suggests the possibility that these cells acquire left-right positional information prior to the appearance of cilia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Left-right model for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, P V

    2016-01-01

    We argue that dark matter can automatically arise from a gauge theory that possesses a non-minimal left-right gauge symmetry, SU(3)_C \\otimes SU(M)_L \\otimes SU(N)_R \\otimes U(1)_X, for (M,N) = (2,3), (3,2), (3,3), \\cdots, and (5,5).

  9. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Martin; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model's capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  10. Leptogenesis in left-right symmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Rodejohann, W

    2001-01-01

    The masses and mixing of the light left-handed neutrinos can be related to those of the heavy right-handed neutrinos in left-right symmetric theories. Properties of the light neutrinos are measured in terrestrial experiments and the CP-violating decays of their heavy counterparts produce a baryon asymmetry via the well-known leptogenesis mechanism. The left-handed Higgs triplet, present in left-right symmetric theories, modifies the usual see-saw formula. It is possible to relate the lepton asymmetry to the light neutrino parameters when the triplet and the top quark through the usual see-saw mechanism give dominant contribution to the neutrino mass matrix. We find that in this situation the small angle MSW and vacuum solutions produce reasonable asymmetry, whereas the large angle MSW case requires extreme fine-tuning of the three phases in the mixing matrix.

  11. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

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    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  12. Leptogenesis in left-right symmetric theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, Anjan S. E-mail: anjan@prl.ernet.in; Paschos, Emmanuel A. E-mail: paschos@physik.uni-dortmund.de; Rodejohann, Werner E-mail: rodejoha@xena.physik.uni-dortmund.de

    2001-09-17

    The masses and mixing of the light left-handed neutrinos can be related to those of the heavy right-handed neutrinos in left-right symmetric theories. Properties of the light neutrinos are measured in terrestrial experiments and the CP-violating decays of their heavy counterparts produce a baryon asymmetry via the well-known leptogenesis mechanism. The left-handed Higgs triplet, present in left-right symmetric theories, modifies the usual see-saw formula. It is possible to relate the lepton asymmetry to the light neutrino parameters when the triplet and the top quark through the usual see-saw mechanism give the dominant contribution to the neutrino mass matrix. We find that in this situation the small angle MSW and vacuum solutions produce reasonable asymmetry, whereas the large angle MSW case requires extreme fine-tuning of the three phases in the mixing matrix.

  13. Left-right symmetry and neutrino stability

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmedov, E K; Ranfone, S; Valle, José W F; Joshipura, A S; Ranfone, S; Valle, J W F

    1995-01-01

    We consider a left-right symmetric model in which neutrinos acquire mass due to the spontaneous violation of both the gauged B-L and a global U(1) symmetry broken by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a gauge singlet scalar boson \\VEV{\\sigma}. For suitable choices of \\VEV{\\sigma} consistent with all laboratory and astrophysical observations neutrinos will be unstable against majoron emission. All neutrino masses in the keV to MeV range are possible, since the expected neutrino decay lifetimes can be short enough to dilute their relic density below the cosmologically required level. A wide variety of possible new phenomena, associated to the presence of left-right symmetry and/or the global symmetry at the TeV scale, could therefore be observable, without conflict with cosmology. The latter includes the possibility of invisibly decaying higgs bosons, which can be searched at LEP, NLC and LHC.

  14. Left-right symmetry and neutrino stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, E.K. [Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Joshipura, A.S. [Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Ranfone, S. [Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Valle, J.W.F. [Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1995-05-08

    We consider a left-right symmetric model in which neutrinos acquire mass due to the spontaneous violation of both the gauged B-L and a global U(1) symmetry broken by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a gauge singlet scalar boson left angle {sigma} right angle . For suitable choices of left angle {sigma} right angle consistent with all laboratory and astrophysical observations neutrinos will be unstable against majoron emission. All neutrino masses in the keV to MeV range are possible, since the expected neutrino decay lifetimes can be short enough to dilute their relic density below the cosmologically required level. A wide variety of possible new phenomena, associated to the presence of left-right symmetry and/or the global symmetry at the TeV scale, could therefore be observable, without conflict with cosmology. The latter includes the possibility of invisibly decaying higgs bosons, which can be searched at LEP, NLC and LHC. ((orig.)).

  15. Minimal Left-Right Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We show that left-right-symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet arises either accidentally as in the Minimal Dark Matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ subgroup of $B-L$. As a minimal example we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is in particular valid for $SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  16. Degenerate Neutrinos in Left Right Symmetric Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Joshipura, Anjan S.

    1994-01-01

    Various hints on the neutrino masses namely, ({\\em i}) the solar neutrino deficit ({\\em ii}) the atmospheric neutrino deficit ({\\em iii}) the need for the dark matter and/or ({\\em iv}) the non-zero neutrinoless double beta decay collectively imply that all the three neutrinos must be nearlty degenerate. This feature can be understood in the left right symmetric theory. We present a model based on the group $SU(2)_{L}\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}\\times SU(2)_H$ which can explain the required...

  17. A Left-Right Symmetric Theory with Light Sterile Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Duerr, Michael; Lindner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A simple theoretical framework for the spontaneous breaking of parity, baryon and lepton numbers is proposed. In this context, the baryon and lepton numbers are independent local gauge symmetries, while parity is defined making use of the left-right symmetry. We show that in the minimal model the new leptoquark fields needed to define an anomaly-free theory also generate neutrino masses through the type III seesaw mechanism. The spectrum of neutrinos and some phenomenological aspects are discussed. This theory predicts the possible existence of two light sterile neutrinos.

  18. Degenerate Neutrinos in Left Right Symmetric Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S

    1995-01-01

    Various hints on the neutrino masses namely, ({\\em i}) the solar neutrino deficit ({\\em ii}) the atmospheric neutrino deficit ({\\em iii}) the need for the dark matter and/or ({\\em iv}) the non-zero neutrinoless double beta decay collectively imply that all the three neutrinos must be nearlty degenerate. This feature can be understood in the left right symmetric theory. We present a model based on the group $SU(2)_{L}\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}\\times SU(2)_H$ which can explain the required departures from degeneracy in neutrino masses and large mixing among them without assuming any of the mixing in the quark or charged lepton sector to be large as would be expected in a typical $SO(10)$ model.

  19. Sesn1 is a novel gene for left-right asymmetry and mediating nodal signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Hilde; Voz, Marianne L; Verschueren, Kristin; De Cat, Bart; Pendeville, Hélène; Thienpont, Bernard; Schellens, Ann; Belmont, John W; David, Guido; Van De Ven, Wim J M; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Gewillig, Marc; Huylebroeck, Danny; Peers, Bernard; Devriendt, Koen

    2006-11-15

    Remarkable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying left-right asymmetry in vertebrate animal models but little is known on left-right axis formation in humans. Previously, we identified SESN1 (also known as PA26) as a candidate gene for heterotaxia by positional cloning of the breakpoint regions of a de novo translocation in a heterotaxia patient. In this study, we show by means of a zebrafish sesn1-knockdown model that Sesn1 is required for normal embryonic left-right determination. In this model, developmental defects and expression data of genes implicated in vertebrate left-right asymmetry indicate a role for Sesn1 in mediating Nodal signaling. In the lateral plate mesoderm, Nodal signaling plays a central role in left-right axis formation in vertebrates and is mediated by FoxH1 transcriptional induction. In line with this, we show that Sesn1 physically interacts with FoxH1 or a FoxH1-containing complex. Mutation analysis in a panel of 234 patients with isolated heterotaxia did not reveal mutations, indicating that these are only exceptional causes of human heterotaxia. In this study, we identify SESN1 as an indispensable gene for vertebrate left-right asymmetry and a new player in mediating Nodal signaling.

  20. Dark Matter in Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-01-01

    A Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right symmetric theory is considered where leptons and baryons are local gauge symmetries. These theories are generally anomalous and the possible gauge anomaly free solutions for these theories are presented here. This paper also shows different ways in which Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right theories are broken down to Standard Model gauge group which further breaks down to low energy by SM Higgs boson. It is found that the neutral component of fermion triplets can be a viable dark matter candidate originally introduced for gauge anomaly cancellation. The other dark matter possibilities within this Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right symmetric theories are also presented.

  1. Right Handed Quark Mixing in Left-Right Symmetric Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Senjanović, Goran

    2014-01-01

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the CKM matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory, for the case when the Left-Right symmetry is generalised Parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close to the CKM ones, in spite of the Left-Right symmetry being badly broken in nature.

  2. Right Handed Quark Mixing in Left-Right Symmetric Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the CKM matrix in the minimal Left-Right symmetric theory, for the case when the Left-Right symmetry is generalized Parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close in value to the CKM ones, in spite of the Left-Right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the r...

  3. Left-right asymmetry: lessons from Cancún

    OpenAIRE

    Burdine, Rebecca D.; Caspary, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The satellite symposium on ‘Making and breaking the left-right axis: implications of laterality in development and disease’ was held in June 2013 in conjunction with the 17th International Society for Developmental Biology meeting in Cancún, Mexico. As we summarize here, leaders in the field gathered at the symposium to discuss recent advances in understanding how left-right asymmetry is generated and utilized across the animal kingdom.

  4. Gauged Flavor Group with Left-Right Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Sung, Ilmo

    2011-01-01

    We construct an anomaly-free extension of the left-right symmetric model, where the maximal flavor group is gauged and anomaly cancellation is guaranteed by adding new vectorlike fermion states. We address the question of the lowest allowed flavor symmetry scale consistent with data. Because of the mechanism recently pointed out by Grinstein et al. tree-level flavor changing neutral currents turn out to play a very weak constraining role. The same occurs, in our model, for electroweak precision observables. The main constraint turns out to come from WR-mediated flavor changing neutral current box diagrams, primarily K - Kbar mixing. In the case where discrete parity symmetry is present at the TeV scale, this constraint implies lower bounds on the mass of vectorlike fermions and flavor bosons of 5 and 10 TeV respectively. However, these limits are weakened under the condition that only SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L} is restored at the TeV scale, but not parity. For example, assuming the SU(2) gauge couplings in the rati...

  5. Left-right correlation in coupled F-center defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G

    2016-08-07

    This work explores how left-right correlation, a textbook problem in electronic structure theory, manifests in a textbook example of electrons trapped in crystal defects. I show that adjacent F-center defects in lithium fluoride display symptoms of "strong" left-right correlation, symptoms similar to those seen in stretched H2. Simulations of UV/visible absorption spectra qualitatively fail to reproduce experiment unless left-right correlation is taken into account. This is of interest to both the electronic structure theory and crystal-defect communities. Theorists have a new well-behaved system to test their methods. Crystal-defect groups are cautioned that the approximations that successfully model single F-centers may fail for adjacent F-centers.

  6. Stochastic left-right neuronal asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadah, Amel; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Xiong, Rui; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-12-19

    Left-right asymmetry in the nervous system is observed across species. Defects in left-right cerebral asymmetry are linked to several neurological diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying brain asymmetry in vertebrates are still not very well understood. The Caenorhabditis elegans left and right amphid wing 'C' (AWC) olfactory neurons communicate through intercellular calcium signalling in a transient embryonic gap junction neural network to specify two asymmetric subtypes, AWC(OFF) (default) and AWC(ON) (induced), in a stochastic manner. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain stochastic AWC asymmetry. As the components of the AWC asymmetry pathway are highly conserved, insights from the model organism C. elegans may provide a window onto how brain asymmetry develops in humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'.

  7. Left-right asymmetry in neutrino-produced hadron jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.; Lys, J.; Lynch, G.R.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stevenson, M.L. (Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 97420 (US)); Huson, F.R.; Schmidt, E.; Smart, W.; Treadwell, E. (Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510); Cence, R.J.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.D.; Koide, A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z. (Department of Physics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822); Lubatti, H.J.; Moriyasu, K.; Wolin, E.

    1989-11-01

    In an experiment (E546) to study interactions of {l angle}{ital E}{r angle}=100 GeV and {l angle}{ital Q}{sup 2}{r angle}=17 GeV{sup 2} neutrinos in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber, we have looked for a left-right asymmetry in the azimuthal angle {phi} of individual hadrons about the direction of the lepton momentum transfer ({ital q} vector). Significant asymmetry is found for forward positive hadrons; for {ital x}{sub {ital F}}{gt}0.10, we find {l angle}cos{phi}{r angle}={minus}0.029{plus minus}0.008, where {ital x}{sub {ital F}} is the Feynman {ital x} variable. Negative hadrons with {ital x}{sub {ital F}}{gt}0.10 show no asymmetry, {l angle}cos{phi}{r angle}=0.004{plus minus}0.011. A model which includes parton intrinsic transverse momentum {ital k}{sub {ital t}} reproduces the asymmetry of combined positive and negative hadrons with {ital x}{sub {ital F}}{gt}0.10, {l angle}cos{phi}{r angle}={minus}0.018{plus minus}0.0065, if {l angle}{ital k}{sub {ital t}}{sup 2}{r angle}=0.065{plus minus}0.024 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. But the model predicts almost equal asymmetries for positive and negative hadrons. The model also agrees poorly with the observed dependence on the kinematic variables {ital x} and {ital Q}{sup 2} if the {ital k}{sub {ital t}} distribution is assumed to be independent of kinematic variables.

  8. Warm Dark Matter in Low Scale Left-Right Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nemevsek, Miha; Senjanovic, Goran; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We poin...

  9. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure.

  10. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-11-04

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  11. Supersymmetry and Large Scale Left-Right Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S; Rasin, A; Senjanovic, G; Aulakh, Charanjit S.; Melfo, Alejandra; Rasin, Andrija; Senjanovic, Goran

    1998-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the construction of large scale supersymmetric left-right theories, by utilizing holomorphic invariants to characterize flat directions, both at the renormalizable and the non-renormalizable level. We show that the low energy limit of the minimal supersymmetric Left-Right models is the supersymmetric standard model with an exact R-parity. Whereas in the renormalizable version the scale of parity breaking is undetermined, in the non-renormalizable one it must be bigger than about $10^{10} - 10^{12}$ GeV. The precise nature of the see-saw mechanism differs in the two versions, and we discuss it at length. In both versions of the theory a number of Higgs scalars and fermions with masses much below the $B-L$ and $SU(2)_R$ breaking scales is predicted. For a reasonable choice of parameters, either charged or doubly-charged such particles may be accesible to experiment.

  12. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Xu, Xun-Jie [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Tsinghua University, Institute of Modern Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on A{sub 4} we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet. (orig.)

  13. Universal Features of Left-Right Entanglement Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Diptarka; Datta, Shouvik

    2015-09-25

    We show the presence of universal features in the entanglement entropy of regularized boundary states for (1+1)D conformal field theories on a circle when the reduced density matrix is obtained by tracing over right- or left-moving modes. We derive a general formula for the left-right entanglement entropy in terms of the central charge and the modular S matrix of the theory. When the state is chosen to be an Ishibashi state, this measure of entanglement is shown to precisely reproduce the spatial entanglement entropy of a (2+1)D topological quantum field theory. We explicitly evaluate the left-right entanglement entropies for the Ising model, the tricritical Ising model and the su[over ^](2)_{k} Wess-Zumino-Witten model as examples.

  14. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on $A_4$ we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet.

  15. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodejohann, Werner; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2016-03-01

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on A_4 we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet.

  16. Left-Right Entanglement Entropy of Dp-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando

    2016-01-01

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  17. Perturbativity and mass scales of Left-Right Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The scalar sector of the minimal Left-Right model at TeV scale is revisited in light of the large quartic coupling needed for a heavy flavor-changing scalar. The stability and perturbativity of the effective potential is discussed and merged with constraints from low-energy processes. Thus the perturbative level of the Left-Right scale is sharpened. Lower limits on the triplet scalars are also derived: the left-handed triplet is bounded by oblique parameters, while the doubly-charged right-handed component is limited by the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma, Z \\gamma$ decays. Current constraints disfavor their detection as long as $W_R$ is within the reach of the LHC.

  18. Lepton Flavour Violation in Left-Right Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Murgui, Clara

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the predictions for lepton flavour number violating processes in the context of a simple left-right symmetric theory. In this context neutrinos are Majorana fermions and their masses are generated at the quantum level through the Zee mechanism using the simplest Higgs sector. We show that the right handed neutrinos are generically light and can give rise to large lepton number violating contributions to rare processes. We discuss the correlation between the collider constrains ...

  19. Degenerate neutrinos in left-right symmetric theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, A.S. (Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 (India))

    1995-02-01

    Various hints on the neutrino masses, namely, (i) the solar neutrino deficit, (ii) the atmospheric neutrino deficit, (iii) the need for the dark matter, and/or (iv) the nonzero neutrinoless double [beta] decay collectively imply that all the three neutrinos must be nearly degenerate. This feature can be understood in the left-right symmetric theory. We present a model based on the group SU(2)[sub [ital L

  20. Electroweak Phase Transitions in left-right symmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G; Barenboim, Gabriela; Rius, Nuria

    1998-01-01

    We study the finite-temperature effective potential of minimal left-right symmetric models containing a bidoublet and two triplets in the scalar sector. We perform a numerical analysis of the parameter space compatible We perform a numerical analysis of the parameter space compatible with the requirement that baryon asymmetry is not washed out by sphaleron processes after the electroweak phase transition. We find that the spectrum of scalar particles for these acceptable cases is consistent with present experimental bounds.

  1. Viability of minimal left-right models with discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Wouter; Boer, Daniël

    2014-12-01

    We provide a systematic study of minimal left-right models that are invariant under P, C, and/or CP transformations. Due to the high amount of symmetry such models are quite predictive in the amount and pattern of CP violation they can produce or accommodate at lower energies. Using current experimental constraints some of the models can already be excluded. For this purpose we provide an overview of the experimental constraints on the different left-right symmetric models, considering bounds from colliders, meson-mixing and low-energy observables, such as beta decay and electric dipole moments. The features of the various Yukawa and Higgs sectors are discussed in detail. In particular, we give the Higgs potentials for each case, discuss the possible vacua and investigate the amount of fine-tuning present in these potentials. It turns out that all left-right models with P, C, and/or CP symmetry have a high degree of fine-tuning, unless supplemented with mechanisms to suppress certain parameters. The models that are symmetric under both P and C are not in accordance with present observations, whereas the models with either P, C, or CP symmetry cannot be excluded by data yet. To further constrain and discriminate between the models measurements of B-meson observables at LHCb and B-factories will be especially important, while measurements of the EDMs of light nuclei in particular could provide complementary tests of the LRMs.

  2. Stringent dilepton bounds on left-right models using LHC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanwa Patra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In canonical left-right symmetric models the lower mass bounds on the charged gauge bosons are in the ballpark of 3–4 TeV, resulting in much stronger limits on the neutral gauge boson ZR, making its production unreachable at the LHC. However, if one evokes different patterns of left-right symmetry breaking the ZR might be lighter than the WR± motivating an independent ZR collider study. In this work, we use the 8 TeV ATLAS 20.3 fb−1 luminosity data to derive robust bounds on the ZR mass using dilepton data. We find strong lower bounds on the ZR mass for different right-handed gauge couplings, excluding ZR masses up to ∼3.2 TeV. For the canonical LR model we place a lower mass bound of ∼2.5 TeV. Our findings are almost independent of the right-handed neutrino masses (∼2% effect and applicable to general left-right models.

  3. Primary Cilia as a Possible Link between Left-Right Asymmetry and Neurodevelopmental Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulioff, Andrey; Ermakov, Alexander; Malashichev, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    Cilia have multiple functions in the development of the entire organism, and participate in the development and functioning of the central nervous system. In the last decade, studies have shown that they are implicated in the development of the visceral left-right asymmetry in different vertebrates. At the same time, some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and dyslexia, are known to be associated with lateralization failure. In this review, we consider possible links in the mechanisms of determination of visceral asymmetry and brain lateralization, through cilia. We review the functions of seven genes associated with both cilia, and with neurodevelopmental diseases, keeping in mind their possible role in the establishment of the left-right brain asymmetry. PMID:28125008

  4. Primary Cilia as a Possible Link between Left-Right Asymmetry and Neurodevelopmental Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Trulioff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia have multiple functions in the development of the entire organism, and participate in the development and functioning of the central nervous system. In the last decade, studies have shown that they are implicated in the development of the visceral left-right asymmetry in different vertebrates. At the same time, some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and dyslexia, are known to be associated with lateralization failure. In this review, we consider possible links in the mechanisms of determination of visceral asymmetry and brain lateralization, through cilia. We review the functions of seven genes associated with both cilia, and with neurodevelopmental diseases, keeping in mind their possible role in the establishment of the left-right brain asymmetry.

  5. Unifying left-right symmetry and 331 electroweak theories

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Mario; Vaquera-Araujo, C A

    2016-01-01

    We propose a realistic theory based on the $\\mathrm{SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes SU(3)_R \\otimes U(1)_{X}}$ gauge group which requires the number of families to match the number of colors. In the simplest realization neutrino masses arise from the canonical seesaw mechanism and their smallness correlates with the observed V-A nature of the weak force. Depending on the symmetry breaking path to the Standard Model one recovers either a left-right symmetric theory or one based on the $\\mathrm{SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes U(1)}$ symmetry as the "next" step towards new physics.

  6. Dark Left-Right Model: CDMS, LHC, etc

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle interactions is extended to include fermion doublets (n,e)_R transforming under the gauge group SU(2)_R such that n is a Dirac scotino (dark-matter fermion), with odd R parity. Based on recent CDMS data, it is shown how this new dark left-right model (DLRM2) favors a Z' gauge boson at around 1 or 2 TeV and be observable at the LHC. The new W_R gauge bosons may also contribute significantly to lepton-flavor-changing processes such as mu to e gamma and mu-e conversion in a nucleus or muonic atom.

  7. Mixed Dark Matter in Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Mohlabeng, Gopolang

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W' boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, gR = gL. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.

  8. Mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fox, Patrick J. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Mohlabeng, Gopolang [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas,Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Motivated by the recently reported diboson and dijet excesses in Run 1 data at ATLAS and CMS, we explore models of mixed dark matter in left-right symmetric theories. In this study, we calculate the relic abundance and the elastic scattering cross section with nuclei for a number of dark matter candidates that appear within the fermionic multiplets of left-right symmetric models. In contrast to the case of pure multiplets, WIMP-nucleon scattering proceeds at tree-level, and hence the projected reach of future direct detection experiments such as LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T will cover large regions of parameter space for TeV-scale thermal dark matter. Decays of the heavy charged W{sup ′} boson to particles in the dark sector can potentially shift the right-handed gauge coupling to larger values when fixed to the rate of the Run 1 excesses, moving towards the theoretically attractive scenario, g{sub R}=g{sub L}. This region of parameter space may be probed by future collider searches for new Higgs bosons or electroweak fermions.

  9. Warm dark matter in low scale left-right theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemevšek, Miha; Senjanović, Goran; Zhang, Yue, E-mail: miha@ictp.it, E-mail: goran@ictp.it, E-mail: yuezhang@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We point out that the presence of the right-handed charge-current interactions, operative around the QCD phase transition, has a crucial impact on the amount of dilution, as does the nature of the phase transition itself. A careful numerical study, employing the Boltzmann equations, reveals the existence of a narrow window for the right-handed gauge boson mass, possibly within the reach of LHC (in disagreement with a previous study). We also elaborate on a variety of astrophysical, cosmological and low energy constraints on this scenario.

  10. Constraints on a left-right-symmetric electroweak theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several low-energy quantities are calculated in an attempt to constrain the parameters of a left-right-symmetric theory of electroweak interactions based on the group G = SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1). The quantities calculated are the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ difference, ..delta..m/sub K/, the CP-violation parameters, ..sigma.. and ..sigma..', and the electric dipole moment of the neutron, ..mu../sub n//sup e/. Calculations were performed using the free-quark effective Hamiltonian and generally assume either manifest or pseudo-manifest left-right symmetry. From these calculations an upper bound was placed on the W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing angle of /zeta/ approx.< 0.06, a lower bound on the mass of the right-handed W of M/sub R/ approx.> 1.6 TeV, and a tentative lower bound on the W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing angle of /zeta/ approx.> 10/sup -5/. If in addition we assume the minimal Higgs sector we find /zeta/ approx.< 1/420 and M/sub R/ approx.< 25 TeV.

  11. Minimal left-right symmetric intersecting D-brane model

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. The left-handed and right-handed fermions transform as doublets under Sp(1)_L and Sp(1)_R, and so their masses must be generated by the introduction of Higgs fields in a bi-fundamental (2,2) representation under the two Sp(1) gauge groups. For such D-brane configurations the left-right symmetry must be broken by Higgs fields in the doublet representation of Sp(1)_R and therefore Majorana mass terms are suppressed by some higher physics scale. The left-handed and right-handed neutrinos pair up to form Dirac fermions which maneuver the decay widths of the right-handed W' boson to yield comparable branching fractions into dilepton and dijets channels. Using the most recent searches at LHC13 Run II with 2016 data we constrain the (g_R, m_{W'}) parameter space. Our ana...

  12. Warm Dark Matter in Low Scale Left-Right Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nemevsek, Miha; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We point out that the presence of the right-handed charge-current interactions, operative around the QCD phase transition, has a crucial impact on the amount of dilution, as does the nature of the phase transition itself. A careful numerical study, employing the Boltzmann equations, reveals the existence of a narrow window for the right-handed gauge boson mass, possibly within the reach of LHC (in disagreement with a previous study). We also elaborate on a variety of astrophysical, cosmological and low energy constraints on this...

  13. A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.

  14. Neutrino mixing and leptogenesis in type-II seesaw scenarios with left right symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei; Luo, Shu; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2008-01-01

    We propose two type-II seesaw scenarios for the neutrino mass matrix in the left-right symmetric model, in which the Higgs triplet Yukawa coupling matrix takes the appealing Friedberg-Lee texture. We show that the nearly tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing pattern, which is especially favored by current neutrino oscillation data, can be obtained from both scenarios. We also show that the cosmological baryon number asymmetry can naturally be interpreted in these two scenarios via the flavor-independent leptogenesis mechanism.

  15. Neutrino Mixing and Leptogenesis in Type-II Seesaw Scenarios with Left-Right Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Wei; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2008-01-01

    We propose two Type-II seesaw scenarios for the neutrino mass matrix in the left-right symmetric model, in which the Higgs triplet Yukawa coupling matrix takes the appealing Friedberg-Lee texture. We show that the nearly tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing pattern, which is especially favored by current neutrino oscillation data, can be obtained from both scenarios. We also show that the cosmological baryon number asymmetry can naturally be interpreted in these two scenarios via the flavor-independent leptogenesis mechanism.

  16. Low scale left-right-right-left symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Gauhar

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective left-right-right-left model with a parity breaking scale around a few TeV. One of the main achievements of the model is that the mirror fermions as well as the mirror gauge sector simultaneously could be at TeV scale. It is shown that the most dangerous quadratic divergence of the SM Higgs boson involving the top quark in the loop is naturally suppressed atleast up to approximately $10$ TeV. This could lead to a sufficient parameter space in the scalar potential to make the SM Higgs mass natural even up to the Planck scale. An elegant symmetry breaking pattern is also proposed.

  17. Lepton flavor violation in SUSY left-right symmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Avelino

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is the most popular explanation for the smallness of neutrino masses. However, its high scale makes direct tests impossible and only indirect signals at low energies are reachable for collider experiments. One of these indirect links with the high scale is lepton flavor violation (LFV). We discuss LFV decays of sleptons in the context of a SUSY left-right symmetric model that naturally incorporates the seesaw mechanism. This non-minimal embedding of the seesaw leads to observable LFV effects in the right-handed sleptons sector, contrary to minimal models where these are found to be totally negligible. Therefore, LFV observables can be used as a powerful tool to study physics right below the GUT scale.

  18. Singlet fermion Dark Matter within Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-01-01

    We discuss singlet fermion dark matter within a left-right symmetric model promoting baryon and lepton number as separate gauge symmetries. We add a simple Dirac fermionic dark matter singlet under $SU(2)_{L,R}$ with nonzero and equal baryon and lepton number which ensures charge neutrality. Such a dark matter candidate interacts with SM particles through the extra $Z_{B,\\ell}$ gauge bosons. This can give rise to a dark matter particle of a few hundred GeV that couples to $\\sim$ TeV scale gauge bosons to give the correct relic density. This model thus accommodates TeV scale $Z_{B,\\ell}$ gauge bosons and other low scale BSM particles, which can be easily probed at LHC.

  19. Phenomenology of Left-Right Models in the quark sector

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Luiz Vale

    2016-01-01

    A natural avenue to extend the Standard Model (SM) is to embed it into a more symmetric framework. Here, I focus in Left-Right (LR) Models, which treat left- and right-handed chiralities on equal footing. Important information about the structure of LR Models comes from meson-mixing observables. Due to the impact of the new contributions to these processes, I consider the calculation of the short-distance QCD effects correcting the LR Model contributions to meson-mixing observables at the Next-to-Leading Order. I then revisit the phenomenology of a simple realization of LR Models, containing doublet scalars, and combine in a global fit electroweak precision observables, direct searches of the new gauge bosons and meson oscillation observables, a task performed within the CKMfitter statistical framework. Finally, I also cover a different issue, namely the modeling of theoretical uncertainties, a class of uncertainties specially important for flavour physics. Different frequentist schemes are compared, and thei...

  20. Low scale left-right symmetry and warm dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemevsek, Miha [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-05-23

    We study the scenario which incorporates dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory at the TeV scale. The only viable candidate is found to be the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass of keV. In order to satisfy the dark matter relic abundance, the relic yield is diluted by late decays of the two heavier neutrinos. We point out that the QCD phase transition temperature coincidences with the typical freeze-out temperature governed by super-weak right-handed interactions. This helps to alleviate the problem of overproduction and a careful numerical study reveals a narrow window for the mass of the right-handed gauge boson, which is within the reach of the LHC.

  1. Low Scale Left-Right Symmetry and Warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nemevsek, Miha

    2012-01-01

    We study the scenario of dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory at the TeV scale. The only viable candidate is found to be the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass of keV. To satisfy the dark matter relic abundance, the relic yield is diluted by late decays of the two heavier neutrinos. We point out that the QCD phase transition temperature coincidences with the typical freeze-out temperature governed by right-handed interactions, which helps to alleviate the problem of overproduction. A careful numerical study reveals a narrow window for the mass of the right-handed gauge boson, within the reach of the LHC.

  2. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates - triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet - bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates - doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level - have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many feature...

  3. Pegasus, the 'atypical' Ikaros family member, influences left-right asymmetry and regulates pitx2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Liza B; Trengove, Monique C; Fraser, Fiona W; Yoong, Simon H; Ward, Alister C

    2013-05-01

    Members of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger transcription factors have been shown to be critical for immune and blood cell development. However, the role of the most divergent family member, Pegasus, has remained elusive, although it shows conservation to invertebrate Hunchback proteins that influence embryonic patterning through regulation of homeodomain genes. Zebrafish was employed as a relevant model to investigate the function of Pegasus since it possesses a single pegasus orthologue with high homology to its mammalian counterparts. During zebrafish embryogenesis pegasus transcripts were initially maternally-derived and later replaced by zygotic expression in the diencephalon, tectum, hindbrain, thymus, eye, and ultimately the exocrine pancreas and intestine. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the zebrafish pegasus gene resulted in disrupted left-right asymmetry of the gut and pancreas. Molecular analysis indicated that zebrafish Pegasus localised to the nucleus in discrete non-nucleolar structures and bound the 'atypical' DNA sequence GN3GN2G, confirming its presumed role as a transcriptional regulator. In vivo transcriptome analysis identified candidate target genes, several of which encoded homeodomain transcription factors. One of these, pitx2, implicated in left-right asymmetry, possessed appropriate 'atypical' Pegasus binding sites in its promoter. Knockdown of Pegasus affected both the level and asymmetry of pitx2 expression, as well as disrupting the asymmetry of the lefty2 and spaw genes, explaining the perturbed left-right patterning in pegasus morphants. Collectively these results provide the first definitive insights into the in vivo role of Pegasus, supporting the notion that it acts as a broader regulator of development, with potential parallels to the related invertebrate Hunchback proteins.

  4. Left-right supersymmetry after the Higgs discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Mariana; Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Saha, Ipsita; Waltari, Harri

    2014-01-01

    We perform a thorough analysis of the parameter space of the minimal left-right supersymmetric model in agreement with the LHC data. The model contains left- and right-handed fermionic doublets, two Higgs bidoublets, two Higgs triplet representations, and one singlet, insuring a charge-conserving vacuum. We impose the condition that the model complies with the experimental constraints on supersymmetric particles masses and on the doubly-charged Higgs bosons, and require that the parameter space of the model satisfy the LHC data on neutral Higgs signal strengths at $2\\sigma$. We choose benchmark scenarios by fixing some basic parameters and scanning over the rest. The LSP in our scenarios is always the lightest neutralino. We find that the signals for $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\to VV^\\star$ are correlated, while $H \\to b \\bar b$ is anti-correlated with all the other decay modes, and also that the contribution from singly-charged scalars dominate that of the doubly-charged scalars in $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and ...

  5. Particle production with left-right neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Seishi; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    When the Higgs field starts oscillation after Higgs inflation, gauge bosons are produced nonperturbatively near the enhanced symmetry point (ESP). Just after the particle production, when the Higgs field is going away from the ESP, these gauge bosons gain mass and decay or annihilate into Standard Model (SM) fermions. Left-handed neutrinos can be generated in that way. If one assumes the seesaw mechanism, the mass matrix of a pair of left- and right-handed neutrinos is nondiagonal. Although their mixing in the mass eigenstates is negligible in the true vacuum, it could be significant near the edge of the Higgs oscillation, where the off-diagonal component is large. Therefore, the left-handed neutrinos generated from the gauge bosons can start neutrino oscillation between the right-handed neutrinos. We study the particle production when such left-right (L-R) neutrino oscillation is significant. For a working example, the nonthermal leptogenesis scenario after Higgs inflation is examined, which cannot be realized without the L-R neutrino oscillation. The same mechanism could be applied to other singlet particles whose abundance has been neglected.

  6. Constraints on the parameters of the Left Right Mirror Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cerón, V E; Díaz-Cruz, J L; Maya, M; Ceron, Victoria E.; Cotti, Umberto; Maya, Mario

    1998-01-01

    We study some phenomenological constraints on the parameters of a left right model with mirror fermions (LRMM) that solves the strong CP problem. In particular, we evaluate the contribution of mirror neutrinos to the invisible Z decay width (\\Gamma_Z^{inv}), and we find that the present experimental value on \\Gamma_Z^{inv}, can be used to place an upper bound on the Z-Z' mixing angle that is consistent with limits obtained previously from other low-energy observables. In this model the charged fermions that correspond to the standard model (SM) mix with its mirror counterparts. This mixing, simultaneously with the Z-Z' one, leads to modifications of the \\Gamma(Z --> f \\bar{f}) decay width. By comparing with LEP data, we obtain bounds on the standard-mirror lepton mixing angles. We also find that the bottom quark mixing parameters can be chosen to fit the experimental values of R_b, and the resulting values for the Z-Z' mixing angle do not agree with previous bounds. However, this disagreement disappears if on...

  7. Radiative Breaking of the Minimal Supersymmetric Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new variation to the SUSY Left-Right symmetric model based on the gauge group $SU(3)_c\\times SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{BL}$. Beyond the quark and lepton superfields we only introduce a second Higgs bidoublet to produce realistic fermion mass matrices. This model does not include any $SU(2)_R$ triplets. We calculate renormalization group evolutions of soft SUSY parameters at the one-loop level down to low energy. We find that an $SU(2)_R$ slepton doublet acquires a negative mass squared at low energies, so that the breaking of $SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{BL}\\rightarrow U(1)_Y$ is realized by a non-zero vacuum expectation value of a right-handed sneutrino. Small neutrino masses are produced through neutrino mixings with gauginos. Mass limits on the $SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{BL}$ sector are obtained by direct search results at the LHC as well as lepton-gaugino mixing bounds from the LEP precision data.

  8. Left-Right Non-Linear Dynamical Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jing; Yepes, Juan

    2016-12-01

    All the possible CP-conserving non-linear operators up to the p4-order in the Lagrangian expansion are analysed here for the left-right symmetric model in the non-linear electroweak chiral context coupled to a light dynamical Higgs. The low energy effects will be triggered by an emerging new physics field content in the nature, more specifically, from spin-1 resonances sourced by the straightforward extension of the SM local gauge symmetry to the larger local group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)B-L. Low energy phenomenology will be altered by integrating out the resonances from the physical spectrum, being manifested through induced corrections onto the left handed operators. Such modifications are weighted by powers of the scales ratio implied by the symmetries of the model and will determine the size of the effective operator basis to be used. The recently observed diboson excess around the invariant mass 1.8 TeV-2 TeV entails a scale suppression that suggests to encode the low energy effects via a much smaller set of effective operators. J. Y. also acknowledges KITPC financial support during the completion of this work

  9. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  10. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    Political values have been hypothesized as causal predictors of welfare state support, with subjective position on the left-right scale often used in empirical studies to measure the individual’s core political values. Unfortunately, a major problem in existing research is that the causal effect...... of left-right position on welfare state support cannot be identified with cross-sectional data in which left-right position and welfare state support are observed simultaneously. In this paper, I propose an alternative approach based on Instrumental Variable methods which, using socioeconomic background...... characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...

  11. Even-Skipped(+) Interneurons Are Core Components of a Sensorimotor Circuit that Maintains Left-Right Symmetric Muscle Contraction Amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckscher, Ellie S; Zarin, Aref Arzan; Faumont, Serge; Clark, Matthew Q; Manning, Laurina; Fushiki, Akira; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Fetter, Richard D; Truman, James W; Zwart, Maarten F; Landgraf, Matthias; Cardona, Albert; Lockery, Shawn R; Doe, Chris Q

    2015-10-21

    Bilaterally symmetric motor patterns--those in which left-right pairs of muscles contract synchronously and with equal amplitude (such as breathing, smiling, whisking, and locomotion)--are widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the underlying neural circuits. We performed a thermogenetic screen to identify neurons required for bilaterally symmetric locomotion in Drosophila larvae and identified the evolutionarily conserved Even-skipped(+) interneurons (Eve/Evx). Activation or ablation of Eve(+) interneurons disrupted bilaterally symmetric muscle contraction amplitude, without affecting the timing of motor output. Eve(+) interneurons are not rhythmically active and thus function independently of the locomotor CPG. GCaMP6 calcium imaging of Eve(+) interneurons in freely moving larvae showed left-right asymmetric activation that correlated with larval behavior. TEM reconstruction of Eve(+) interneuron inputs and outputs showed that the Eve(+) interneurons are at the core of a sensorimotor circuit capable of detecting and modifying body wall muscle contraction.

  12. Tbx6 regulates left/right patterning in mouse embryos through effects on nodal cilia and perinodal signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of left/right body axis during early embryogenesis sets up a developmental cascade that coordinates the development of the viscera and is essential to the correct placement and alignment of organ systems and vasculature. Defective left-right patterning can lead to congenital cardiac malformations, vascular anomalies and other serious health problems. Here we describe a novel role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx6 in left/right body axis determination in the mouse. RESULTS: Embryos lacking Tbx6 show randomized embryo turning and heart looping. Our results point to multiple mechanisms for this effect. First, Dll1, a direct target of Tbx6, is down regulated around the node in Tbx6 mutants and there is a subsequent decrease in nodal signaling, which is required for laterality determination. Secondly, in spite of a lack of expression of Tbx6 in the node, we document a profound effect of the Tbx6 mutation on the morphology and motility of nodal cilia. This results in the loss of asymmetric calcium signaling at the periphery of the node, suggesting that unidirectional nodal flow is disrupted. To carry out these studies, we devised a novel method for direct labeling and live imaging cilia in vivo using a genetically-encoded fluorescent protein fusion that labels tubulin, combined with laser point scanning confocal microscopy for direct visualization of cilia movement. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the transcription factor gene Tbx6 is essential for correct left/right axis determination in the mouse and acts through effects on notch signaling around the node as well as through an effect on the morphology and motility of the nodal cilia.

  13. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  14. N-Cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule involved in establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castro, M I; Vielmetter, E; Bronner-Fraser, M

    2000-05-12

    Within the bilaterally symmetric vertebrate body plan, many organs develop asymmetrically. Here, it is demonstrated that a cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, is one of the earliest proteins to be asymmetrically expressed in the chicken embryo and that its activity is required during gastrulation for proper establishment of the left-right axis. Blocking N-cadherin function randomizes heart looping and alters the expression of Snail and Pitx2, later components of the molecular cascade that regulate left-right asymmetry. However, the expression of other components of this cascade (Nodal and Lefty) was unchanged after blocking N-cadherin function, suggesting the existence of parallel pathways in the establishment of left-right morphogenesis. Here, the results suggest that N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion events are required for establishment of left-right asymmetry.

  15. UNFOLDING OF MULTIPARAMETER EQUIVARIANT BIFURCATION PROBLEMS WITH TWO GROUPS OF STATE VARIABLES UNDER LEFT-RIGHT EQUIVALENT GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rui-zhi; LI Yang-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the left-right equivalent relation of smooth map-germs in singularity theory, the unfoldings of multiparameter equivariant bifurcation problems with respect to leftright equivalence are discussed. The state variables of such an equivariant bifurcation problem were divided into two groups, in which the first can vary independently, while the others depend on the first in the varying process. By applying related methods and techniques in the unfolding theory of smooth map-germs, the necessary and sufficient condition for an unfolding of a multiparameter equivariant bifurcation problem with two groups of state variables to be versal is obtained.

  16. Genetic specification of left-right asymmetry in the diaphragm muscles and their motor innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoy, Camille; Dinvaut, Sarah; Chaix, Yohan; Morlé, Laurette; Sanyas, Isabelle; Bozon, Muriel; Kindbeiter, Karine; Durand, Bénédicte; Skidmore, Jennifer M; De Groef, Lies; Seki, Motoaki; Moons, Lieve; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valerie

    2017-06-22

    The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs. We further found that phrenic motoneurons receive an early L/R genetic imprint, with L versus R differences both in Slit/Robo signaling and MMP2 activity and in the contribution of both pathways to establish phrenic nerve asymmetry. Our study therefore demonstrates L-R imprinting of spinal motoneurons and describes how L/R modulation of axon guidance signaling helps to match neural circuit formation to organ asymmetry.

  17. Quark-Lepton Unification and Eight-Fold Ambiguity in the Left-Right Symmetric Seesaw Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Hosteins, P; Savoy, C A; Hosteins, Pierre; Lavignac, Stephane; Savoy, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, including a broad class of left-right symmetric and Grand Unified theories, the light neutrino mass matrix is given by the left-right symmetric seesaw formula $M_\

  18. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter in left-right models

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    We show that in a class of non-supersymmetric left-right extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the lightest right-handed neutrino (RHN) can play the role of thermal Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe for a wide mass range from TeV to PeV. Our model is based on the gauge group $SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{Y_L}\\times U(1)_{Y_R}$ in which a heavy copy of the SM fermions are introduced and the stability of the RHN DM is guaranteed by an automatic $Z_2$ symmetry present in the leptonic sector. In such models the active neutrino masses are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism. We find a lower bound on the RHN DM mass of order TeV from relic density constraints, as well as an unitarity upper bound in the multi-TeV to PeV scale, depending on the entropy dilution factor. The RHN DM could be made long-lived by soft-breaking of the $Z_2$ symmetry and provides a concrete example of decaying DM interpretation of the PeV neutrinos observed at IceCube.

  19. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter in left-right models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2017-05-01

    We show that in a class of non-supersymmetric left-right extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the lightest right-handed neutrino (RHN) can play the role of thermal Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe for a wide mass range from TeV to PeV. Our model is based on the gauge group SU(3)c ×SU(2)L ×SU(2)R ×U(1)YL ×U(1)YR in which a heavy copy of the SM fermions is introduced and the stability of the RHN DM is guaranteed by an automatic Z2 symmetry present in the leptonic sector. In such models, the active neutrino masses are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism. We find a lower bound on the RHN DM mass of order TeV from relic density constraints, as well as a unitarity upper bound in the multi-TeV to PeV scale, depending on the entropy dilution factor. The RHN DM could be made long-lived by soft-breaking of the Z2 symmetry and provides a concrete example of decaying DM interpretation of the PeV neutrinos observed at IceCube.

  20. Right-handed neutrino dark matter in left-right symmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2017-07-01

    We show that in a class of non-supersymmetric left-right extensions of the Standard Model (SM), the lightest right-handed neutrino (RHN) is naturally stable and can therefore play the role of thermal Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe for a wide mass range from TeV to PeV. Our model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c × SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) YL × U(1) YR in which a heavy copy of the SM fermions are introduced and the stability of the RHN DM is guaranteed by an automatic Z 2 symmetry present in the leptonic sector. The active neutrino masses in the model arise from the type-II seesaw mechanism. We find a lower bound on the RHN DM mass of order TeV from relic density constraints, as well as an unitarity upper bound in the multi-TeV to PeV scale, depending on the entropy dilution factor. The RHN DM could be made long-lived by soft-breaking of the Z 2 symmetry and provides a concrete example of decaying DM interpretation of the PeV neutrinos observed at IceCube.

  1. Astrophysical Constraints on the scale of Left-Right Symmetry in Inverse Seesaw Models

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the recently studied supersymmetric gauged inverse seesaw model \\cite{An:2011uq} to incorporate astrophysical constraints on lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) lifetime such that LSP constitutes the dark matter of the Universe. The authors in \\cite{An:2011uq} considered light sneutrino LSP that can play the role of inelastic dark matter (iDM) such that desired iDM mass splitting and tiny Majorana masses of neutrinos can have a common origin. Here we point out that due to spontaneous R-parity $(R_p = (-1)^{3(B-L)+2s})$ breaking in such generic supersymmetric gauged inverse seesaw models, LSP can not be perfectly stable but decays to standard model particles after non-renormalizable operators allowed by the gauge symmetry are introduced. We show that strong astrophysical constraints on LSP lifetime makes sneutrino dark matter more natural than standard neutralino dark matter. We also show that long-livedness of sneutrino dark matter constrains the left right symmetry breaking scale $M_R < 10^4...

  2. Class I myosins have overlapping and specialized functions in left-right asymmetric development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Takashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Inatomi, Momoko; Hozumi, Shunya; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Hatori, Ryo; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Suzuki, Emiko; Maeda, Reo; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    The class I myosin genes are conserved in diverse organisms, and their gene products are involved in actin dynamics, endocytosis, and signal transduction. Drosophila melanogaster has three class I myosin genes, Myosin 31DF (Myo31DF), Myosin 61F (Myo61F), and Myosin 95E (Myo95E). Myo31DF, Myo61F, and Myo95E belong to the Myosin ID, Myosin IC, and Myosin IB families, respectively. Previous loss-of-function analyses of Myo31DF and Myo61F revealed important roles in left-right (LR) asymmetric development and enterocyte maintenance, respectively. However, it was difficult to elucidate their roles in vivo, because of potential redundant activities. Here we generated class I myosin double and triple mutants to address this issue. We found that the triple mutant was viable and fertile, indicating that all three class I myosins were dispensable for survival. A loss-of-function analysis revealed further that Myo31DF and Myo61F, but not Myo95E, had redundant functions in promoting the dextral LR asymmetric development of the male genitalia. Myo61F overexpression is known to antagonize the dextral activity of Myo31DF in various Drosophila organs. Thus, the LR-reversing activity of overexpressed Myo61F may not reflect its physiological function. The endogenous activity of Myo61F in promoting dextral LR asymmetric development was observed in the male genitalia, but not the embryonic gut, another LR asymmetric organ. Thus, Myo61F and Myo31DF, but not Myo95E, play tissue-specific, redundant roles in LR asymmetric development. Our studies also revealed differential colocalization of the class I myosins with filamentous (F)-actin in the brush border of intestinal enterocytes. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Preliminary analysis of left-right ambiguity resolution performance for twin-line array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qihu

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the single line array sonar can't identify whether the target comes from left or right. Multi-line array provides the possibility to solve the left-right ambiguity problem. The performance of left-right resolution for twin-line array is described in this paper.It is shown that the suppression ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the response in the steering direction to opposite symmetrical direction, can be considered as an index for evaluating the ability of solving left-right ambiguity. The characteristics of suppression ratio is discussed. The theoretical expression for suppression ratio and some numerical results are illustrated. The result of theoretical analysis can be used in design of twin-line array sonar.

  4. Right-handed quark mixing in left-right symmetric theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2015-02-20

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the minimal left-right symmetric theory, for the case when the left-right symmetry is generalized parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close to the CKM ones, in spite of the left-right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the right-handed charged gauge boson and the computation of K(L)-K(S) mass difference.

  5. A polarized window for left-right symmetry at the Large Hadron-Electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Subhadeep

    2015-01-01

    The breaking of parity, a fundamental symmetry between left and right is best understood in the framework of left-right symmetric extension of the standard model. We show that the production of a heavy right-handed neutrino at the proposed Large Hadron-Electron Collider (LHeC) could give us the most simple and direct hint of the scale of this breaking in left-right symmetric theories. This production mode gives a lepton number violating signal with $\\Delta L=2$ which is very clean and has practically no standard model background. We highlight that the right-handed nature of $W_R$ exchange which defines the left-right symmetric theories can be confirmed by using a polarized electron beam and also enhance the production rates with relatively lower beam energy.

  6. TeV scale double seesaw in left-right symmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep

    2010-01-01

    We extend the Type I and Type III seesaw mechanisms to generate neutrino masses within the left-right symmetric theories where parity is spontaneously broken. We construct a next to minimal left-right symmetric model where neutrino masses are generated through a variant $double$ seesaw mechanism. In our model at least one of the triplet fermions and the right handed neutrinos are at TeV scale and others are heavy. The phenomenological aspects and testability of the TeV scale particles at collider experiments are discussed. The decays of heavy fermions leading to leptogenesis are pointed out.

  7. Light Sterile Neutrino and Dark Matter in Left-Right Symmetric Models Without Higgs Bidoublet

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of left-right symmetric models where Dirac as well as Majorana mass terms of neutrinos can arise at one-loop level in a scotogenic fashion: with dark matter particles going inside the loop. We show the possibility of naturally light right handed neutrinos that can have interesting implications at neutrinoless double beta decay experiments as well as cosmology. Apart from a stable dark matter candidate stabilised by a remnant $Z_2$ symmetry, one can also have a long lived keV sterile neutrino dark matter in these models. This class of models can have very different collider signatures compared to the conventional left-right models.

  8. Three-family left-right symmetry with low-scale seesaw mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Mario; Vaquera-Araujo, C A

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new left-right symmetric model implementing a low-scale seesaw mechanism in which quantum consistency requires three families of fermions. The symmetry breaking route to the Standard Model determines the profile of the "next" expected new physics, characterized either by the simplest left-right gauge symmetry or by the 3-3-1 scenario. The resulting $Z^\\prime$ gauge bosons can be probed at the LHC and provide a production portal for the right-handed neutrinos. On the other hand, its flavor changing interactions would affect the K, D and B neutral meson systems.

  9. Arbitrary natural effective hierarchy in a left-right Higgs theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliensis, J.

    1985-12-26

    I describe an ordinary Higgs model that produces naturally near its infrared fixed point an arbitrarily large ratio of vacuum expectation values, effectively a hierarchy between scales of symmetry breaking. The model has potential phenomenological relevance to left-right theories: it predicts small Wsub(L)-Wsub(R) mixing and the existence of ultralight Dirac fermions. (orig.).

  10. An adaptive left-right eigenvector evolution algorithm for vibration isolation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. Y.

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing an adaptive left and right eigenvector evolution (ALREE) algorithm for active vibration isolation. As depicted in the previous paper presented by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048), the structural vibration behavior depends on both the disturbance rejection capability and mode shape distributions, which correspond to the left and right eigenvector distributions of the system, respectively. In this paper, a novel adaptive evolution algorithm is developed for finding the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the vibration isolator, which is an improvement over the simultaneous left-right eigenvector assignment (SLREA) method proposed by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048). The isolation performance index used in the proposed algorithm is defined by combining the orthogonality index of left eigenvectors and the modal energy ratio index of right eigenvectors. Through the proposed ALREE algorithm, both the left and right eigenvectors evolve such that the isolation performance index decreases, and therefore one can find the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the closed-loop system for vibration isolation purposes. The optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors is then synthesized to determine the feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop system. The result of the active isolation control shows that the proposed method can be utilized to improve the vibration isolation performance compared with the previous approaches.

  11. [Artificial Inversion of the Left-Right Visceral Asymmetry in Vertebrates: Conceptual Approaches and Experimental Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truleva, A S; Malashichev, E B; Ermakov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Externally, vertebrates are bilaterally symmetrical; however, left-right asymmetry is observed in the structure of their internal organs and systems of organs (circulatory, digestive, and respiratory). In addition to the asymmetry of internal organs (visceral), there is also functional (i.e., asymmetrical functioning of organs on the left and right sides of the body) and behavioral asymmetry. The question of a possible association between different types of asymmetry is still open. The study of the mechanisms of such association, in addition to the fundamental interest, has important applications for biomedicine, primarily for the understanding of the brain functioning in health and disease and for the development of methods of treatment of certain mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism, for which the disturbance of left-right asymmetry of the brain was shown. To study the deep association between different types of asymmetry, it is necessary to obtain adequate animal models (primarily animals with inverted visceral organs, situs inversus totalis). There are two main possible approaches to obtaining such model organisms: mutagenesis followed by selection of mutant strains with mutations in the genes that affect the formation of the left-right visceral asymmetry and experimental obtaining of animals with inverted internal organs. This review focuses on the second approach. We describe the theoretical models for establishing left-right asymmetry and possible experimental approaches to obtaining animals with inverted internal organs.

  12. Left-right asymmetry in plants and animals: a gold mine for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Gravendeel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Left-right asymmetry patterns in the body shapes of animals and plants have been a continuous source of interest among biologists. Recently, inroads have been made to developing a coherent research programme that makes use of the unique fact that chiral patterns may be studied (and generalities dedu

  13. Non-adaptive speciation of snails by left-right reversal is facilitated on oceanic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small population size is essential for non-adaptive evolution. Evolution of whole-body left-right reversal in snails is generally a compelling example of non-adaptive speciation, because variants with reversed chirality would suffer from

  14. Single Higgs boson production at the ILC in the left-right twin Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao-Bei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we analyse three dominant single SM-like Higgs boson production processes in the left-right twin Higgs model (LRTHM): the Higgs-strahlung (HS) process $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow Zh$, the vector boson fusion (VBF) process $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow \

  15. Genetic control of left/right asymmetry in C. elegans neuroblast migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of cells is crucial for proper animal development. In order to study cell migration in an in vivo context we used the small nematode C. elegans as a model organism. During C. elegans larval development two Q neuroblasts, initially positioned on equivalent left/right positions, migrate

  16. A Case of Uveal Colobomas Showing Marked Left-Right Difference in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Moriya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Congenital uveal colobomas, including inferior iris and choroidal colobomas, are associated with microcornea and microphthalmia and often show left-right differences (laterality. The purpose of this study was to report a case of choroidal coloboma associated with left-right differences in diabetic retinopathy (DR. Case: This study reports a 59-year-old male with bilateral iris and choroidal colobomas. The colobomatous area in the patient's right eye extended to the macula, and his right eye had been amblyopic since birth. The colobomatous area in his left eye was less extensive and did not involve the macula. Examination of the patient's left eye revealed multiple hemorrhages and hard exudates in the macula due to DR, but examination of his right eye showed almost no changes in DR, thus revealing a marked left-right difference. Optical coherence tomography showed more extensive retinal thinning in the patient's right eye than in his left eye. Fluorescein fundus angiography revealed a retinal nonperfusion area only in the left eye, and panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed. Conclusion: Our findings show that the reason for the left-right difference in DR was attributed to the more severe choroidal coloboma and retinal thinning in the patient's right eye compared to his left eye, thus reducing oxygen demand, as is also seen in eyes with severe myopia.

  17. Mice lacking hippocampal left-right asymmetry show non-spatial learning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Akihiro; Kosaki, Yutaka; Ito, Isao; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-08-31

    Left-right asymmetry is known to exist at several anatomical levels in the brain and recent studies have provided further evidence to show that it also exists at a molecular level in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuit. The distribution of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunits in the apical and basal synapses of CA1 pyramidal neurons is asymmetrical if the input arrives from the left or right CA3 pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we examined the role of hippocampal asymmetry in cognitive function using β2-microglobulin knock-out (β2m KO) mice, which lack hippocampal asymmetry. We tested β2m KO mice in a series of spatial and non-spatial learning tasks and compared the performances of β2m KO and C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice. The β2m KO mice appeared normal in both spatial reference memory and spatial working memory tasks but they took more time than WT mice in learning the two non-spatial learning tasks (i.e., a differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL) task and a straight runway task). The β2m KO mice also showed less precision in their response timing in the DRL task and showed weaker spontaneous recovery during extinction in the straight runway task. These results indicate that hippocampal asymmetry is important for certain characteristics of non-spatial learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are there any left-right asymmetries in saccade parameters? Examination of latency, gain, and peak velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilino-Perez, Dorine; Fayel, Alexandra; Lemoine, Christelle; Senot, Patrice; Vergne, Judith; Doré-Mazars, Karine

    2012-06-05

    Hemispheric specialization in saccadic control is still under debate. Here we examine the latency, gain, and peak velocity of reactive and voluntary leftward and rightward saccades to assess the respective roles of eye and hand dominance. Participants with contrasting hand and eye dominance were asked to make saccades toward a target displayed at 5°, 10°, or 15° left or right of the central fixation point. In separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were elicited by Gap-200, Gap-0, Overlap-600, and Antisaccade procedures. Left-right asymmetries were not found in saccade latencies but appeared in saccade gain and peak velocity. Regardless of the dominant hand, saccades directed to the ipsilateral side relative to the dominant eye had larger amplitudes and faster peak velocities. Left-right asymmetries can be explained by naso-temporal differences for some subjects and by eye dominance for others. Further investigations are needed to examine saccadic parameters more systematically in relation to eye dominance. Indeed, any method that allows one to determine ocular dominance from objective measures based on saccade parameters should greatly benefit clinical applications, such as monovision surgery.

  19. Mechanisms of left-right coordination in mammalian locomotor pattern generation circuits: a mathematical modeling view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs. Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized "hopping" pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype maintained the left-right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them

  20. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A{sub b} is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is A{sub b} = 0.91 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A{sub b} = 0.935.

  1. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  2. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  3. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, Ab is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is Ab = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of Ab = 0.935.

  4. FCNC in left-right symmetric theories and constraints on the right-handed scale

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, M E

    1997-01-01

    We revise the limits on the FCNC higgses in manifestly left-right symmetric theories. It is shown that the combination of the Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violation with the tree level $\\Delta S=2$ higgs exchange gives very large contribution to the CP-violating $\\epsilon$ parameter. It leads to the new strong constraint on the FCNC higgs mass, M>50- 100 TeV, enhanced by factor of the order $\\sqrt{m_t/m_c}$. Being addressed to the supersymmetric left-right models, FCNC problem requires both right-handed scale and supersymmetric mass parameters be heavier than 50 TeV for $tan\\beta\\sim 1$. The most relaxed case corresponds to $tan\\beta\\sim 20- 30$ where right-handed scale can be of the order of few TeV.

  5. Type I and $new$ seesaw in left-right symmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep

    2010-01-01

    We extend the Type I seesaw and suggest a $new$ seesaw mechanism to generate neutrino masses within the left-right symmetric theories where parity is spontaneously broken. We construct a next to minimal left-right symmetric model where neutrino masses are determined irrespective of the B-L breaking scale and call it the $new$ seesaw mechanism. In this scenario B-L scale can be very low. This makes B-L gauge boson and the quasi-Dirac $heavy$ leptons very light. These TeV scale particles could have large impact on lepton flavor and CP violating processes. We also shed light on the phenomenological aspects of the model within the reach of the LHC.

  6. Minimal left-right symmetric models and new $Z'$ properties at future electron-positron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, F M L; Martins-Simões, J A; Ponciano, J; Ramalho, A J; Wulck, S; Do Vale, M A B; Wulck, Stenio

    2004-01-01

    It was recently shown that left-right symmetric models for elementary particles can be built with only two Higgs doublets. The general consequence of these models is that the left and right fermionic sectors can be connected by a new neutral gauge boson $Z'$ having its mass as the only additional new parameter. In this paper we study the influence of the fundamental fermionic representation for this new neutral gauge boson. Signals of possible new heavy neutral gauge bosons are investigated for the future electron-positron colliders at $\\sqrt s = 500$ GeV, 1 TeV and 3 TeV. The total cross sections, forward-backward and left-right asymmetries and model differences are calculated for the process $e^+ e^- \\longrightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. Bounds on $Z'$ masses are estimated.

  7. Light sterile neutrino and dark matter in left-right symmetric models without a Higgs bidoublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish

    2016-10-01

    We present a class of left-right symmetric models where Dirac as well as Majorana mass terms of neutrinos can arise at the one-loop level in a scotogenic fashion: with dark matter particles going inside the loop. We show the possibility of naturally light right-handed neutrinos that can have interesting implications for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments as well as cosmology. Apart from a stable dark matter candidate stabilized by a remnant Z2 symmetry, one can also have a long-lived keV sterile neutrino dark matter in these models. This class of models can have very different collider signatures compared to the conventional left-right models.

  8. Left-Right Symmetric Models at the High-Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Helo, Juan C; Kovalenko, Sergey G; Ortiz, Sebastian E

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints on Left-Right Symmetric models from searches of semileptonic decays of $D$, $D_{s}$, $B$ mesons, mediated by heavy neutrinos $N$ with masses $m_N\\sim $ GeV that go on their mass shell leading to a resonant enhancement of the rates. Using these processes we examine, as a function of $m_N$ and $M_{W_R}$, the physics reach of the recently proposed high-intensity beam dump experiment SHiP, which is expected to produce a large sample of $D_s$ mesons. We compare these results with the corresponding reach of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, as well as like-sign dilepton searches with displaced vertices at the LHC. We conclude that the SHiP experiment has clear advantages in probing the Left-Right Symmetric models for heavy neutrinos in the GeV mass range.

  9. Type III Seesaw and Dark Matter in a Supersymmetric Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new supersymmetric left right model with Higgs doublets carrying odd B-L charge, higgs bidoublet and heavy Higgs triplets with zero B-L charge and a set of sterile neutrinos which are singlet under the gauge group. We show that spontaneous parity violation can be achieved naturally in this model and the neutrino masses arise from the so called type III seesaw mechanism. We also discuss the possible phenomenology in the context of neutrino masses and dark matter.

  10. Reconstructing the Right-Handed Neutrino Masses in Left-Right Symmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hosteins, P

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a method to extract the right-handed neutrino mass matrix from the Left-Right symmetric seesaw formula and apply it to the study of a simple SUSY SO(10) theory. We find 8 possible solutions for the heavy neutrino spectrum and a richer phenomenology than in the pure type I or type II seesaw mechanism. Leptogenesis is studied in SO(10) and can be accomodated more easily than with the type I dominance.

  11. CP violation in a left-right symmetric Higgs boson exchange theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakano, M.

    1986-06-05

    The CP violation parameter epsilon'/epsilon is calculated through charged Higgs boson exchange in a left-right symmetric theory. We renormalize the vertex functions involved in the K/sup 0/->..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ amplitude. An estimation gives the predicted value of epsilon'/epsilon equal to -0.038, which is much larger in magnitude than the experimental value, -0.003+-0.015.

  12. Phenomenology of Friedberg-Lee Texture in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min-Jie; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2008-08-01

    We consider that the Higgs triplet Yukawa coupling takes the Friedberg Lee texture, and the Higgs doublet Yukawa coupling simply identifies with the diagonal Yukawa coupling of charged lepton in the context of left-right symmetric model. In this scenario, the phenomenology, including effective neutrino masses, mixings, and thermal flavor-dependent leptogenesis and lepton flavor violation decays are studied. We investigate the combined constrain of the parameters in this scenario and test its consistency with present data.

  13. Simple Left-Right Theory: Lepton Number Violation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Ohmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple left-right symmetric theory where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level. In this context the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and the model has the minimal degrees of freedom in the scalar sector needed for symmetry breaking and mass generation. We discuss the lepton number violating signatures with two charged leptons of different flavor and missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider in order to understand the testability of the theory.

  14. Left-right asymmetry in plants and animals: a gold mine for research

    OpenAIRE

    Schilthuizen, M; Gravendeel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Left-right asymmetry patterns in the body shapes of animals and plants have been a continuous source of interest among biologists. Recently, inroads have been made to developing a coherent research programme that makes use of the unique fact that chiral patterns may be studied (and generalities deduced) by comparisons across many unrelated groups, even across Kingdoms. The papers delivered at the symposium ‘Evolution of Chirality’ during the 2011 European congress of evolutionary biology (ESE...

  15. Simple left-right theory: Lepton number violation at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara; Ohmer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple left-right symmetric theory where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level. In this context the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and the model has the minimal degrees of freedom in the scalar sector needed for symmetry breaking and mass generation. We discuss the lepton number violating signatures with two charged leptons of different flavor and missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider in order to understand the testability of the theory.

  16. Phenomenology of Friedberg-Lee Texture in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Min-Jie; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2008-01-01

    We consider that the Higgs triplet Yukawa coupling takes the Friedberg-Lee texture, and the Higgs doublet Yukawa coupling simply identifies with the diagonal Yukawa coupling of charged lepton in the context of left-right symmetric model. In this scenario, the phenomenology, including effective neutrino masses, mixings, and thermal flavor-dependent leptogenesis and lepton flavor violation decays are studied. We investigate the combined constrain of the parameters in this scenario and test its consistency with present data.

  17. Quantization and renormalization of the manifest left-right symmetric model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Duka, P; Zralek, M

    2000-01-01

    Quantization and renormalization of the left-right symmetric model is the main purpose of the paper. First the model at tree level with a Higgs sector containing one bidoublet and two triplets is precisely discussed. Then the canonical quantization and Faddeev-Popov Lagrangian are carried out ('t Hooft gauge). The BRST symmetry is discussed. Subsequently the on mass shell renormalization is performed and, as a test of consistency, the renormalization of the ZNiNj vertex is analyzed.

  18. Left-right model with TeV fermionic dark matter and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Triparno; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2017-08-01

    The ingredients for a model with a TeV right-handed scale, gauge coupling unification, and suitable dark matter candidates lie at the heart of left-right symmetry with broken D-parity. After detailing the contents of such a model, with SU(2)R self-conjugate fermions at the right-handed scale aiding in unification of couplings, we explore its dark matter implications and collider signatures.

  19. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan

    2017-04-04

    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus, Nodal, Lefty, and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx, whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal, whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  20. Capturing government policy on the left-right scale: evidence from the United Kingdom, 1956-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.

    2009-01-01

    The left-right scheme is the most widely used and parsimonious representation of political competition. Yet, long time series of the left-right position of governments are sparse. Existing methods are of limited use in dynamic settings due to insufficient time points which hinders the proper

  1. Dvr1 transfers left-right asymmetric signals from Kupffer's vesicle to lateral plate mesoderm in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Annita G; Wang, Xinghao; Yost, H Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An early step in establishing left-right (LR) symmetry in zebrafish is the generation of asymmetric fluid flow by Kupffer's vesicle (KV). As a result of fluid flow, a signal is generated and propagated from the KV to the left lateral plate mesoderm, activating a transcriptional response of Nodal expression in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). The mechanisms and molecules that aid in this transfer of information from the KV to the left LPM are still not clear. Here we provide several lines of evidence demonstrating a role for a member of the TGFβ family member, Dvr1, a zebrafish Vg1 ortholog. Dvr1 is expressed bilaterally between the KV and the LPM. Knockdown of Dvr1 by morpholino causes dramatically reduced or absent expression of southpaw (spaw, a Nodal homolog), in LPM, and corresponding loss of downstream Lefty (lft1 and lft) expression, and aberrant brain and heart LR patterning. Dvr1 morphant embryos have normal KV morphology and function, normal expression of southpaw (spaw) and charon (cha) in the peri-KV region and normal expression of a variety of LPM markers in LPM. Additionally, Dvr1 knockdown does not alter the capability of LPM to respond to signals that initiate and propagate spaw expression. Co-injection experiments in Xenopus and zebrafish indicate that Dvr1 and Spaw can enhance each other's ability to activate the Nodal response pathway and co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal differential relationships among activators and inhibitors in this pathway. These results indicate that Dvr1 is responsible for enabling the transfer of a left-right signal from KV to the LPM.

  2. D6-Brane Model Building on Z(2)xZ(6): MSSM-like and Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Jill; Staessens, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic search for globally defined MSSM-like and left-right symmetric models on D6-branes on the T6/Z(2)xZ(6)xOR orientifold with discrete torsion. Our search is exhaustive for models that are independent of the value of the one free complex structure modulus. Preliminary investigations suggest that there exists one prototype of visible sector for MSSM-like and another for left-right symmetric models with differences arising from various hidden sector completions to global models. For each prototype, we provide the full matter spectrum, as well as the Yukawa and other three-point couplings needed to render vector-like matter states massive. This provides us with tentative explanations for the mass hierarchies within the quark and lepton sectors. We also observe that the MSSM-like models correspond to explicit realisations of the supersymmetric DFSZ axion model, and that the left-right symmetric models allow for global completions with either completely decoupled hidden sectors or with some me...

  3. Associated ZH and WH Production in Left-Right Twin Higgs Model at LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Ju; LU Gong-Ru

    2011-01-01

    At the CERN large hadron collider (LHC), production of the Higgs boson in association with Z or W bosons provides a dramatic experimental signal for detecting the standard model (SM) Higgs boson. In this paper, we consider the contributions of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model to the processes q(q′) → Z(W)H. Our numerical results show that, in the favorable parameter spaces, the cross sections deviate distinctly from the predictions of the SM.The possible signals of the LRTH model can be detected via these processes at the LHC experiments.

  4. Composite Weak Vector Bosons in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Ishida, S.; Wada, H.

    1996-09-01

    We take the viewpoint that the standard model is a low energy effective theory among composite quarks, leptons and weak bosons in a left-right (LR) symmetric preon model with a hypercolor SU(N)HC gauge interaction. Starting from NJL-type interactions with global SU(2)L × SU(2)R symmetry, we construct the composite weak vector bosons from a pair of spinor preons and derive their effective interactions with quarks and leptons, which are essentially identical, at the tree-diagram level, to those in the LR symmetric gauge model. Through the process of this approach, some physical aspects of the LR gauge model are clarified.

  5. Direct CP violation in charm decays due to left-right mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung, E-mail: physchen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwang@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-08

    Motivated by the 3.8{sigma} deviation from no CP violation hypothesis for the CP asymmetry (CPA) difference between D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, reported recently by LHCb and CDF, we investigate the CP violating effect due to the left-right (LR) mixing in the general LR symmetric model. In particular, we show that the large CPA difference could be explained in the non-manifest LR model.

  6. Testing Left-Right Symmetric Gauge Theories at $e^{+}e^{-}$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Raidal, Martti

    2000-01-01

    If the Standard Model is embedded in a left-right symmetric gauge theory at the TeV scale, the pair production of light W-bosons in e^+e^- collisions, e^+e^- -> W^+W^-, will be affected by mixings in the gauge and neutrino sectors, and by the t-channel exchange of a heavy right-handed neutrino. The modification of the cross section by these new effects is studied for high--energy e^+e^- colliders.

  7. R-parity and The Simplest Supersymmetric Left-Right Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Pavel Fileviez

    2008-01-01

    We propose a simple renormalizable left-right theory where R-parity is spontaneously broken and neutrino masses are generated through the Type I seesaw mechanism and R-parity violation. In this theory R-parity and the gauge symmetry are broken by the sneutrino vacuum expectation values and there is no Majoron problem. The SU(2)_R and R-parity violation scales are determined by the SUSY breaking scale making the model very predictive. We discuss the spectrum and possible tests of the theory through the neutralinos, charginos, Z' and W_R decays at the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. Neutrino masses and mixing parameters in a left-right model with mirror fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitan, R; Rivera-Rebolledo, J M; de C'ordoba, P F

    2006-01-01

    In this work we consider a left-right model containing mirror fermions with gauge group SU(3)$_{C} \\otimes SU(2)_{L} \\otimes SU(2)_{R} \\otimes U(1)_{Y^\\prime}$. The model has several free parameters which here we have calculated by using the recent values for the squared-neutrino mass differences. Lower bound for the mirror vacuum expectation value helped us to obtain crude estimations for some of these parameters. Also we estimate the order of magnitude of the masses of the standard and mirror neutrinos.

  9. Heavy Neutrinos and Lepton Flavour Violation in Left-Right Symmetric Models at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Das, S P; Kittel, O; Valle, J W F

    2012-01-01

    We discuss lepton flavour violating processes induced in the production and decay of heavy right-handed neutrinos at the LHC. Such particles appear in left-right symmetrical extensions of the Standard Model as the messengers of neutrino mass generation, and can have masses at the TeV scale. We determine the expected sensitivity on the right-handed neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the right-handed gauge boson and heavy neutrino masses. By comparing the sensitivity of the LHC with that of searches for low energy LFV processes, we identify favourable areas of the parameter space to explore the complementarity between LFV at low and high energies.

  10. Cancellation of Leading Divergencies in Left-Right Electroweak Model and Heavy Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A

    1997-01-01

    The fine-tuning principles are analyzed in search for estimations of heavy particle masses in the left-right (LR) symmetric model. The modification of Veltman condition based on the hypothesis of the compensation between fermion and boson vacuum energies within the LR Model multiplets is proposed. The hypothesis is supplied with the requirement of the stability under rescaling. With regard to these requirements the necessity of existence of right-handed Majorana neutrinos with masses of order of right-handed gauge bosons is shown and estimations on the top-quark mass which are in a good agreement with the experimental value are obtained.

  11. Implications of Unitarity and Charge Breaking Minima in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Konar, Partha

    2015-01-01

    We examine the usefulness of the unitarity conditions in Left-Right symmetric model which can translate into giving a stronger constraint on the model parameters together with the criteria derived from vacuum stability and perturbativity. In this light, we demonstrate the bounds on the masses of the physical scalars present in the model and find the scenario where multiple scalar modes are in the reach of Large Hadron Collider. We also analyse the additional conditions that can come from charge breaking minima in this context.

  12. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner

    2017-03-01

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ - e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  13. Radiative Yukawa Couplings in the Simplest Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Emidio; Raidal, Martti

    2016-01-01

    We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the Standard Model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_Y$. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs $SU(2)_R$ doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the $SU(2)_R$ gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the $SU(2)_R$ breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the Standard Model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric fram...

  14. Perspectives for Detecting Lepton Flavour Violation in Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Cesar; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner

    2016-01-01

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as $\\mu-e$ conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating $\\tau$-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in t...

  15. Probing the Higgs sector of the minimal Left-Right symmetric model at future hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-05-01

    If neutrino masses arise from a TeV-scale minimal Left-Right seesaw model, the ensuing extended Higgs sector with neutral, singly and doubly-charged scalars has a plethora of implications for new Higgs boson searches beyond the Standard Model at future hadron colliders, such as the √{s} = 14 TeV High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) and the proposed √{s} = 100 TeV collider (FCC-hh or SPPC). In this article, we provide a glimpse of this new physics in the Higgs sector. Our discussion focuses on the minimal non-supersymmetric version of the Left-Right model with high-scale parity breaking but TeV-scale SU(2) R -breaking, a property desirable to suppress the type-II seesaw contribution to neutrino masses. We analyze the masses and couplings of the physical Higgs bosons in this model, and discuss their dominant production and decay modes at hadron colliders. We identify the best discovery channels for each of the non-SM Higgs bosons and estimate the expected SM backgrounds in these channels to derive the sensitivity reaches for the new Higgs sector at future hadron colliders under discussion. Following a rather conservative approach, we estimate that the heavy Higgs sector can be effectively probed up to 15 TeV at the √{s} = 100 TeV machine. We also discuss how the LR Higgs sector can be distinguished from other extended Higgs sectors.

  16. Left-Right Symmetry and Lepton Number Violation at the Large Hadron Electron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    We show that the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) will provide a great opportunity to search for left-right symmetry and establish lepton number violation, complementing current and planned searches based on LHC data and neutrinoless double beta decay. We consider several plausible configurations for the LHeC -- including different electron energies and polarizations, as well as distinct values for the charge misidentification rate. Within left-right symmetric theories we determine the values of right-handed neutrino and gauge boson masses that could be tested at the LHeC after one, five and ten years of operation. Our results indicate that this collider might probe, via the $\\Delta L =2$ signal $e^-p\\to e^+jjj$, Majorana neutrino masses up to $1$ TeV and $W_R$ masses up to $\\sim 6.5$ TeV. Interestingly, part of this parameter space is beyond the expected reach of the LHC and of future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  17. Heterotaxy in Caenorhabditis: widespread natural variation in left-right arrangement of the major organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Melissa R; Callander, Davon C; López-Santos, Agustín; Torres Cleuren, Yamila N; Birsoy, Bilge; Joshi, Pradeep M; Santure, Anna W; Rothman, Joel H

    2016-12-19

    Although the arrangement of internal organs in most metazoans is profoundly left-right (L/R) asymmetric with a predominant handedness, rare individuals show full (mirror-symmetric) or partial (heterotaxy) reversals. While the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is known for its highly determinate development, including stereotyped L/R organ handedness, we found that L/R asymmetry of the major organs, the gut and gonad, varies among natural isolates of the species in both males and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, heterotaxy can involve one or both bilaterally asymmetric gonad arms. Male heterotaxy is probably not attributable to relaxed selection in this hermaphroditic species, as it is also seen in gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. Heterotaxy increases in many isolates at elevated temperature, with one showing a pregastrulation temperature-sensitive period, suggesting a very early embryonic or germline effect on this much later developmental outcome. A genome-wide association study of 100 isolates showed that male heterotaxy is associated with three genomic regions. Analysis of recombinant inbred lines suggests that a small number of loci are responsible for the observed variation. These findings reveal that heterotaxy is a widely varying quantitative trait in an animal with an otherwise highly stereotyped anatomy, demonstrating unexpected plasticity in an L/R arrangement of the major organs even in a simple animal.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'.

  18. Left-right symmetry and lepton number violation at the Large Hadron electron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Manfred; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik,Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-23

    We show that the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) will provide an opportunity to search for left-right symmetry and establish lepton number violation, complementing current and planned searches based on LHC data and neutrinoless double beta decay. We consider several plausible configurations for the LHeC — including different electron energies and polarizations, as well as distinct values for the charge misidentification rate. Within left-right symmetric theories we determine the values of right-handed neutrino and gauge boson masses that could be tested at the LHeC after one, five and ten years of operation. Our results indicate that this collider might probe, via the ΔL=2 signal e{sup −}p→e{sup +}jjj, Majorana neutrino masses up to 1 TeV and W{sub R} masses up to ∼6.5 TeV. Interestingly, part of this parameter space is beyond the expected reach of the LHC and of future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  19. Probing the Higgs Sector of the Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Model at Future Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    If neutrino masses arise from a TeV-scale minimal Left-Right seesaw model, the ensuing extended Higgs sector with neutral, singly and doubly-charged scalars has a plethora of implications for new Higgs boson searches beyond the Standard Model at future hadron colliders, such as the $\\sqrt s=14$ TeV LHC and the proposed $\\sqrt s=100$ TeV FCC-hh. In this article, we provide a glimpse of this new physics in the Higgs sector. Our discussion focuses on the minimal non-supersymmetric version of the Left-Right model with high-scale parity breaking but TeV-scale $SU(2)_R$-breaking, a property desirable in the non-supersymmetric version to suppress the type-II seesaw contribution to neutrino masses. We analyze the masses and couplings of the physical Higgs bosons in this model, and discuss their production and decay mechanisms at hadron colliders. We derive the sensitivity reach of the new Higgs sector at future hadron colliders under discussion and find that the heavy Higgs sector can be effectively probed up to abou...

  20. Muon-pair production in the left-right symmetric model at a Z~0-factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHFOUDH; A; B

    2010-01-01

    The potential for probing the impacts of the left-right symmetric model (LRM) on the process e + e-→μ + μ-at a proposed Z 0-factory is investigated.Under different electron-positron polarization collision modes,we calculate and compare the deviations of various observables in the framework of the LRM from the standard model (SM) predictions,such as the total cross section,the distribution of the transverse momentum of μ-,and the forward-backward charge asymmetry of μ-.In addition,we present the relations between the observables and the LRM parameters.We conclude that it is possible to observe the effects of the LRM on the process e + e-→μ + μ-by using optimal observables and favorable parameters at a Z 0-factory.

  1. Mechanisms of left-right asymmetry and patterning: driver, mediator and responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroshi; Tam, Patrick P L

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of a left-right (LR) organizer in the form of the ventral node is an absolute prerequisite for patterning the tissues on contralateral sides of the body of the mouse embryo. The experimental findings to date are consistent with a mechanistic paradigm that the laterality information, which is generated in the ventral node, elicits asymmetric molecular activity and cellular behaviour in the perinodal tissues. This information is then relayed to the cells in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) when the left-specific signal is processed and translated into LR body asymmetry. Here, we reflect on our current knowledge and speculate on the following: (a) what are the requisite anatomical and functional attributes of an LR organizer, (b) what asymmetric information is emanated from this organizer, and (c) how this information is transferred across the paraxial tissue compartment and elicits a molecular response specifically in the LPM.

  2. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nonaka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing mouse embryo, leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node determines left-right (L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism by which the rotational movement of node cilia can generate a unidirectional flow remains hypothetical. Here we have addressed this question by motion and morphological analyses of the node cilia and by fluid dynamic model experiments. We found that the cilia stand, not perpendicular to the node surface, but tilted posteriorly. We further confirmed that such posterior tilt can produce leftward flow in model experiments. These results strongly suggest that L-R asymmetry is not the descendant of pre-existing L-R asymmetry within each cell but is generated de novo by combining three sources of spatial information: antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes, and the chirality of ciliary movement.

  3. Decay t {yields} bWZ within the context of the left-right mirror model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez de Cordoba, P. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain (Spain); Gaitan L, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Teoricas, Facultad de Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 142, Cuautitlan-lzcalli, 54700 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez G, A.; Rivera R, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the left-right mirror model is applied to the decay t {yields} bWZ, according to the Feynman rules given by the model. We write the corresponding width in compact form in terms of the Standard Model width by assuming the contribution to the WZW vertex being of the same order of magnitude as that of the t Zt and b Zb vertices. The width has to be compared with recent experimental data in order to get preliminary values for the parameters of the model, since these quantities have not been measured yet. With the appropriate rules given by the model we can deal with other related decays and improve results.

  4. Light Higgs decay modes of Z-boson in the left-right twin Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lei [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Han Xiaofang, E-mail: xfhan@itp.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-11

    The left-right twin Higgs model predicts a light pseudoscalar boson {phi}{sup 0} and opens up some new decay modes for Z-boson, such as Z{yields}f-barf{phi}{sup 0} and Z{yields}{phi}{sup 0{gamma}}. We examine these decay modes in the parameter space allowed by current experiments, and find that the branching ratios can reach 10{sup -8} for Z{yields}b-barb{phi}{sup 0}, which should be accessible at the GigaZ option of the ILC. However, the branching ratios can reach 10{sup -9} for Z{yields}{tau}-bar{tau}{phi}{sup 0} and Z{yields}{phi}{sup 0{gamma}}, which are hardly accessible at the GigaZ option.

  5. The Diphoton and Diboson Excesses in a Left-Right Symmetric Theory of Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the recently reported diphoton excess at ATLAS and CMS can be accommodated within a minimal extension of a left-right symmetric model. Our setup is able to simultaneously explain the Run 2 diphoton and Run 1 diboson excesses, while providing a standard thermal freeze-out of weak-scale dark matter. In this scenario, the 750 GeV neutral right-handed Higgs triplet is responsible for the diphoton excess. Interactions of this state with the neutral and charged components of dark matter multiplets provide the dominant mechanisms for production and decay. A striking signature of this model is the additional presence of missing energy in the diphoton channel.

  6. Lepton number and lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, James

    2013-01-01

    The various diagrams leading to neutrinoless double beta decay in the left-right symmetric model have different relative magnitudes, depending on the scale of new physics. Neutrinos acquire mass from both type I and/or type II seesaw terms, making an unambiguous analysis difficult. We study the half-life for double beta decay in the case of type II and type I dominance, in the former case including interference terms. If the heavy neutrinos of the type I seesaw model are at the TeV scale, certain processes can be enhanced. In particular, there are regions of parameter space in which the so-called lambda- and eta-diagrams can give sizable contributions to the half-life for the decay. We perform a detailed study of one such scenario, paying careful attention to constraints from lepton flavour violation.

  7. A left-right symmetric unified theory of extended color and electroweak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogami, I.S. (Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A left-right symmetric unified theory of extended color and electroweak interactions is proposed. The gauge group has the structure SU(4){sub cL}xSU(4){sub cR}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X} in which the lepton number is described as the fourth color and the U(1){sub X} group is generated by a new charge X. A universal seesaw mechanism is implemented by including exotic electroweak singlets of fermions and five Higgs multiplets. Colored Higgs quartets work to discriminate leptons from quarks and to make neutrinos being massless at the tree level. Fermion masses are allotted through the universal seesaw mixings and the problem of mass hierarchy is partially resolved. (author).

  8. Linear Collider Test of a Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Mechanism in left-right Symmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, James; Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    There are various diagrams leading to neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric theories based on the gauge group SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R. All can in principle be tested at a linear collider running in electron-electron mode. We argue that the so-called lambda-diagram is the most promising one. Taking the current limit on this diagram from double beta decay experiments, we evaluate the relevant cross section e e to W_L W_R, where W_L is the Standard Model W-boson and W_R the one from SU(2)_R. It is observable if the life-time of double beta decay and the mass of the W_R are close to current limits. Beam polarization effects and the high-energy behavior of the cross section are also analyzed.

  9. The First Measurement of the Left-Right Cross Section Asymmetry in Z Boson Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-David, R

    2004-01-06

    The first measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) in Z{sup 0} boson production has been made with the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The measurement was performed at a center-of-mass energy (E{sub cm}) of 91.55 GeV with a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The average beam polarization was (22.4 {+-} 0.6)%. Using a sample of 10,224 Z{sup 0} decays, A{sub LR} is measured to be 0.102 {+-} 0.O44(stat) {+-} 0.003(syst), which determines the effective electroweak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2375 {+-} 0.0056(stat) {+-} 0.0004(syst).

  10. Non-decoupling and lepton number violation in left-right models

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G

    1996-01-01

    We argue that large non-decoupling effects of heavy neutrinos can appear naturally in manifestly left-right symmetric models due to the minimization conditions of the scalar potential and the structure of vev's imposed by phenomenology. We derive constraints on off-diagonal light-heavy and heavy-heavy neutrino mixings from the searches for lepton violating decays nuclei. The most stringent limits come from the latter process because its amplitude shows a quadratic non-decoupling dependence on the heavy neutrino mass. Due to the suppression of right-handed currents by large $W_R$ mass the present experiments are not sensitive to the intergenerational mixings between heavy neutrinos if $M_{W_R}>200$ TeV.

  11. Double seesaw mechanism in a left-right symmetric model with TeV neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, F M L de; Simões, J A Martins; Ramalho, A J; Pinto, L Ribeiro; Wulck, S; Vale, M A B do

    2010-01-01

    A left-right symmetric model is discussed with new mirror fermions and a Higgs sector with two doublets and neutral scalar singlets. The seesaw mechanism is generalized, including not only neutrino masses but also charged fermion masses. The spectrum of heavy neutrinos presents a second seesaw mass matrix and has neutrinos masses naturally in the TeV region. The model has very clear signatures for the new neutral vector gauge bosons. Two classes of models are discussed. New mirror neutrinos can be very light and a new $Z^{\\prime}$ can be discriminated from other models by a very high invisible branching fraction. The other possibility is that mirror neutrinos can have masses naturally in the TeV region and can be produced through $Z^{\\prime}$ decays into heavy neutrino pairs. Signatures and production processes for the model at the LHC energy are also presented.

  12. Stomach curvature is generated by left-right asymmetric gut morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam; Amin, Nirav M; Johnson, Caroline; Bagley, Kristen; Ghashghaei, H Troy; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2017-04-15

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of internal anatomy, yet the emergence of morphological asymmetry remains one of the least understood phases of organogenesis. Asymmetric rotation of the intestine is directed by forces outside the gut, but the morphogenetic events that generate anatomical asymmetry in other regions of the digestive tract remain unknown. Here, we show in mouse and Xenopus that the mechanisms that drive the curvature of the stomach are intrinsic to the gut tube itself. The left wall of the primitive stomach expands more than the right wall, as the left epithelium becomes more polarized and undergoes radial rearrangement. These asymmetries exist across several species, and are dependent on LR patterning genes, including Foxj1, Nodal and Pitx2 Our findings have implications for how LR patterning manifests distinct types of morphological asymmetries in different contexts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. A High-Precision Measurement of the Left-Right Z Boson Cross-Section Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Abe, T; Adam, I; Akimoto, H; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barklow, Timothy L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Berger, R; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Calcaterra, A; Cassell, R; Chou, A; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cowan, R F; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; Dasu, S; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Erofeeva, I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fernández, J P; Flood, K; Frey, R; Hart, E L; Hasuko, K; Hertzbach, S S; Huffer, M E; Huynh, X; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Kajikawa, R; Kang, H J; Kalelkar, M S; Kofler, R R; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; McKemey, A K; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Nesom, G; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Ratcliff, B N; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Serbo, V V; Shapiro, G; Sinev, N B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, H; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Swartz, M; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Verdier, R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Wang, J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Wright, T R; Yamamoto, R K; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H

    2000-01-01

    We present a measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (ALR) for Z boson production by e+e- collisions. The measurement includes the final data taken with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the period 1996-1998. Using a sample of 383,487 Z decays collected during the 1996-1998 runs we measure the pole-value of the asymmetry, ALR0, to be 0.15056+-0.00239 which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin2th(eff) = 0.23107+-0.00030. Our result for the complete 1992-1998 dataset comprising 537 thousand Z decays is sin2th(eff) = 0.23097+-0.00027.

  14. Collider phenomenology of Higgs bosons in Left-Right symmetric Randall-Sundrum models

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the collider phenomenology of a left-right symmetric Randall-Sundrum model with fermions and gauge bosons in the bulk. We find that the model is allowed by precision electroweak data as long as the ratio of the (unwarped) Higgs vev to the curvature scale is $v/k \\le 1/4$. In that region there can be substantial modifications to the Higgs properties. In particular, the couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ are reduced, the coupling to gluons is enhanced, and the coupling to $\\gamma\\gamma$ can receive shifts in either direction. The Higgs mass bound from LEP II data can potentially be relaxed to $m_H \\gtrsim 80$ GeV.

  15. Heavy neutrinos and lepton flavor violation in left-right symmetric models at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. P.; Deppisch, F. F.; Kittel, O.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2012-09-01

    We discuss lepton flavor violating processes induced in the production and decay of heavy right-handed neutrinos at the LHC. Such particles appear in left-right symmetrical extensions of the standard model as the messengers of neutrino mass generation, and can have masses at the TeV scale. We determine the expected sensitivity on the right-handed neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the right-handed gauge boson and heavy neutrino masses. By comparing the sensitivity of the LHC with that of searches for low energy lepton flavor violating processes, we identify favorable areas of the parameter space to explore the complementarity between lepton flavor violating at low and high energies.

  16. Natural TeV-Scale Left-Right Seesaw for Neutrinos and Experimental Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal; Mohapatra, R N

    2013-01-01

    We present a TeV-scale left-right ultraviolet completion of type-I seesaw for neutrino masses based on the SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L} gauge group without parity, which leads to "large" light-heavy neutrino mixing while keeping the neutrino masses small in a natural manner guaranteed by discrete symmetries. We point out specific observable implications of this class of models if the SU(2)_R-breaking scale is of order 5 TeV, in searches for lepton flavor violating processes such as \\mu -> e\\gamma, \\mu -> 3 e and \\mu-e conversion in nuclei, and lepton number violating processes such as neutrinoless double beta decay as well as at the LHC. In particular, if the upper limit on BR(\\mu -> e\\gamma) improves by one order of magnitude, a large range of the parameters of the model would be ruled out.

  17. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was {rho}{sup lum} = (63.0{+-}1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A{sub LR} to be 0.1626{+-}0.0071(stat){+-}0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations.

  18. 'Sorry, I meant the patient's left side': impact of distraction on left-right discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, John; Dempster, Martin; Gormley, Gerard J

    2015-04-01

    Medical students can have difficulty in distinguishing left from right. Many infamous medical errors have occurred when a procedure has been performed on the wrong side, such as in the removal of the wrong kidney. Clinicians encounter many distractions during their work. There is limited information on how these affect performance. Using a neuropsychological paradigm, we aim to elucidate the impacts of different types of distraction on left-right (LR) discrimination ability. Medical students were recruited to a study with four arms: (i) control arm (no distraction); (ii) auditory distraction arm (continuous ambient ward noise); (iii) cognitive distraction arm (interruptions with clinical cognitive tasks), and (iv) auditory and cognitive distraction arm. Participants' LR discrimination ability was measured using the validated Bergen Left-Right Discrimination Test (BLRDT). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyse the impacts of the different forms of distraction on participants' performance on the BLRDT. Additional analyses looked at effects of demographics on performance and correlated participants' self-perceived LR discrimination ability and their actual performance. A total of 234 students were recruited. Cognitive distraction had a greater negative impact on BLRDT performance than auditory distraction. Combined auditory and cognitive distraction had a negative impact on performance, but only in the most difficult LR task was this negative impact found to be significantly greater than that of cognitive distraction alone. There was a significant medium-sized correlation between perceived LR discrimination ability and actual overall BLRDT performance. Distraction has a significant impact on performance and multifaceted approaches are required to reduce LR errors. Educationally, greater emphasis on the linking of theory and clinical application is required to support patient safety and human factor training in medical school curricula. Distraction has

  19. The role and importance of the independent shipowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugland, A. [Andreas Ugland & Sons AS, (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper relates to the transport of oil by tanker ships with the focus on the role and importance of the independent shipowner. About 60 per cent of the world`s crude oil is carried by sea, and 99.98 per cent of it arrives at its destination without incident. Topics cover: The independent owner`s role; cost of transportation; what is the importance of the independent owners. 7 figs.

  20. Photon Polarization in the $b\\to s\\gamma$ processes in the Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kou, Emi; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The circular-polarization of the photon in the radiative B decays is dominantly left-handed in the Standard Model (SM), but the right-handed polarization may be enhanced in some new physics models with right-handed currents, such as the Left-Right Symmetric Model (LRSM). In this article, we investigate how large this wrong polarization could be within the allowed parameter space of the LRSM. We show that in LRSM, the right-handed polarization of the photon in the $b\\to s\\gamma$ processes could be largely enhanced by the $W_L-W_R$ mixing contributions because of the helicity flip on the internal top quark line of the penguin diagrams and the enhancement by the CKM factor $V_{ts}^R/V_{ts}^L$. We discuss the sensitivity of the proposed methods to determine the $b\\to s\\gamma$ photon polarization to the LRSM as well as their complementary role compared to the direct search of right-handed charged gauge bosons at LHC.

  1. Neutral-current phenomena within the left-right--symmetric unified theory of quarks and leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, J.C.; Rajpoot, S.; Salam, A.

    1978-01-01

    The neutral-current weak-interaction sector of the left-right--symmetric unified theory of quarks and leptons based on the symmetry structure SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x SU(4) '/sub L ts(tsR/ and its subgroup SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x SU(3) '/sub L ts(tsR/ x U(1)/sub L ts(tsR/ (suggested in earlier papers) is studied in detail here. The theory admits in general of two weak neutral gauge bosons N/sub 1/ and N/sub 2/ (and two sets of left and right charged W's (W/sub L//sup + -//sup ,WR-italic//sup + -/)As pointed out earlier, there are two distinct possibilities for the pattern of spontaneous symmetry breaking which lead to the mass relations (i) m/sub N//sup 2/ approx. m/sub W L//sup 2/ very-much-less-than m/sub N//sup 2/, (ii) m/sub N//sup 2/ approx. m/sub N//sup 2/ approx. m/sub W L//sup 2/. Case (i) is identical to the familiar SU(2) x U(1) theory for all predictions. Case (ii), on the other hand, leads to departures from SU(2) x U(1). One of the most crucial results of our investigation is that such departures occur only for the electron-induced atomic parity experiments and not for neutrino-induced weak processes in the chiral ..gamma../sub 5/-invariant limit, in which W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing as well as fermion masses vanish. In this manner (for the chiral limit defined above), SU(2) x U(1) becomes an integral and stable ingredient of the left-right--symmetric theory for both cases (i) and (ii) insofar as their predictions for neutrino-induced reactions are concerned; the differences between the two cases (in this chiral limit) lie solely in their predictions regarding atomic parity violation and, of course, the masses of the two neutral particles N/sub 1/ and N/sub 2/. We study the chiral as well as the nonchiral cases and compare

  2. Gut endoderm is involved in the transfer of left-right asymmetry from the node to the lateral plate mesoderm in the mouse embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Saund, Ranajeet S.; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kim, Injune; Lucero, Mary T.; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    In the mouse, the initial signals that establish left-right (LR) asymmetry are determined in the node by nodal flow. These signals are then transferred to the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) through cellular and molecular mechanisms that are not well characterized. We hypothesized that endoderm might play a role in this process because it is tightly apposed to the node and covers the outer surface of the embryo, and, just after nodal flow is established, higher Ca2+ flux has been reported on the...

  3. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  4. Two Higgs bi-doublet left-right model with spontaneous P and CP violation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A left-right symmetric model with two Higgs bi-doublet is shown to be a consistent model for both spontaneous P and CP violation. The flavor changing neutral cur- rents can be suppressed by the mechanism of approximate global U(1) family symmetry. The constraints from neural K meson mass difference ΔmK are calcu- lated and it is demonstrated that a right-handed gauge boson W2 contribution in box-diagrams with mass well below 1 TeV is allowed due to a cancelation caused by a light-charged Higgs boson with a mass range of 150-300 GeV. The W2 con- tribution to εK can be suppressed from an appropriate choice of additional CP phases appearing in the right-handed Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The model is also found to be fully consistent with B0 mass difference ΔmB and the mixing induced CP violation sin2βJ/ψ , which is usually difficult for the model with only one Higgs bi-doublet. The new physics beyond the standard model can be directly searched at the colliders LHC and ILC.

  5. Two Higgs bi-doublet left-right model with spontaneous P and CP violation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueLiang; ZHOU YuFeng

    2008-01-01

    A left-right symmetric model with two Higgs bi-doublet is shown to be a consistent model for both spontaneous P and CP violation.The flavor changing neutral cur-rents can be suppressed by the mechanism of approximate global U(1) family symmetry.The constraints from neural K meson mass difference △mK are calcu-lated and it is demonstrated that a right-handed gauge boson W2 contribution in box-diagrams with mass well below 1 TeV is allowed due to a cancelation caused by a light-charged Higgs boson with a mass range of 150-300 GeV.The W2 contribution to εK can be suppressed from an appropriate choice of additional CP phases appearing in the right-handed Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.The model is also found to be fully consistent with B0 mass difference △mB and the mixing induced CP violation sin2βJ/ψ,which is usually difficult for the model with only one Higgs bi-doublet.The new physics beyond the standard model can be directly searched at the colliders LHC and ILC.

  6. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Brandler

    Full Text Available Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD] (n = 728. The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9, is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666. As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%. We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%. Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  7. Embryonic exposure to propylthiouracil disrupts left-right patterning in Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Nicole R; Ulmer, Bärbel; Boskovski, Marko T; Fang, Xiefan; Khokha, Mustafa K; Wendler, Christopher C; Blum, Martin; Rivkees, Scott A

    2013-02-01

    Antithyroid medications are the preferred therapy for the treatment of Graves' disease during pregnancy. Propylthiouracil (PTU) is favored over methimazole (MMI) due to potential teratogenic concerns with MMI. This study was to determine the teratogenic potential of MMI and PTU using a validated Xenopus tropicalis embryo model. Embryos were exposed to 1 mM PTU (EC(50)=0.88 mM), 1 mM MMI, or vehicle control (water) from stages 2 to 45. Treated embryos were examined for gross morphological defects, ciliary function, and gene expression by in situ hybridization. Exposure to PTU, but not MMI, led to cardiac and gut looping defects and shortening along the anterior-posterior axis. PTU exposure during gastrulation (stage 8-12.5) was identified as the critical period of exposure leading to left-right (LR) patterning defects. Abnormal cilia polarization, abnormal cilia-driven leftward flow at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP), and aberrant expression of both Coco and Pitx2c were associated with abnormal LR symmetry observed following PTU exposure. PTU is teratogenic during late blastula, gastrulation, and neurulation; whereas MMI is not. PTU alters ciliary-driven flow and disrupts the normal genetic program involved in LR axis determination. These studies have important implications for women taking PTU during early pregnancy.

  8. Low-mass right-handed neutrinos in the left-right symmetric theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, M.; Yahalom, R.

    1984-04-09

    It is pointed out that the minimal left-right symmetric theory of the electroweak interactions based on SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L) may accommodate right-handed neutrinos in the low-mass region of order 100 MeV or so, quite a few orders of magnitude below m(Wsub(R)). When an attempt is made to construct such a scheme, consistent with the present upper limits on the left-handed neutrino masses, one faces the problem of the evasion of the cosmological bound of 50 eV on ..nu..sub(..mu..L). We show that this constraint may be avoided in a somewhat simplified scheme based on reasonable gross scales which characterize the Dirac and Majorana parts of the neutrino mass matrix. In a detailed study of the neutrino mass matrix this is shown not to be possible when the neutrino Dirac masses are assumed to be of the order of magnitude of the corresponding charged lepton masses. A phenomenologically consistent scheme with m(..nu..sub(R)) approx.= O(100 MeV) based on Dirac masses of order 1/10 msub(e) is described. 34 references.

  9. Universal seesaw and 0νββ in new 3331 left-right symmetric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Borah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of left-right symmetric model with enlarged gauge group SU(3c×SU(3L×SU(3R×U(1X without having scalar bitriplet. In the absence of scalar bitriplet, there is no Dirac mass term for fermions including usual quarks and leptons. We introduce new isosinglet vector-like fermions so that all the fermions get their masses through a universal seesaw mechanism. We extend our discussion to neutrino mass and its implications in neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. We show that for TeV scale SU(3R gauge bosons, the heavy-light neutrino mixing contributes dominantly to 0νββ that can be observed at ongoing experiments. The new physics contributions arising from purely left-handed currents via exchange of keV scale right-handed neutrinos and the so called mixed helicity λ-diagram can saturate the KamLANDZen bound. We show that the right handed neutrinos in this model can have mass in the sub keV range and can be long lived compared to the age of the Universe. The contributions of these right handed neutrinos to flavour physics observables like μ→eγ and muon g−2 is also discussed. Towards the end we also comment on different possible symmetry breaking patterns of this enlarged gauge symmetry to that of the standard model.

  10. Universal seesaw and 0νββ in new 3331 left-right symmetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2017-08-01

    We consider a class of left-right symmetric model with enlarged gauge group SU(3)c × SU(3)L × SU(3)R × U(1)X without having scalar bitriplet. In the absence of scalar bitriplet, there is no Dirac mass term for fermions including usual quarks and leptons. We introduce new isosinglet vector-like fermions so that all the fermions get their masses through a universal seesaw mechanism. We extend our discussion to neutrino mass and its implications in neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ). We show that for TeV scale SU(3)R gauge bosons, the heavy-light neutrino mixing contributes dominantly to 0 νββ that can be observed at ongoing experiments. The new physics contributions arising from purely left-handed currents via exchange of keV scale right-handed neutrinos and the so called mixed helicity λ-diagram can saturate the KamLANDZen bound. We show that the right handed neutrinos in this model can have mass in the sub keV range and can be long lived compared to the age of the Universe. The contributions of these right handed neutrinos to flavour physics observables like μ → eγ and muon g - 2 is also discussed. Towards the end we also comment on different possible symmetry breaking patterns of this enlarged gauge symmetry to that of the standard model.

  11. Neutrino Dispersion Relations at Finite Temperature and Density in the Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Pardo, F D

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Left-Right Symmetric Model, where left-handed neutrinos are massive via the see-saw mechanism, we determine the effects of temperature and density in the dispersion relations for neutrinos, considering that there exists an excess of leptons over antileptons in the plasma. To achieve this we first calculate the dispersion relations at finite temperature and density, computing the neutrino self-energy at one loop order in perturbation theory, obtaining a fully analytic expression for this self-energy even in the fully broken symmetry case by using the Mellin summation technique. From the dispersion relation found from the self energy we obtain the thermal effective mass for neutrinos at high temperature limit. This result allow us to establish the effect of finite temperature and density for neutrino oscillations in thermal and dense media for this framework. We can do it if we take into account that the oscillation patterns depend explicitly on neutrino masses. As a result, a generaliza...

  12. The left-right twin Higgs model confronted with the latest LHC Higgs data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao-Bei; Xiao, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the latest LHC Higgs data, we calculate the new physics contributions to the Higgs decay channels of $h\\to \\gamma\\gamma, Z\\gamma, \\tau\\tau, WW^*$ and $ ZZ^*$ in the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, induced by the loops involving the heavy T-quark, the $W_H$ and $\\phi^\\pm$ bosons appeared in the LRTH model. We find that (a) for a SM-like Higgs boson around 125.5 GeV, the signal rates normalized to the corresponding standard model (SM) predictions are always suppressed when new physics contributions are taken into account and approach the SM predictions for a large scalar parameter $f$; and (b) the LRTH prediction for $R_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ agree well with the CMS measurement $R_{\\gamma\\gamma}=0.77\\pm 0.27$ at $1\\sigma$ level, but differ with the ATLAS result. The forthcoming precision measurement of the diphoton signal at the LHC can be a sensitive probe for the LRTH model.

  13. Lepton Flavour Violating tau Decays in the Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Akeroyd, A G; Okada, Y; Aoki, Mayumi; Okada, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The Left-Right symmetric extension of the Standard Model with Higgs isospin triplets can provide neutrino masses via a TeV scale seesaw mechanism. The doubly charged Higgs bosons H^{\\pm\\pm}_L and H^{\\pm\\pm}_R induce lepton flavour violating decays \\tau^\\pm \\to lll at tree-level via a coupling which is related to the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (V_{\\rm MNS}). We study the magnitude and correlation of \\tau^\\pm \\to lll and \\mu\\to e\\gamma with specific assumptions for the origin of the large mixing in V_{\\rm MNS} while respecting the stringent bound for \\mu\\to eee. It is also shown that an angular asymmetry for \\tau^\\pm \\to lll is sensitive to the relative strength of the H^{\\pm\\pm}_L and H^{\\pm\\pm}_R mediated contributions and provides a means of distinguishing models with doubly charged Higgs bosons.

  14. Explaining the diphoton excess in Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hati, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a possible explanation of the recent diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations, at around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass, within the framework of $E_{6}$ motivated Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model (ALRSM), which is capable of addressing the $B$ decay anomalies in the flavor sector, the $eejj$ and $e$ missing $p_{T}jj$ excesses reported by CMS in run 1 of LHC and has the feature of high scale leptogenesis. We find that gluon-gluon fusion can give the observed production rate of the 750 GeV resonance, $\\tilde{n}$, through a loop of scalar leptoquarks ($\\tilde{h}^{(c)}$) with mass below a few TeV range, while $\\tilde{n}$ can subsequently decay into $\\gamma\\gamma$ final state via loops of $\\tilde{h}^{(c)}$ and $\\tilde{E}^{(c)}$. Interestingly, the $\\tilde{E}^{(c)}$ loop can enhance the diphoton branching ratio significantly to successfully explain the observed cross section of the diphoton signal.

  15. Natural TeV-scale left-right seesaw mechanism for neutrinos and experimental tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, R. N.

    2013-11-01

    We present a TeV-scale left-right ultraviolet completion of the type-I seesaw for neutrino masses based on the SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)B-L gauge group without parity, which leads to “large” light-heavy neutrino mixing while keeping the neutrino masses small in a natural manner guaranteed by discrete symmetries. We point out specific observable implications of this class of models if the SU(2)R-breaking scale is of order 5 TeV, in searches for lepton flavor violating processes such as μ→eγ, μ→3e and μ→e conversion in nuclei, and lepton number violating processes such as neutrinoless double beta decay as well as at the LHC. In particular, if the upper limit on BR(μ→eγ) improves by 1 order of magnitude, a large range of the parameters of the model would be ruled out.

  16. Effects of Planck Scale Physics on Neutrino Mixing Parameters in Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Left right symmetric models (LRSM) are extensions of the standard model by an enlarged gauge group $SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ where automatic inclusion of right handed fermions as $SU(2)_R$ doublets guarantees a natural seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Apart from the extended gauge symmetry, LRSM also has an in-built global discrete symmetry, called D-parity which ensures equal gauge couplings for left and right sectors. Motivated by the fact that global symmetries are expected to be explicitly broken by theories of quantum gravity, here we study the effects of such gravity or Planck scale physics on neutrino masses and mixings by introducing explict D-parity breaking Planck scale suppressed higher dimensional operators. Although such Planck scale suppressd operators have dimension at least six in generic LRSM, dimension five operators can also arise in the presence of additional scalar fields which can be naturally accommodated within SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) multiplets. We show tha...

  17. Left-right coordination from simple to extreme conditions during split-belt locomotion in the chronic spinal adult cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Desrochers, Étienne; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Dambreville, Charline

    2017-01-01

    Coordination between the left and right sides is essential for dynamic stability during locomotion. The immature or neonatal mammalian spinal cord can adjust to differences in speed between the left and right sides during split-belt locomotion by taking more steps on the fast side. We show that the adult mammalian spinal cord can also adjust its output so that the fast side can take more steps. During split-belt locomotion, only certain parts of the cycle are modified to adjust left-right coordination, primarily those associated with swing onset. When the fast limb takes more steps than the slow limb, strong left-right interactions persist. Therefore, the adult mammalian spinal cord has a remarkable adaptive capacity for left-right coordination, from simple to extreme conditions. Although left-right coordination is essential for locomotion, its control is poorly understood, particularly in adult mammals. To investigate the spinal control of left-right coordination, a spinal transection was performed in six adult cats that were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Spinal cats performed tied-belt locomotion from 0.1 to 1.0 m s(-1) and split-belt locomotion with low to high (1:1.25-10) slow/fast speed ratios. With the left hindlimb stepping at 0.1 m s(-1) and the right hindlimb stepping from 0.2 to 1.0 m s(-1) , 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 left-right step relationships could appear. The appearance of 1:2+ relationships was not linearly dependent on the difference in speed between the slow and fast belts. The last step taken by the fast hindlimb displayed longer cycle, stance and swing durations and increased extensor activity, as the slow limb transitioned to swing. During split-belt locomotion with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 relationships, the timing of stance onset of the fast limb relative to the slow limb and placement of both limbs at contact were invariant with increasing slow/fast speed ratios. In contrast, the timing of stance onset of the slow limb

  18. The spinal control of locomotion and step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry from slow to moderate speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Charline; Labarre, Audrey; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Frigon, Alain

    2015-08-01

    When speed changes during locomotion, both temporal and spatial parameters of the pattern must adjust. Moreover, at slow speeds the step-to-step pattern becomes increasingly variable. The objectives of the present study were to assess if the spinal locomotor network adjusts both temporal and spatial parameters from slow to moderate stepping speeds and to determine if it contributes to step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. To determine the role of the spinal locomotor network, the spinal cord of 6 adult cats was transected (spinalized) at low thoracic levels and the cats were trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Cats were implanted with electrodes to chronically record electromyography (EMG) in several hindlimb muscles. Experiments began once a stable hindlimb locomotor pattern emerged. During experiments, EMG and bilateral video recordings were made during treadmill locomotion from 0.1 to 0.4 m/s in 0.05 m/s increments. Cycle and stance durations significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas swing duration remained unaffected. Extensor burst duration significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas sartorius burst duration remained unchanged. Stride length, step length, and the relative distance of the paw at stance offset significantly increased with increasing speed, whereas the relative distance at stance onset and both the temporal and spatial phasing between hindlimbs were unaffected. Both temporal and spatial step-to-step left-right asymmetry decreased with increasing speed. Therefore, the spinal cord is capable of adjusting both temporal and spatial parameters during treadmill locomotion, and it is responsible, at least in part, for the step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds.

  19. Method used to test the imaging consistency of binocular camera's left-right optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiying; Wang, Hu; Liu, Jie; Xue, Yaoke; Yang, Shaodong; Zhao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    To binocular camera, the consistency of optical parameters of the left and the right optical system is an important factor that will influence the overall imaging consistency. In conventional testing procedure of optical system, there lacks specifications suitable for evaluating imaging consistency. In this paper, considering the special requirements of binocular optical imaging system, a method used to measure the imaging consistency of binocular camera is presented. Based on this method, a measurement system which is composed of an integrating sphere, a rotary table and a CMOS camera has been established. First, let the left and the right optical system capture images in normal exposure time under the same condition. Second, a contour image is obtained based on the multiple threshold segmentation result and the boundary is determined using the slope of contour lines near the pseudo-contour line. Third, the constraint of gray level based on the corresponding coordinates of left-right images is established and the imaging consistency could be evaluated through standard deviation σ of the imaging grayscale difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system. The experiments demonstrate that the method is suitable for carrying out the imaging consistency testing for binocular camera. When the standard deviation 3σ distribution of imaging gray difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system of the binocular camera does not exceed 5%, it is believed that the design requirements have been achieved. This method could be used effectively and paves the way for the imaging consistency testing of the binocular camera.

  20. Heterochrony and Early Left-Right Asymmetry in the Development of the Cardiorespiratory System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J.; Metscher, Brian D.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J.; Müller, Gerd B.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A ‘tracheal lung’ is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution. PMID:25555231

  1. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  2. Four generations versus left-right symmetry. A comparative numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Tillmann J.

    2012-06-18

    In this work, we present a comparative numerical analysis of the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) and the left-right symmetric Standard model (LRM). We focus on the constraints induced by flavour violating {Delta}F=2 processes in the K and B system while the results of studies of collider bounds and electroweak precision tests are taken into account as external inputs. In contrast to many previous studies of both models considered in this work, we do make not any ad-hoc assumptions on the structure of the relevant mixing matrices. Therefore, we employ powerful Monte Carlo methods in order to approximate the viable parameter space of the models. In preparation of our numerical analysis, we present all relevant formulae and review the different numerical methods used in this work. In order to better understand the patterns of new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes, we perform a fit including all relevant {Delta}F=2 constraints in the context of the Standard Model. The result of this fit is then used in a general discussion on new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes in the context of generic extensions of the Standard Model. Our numerical analysis of the SM4 and the LRM demonstrates that in both models the existing anomalies in {Delta}=2 processes can easily be resolved. We transparently show how the different observables are connected to each other by their dependence on combinations of mixing parameters. In our analysis of rare decays in the SM4, we establish patterns of flavour violation that could in principle be used to disprove this model on the basis of {Delta}F=1 processes alone. In the LRM, we discuss the importance of the contributions originating from the exchange of heavy, flavour changing, neutral Higgs bosons as well as the inability of the LRM to entirely solve the V{sub ub} problem.

  3. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  4. Common Origin of $3.55$ keV X-ray line and Gauge Coupling Unification with Left-Right Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2016-01-01

    We present a minimal left-right dark matter framework that can simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV X-ray line from several galaxy clusters and gauge coupling unification at high energy scale. Adopting a minimal dark matter strategy, we consider both left and right handed triplet fermionic dark matter candidates which are accidentally stable due to their high $SU(2)$ dimension forbidding their decay into standard model particles. A scalar bitriplet field is incorporated whose first role is to induce a tiny mass splitting between the left and right handed triplet dark matter candidates by the tiny vacuum expectation value of its neutral component such that the heavier dark matter can decay into the lighter one and a photon with energy 3.55 keV. The other role this bitriplet field at TeV scale plays is to assist in achieving gauge coupling unification at a high energy within a a non-supersymmetric $SO(10)$ model while keeping the left-right gauge symmetry around the TeV corner. Apart from solvi...

  5. Pair production of neutral Higgs bosons from the left-right twin Higgs model via γγ collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马威; 岳崇兴; 张婷婷

    2011-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model predicts the existence of the neutral Higgs bosons (h, φ0), which can be produced in pairs (φ0φ0, hh, φ0h) via γγ collisions at the next generation e+eInternational Linear Collider (ILC). Our numerical results show t

  6. The Excess of HERA High$-Q^2$ Events and Leptoquarks in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, M; Ishida, S; Sekiguchi, Motoo; Wada, Hiroaki; Ishida, Shin

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation that the HERA excess events are due to intermediate production and decay of composite leptoquarks in the left-right symmetric preon model is given. Because of the preon-line rule, expected to be valid well, the event-ratio of neutral to charged current interactions is predicted to be one.

  7. The Excess of HERA High-Q2 Events and Leptoquarks in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Wada, H.; Ishida, S.

    1998-04-01

    An interpretation that the HERA excess events are due to intermediate production and decay of composite leptoquarks in the left-right symmetric preon model is given. Because of the preon-line rule, expected to be valid, the event-ratio of neutral to charged current interactions is predicted to be 1.

  8. Political representation and its mechanisms: a dynamic left-right approach for the United Kingdom, 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hakhverdian

    2010-01-01

    Some scholars use the ‘dynamic representation’ approach to test how much current policy changes reflect past public preferences. This article tests hypotheses derived from this approach in a left-right context for the United Kingdom from 1976 to 2006. This shows that government policy on the left-ri

  9. Dilepton bounds on left-right symmetry at the LHC run II and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Manfred; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-11-01

    In the light of the new 13 TeV dilepton data set with 3.2 fb-1 integrated luminosity from the ATLAS Collaboration, we derive limits on the Z‧ mass in the context of left-right symmetric models and exploit the complementarity with dijet and lljj data, as well as neutrinoless double beta decay. We keep the ratio of the left- and right-handed gauge coupling free in order to take into account different patterns of left-right symmetry breaking. By combining the dielectron and dimuon data we can exclude Z‧ masses below 3 TeV for gR =gL, and for gR ∼ 1 we rule out masses up to ∼ 4 TeV. Those comprise the strongest direct bounds on the Z‧ mass from left-right models up to date. We show that in the usual plane of right-handed neutrino and charged gauge boson mass, dilepton data can probe a region of parameter space inaccessible to neutrinoless double beta decay and lljj studies. Lastly, through the mass relation between WR and Z‧ we present an indirect bound on the lifetime of neutrinoless double beta decay using dilepton data. Our results prove that the often ignored dilepton data in the context of left-right models actually provide important complementary limits.

  10. The lasting impact of adolescence on left-right identification : Cohort replacement and intracohort change in associations with issue attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the ideological correlates of left-right identification in the Netherlands changed between 1980 and 2008, and whether these changes were driven by cohort replacement. Analyses on repeated cross-sectional data revealed an increasing association with immigration and a decreasin

  11. Left-right asymmetry is formed in individual cells by intrinsic cell chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Ryo; Ando, Tadashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Hozumi, Shunya; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Matsuno, Kenji

    2014-08-01

    Many animals show left-right (LR) asymmetric morphology. The mechanisms of LR asymmetric development are evolutionarily divergent, and they remain elusive in invertebrates. Various organs in Drosophila melanogaster show stereotypic LR asymmetry, including the embryonic gut. The Drosophila embryonic hindgut twists 90° left-handedly, thereby generating directional LR asymmetry. We recently revealed that the hindgut epithelial cell is chiral in shape and other properties; this is termed planar cell chirality (PCC). We previously showed by computer modeling that PCC is sufficient to induce the hindgut rotation. In addition, both the PCC and the direction of hindgut twisting are reversed in Myosin31DF (Myo31DF) mutants. Myo31DF encodes Drosophila MyosinID, an actin-based motor protein, whose molecular functions in LR asymmetric development are largely unknown. Here, to understand how PCC directs the asymmetric cell-shape, we analyzed PCC in genetic mosaics composed of cells homozygous for mutant Myo31DF, some of which also overexpressed wild-type Myo31DF. Wild-type cell-shape chirality only formed in the Myo31DF-overexpressing cells, suggesting that cell-shape chirality was established in each cell and reflects intrinsic PCC. A computer model recapitulating the development of this genetic mosaic suggested that mechanical interactions between cells are required for the cell-shape behavior seen in vivo. Our mosaic analysis also suggested that during hindgut rotation in vivo, wild-type Myo31DF suppresses the elongation of cell boundaries, supporting the idea that cell-shape chirality is an intrinsic property determined in each cell. However, the amount and distribution of F-actin and Myosin II, which are known to help generate the contraction force on cell boundaries, did not show differences between Myo31DF mutant cells and wild-type cells, suggesting that the static amount and distribution of these proteins are not involved in the suppression of cell-boundary elongation

  12. Eph/ephrin signaling maintains the boundary of dorsal forerunner cell cluster during morphogenesis of the zebrafish embryonic left-right organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    The Kupffer's vesicle (KV) is the so-called left-right organizer in teleost fishes. KV is formed from dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) and generates asymmetrical signals for breaking symmetry of embryos. It is unclear how DFCs or KV cells are prevented from intermingling with adjacent cells. In this study, we show that the Eph receptor gene ephb4b is highly expressed in DFCs whereas ephrin ligand genes, including efnb2b, are expressed in cells next to the DFC cluster during zebrafish gastrulation. ephb4b knockdown or mutation and efnb2b knockdown cause dispersal of DFCs, a smaller KV and randomization of laterality organs. DFCs often dynamically form lamellipodium-like, bleb-like and filopodium-like membrane protrusions at the interface, which attempt to invade but are bounced back by adjacent non-DFC cells during gastrulation. Upon inhibition of Eph/ephrin signaling, however, the repulsion between DFCs and non-DFC cells is weakened or lost, allowing DFCs to migrate away. Ephb4b/Efnb2b signaling by activating RhoA activity mediates contact and repulsion between DFCs and neighboring cells during gastrulation, preventing intermingling of different cell populations. Therefore, our data uncover an important role of Eph/ephrin signaling in maintaining DFC cluster boundary and KV boundary for normal left-right asymmetrical development. PMID:27287807

  13. Effects of the parity-odd singlet on the N=1 supergravity theory within the left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetic, M.

    1985-12-05

    We study the N=1 supergravity theory within the left-right symmetric model, based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L), when the parity-odd singlet field is added, in addition to the minimal set of Higgs fields. This model allows for a vacuum solution with the hierarchy ratio eta=(msub(Wsub(R))/msub(Wsub(L)))>>1. Also, the gravitino mass is likely to set the scale of m sub(Wsub(L)) rather than the one of msub(Wsub(R)). These features of the presented model should be contrasted with the results of the left-right symmetric model with the minimal set of Higgs fields, where eta

  14. Dilepton bounds on left-right symmetry at the LHC run II and neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the new 13 TeV dilepton data set with $ 3.2\\, {\\rm fb^{-1}}$ integrated luminosity from the ATLAS collaboration, we derive limits on the $Z^{\\prime}$ mass in the context of left-right symmetric models and exploit the complementarity with dijet and $lljj$ data, as well as neutrinoless double beta decay. We keep the ratio of the left- and right-handed gauge coupling free in order to take into account different patterns of left-right symmetry breaking. By combining the dielectron and dimuon data we can exclude $Z^{\\prime}$ masses below $3$~TeV for $g_R=g_L$, and for $g_R \\sim 1$ we rule out masses up to $\\sim 4$~TeV. Those comprise the strongest direct bounds on the $Z^{\\prime}$ mass from left-right models up to date. We show that in the usual plane of right-handed neutrino and charged gauge boson mass, dilepton data can probe a region of parameter space inaccessible to neutrinoless double beta decay and $lljj$ studies. Lastly, we present a stringent indirect indirect bound on the lifetime of neu...

  15. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  16. Pair production of neutral Higgs bosons from the left-right twin Higgs model via γγ collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei; YUE Chong-Xing; ZHANG Ting-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model predicts the existence of the neutral Higgs bosons (h, φ), which can be produced in pairs (φφ, hh, φh) via γγ collisions at the next generation ee International Linear Collider (ILC). Our numerical results show that the production cross section of the neutral Higgs boson pair φφ can reach 8.8 fb. The subprocess γγ→φφ might be used to test the LRTH model in future ILC experiments.

  17. Left-Right Symmetric Model from Geometrical Formulation of Gauge Theory in $M_{4} \\times Z_{2} \\times Z_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Konisi, G; Mäki, Z; Nakahara, M

    1999-01-01

    The left-right symmetric model (LRSM) with gauge group $SU(2)_{L} \\times SU(2)_{R} \\times U(1)_{B-L}$ is reconstructed from the geometric formulation of gauge theory in $M_4 \\times Z_2 \\times Z_2$ where $M_4$ is the four-dimensional Minkowski space and $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ the discrete space with four points. The geometrical structure of this model becomes clearer compared with other works based on noncommutative geometry. As a result, the Yukawa coupling terms and the Higgs potential are derived in more restricted forms than in the standard LRSM.

  18. Measurement of the Left-Right Cross Section Asymmetry in Z Boson Production in e+e- Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Richard; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for Z boson production by e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions has been performed at the SLAC Linear Collider with the SLD detector. Data for the 1993 run, with its significant improvements in luminosity and electron beam polarization, are presented. When combined with the (less precise) 1992 result, the preliminary result for the effective weak mixing angle is sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2290 {+-} 0.0010.

  19. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing c

  20. Quark-lepton unification and eight-fold ambiguity in the left-right symmetric seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteins, Pierre [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, Laboratoire de la Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Unite de Recherche associee au CNRS (URA 2306) (France); Lavignac, Stephane [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, Laboratoire de la Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Unite de Recherche associee au CNRS (URA 2306) (France)]. E-mail: lavignac@spht.saclay.cea.fr; Savoy, Carlos A. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, Laboratoire de la Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et Unite de Recherche associee au CNRS (URA 2306) (France)

    2006-10-30

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, including a broad class of left-right symmetric and grand unified theories, the light neutrino mass matrix is given by the left-right symmetric seesaw formula M{sub {nu}}=fv{sub L}-v{sup 2}v{sub R}Y{sub {nu}}f{sup -1}Y{sub {nu}}, in which the right-handed neutrino mass matrix and the SU(2){sub L} triplet couplings are proportional to the same matrix f. We propose a systematic procedure for reconstructing the 2{sup n} solutions (in the n-family case) for the matrix f as a function of the Dirac neutrino couplings (Y{sub {nu}}){sub ij} and of the light neutrino mass parameters, which can be used in both analytical and numerical studies. We apply this procedure to a particular class of supersymmetric SO(10) models with two 10-dimensional and a pair of 126-bar 126-bar representations in the Higgs sector, and study the properties of the corresponding 8 right-handed neutrino spectra. Then, using the reconstructed right-handed neutrino and triplet parameters, we study leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation in these models, and comment on flavour effects in leptogenesis in the type I limit. We find that the mixed solutions where both the type I and the type II seesaw mechanisms give a significant contribution to neutrino masses provide new opportunities for successful leptogenesis in SO(10) GUTs.

  1. Double Beta Decay, Lepton Flavour Violation and Collider Signatures of Left-Right Symmetric Models with Spontaneous D Parity Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Deppisch, Frank F; Patra, Sudhanwa; Sahu, Narendra; Sarkar, Utpal

    2014-01-01

    We propose a class of left-right symmetric models (LRSMs) with spontaneous D parity breaking, where SU(2)_R breaks at the TeV scale while discrete left-right symmetry breaks around 10^9 GeV. By embedding this framework in a non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Theory (GUT) with Pati-Salam symmetry as the highest intermediate breaking step, we obtain g_R / g_L ~ 0.6 between the right- and left-handed gauge couplings at the TeV scale. This leads to a suppression of beyond the Standard Model phenomena induced by the right-handed gauge coupling. Here we focus specifically on the consequences for neutrinoless double beta decay, low energy lepton flavour violation and LHC signatures due to the suppressed right handed currents. Interestingly, the reduced g_R allows us to interpret an excess of events observed recently in the range of 1.9 TeV to 2.4 TeV by the CMS group at the LHC as the signature of a right handed gauge boson in LRSMs with spontaneous D parity breaking. Moreover, the reduced right-handed gauge co...

  2. Associated neutrino mixing and neutrino oscillations in left-right electro weak gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    1982-12-01

    The question of the associated neutrino mixing is investigated within the frame work of leftright symmetric gauge theory of electro weak interactions. It is shown that the weak leptonic neutral currents are independent of the mixing angle while the charged counterpart crucially depend on them. As the mass of right handed gauge boson becomes very large, the results reduce to those of the standard model, albeit the arbitrarily small mass for the neutrino. With the associated mixing of neutrinos, the muonness changing neutral weak currents are absent at the tree level. A condition for ..nu..sub(..cap alpha..)reversible..nu..sub(..beta..) oscillation is derived as mind(..nu..sub(..cap alpha..))/mind(..nu..sub(..beta..))>msub(..cap alpha..)/msub(..beta..) where ..cap alpha.., ..beta.. stand for e, ..mu.., tau in that order (..cap alpha..not=..beta..). With three neutrino mixing by SO(3) rotation, the present experimental data on neutrino oscillations are satisfactorily explained with the conclusion that ..nu..sub(e) oscilates mostly with ..nu..sub(tau) and vice-versa while ..nu..sub(..mu..) beam suffers very little oscillation. Consequently it is conjectured that most probably Lsub(e) and Lsub(tau) (lepton numbers) are not conversed while Lsub(..mu..) is nearly conserved in weak interaction.

  3. Single Production of a Heavy T-Quark in the Left-Right Twin Higgs Model at LHeC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie-Fen; CUI Xiao-Min; LI Yu-Qi; GAO Yin-Hao

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the left-right twin Higgs model, we study single production of a T-quark at the Large Hadron electron Collider based ep and γp colliders, which proceed via the processes e+b→ (v)eT and 76→W~T. For the main decay mode T→φ+ b→ tbb, these two processes mainly transfer to the final states of 3b+l (e or μ) + missing Et and 3b + 2l + missing Et, respectively. With the electron energy Ee = 500 GeV and photon energy Ep=7 TeV, we find that the production rates can reach tensfb when the heavy T-quark mass mT < 600 GeV. A simple phenomenological analysis is also given for the decay mode T→W+b. Our numerical results show that the SM background can be reduced by applying a cut on the transverse momentum of the final b-quark and the invariant mass of Wb. However, such a channel is only useful for a tiny parameter space.%In the context of the left-right twin Higgs model,we study single production of a T-quark at the Large Hadron electron Collider based ep and γp colliders,which proceed via the processes e+ b → (V)T and γb → W-T.For the main decay mode T → φ+ b → t(b)b,these two processes mainly transfer to the final states of 3b+ l (e or μ) + missing ET and 3b + 2l + missing ET,respectively.With the electron energy Ee =500 GeV and photon energy Ep =7 TeV,we find that the production rates can reach tensfb when the heavy T-quark mass mrT < 600GeV.A simple phenomenological analysis is also given for the decay mode T → W+b.Our numerical results show that the SM background can be reduced by applying a cut on the transverse momentum of the final b-quark and the invariant mass of Wb.However,such a channel is only useful for a tiny parameter space.The twin Higgs mechanism[1,2] was proposed recently as an intresting solution to the little hierarchy problem,which can be implemented in left-right models with left-right symmetry.[2] A new heavy T-quark is one of the most crucial ingredients of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model.The collider

  4. Nodal expression and heterochrony in the evolution of dorsal-ventral and left-right axes formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret S; Turner, F Rudolf; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-12-15

    To understand the role of body axes in the evolution of larval form, we use the two sea urchins in the genus Heliocidaris, which have distinctly different larval morphologies. Heliocidaris tuberculata is an indirect-developing sea urchin, which forms a pluteus larva, whereas its sister species, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, exhibits direct development and forms a nonfeeding, ovoid larva. Changes along all three larval axes underlie the differences in larval form associated with each developmental mode. Nodal signaling has recently been implicated as important in establishing the dorsal-ventral (D-V) and left-right (L-R) axes in the indirect-developing sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. However, because of changes in morphology and timing of morphogenetic events associated with the D-V and L-R axes, respectively, in H. erythrogramma, it was unclear whether nodal played the same roles during direct development. We show that the expression patterns and functions of nodal during H. erythrogramma development are similar to its roles in indirect-developing sea urchins in both D-V and L-R axes formation. However, there are profound changes in gene expression downstream of nodal signaling along the D-V axis and major heterochronies in the execution of the function of nodal along the L-R axis. These highly modified events are linked to the dramatic modifications of larval morphology that have occurred during the evolution of direct development in H. erythrogramma.

  5. Banach代数A=A上左(右)乘子的Fredholm定理%Fredholm Theory of Left (Right) Multipliers on Banach AlgebrasA={ A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代正贵

    2000-01-01

    n this paper, Fredholm theory of left (right) multipliers on certainnon- commutative Banach algebras are obtained. As an application,Fredholm Left (right) multipliers of compact group are characterized.%本文得到了某些不可换Banach代数上左(右)乘子的Fredholm定理.作为应用,我们刻划了紧群上的Fredholm左(右)乘子.

  6. H,K-ATPase Protein Localization and Kir4.1 Function Reveal Concordance of 3 Axes During Early Determination of Left-Right Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Aw, Sherry; Adams, Dany S.; Qiu, Dayong; Levin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Consistent laterality is a fascinating problem, and study of the Xenopus embryo has led to molecular characterization of extremely early steps in left-right patterning: bioelectrical signals produced by ion pumps functioning upstream of asymmetric gene expression. Here, we reveal a number of novel aspects of the H+/K+-ATPase module in chick and frog embryos. Maternal H+/K+-ATPase subunits are asymmetrically localized along the left-right, dorso-ventral, and animal-vegetal axes during the firs...

  7. Left-right-symmetric gauge theory consistent with all experiments: A viable alternative to the Weinberg-Salam model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, D.P.

    1980-09-01

    I discuss a left-right-symmetric model of weak and electromagnetic interactions which is consistent with the results of all weak-interaction experiments including observed parity violation in eN interactions. The model is essentially indistinguishable from the Weinberg-Salam (WS) model at low energies and differs from it significantly at high q/sup 2/. Of the two (Z/sub 1/,Z/sub 2/) neutral bosons of the model, MZ-italic/sub 1/approx. =M/sub Z/ of the WS model and MZ-italic/sub 2/approx. =2.5M/sub Z//sub 1/approx. =230 GeV. The prospects of distinguishing the two classes of models in e/sup +/e/sup -/ experiments at LEP and in pp and p-barp colliding-beam experiments at ISABELLE are also discussed.

  8. Left/right asymmetry in Dyakonov-Tamm-wave propagation guided by a topological insulator and a structurally chiral material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-11-01

    The propagation of Dyakonov-Tamm waves guided by the planar interface of an isotropic topological insulator and a structurally chiral material, both assumed to be nonmagnetic, was investigated by numerically solving the associated canonical boundary-value problem. The topologically insulating surface states of the topological insulator were quantitated via a surface admittance {γ }{{TI}}, which significantly affects the phase speeds and the spatial profiles of the Dyakonov-Tamm waves. Most significantly, it is possible that a Dyakonov-Tamm wave propagates co-parallel to a vector {u} in the interface plane, but no Dyakonov-Tamm wave propagates anti-parallel to {u}. The left/right asymmetry, which vanishes for {γ }{{TI}}=0, is highly attractive for one-way on-chip optical communication.

  9. Size and receptor density of glutamatergic synapses: a viewpoint from left-right asymmetry of CA3-CA1 connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Shinohara

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is considered to be the main mechanism for learning and memory. Excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus undergo plastic changes during development and in response to electric stimulation. It is widely accepted that this process is mediated by insertion and elimination of various glutamate receptors. In a series of recent investigations on left-right asymmetry of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, glutamate receptor subunits have been found to have distinctive expression patterns that depend on the postsynaptic density (PSD area. Particularly notable are the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit and NR2B NMDA receptor subunit, where receptor density has either a supra-linear (GluR1 AMPA or inverse (NR2B NMDAR relationship to the PSD area. We review current understanding of structural and physiological synaptic plasticity and propose a scheme to classify receptor subtypes by their expression pattern with respect to PSD area.

  10. Breaking symmetry: the zebrafish as a model for understanding left-right asymmetry in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussigne, Myriam; Blader, Patrick; Wilson, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    How does left-right asymmetry develop in the brain and how does the resultant asymmetric circuitry impact on brain function and lateralized behaviors? By enabling scientists to address these questions at the levels of genes, neurons, circuitry and behavior,the zebrafish model system provides a route to resolve the complexity of brain lateralization. In this review, we present the progress made towards characterizing the nature of the gene networks and the sequence of morphogenetic events involved in the asymmetric development of zebrafish epithalamus. In an attempt to integrate the recent extensive knowledge into a working model and to identify the future challenges,we discuss how insights gained at a cellular/developmental level can be linked to the data obtained at a molecular/genetic level. Finally, we present some evolutionary thoughts and discuss how significant discoveries made in zebrafish should provide entry points to better understand the evolutionary origins of brain lateralization.

  11. Single Production of Top Quark via eγ-Collision in Left-Right Twin Higgs Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yao-Bei; WANG Xue-Lei; CAO Jun; HAN Hong-Mei

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, we fist study single production of the standard model (SM) top quark via e-γ collisions. We find that the corrections of the LRTH model to the cross section of the process e-γ→ vebt might be observed only for f ≤ 750 GeV and the heavy top quark mass scale M ≥ 500 GeV in future integrated luminosity of £=100 fb-1. We also consider single production of the heavy top quark T via e-γ collisions. Our numerical results show that the possible signals of the heavy top quark T might be observed via the decay channel T→φ+b→tbb in future LC experiment with ∫8=3 TeV and £=500fb-1.

  12. Quark-lepton unification and eight-fold ambiguity in the left-right symmetric seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteins, P.; Lavignac, St.; Savoy, C.A

    2006-07-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, including a broad class of left-right symmetric and Grand United theories, the light neutrino mass matrix is given by the left-right symmetric seesaw formula M{sub {nu}} = f*v{sub L} - v{sup 2}/v{sub R}*Y{sub {nu}}*f{sup -1}*Y{sub {nu}}, in which the right-handed neutrino mass matrix and the SU(2){sub L} triplet couplings are proportional to the same matrix f. We propose a systematic procedure for reconstructing the 2{sup n} solutions (in the n-family case) for the matrix f as a function of the Dirac neutrino couplings (Y{sub {nu}}){sub ij} and of the light neutrino mass parameters, which can be used in both analytical and numerical studies. We apply this procedure to a particular class of supersymmetric SO(10) models with two 10-dimensional and a pair of 126 + 126 representations in the Higgs sector, and study the properties of the corresponding 8 right-handed neutrino spectra. Then, using the reconstructed right-handed neutrino and triplet parameters, we study lepton-genesis and lepton flavour violation in these models, and comment on flavour effects in lepton-genesis in the type I limit. We find that the mixed solutions where both the type I and the type II seesaw mechanisms give a significant contribution to neutrino masses provide new opportunities for successful lepton-genesis in SO(10) Great Unified Theories. (authors)

  13. Fine mapping of the pond snail left-right asymmetry (chirality locus using RAD-Seq and fibre-FISH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengning Maureen Liu

    Full Text Available The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, "D". First, heterozygous (Dd pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd or sinistral (dd. Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (<0.1 cM. Finally, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs were isolated that contained the three loci. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of pachytene cells showed that the three BACs tightly cluster on the same bivalent chromosome. Fibre-FISH identified a region of greater that ∼0.4 Mb between two BAC clone markers that must contain D. This work therefore establishes the resources for molecular identification of the chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems.

  14. Introduction: Right Left Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan SMITH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the close of the 1920s, the European mood had changed from the disenchantment and nihilism or apolitical hedonism that followed the Great War to a more serious engagement with a politics of crisis generated by economic collapse and the social and cultural disintegration which accompanied it. After the Wall Street Crash in October 1929 inaugurated the Depression years, it became increasingly difficult for writers in Britain and Europe to remain aloof from political concerns. Loyalties, whet...

  15. The V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b mediates dorsal forerunner cell proliferation and left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokey, Jason J; Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-11-01

    Asymmetric fluid flows generated by motile cilia in a transient 'organ of asymmetry' are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryonic development. The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump has been identified as an early factor in the LR pathway that functions prior to cilia, but the role(s) for V-ATPase activity are not fully understood. In the zebrafish embryo, the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b is maternally supplied and expressed in dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) that give rise to the ciliated organ of asymmetry called Kupffer's vesicle (KV). V-ATPase accessory proteins modulate V-ATPase activity, but little is known about their functions in development. We investigated Atp6ap1b and V-ATPase in KV development using morpholinos, mutants and pharmacological inhibitors. Depletion of both maternal and zygotic atp6ap1b expression reduced KV organ size, altered cilia length and disrupted LR patterning of the embryo. Defects in other ciliated structures-neuromasts and olfactory placodes-suggested a broad role for Atp6ap1b during development of ciliated organs. V-ATPase inhibitor treatments reduced KV size and identified a window of development in which V-ATPase activity is required for proper LR asymmetry. Interfering with Atp6ap1b or V-ATPase function reduced the rate of DFC proliferation, which resulted in fewer ciliated cells incorporating into the KV organ. Analyses of pH and subcellular V-ATPase localizations suggested Atp6ap1b functions to localize the V-ATPase to the plasma membrane where it regulates proton flux and cytoplasmic pH. These results uncover a new role for the V-ATPase accessory protein Atp6ap1b in early development to maintain the proliferation rate of precursor cells needed to construct a ciliated KV organ capable of generating LR asymmetry.

  16. Modification of depth and distance perception caused by long-term wearing of left-right reversing spectacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Kimura, Takahiko; Egusa, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuka, Makiko; Amano, Jun; Ueda, Tomomi; Tashiro, Takara

    2003-01-01

    For 35 to 39 days, four observers wore continuously left-right reversing spectacles which pseudoscopically reverse the order of binocular disparity and direction of convergence. In three tests, we investigated how the visual system copes with the transformation of depth and distance information due to the reversing spectacles. In stereogram observation, after a few days of wearing the spectacles. the observers sometimes perceived a depth order which was opposite to the depth order that they had perceived in the pre-spectacle-wearing period. Monocular depth cues contributed more to depth perception in the spectacle-wearing period than they did in the pre-spectacle-wearing period. While the perceived distance significantly decreased during the spectacle-wearing period, we found no evidence of adaptive change in distance perception. The results indicate that the visual system adapts itself to the transformed situation by not only changing the processing of disparity but also by changing the relative efficiency of each cue in determining apparent depth.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Comparison of Left-Right Heart Volumetric and Functional Parameters in Thalassemia Major and Thalassemia Intermedia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate a population of asymptomatic thalassemia major (TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI patients using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. We supposed that TI group could be differentiated from the TM group based on T2∗ and that the TI group could demonstrate higher cardiac output. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 242 patients with TM and TI was performed (132 males, 110 females; mean age 39.6±8 years; 186 TM, 56 TI. Iron load was assessed by T2∗ measurements; volumetric functions were analyzed using steady-state-free precession sequences. Results. Significant difference in left-right heart performance was observed between TM with iron overload and TI patients and between TM with iron overload and TM without iron overload (P<0.05; no significant differences were observed between TM without iron overload and TI patients. A significant correlation was observed between T2∗ and ejection fraction of right ventricle- (RV- ejection fraction of left ventricle (LV; an inverse correlation was present among T2∗ values and end-diastolic volume of LV, end-systolic volume of LV, stroke volume of LV, end-diastolic volume of RV, end-systolic volume of RV, and stroke volume of RV. Conclusions. CMR is a leading approach for cardiac risk evaluation of TM and TI patients.

  18. Searches for new neutral gauge boson at the Tevatron and LHC in the left-right twin Higgs model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YaoBei; ZHANG WenQing; YAN LeiBing

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model,we study the possibilities to detect the new Z' boson at the Tevatron and LHC.First,using p(p) collision data collected by the DO and CDF Ⅱ detectors,we find that the LRTH Z' boson is excluded with masses below 940 GeV.Then we search for signatures of the Z' boson at the LHC from the analysis of some distributions for p(p) →/μ+μ- + X,such as the number of events,the differential cross section of the dimuon invariant mass,the distributions of the transverse momentum and the forward-backward charge asymmetry.We do our calculation for two typical values of the LHC center of mass energy (7 and 14 TeV).The numerical results show that,by applying convenient cuts on some of the observables,the dimuon invariant mass and final particle PΤ distributions can reveal the presence of the heavy neutral gauge boson Z' contribution in the LRTH model.

  19. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  20. The Scalar Triplet Contribution to Lepton Flavour Violation and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bambhaniya, Gulab; Goswami, Srubabati; Mitra, Manimala

    2015-01-01

    We analyse in detail the scalar triplet contribution to the low-energy lepton flavour violating (LFV) and lepton number violating (LNV) processes within a TeV-scale left-right symmetric framework. We show that in both type-I and type-II seesaw dominance for the light neutrino masses, the triplet of comparable or smaller mass than the largest right-handed neutrino mass scale can give sizeable contribution to the LFV processes, except in the quasi-degenerate limit of light neutrino masses, where a suppression can occur due to cancellations. In particular, a moderate value of the heaviest neutrino to scalar triplet mass ratio $r\\lesssim {\\cal O}(1)$ is still experimentally allowed and can be explored in the future LFV experiments. Similarly, the contribution of a relatively light triplet to the LNV process of neutrinoless double beta decay could be significant, disfavouring a part of the model parameter space otherwise allowed by LFV constraints. Nevertheless, we find regions of parameter space consistent with b...

  1. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A{sub LR}) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A{sub LR} experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4{+-}1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A{sub LR} is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model.

  2. The time-delay estimation method of resolving left-right target ambiguity for twin-line array and its realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qihu

    2007-01-01

    The directivity function of twin-line array sonar can be used to identify left/right target. But the performance is limited by the distance between two lines and also exists the blind area for target identification. A method, which is based on the time-delay estimation between two line arrays, is proposed to identify left/right target. The method is robust with the variation of distance between two line array, the blind area is considerable decreased. The theoretical analysis results and realization method is described. An algorithm base on interpolation method for precisely estimating time-delay of two line array are derived, therefore the left-right ambiguity problem is solved.

  3. Single vector-like top partner production in the Left-Right Twin Higgs model at TeV energy $e\\gamma$ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan-Ying, Guo; Bing-Fang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs model contains a new vector-like heavy top quark, which mixes with the SM-like top quark. In this work, we studied the single vector-like top partner production via process $e^{-}\\gamma \\rightarrow \

  4. Lexical Decision with Left, Right and Center Visual Field Presentation: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Regular Readers by Means of Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differences in processing between regular and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different visual field presentations (left, right, and center). The research utilized behavioral measures that provide information on accuracy and reaction time and electro-physiological measures that permit the examination of brain…

  5. Neutrino jets from high-mass WR gauge bosons in TeV-scale left-right symmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Manimala; Ruiz, Richard; Scott, Darren J.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We reexamine the discovery potential at hadron colliders of high-mass right-handed (RH) gauge bosons WR—an inherent ingredient of left-right symmetric models (LRSM). We focus on the regime where the WR is very heavy compared to the heavy Majorana neutrino N , and we investigate an alternative signature for WR→N decays. The produced neutrinos are highly boosted in this mass regime. Subsequently, their decays via off-shell WR bosons to jets, i.e., N →ℓ±jj, are highly collimated, forming a single neutrino jet (jN). The final-state collider signature is then ℓ±jN, instead of the widely studied ℓ±ℓ±j j . Present search strategies are not sensitive to this hierarchical mass regime due to the breakdown of the collider signature definition. We take into account QCD corrections beyond next-to-leading order (NLO) that are important for high-mass Drell-Yan processes at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For the first time, we evaluate WR production at NLO with threshold resummation at next-to-next-to-leading logarithm (NNLL) matched to the threshold-improved parton distributions. With these improvements, we find that a WR of mass MWR=3 (4 )[5 ] TeV and mass ratio of (mN/MWR)<0.1 can be discovered with a 5 - 6 σ statistical significance at 13 TeV after 10 (100 )[2000 ] fb-1 of data. Extending the analysis to the hypothetical 100 TeV Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), 5 σ can be obtained for WR masses up to MW R=15 (30 ) with approximately 100 fb-1 (10 ab-1 ). Conversely, with 0.9 (10 )[150 ] fb-1 of 13 TeV data, MWR<3 (4 )[5 ] TeV and (mN/MWR)<0.1 can be excluded at 95% C.L.; with 100 fb-1 (2.5 ab-1 ) of 100 TeV data, MW R<22 (33 ) TeV can be excluded.

  6. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  7. Sex Roles and Eating Disorders: Evidence for Two Independent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Lauren

    Because such eating disorders as anorexia and bulimia have been found to be more common in women than in men, much recent research on these disorders has examined their relationship to gender roles. Some evidence exists supporting the existence of two types of eating disorders; one associated with stereotypically feminine concerns, the other…

  8. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Emmel, Maria Luisa Guillaumon

    2013-01-01

    to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities.

  9. Probing lepton flavor violation signal via γ γ →l¯ilj in the left-right twin Higgs model at the ILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Li; Wang, Fei; Xie, Kuan; Guo, Xiao-Fei

    2017-08-01

    To explain the small neutrino masses, heavy Majorana neutrinos are introduced in the left-right twin Higgs model. The heavy neutrinos—together with the charged scalars and the heavy gauge bosons—may contribute large mixings between the neutrinos and the charged leptons, which may induce some distinct lepton-flavor-violating processes. We check ℓ¯iℓj (i ,j =e ,μ ,τ ,i ≠j ) production in γ γ collisions in the left-right twin Higgs model, and find that the production rates may be large in some specific parameter space. In optimal cases, it is even possible to detect them with reasonable kinematical cuts. We also show that these collisions can effectively constrain the model parameters—such as the Higgs vacuum expectation value, the right-handed neutrino mass, etc.—and may serve as a sensitive probe of this new physics model.

  10. Single Production of Charged Gauge Boson W-H from Left-Right Twin Higgs Model in Association with Top Quark at LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; LIU Yao-Bei; FAN Hong-Yi; WANG Xue-Lei; HAN Hong-Mei; CAO Yong-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The twin Higgs mechanism has recently been proposed to solve the little hierarchy problem. In the context of the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, we discuss single production of the new charged gauge boson W-H, which is predicted by the left-right twin Higgs model, in association with top quark at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is found that, for a typical nonzero value of mass mixing parameter M = 150 GeV in the LRTH model, the production cross section is in the range of 3 × 10-2 ~ 6.07 × 103fb at the LHC. As long as the W-H is not too heavy, the possible signatures of the heavy charged gauge boson might be detected at the LHC experiments.

  11. Search for Heavy Neutrinos and WR Bosons with Right-Handed Couplings in a Left-Right Symmetric Model in pp Collisions at s=7TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, Nμ, and right-handed WR bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0fb-1 sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the WR mass, dependent on the value of MWR. The excluded region in the two-dimensional (MWR, MNμ) mass plane extends to MWR=2.5TeV.

  12. A discussion on chirality: quantum numbers for models of 'left-right' chiral oscillations with SU(4) gauge symmetry; Uma discussao sobre quiralidade: numeros quanticos para modelos de oscilacao quiral 'left-right' com simetria de gauge SU (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW). Dept. de Raios Cosmicos]. E-mail: alexeb@ifi.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a briefly discussion on the chirality, a important quantum character of the neutrinos and particles physics. A SU(4) symmetry base is establish for the study on the chiral oscillation 'left-right' for the determination the quantum numbers related to the different representations of the SU(4) symmetry group.

  13. Flipped versions of the universal 3-3-1 and the left-right symmetric models in [S U (3 )]3 : A comprehensive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Oscar; Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A.; Rojas, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    By considering the 3-3-1 and the left-right symmetric models as low-energy effective theories of the S U (3 )C⊗S U (3 )L⊗S U (3 )R (for short [S U (3 )]3 ) gauge group, alternative versions of these models are found. The new neutral gauge bosons of the universal 3-3-1 model and its flipped versions are presented; also, the left-right symmetric model and its flipped variants are studied. Our analysis shows that there are two flipped versions of the universal 3-3-1 model, with the particularity that both of them have the same weak charges. For the left-right symmetric model, we also found two flipped versions; one of them is new in the literature and, unlike those of the 3-3-1, requires a dedicated study of its electroweak properties. For all the models analyzed, the couplings of the Z' bosons to the standard model fermions are reported. The explicit form of the null space of the vector boson mass matrix for an arbitrary Higgs tensor and gauge group is also presented. In the general framework of the [S U (3 )]3 gauge group, and by using the LHC experimental results and EW precision data, limits on the Z' mass and the mixing angle between Z and the new gauge bosons Z' are obtained. The general results call for very small mixing angles in the range 1 0-3 radians and MZ'>2.5 TeV .

  14. Constraint on the mass scale of a left-right-symmetric electroweak theory from the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, G.; Bander, M.; Soni, A.

    1982-03-29

    The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference provides a stringent constraint on the mass (M/sub R/) of the charged right-handed gauge field occurring in a ''manifest'' left-right-symmetric electroweak theory, yielding M/sub R/> or approx. =1.6 TeV. Taken in the context of a grand-unifying gauge theory, e.g., O(10), such a large bound on M/sub R/, along with the measured value of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/, implies that M/sub R/> or approx. =10/sup 9/ GeV.

  15. Implications of the Diboson Excess for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Lepton Flavor Violation in TeV Scale Left Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Awasthi, Ram Lal; Mitra, Manimala

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the recent diboson excess observed at the LHC and possible interpretation within a TeV-scale Left-Right symmetric framework, we explore its implications for low-energy experiments searching for lepton number and flavor violation. Assuming a simple Type-II seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, we show that for the right-handed (RH) gauge boson mass and coupling values required to explain the LHC anomalies, the RH contribution to the lepton number violating process of neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\

  16. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T Grimes; Keynton, Jennifer L.; Buenavista, Maria T.; Jin, Xingjian; Saloni H Patel; Kyosuke, Shinohara; Vibert, Jennifer; Williams, Debbie J.; Hamada, Hiroshi; Hussain, Rohanah; Nauli, Surya M.; Norris, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This ‘nodal flow’ is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been i...

  17. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T Grimes; Keynton, Jennifer L.; Buenavista, Maria T.; Jin, Xingjian; Saloni H Patel; Kyosuke, Shinohara; Vibert, Jennifer; Williams, Debbie J.; Hamada, Hiroshi; Hussain, Rohanah; Nauli, Surya M.; Norris, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This ‘nodal flow’ is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been i...

  18. The role of psychological factors in the career of the independent dancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen eAujla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that psychological factors such as motivation and mental skills play an important role in relation to performance and to negotiating talent development stages. However, little is known about these factors in dance, particularly with regard to the independent dancer whose career may involve multiple roles, varied work patterns and periods of instability. The aim of this study was to explore dancers’ motivation to work in an independent capacity, and the extent to which dancers’ psychological characteristics and skills enabled them to navigate a career in this demanding sector. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 dancers at different stages of their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the dancers were intrinsically motivated and highly committed to the profession. Working in the independent sector offered dancers opportunities for growth and fulfillment; they appreciated the autonomy, flexibility and freedom that the independent career afforded, as well as working with new people across roles and disciplines. In order to overcome the various challenges associated with the independent role, optimism, self-belief, social support and career management skills were crucial. The mental skills reported by the participants had developed gradually in response to the demands that they faced. Therefore, mental skills training could be invaluable for dancers to help them successfully negotiate the independent sector.

  19. Left-right symmetric gauge theory in non-commutative geometry on M{sub 4} x Z{sub N}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Yoshitaka [Chubu Univ., Kasugai, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    The left-right symmetric gauge model (LRSM) is reconstructed using the previously proposed formalism based on the non-commutative differential geometry extended on the discrete space M{sub 4} x Z{sub N}. This formalism is so flexible and applicable that not only the standard model but also the SU(5) grand unified model have already been reformulated in this formalism, which presents many attractive points such as the unified picture of the gauge field and Higgs field as the generalized connection in non-commutative geometry. LRSM is still alive as a model with the intermediate symmetry of the spontaneously broken SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT). Six sheets are prepared for LRSM (N=6), one is for SU(3){sub c} color symmetry and the rest of five are for SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x U(1) symmetry. We can achieve the reformulation of LRSM with the quite different configurations of Higgs particles from the ordinary one. Namely, the left-right symmetric gauge groups are broken owing to two (2, 1) and two (1, 2) doublet Higgs fields with hypercharge 1, one (2, 2{sup *}) Higgs field, and one (1, 3) Higgs field with hypercharge -2. The fermion sectors are nicely incorporated so that the seesaw mechanism works well to make the right-handed neutrino super heavy and the left-handed neutrino super light. (author).

  20. Short-distance QCD corrections to {K}^0{overline{K}}^0 mixing at next-to-leading order in Left-Right models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Véronique; Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Silva, Luiz Vale

    2016-08-01

    Left-Right (LR) models are extensions of the Standard Model where left-right symmetry is restored at high energies, and which are strongly constrained by kaon mixing described in the framework of the |Δ S| = 2 effective Hamiltonian. We consider the short-distance QCD corrections to this Hamiltonian both in the Standard Model (SM) and in LR models. The leading logarithms occurring in these short-distance corrections can be resummed within a rigourous Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach integrating out heavy degrees of freedom progressively, or using an approximate simpler method of regions identifying the ranges of loop momentum generating large logarithms in the relevant two-loop diagrams. We compare the two approaches in the SM at next-to-leading order, finding a very good agreement when one scale dominates the problem, but only a fair agreement in the presence of a large logarithm at leading order. We compute the short-distance QCD corrections for LR models at next-to-leading order using the method of regions, and we compare the results with the EFT approach for the W W ' box with two charm quarks (together with additional diagrams forming a gauge-invariant combination), where a large logarithm occurs already at leading order. We conclude by providing next-to-leading-order estimates for cc, ct and tt boxes in LR models.

  1. Multi-component fermionic dark matter and IceCube PeV scale neutrinos in left-right model with gauge unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Patra, Sudhanwa; Tomar, Gaurav

    2017-09-01

    We consider a simple extension of the minimal left-right symmetric model (LRSM) in order to explain the PeV neutrino events seen at the IceCube experiment from a heavy decaying dark matter. The dark matter sector is composed of two fermions: one at PeV scale and the other at TeV scale such that the heavier one can decay into the lighter one and two neutrinos. The gauge annihilation cross sections of PeV dark matter are not large enough to generate its relic abundance within the observed limit. We include a pair of real scalar triplets Ω L,R which can bring the thermally overproduced PeV dark matter abundance into the observed range through late time decay and consequent entropy release thereby providing a consistent way to obtain the correct relic abundance without violating the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. Another scalar field, a bitriplet under left-right gauge group is added to assist the heavier dark matter decay. The presence of an approximate global U(1) X symmetry can naturally explain the origin of tiny couplings required for long-lived nature of these decaying particles. We also show, how such an extended LRSM can be incorporated within a non-supersymmetric SO(10) model where the gauge coupling unification at a very high scale naturally accommodate a PeV scale intermediate symmetry, required to explain the PeV events at IceCube.

  2. Short-distance QCD corrections to K{sup 0}K̄{sup 0} mixingat next-to-leading order in Left-Right models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Véronique [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Descotes-Genon, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-08-23

    Left-Right (LR) models are extensions of the Standard Model where left-right symmetry is restored at high energies, and which are strongly constrained by kaon mixing described in the framework of the |ΔS|=2 effective Hamiltonian. We consider the short-distance QCD corrections to this Hamiltonian both in the Standard Model (SM) and in LR models. The leading logarithms occurring in these short-distance corrections can be resummed within a rigourous Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach integrating out heavy degrees of freedom progressively, or using an approximate simpler method of regions identifying the ranges of loop momentum generating large logarithms in the relevant two-loop diagrams. We compare the two approaches in the SM at next-to-leading order, finding a very good agreement when one scale dominates the problem, but only a fair agreement in the presence of a large logarithm at leading order. We compute the short-distance QCD corrections for LR models at next-to-leading order using the method of regions, and we compare the results with the EFT approach for the WW{sup ′} box with two charm quarks (together with additional diagrams forming a gauge-invariant combination), where a large logarithm occurs already at leading order. We conclude by providing next-to-leading-order estimates for cc, ct and tt boxes in LR models.

  3. Progressive developmental restriction, acquisition of left-right identity and cell growth behavior during lobe formation in mouse liver development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary C; Le Garrec, Jean-Francois; Coqueran, Sabrina; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    To identify cell-based decisions implicated in morphogenesis of the mammalian liver, we performed clonal analysis of hepatocytes/hepatoblasts in mouse liver development, using a knock-in allele of Hnf4a/laacZ This transgene randomly undergoes a low frequency of recombination that generates a functional lacZ gene that produces β-galactosidase in tissues in which Hnf4a is expressed. Two types of β-galactosidase-positive clones were found. Most have undergone three to eight cell divisions and result from independent events (Luria-Delbrück fluctuation test); we calculate that they arose between E8.5 and E13.5. A second class was mega-clones derived from early endoderm progenitors, generating many descendants. Some originated from multi-potential founder cells, with labeled cells in the liver, pancreas and/or intestine. A few mega-clones populate only one side of the liver, indicating hepatic cell chirality. The patterns of labeled cells indicate cohesive and often oriented growth, notably in broad radial stripes, potentially implicated in the formation of liver lobes. This retrospective clonal analysis gives novel insights into clonal origins, cell behavior of progenitors and distinct properties of endoderm cells that underlie the formation and morphogenesis of the liver.

  4. The Role of Sport in the Construction of Masculinities in an English Independent Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the central role of organised sport in the construction of masculinity amongst Year 6 boys (10 to 11-year-olds) at an English independent (fee-paying) junior school. The data come from an ethnographic study of one year's duration that investigated constructions of masculinity among two classes. The formal school culture…

  5. Measurement of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for charm quarks with {ital D}{sup *}+ and {ital D}{sup +} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N.J.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D`Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Daoudi, M.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell`Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D.J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.; (SLD Collabor...

    1995-11-13

    We present a direct measurement of {ital A}{sub {ital c}}=2{ital v}{sub {ital c}}{ital a}{sub {ital c}}/({ital v}{sup 2}{sub {ital c}}+{ital a}{sup 2}{sub {ital c}}) from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of {ital D}{sup *}+ and {ital D}{sup +} mesons in {ital Z}{sup 0} events produced with the longitudinally polarized SLAC Linear Collider beam. These {ital Z}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{ital c} over bar events are tagged on the basis of event kinematics and decay topology from a sample of hadronic {ital Z}{sup 0} decays recorded by the SLAC Large Detector. We measure {ital A}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}} = 0.73 {plus_minus} 0.22(stat) {plus_minus} 0.10(syst). {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  6. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Heck, Anita; Zohn, Irene E; Okabe, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    -right organization of their internal organ positioning, including situs inversus and situs ambiguous (Kartagener's syndrome). Here, we identify an uncharacterized coiled-coil domain containing a protein, CCDC40, essential for correct left-right patterning in mouse, zebrafish and human. In mouse and zebrafish, Ccdc40...... is expressed in tissues that contain motile cilia, and mutations in Ccdc40 result in cilia with reduced ranges of motility. We further show that CCDC40 mutations in humans result in a variant of PCD characterized by misplacement of the central pair of microtubules and defective assembly of inner dynein arms...... and dynein regulatory complexes. CCDC40 localizes to motile cilia and the apical cytoplasm and is required for axonemal recruitment of CCDC39, disruption of which underlies a similar variant of PCD....

  7. First measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production at E{sub cm} = 91.55 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowson, P.C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; The SLD Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    The left-right cross section asymmetry for Z boson production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation (A{sub LR}) has been measured at E{sub cm} = 91.55 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) using a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The electron polarization was continually monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22%. We have accumulated a sample of {approximately}10,200 Z events. We find that A{sup LR} = 0.100 {plus_minus} 0.044 {plus_minus} 0.003 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. From this measurement, we determine the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole to be sin{sup 2}{theta}(lept/w) = 0.2378 {plus_minus} 0.0056.

  8. First measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production at E[sub cm] = 91. 55 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowson, P.C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    The left-right cross section asymmetry for Z boson production in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilation (A[sub LR]) has been measured at E[sub cm] = 91.55 GeV with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) using a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The electron polarization was continually monitored with a Compton scattering polarimeter, and was typically 22%. We have accumulated a sample of [approximately]10,200 Z events. We find that A[sup LR] = 0.100 [plus minus] 0.044 [plus minus] 0.003 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. From this measurement, we determine the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole to be sin[sup 2][theta](lept/w) = 0.2378 [plus minus] 0.0056.

  9. Left-right olfactory asymmetry results from antagonistic functions of voltage-activated calcium channels and the Raw repeat protein OLRN-1 in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura Isao

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The left and right AWC olfactory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans differ in their functions and in their expression of chemosensory receptor genes; in each animal, one AWC randomly takes on one identity, designated AWCOFF, and the contralateral AWC becomes AWCON. Signaling between AWC neurons induces left-right asymmetry through a gap junction network and a claudin-related protein, which inhibit a calcium-regulated MAP kinase pathway in the neuron that becomes AWCON. Results We show here that the asymmetry gene olrn-1 acts downstream of the gap junction and claudin genes to inhibit the calcium-MAP kinase pathway in AWCON. OLRN-1, a protein with potential membrane-association domains, is related to the Drosophila Raw protein, a negative regulator of JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signaling. olrn-1 opposes the action of two voltage-activated calcium channel homologs, unc-2 (CaV2 and egl-19 (CaV1, which act together to stimulate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase CaMKII and the MAP kinase pathway. Calcium channel activity is essential in AWCOFF, and the two AWC neurons coordinate left-right asymmetry using signals from the calcium channels and signals from olrn-1. Conclusion olrn-1 and voltage-activated calcium channels are mediators and targets of AWC signaling that act at the transition between a multicellular signaling network and cell-autonomous execution of the decision. We suggest that the asymmetry decision in AWC results from the intercellular coupling of voltage-regulated channels, whose cross-regulation generates distinct calcium signals in the left and right AWC neurons. The interpretation of these signals by the kinase cascade initiates the sustained difference between the two cells.

  10. Co-option of an oral-aboral patterning mechanism to control left-right differentiation: the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma is sinistralized, not ventralized, by NiCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsuk, Sharon B; Raff, Rudolf A

    2005-01-01

    Larval dorsoventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axial patterning unfold progressively in sea urchin development, leading to commitment of the major embryonic regions by the gastrula stage. The direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma has lost oral-aboral differentiation along the DV axis but has accelerated vestibular ectoderm development on the left side. NiCl(2) radializes indirect-developing sea urchins by shifting cells toward a ventral fate (oral ectoderm). We treated embryos of H. erythrogramma and the indirect-developing H. tuberculata with NiCl(2). H. tuberculata was ventralized exactly like other indirect developers, establishing that basic patterning mechanisms are conserved in this genus. H. erythrogramma was also radialized; timing, dosage response, and some morphological features were similar to those in other sea urchins. Ectodermal explant and recombination experiments demonstrate that the effect of nickel is autonomous to the ectoderm, another feature in common with indirect developers. However, H. erythrogramma is distinctly sinistralized rather than ventralized, its cells shifting toward a left-side fate (vestibular ectoderm). This geometric contrast in the midst of pervasive functional similarity suggests that nickel-sensitive processes in H. erythrogramma axial patterning, homologous to those in indirect developers, have been redeployed, and hence co-opted, from their ancestral role in DV axis determination to a new role in LR axis determination. We discuss DV and LR axial patterning and their evolutionary transformation.

  11. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  12. Mechanistic pathways and biological roles for receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Joe B; Smrcka, Alan V; Lanier, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins in response to cell surface receptors is a central and much investigated aspect of how cells integrate cellular stimuli to produce coordinated biological responses. The system is a target of numerous therapeutic agents and plays an important role in adaptive processes of organs; aberrant processing of signals through these transducing systems is a component of various disease states. In addition to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated activation of G-protein signaling, nature has evolved creative ways to manipulate and utilize the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer or Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits independent of the cell surface receptor stimuli. In such situations, the G-protein subunits (Galpha and Gbetagamma) may actually be complexed with alternative binding partners independent of the typical heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma. Such regulatory accessory proteins include the family of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins that accelerate the GTPase activity of Galpha and various entities that influence nucleotide binding properties and/or subunit interaction. The latter group of proteins includes receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling (AGS) proteins that play surprising roles in signal processing. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge regarding AGS proteins. AGS proteins are indicative of a growing number of accessory proteins that influence signal propagation, facilitate cross talk between various types of signaling pathways, and provide a platform for diverse functions of both the heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma and the individual Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits.

  13. Regional deposition of particles in an image-based airway model: large-eddy simulation and left-right lung ventilation asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Andrew R; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    Regional deposition and ventilation of particles by generation, lobe and lung during steady inhalation in a computed tomography (CT) based human airway model are investigated numerically. The airway model consists of a seven-generation human airway tree, with oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. The turbulent flow in the upper respiratory tract is simulated by large-eddy simulation. The flow boundary conditions at the peripheral airways are derived from CT images at two lung volumes to produce physiologically-realistic regional ventilation. Particles with diameter equal to or greater than 2.5 microns are selected for study because smaller particles tend to penetrate to the more distal parts of the lung. The current generational particle deposition efficiencies agree well with existing measurement data. Generational deposition efficiencies exhibit similar dependence on particle Stokes number regardless of generation, whereas deposition and ventilation efficiencies vary by lobe and lung, depending on airway morphology and airflow ventilation. In particular, regardless of particle size, the left lung receives a greater proportion of the particle bolus as compared to the right lung in spite of greater flow ventilation to the right lung. This observation is supported by the left-right lung asymmetry of particle ventilation observed in medical imaging. It is found that the particle-laden turbulent laryngeal jet flow, coupled with the unique geometrical features of the airway, causes a disproportionate amount of particles to enter the left lung.

  14. Fish-specific duplicated dmrt2b contributes to a divergent function through Hedgehog pathway and maintains left-right asymmetry establishment function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Liu

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is thought to provide raw material for functional divergence and innovation. Fish-specific dmrt2b has been identified as a duplicated gene of the dmrt2a/terra in fish genomes, but its function has remained unclear. Here we reveal that Dmrt2b knockdown zebrafish embryos display a downward tail curvature and have U-shaped somites. Then, we demonstrate that Dmrt2b contributes to a divergent function in somitogenesis through Hedgehog pathway, because Dmrt2b knockdown reduces target gene expression of Hedgehog signaling, and also impairs slow muscle development and neural tube patterning through Hedgehog signaling. Moreover, the Dmrt2b morphants display defects in heart and visceral organ asymmetry, and, some lateral-plate mesoderm (LPM markers expressed in left side are randomized. Together, these data indicate that fish-specific duplicated dmrt2b contributes to a divergent function in somitogenesis through Hedgehog pathway and maintains the common function for left-right asymmetry establishment.

  15. Automated Neutrino Jet and Top Jet Predictions at Next-to-Leading-Order with Parton Shower Matching in Effective Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mattelaer, Olivier; Ruiz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Hadronic decays of boosted resonances, e.g., top quark jets, at hadronic super colliders are frequent predictions in TeV-scale extensions of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. In such scenarios, accurate modeling of QCD radiation is necessary for trustworthy predictions. We present the automation of fully differential, next-to-leading-order (NLO) in QCD corrections with parton shower (PS) matching for an effective Left-Right Symmetric Model (LRSM) that features $W_R^\\pm, Z_R$ gauge bosons and heavy Majorana neutrinos $N$. Publicly available universal model files require remarkably fewer user inputs for predicting benchmark collider processes than leading order LRSM constructions. We present predictions for inclusive $W_R^\\pm, Z_R$ production at the $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and a hypothetical future 100 TeV Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), as well as inclusive $N$ production for a hypothetical Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). As a case study, we investigate at NLO+PS accurac...

  16. Neutrino Jets from High-Mass $W_R$ Gauge Bosons in TeV-Scale Left-Right Symmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Manimala; Scott, Darren J; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine the discovery potential at hadron colliders of high-mass right-handed (RH) gauge bosons $W_R$ - an inherent ingredient of Left-Right Symmetric Models (LRSM). We focus on the regime where the $W_R$ is very heavy compared to the heavy Majorana neutrino $N$, and investigate an alternative signature for $W_R \\rightarrow N$ decays. The produced neutrinos are highly boosted in this mass regime. Subsequently, their decays via off-shell $W_R$ bosons to jets, i.e., $N \\rightarrow \\ell^\\pm j j$ are highly collimated, forming a single neutrino jet $(j_N)$. The final-state collider signature is then $\\ell^\\pm j_N$, instead of the widely studied $\\ell^\\pm\\ell^\\pm jj$. Present search strategies are not sensitive to this hierarchical mass regime due to the breakdown of the collider signature definition. We take into account QCD corrections beyond next-to-leading order (NLO) that are important for high-mass Drell-Yan processes at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For the first time, we evaluate $W_R$ prod...

  17. Top-down and bottom-up excursions beyond the Standard Model: The example of left-right symmetries in supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D thesis three main projects are presented. In the first one the phenomenology associated with the neutralinos and charginos sector of the left-right symmetric supersymmetric model is explored. After a detailed motivation of the study and construction of such models, it is shown that these models can be easily discovered in multi-leptonic final states as they lead to signatures very different from those induced by the Standard Model or its supersymmetric version. In the second project, we concentrate on the phenomenology associated with doubly-charged particles. Starting from the hypothesis that such a particle is discovered at the LHC, we build several effective field theories depending on both the representation under SU(2)_L to which they belong the particle and their spin and perform a Monte Carlo analysis highlighting some key observables that would help to determine their quantum numbers. Another part of my thesis, complementary to the phenomenology work, has consisted in developping computer...

  18. A Genetic-Based Feature Selection Approach in the Identification of Left/Right Hand Motor Imagery for a Brain-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacoub, Charles; Mhanna, Georges; Rihana, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography is a non-invasive measure of the brain electrical activity generated by millions of neurons. Feature extraction in electroencephalography analysis is a core issue that may lead to accurate brain mental state classification. This paper presents a new feature selection method that improves left/right hand movement identification of a motor imagery brain-computer interface, based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks used as classifiers. Raw electroencephalography signals are first preprocessed using appropriate filtering. Feature extraction is carried out afterwards, based on spectral and temporal signal components, and thus a feature vector is constructed. As various features might be inaccurate and mislead the classifier, thus degrading the overall system performance, the proposed approach identifies a subset of features from a large feature space, such that the classifier error rate is reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce the number of features to as low as 0.5% (i.e., the number of ignored features can reach 99.5%) while improving the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the classifier. PMID:28124985

  19. Subdominant left-right scalar dark matter as origin of the 750 GeV di-photon excess at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Patra, Sudhanwa; Sahoo, Shibananda

    2016-06-01

    We study the possibility of explaining the recently reported 750 GeV di-photon excess at LHC within the framework of a left-right symmetric model. The 750 GeV neutral scalar in the model is dominantly an admixture of neutral components of scalar bidoublets with a tiny fraction of neutral scalar triplet. Incorporating SU(2) septuplet scalar pairs into the model, we enhance the partial decay width of the 750 GeV neutral scalar into di-photons through charged septuplet components in loop while keeping the neutral septuplet components as subdominant dark matter candidates. The model also predicts the decay width of the 750 GeV scalar to be around 36 GeV to be either confirmed or ruled out by future LHC data. The requirement of producing the correct di-photon signal automatically keeps the septuplet dark matter abundance subdominant in agreement with bounds from direct and indirect detection experiments. We then briefly discuss different possibilities to account for the remaining dark matter component of the Universe in terms of other particle candidates whose stability arises either due to remnant discrete symmetry after spontaneous breaking of U(1)B-L or due to high SU(2)-dimension forbidding their decay into lighter particles.

  20. The production and decay of the top partner $T$ in the left-right twin higgs model at the ILC and CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao-Bei

    2014-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs model (LRTHM) predicts the existence of the top partner $T$. In this work, we make a systematic investigation for the single and pair production of this top partner $T$ through the processes: $e^{+}e^{-}\\to t\\ov{T} + T\\bar{t}$ and $ T\\ov{T}$, the neutral scalar (the SM-like Higgs boson $h$ or neutral pseudoscalar boson $\\phi^{0}$) associate productions $e^{+}e^{-}\\to t\\ov{T}h +T\\bar{t}h$, $T\\ov{T}h$, $t\\ov{T}\\phi^{0}+T\\bar{t}\\phi^{0}$ and $ T\\ov{T}\\phi^{0}$. From the numerical evaluations for the production cross sections and relevant phenomenological analysis we find that (a) the production rates of these processes, in the reasonable parameter space, can reach the level of several or tens of fb; (b) for some cases, the peak value of the resonance production cross section can be enhanced significantly and reaches to the level of pb; (c) the subsequent decay of $T\\to \\phi^{+}b \\to t\\bar{b}b$ may generate typical phenomenological features rather different from the signals from other ne...

  1. Constraining the right-handed gauge boson mass from lepton number violating meson decays in a low scale left-right model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sanjoy; Mitra, Manimala; Sinha, Nita

    2017-08-01

    We analyze the lepton number violating (LNV) meson decays that arise in a TeV scale left-right symmetry model. The right-handed Majorana neutrino N along with the right-handed or Standard Model gauge bosons mediate the meson decays and provide a resonant enhancement of the rates if the mass of N (MN) lies in the range ˜(100 MeV - 5 GeV ) . Using the expected upper limits on the number of events for the LNV decay modes M1+→ℓ+ℓ+ π- (M1=B,D,Ds, K ), we derive constraints plausible on the mass of the right handed charged gauge boson by future searches at the ongoing NA62 and LHCb experiments at CERN, the upcoming Belle II at SuperKEK, as well as at the proposed future experiments, SHiP and FCC-ee. These bounds are complimentary to the limits from the same-sign dilepton search at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The very high intensity of charmed mesons expected to be produced at SHiP will result in a far more stringent bound, MW R>18.4 TeV (corresponding to MN=1.46 GeV ), than the other existing bounds from collider and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  2. Probing New Gauge Boson Z‧ from the Left-Right Twin Higgs Model at High-Energy e+e- Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Bei; Du, Lin-Lin; Chang, Qin

    The left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model predicts the existence of the new neutral gauge boson Z‧. In this paper, we calculate the contributions of this new particle to the processes e+e-→l+l-, bbar b and cbar c and study the possibility of detecting this new particle via these processes in the future high-energy linear e+e- collider (LC) experiments with √ {s}=500 GeV and £int = 340 fb-1, both for unpolarized and polarized beams. We find that the new gauge boson Z‧ is most sensitive to the process e+e--> cbar {c} with suitably polarized beams. As long as MZ‧ ≤ 1.9 TeV, the absolute value of the relative correction parameter is larger than 5%. We calculate the forward-backward asymmetries for the process e+e--> fbar {f}, the results show that the possible signals of Z‧ might be detected via measuring the deviations of AFB from its SM prediction for √ {s}˜= MZ'. Bounds on Z‧ masses are also estimated within 95% confidence level. From our analysis, we conclude that the new gauge boson is most sensitive to the process F>e+e^--> cbar c and its virtual effects are most easy to be observed via this process in the future LC experiments.

  3. A Genetic-Based Feature Selection Approach in the Identification of Left/Right Hand Motor Imagery for a Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Yaacoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography is a non-invasive measure of the brain electrical activity generated by millions of neurons. Feature extraction in electroencephalography analysis is a core issue that may lead to accurate brain mental state classification. This paper presents a new feature selection method that improves left/right hand movement identification of a motor imagery brain-computer interface, based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks used as classifiers. Raw electroencephalography signals are first preprocessed using appropriate filtering. Feature extraction is carried out afterwards, based on spectral and temporal signal components, and thus a feature vector is constructed. As various features might be inaccurate and mislead the classifier, thus degrading the overall system performance, the proposed approach identifies a subset of features from a large feature space, such that the classifier error rate is reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to reduce the number of features to as low as 0.5% (i.e., the number of ignored features can reach 99.5% while improving the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the classifier.

  4. 基于特征频率的拖曳双线阵最优左右舷分辨%Optimal left/right discrimination based on the characteristic frequencv for towed twin-line array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宾; 孙贵青

    2011-01-01

    Left/right ambiguity is an inherent shortcoming for towed single-line array, while not for twin-line array. According to the analysis of left/right suppression ratio of twin-line array based on directivity function, the concept of characteristic frequency is defined which maximizes the left/right suppression ratio, and then a novel method is proposed accordingly to resolve the left/right ambiguity. The results of theoretical analysis indicate that the characteristic frequency depends only on the twin-line array spacing and possesses significant robustness when target's bearing is known, and the left/right discrimination method based on the characteristic frequency could improve left/right suppression significantly. Sea trial data verify the existence of the characteristic frequency and validate this method.%左右舷模糊是拖曳单线阵固有的缺陷,而拖曳双线阵具有左右舷分辨能力.本文利用双线阵的指向性函数,通过对双线阵左右舷抑制比的分析,给出使左右舷抑制比最优的特征频率,并提出一种适用于宽带信号的拖曳双线阵左右舷分辨方法.理论分析表明:当目标方位已知时,特征频率仅依赖于双阵间距,且对双阵间距变化有相当的宽容性;基于特征频率的常规波束形成使左右舷抑制比有显著改善.海试结果验证了特征频率的存在,通过对比证明了方法的有效性.

  5. GDNF-independent ureteric budding: role of PI3K-independent activation of AKT and FOSB/JUN/AP-1 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Tee

    2013-07-01

    A significant fraction of mice deficient in either glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF or its co-receptors (Gfrα1, Ret, undergoes ureteric bud (UB outgrowth leading to the formation of a rudimentary kidney. Previous studies using the isolated Wolffian duct (WD culture indicate that activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptor signaling, together with suppression of BMP/Activin signaling, is critical for GDNF-independent WD budding (Maeshima et al., 2007. By expression analysis of embryonic kidney from Ret(−/− mice, we found the upregulation of several FGFs, including FGF7. To examine the intracellular pathways, we then analyzed GDNF-dependent and GDNF-independent budding in the isolated WD culture. In both conditions, Akt activation was found to be important; however, whereas this occurred through PI3-kinase in GDNF-dependent budding, in the case of GDNF-independent budding, Akt activation was apparently via a PI3-kinase independent mechanism. Jnk signaling and the AP-1 transcription factor complex were also implicated in GDNF-independent budding. FosB, a binding partner of c-Jun in the formation of AP-1, was the most highly upregulated gene in the ret knockout kidney (in which budding had still occurred, and we found that its siRNA-mediated knockdown in isolated WDs also blocked GDNF-independent budding. Taken together with the finding that inhibition of Jnk signaling does not block Akt activation/phosphorylation in GDNF-independent budding, the data support necessary roles for both FosB/Jun/AP-1 signaling and PI3-kinase-independent activation of Akt in GDNF-independent budding. A model is proposed for signaling events that involve Akt and JNK working to regulate GDNF-independent WD budding.

  6. Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ali, Tomader; Ashley, Jason W.; Bone, Robert N.; Hancock, William D.; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    Among the family of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the Ca2+-independent PLA2s (iPLA2s) and they are designated group VI iPLA2s. In relation to secretory and cytosolic PLA2s, the iPLA2s are more recently described and details of their expression and roles in biological functions are rapidly emerging. The iPLA2s or patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for activity, and contain lipase (GXSXG) and nucleotide-binding (GXGXXG) consensus sequences. T...

  7. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  8. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  9. A measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z{sup 0} production with polarized e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.

    1993-12-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC is an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider running at {radical}s {approx} M{sub Z} and has provided an electron beam with longitudinal polarization at the SLC interaction point. The 1992 polarized run data were taken with the SLD detector. The author presents here the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for the 1992 run. The polarized run began in May and ended in September of 1992 at a mean center-of-mass energy of 91.56 GeV. Tower hit information of the liquid argon calorimeter and endcap warm iron calorimeter pads were used for selecting hadronic Z{sup 0} or tau pair events. The SLD detector collected about 11,000 events during this run. The magnitude of the longitudinal polarization of the electron beam was continuously measured by a polarimeter based on Compton scattering, and was monitored by a polarimeter based on Moller scattering. The luminosity-weighted average longitudinal polarization during the 1992 run was measured as 22.4 {+-} 0.6 (syst.)%. From these data, the value of A{sub LR} has been measured to be 0.102 {+-} 0.044 (stat.) {+-} 0.003 (syst.), corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle (sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w}{sup eff}) of 0.2375 {+-} 0.0056 (stat.) {+-} 0.0004 (syst.). The error is dominated by the statistical error. This value of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w}{sup eff} is in good agreement with existing measurements from other experiments. Studies of improvements in A{sub LR} event selection for future high-statistics runs are also discussed.

  10. A measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z0 production with polarized e+e- collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hwanbae [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC is an e+e- collider running at √s ~MZ and has provided an electron beam with longitudinal polarization at the SLC interaction point. The 1992 polarized run data were taken with the SLD detector. The author presents here the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (ALR) for the 1992 run. The polarized run began in May and ended in September of 1992 at a mean center-of-mass energy of 91.56 GeV. Tower hit information of the liquid argon calorimeter and endcap warm iron calorimeter pads were used for selecting hadronic Z0 or tau pair events. The SLD detector collected about 11,000 events during this run. The magnitude of the longitudinal polarization of the electron beam was continuously measured by a polarimeter based on Compton scattering, and was monitored by a polarimeter based on Moller scattering. The luminosity-weighted average longitudinal polarization during the 1992 run was measured as 22.4 ± 0.6 (syst.)%. From these data, the value of A{sub LR} has been measured to be 0.102 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.003 (syst.), corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle (sin2θ$eff\\atop{w}$) of 0.2375 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0004 (syst.). The error is dominated by the statistical error. This value of sin2θ$eff\\atop{w}$ is in good agreement with existing measurements from other experiments. Studies of improvements in ALR event selection for future high-statistics runs are also discussed.

  11. Two interconnected kernels of reciprocally inhibitory interneurons underlie alternating left-right swim motor pattern generation in the mollusk Melibe leonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2014-09-15

    The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swimming behavior of the nudibranch Melibe leonina (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) has been described as a simple half-center oscillator consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory pairs of interneurons called swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2). In this study, we identified two additional pairs of interneurons that are part of the swim CPG: swim interneuron 3 (Si3) and swim interneuron 4 (Si4). The somata of Si3 and Si4 were both located in the pedal ganglion, near that of Si2, and both had axons that projected through the pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. These neurons fulfilled the criteria for inclusion as members of the swim CPG: 1) they fired at a fixed phase in relation to Si1 and Si2, 2) brief changes in their activity reset the motor pattern, 3) prolonged changes in their activity altered the periodicity of the motor pattern, 4) they had monosynaptic connections with each other and with Si1 and Si2, and 5) their synaptic actions helped explain the phasing of the motor pattern. The results of this study show that the motor pattern has more complex internal dynamics than a simple left/right alternation of firing; the CPG circuit appears to be composed of two kernels of reciprocally inhibitory neurons, one consisting of Si1, Si2, and the contralateral Si4 and the other consisting of Si3. These two kernels interact with each other to produce a stable rhythmic motor pattern.

  12. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Grimes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During mammalian development, left-right (L-R asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This 'nodal flow' is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo.

  13. Genetic Analysis Reveals a Hierarchy of Interactions between Polycystin-Encoding Genes and Genes Controlling Cilia Function during Left-Right Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Daniel T; Keynton, Jennifer L; Buenavista, Maria T; Jin, Xingjian; Patel, Saloni H; Kyosuke, Shinohara; Vibert, Jennifer; Williams, Debbie J; Hamada, Hiroshi; Hussain, Rohanah; Nauli, Surya M; Norris, Dominic P

    2016-06-01

    During mammalian development, left-right (L-R) asymmetry is established by a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow within a midline embryonic cavity called the node. This 'nodal flow' is detected by peripherally-located crown cells that each assemble a primary cilium which contain the putative Ca2+ channel PKD2. The interaction of flow and crown cell cilia promotes left side-specific expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Whilst the PKD2-interacting protein PKD1L1 has also been implicated in L-R patterning, the underlying mechanism by which flow is detected and the genetic relationship between Polycystin function and asymmetric gene expression remains unknown. Here, we characterize a Pkd1l1 mutant line in which Nodal is activated bilaterally, suggesting that PKD1L1 is not required for LPM Nodal pathway activation per se, but rather to restrict Nodal to the left side downstream of nodal flow. Epistasis analysis shows that Pkd1l1 acts as an upstream genetic repressor of Pkd2. This study therefore provides a genetic pathway for the early stages of L-R determination. Moreover, using a system in which cultured cells are supplied artificial flow, we demonstrate that PKD1L1 is sufficient to mediate a Ca2+ signaling response after flow stimulation. Finally, we show that an extracellular PKD domain within PKD1L1 is crucial for PKD1L1 function; as such, destabilizing the domain causes L-R defects in the mouse. Our demonstration that PKD1L1 protein can mediate a response to flow coheres with a mechanosensation model of flow sensation in which the force of fluid flow drives asymmetric gene expression in the embryo.

  14. SLC7 family transporters control the establishment of left-right asymmetry during organogenesis in medaka by activating mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Nagai, Yoko; Namae, Misako; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-05-20

    The precise government of the left-right (LR) specification of an organ is an essential aspect of its morphogenesis. Multiple signaling cascades have been implicated in the establishment of vertebrate LR asymmetry. Recently, mTOR signaling was found to critically regulate the development of LR asymmetry in zebrafish. However, the upstream factor(s) that activate mTOR signaling in the context of LR specification are as yet unknown. In this study, we identify the SLC7 amino acid transporters Slc7a7 and Slc7a8 as novel regulators of LR asymmetry development in the small fish medaka. Knockdown of Slc7a7 and/or Slc7a8 in medaka embryos disrupted LR organ asymmetries. Depletion of Slc7a7 hindered left-sided expression of the southpaw (spaw) gene, which is responsible for LR axis determination. Work at the cellular level revealed that Slc7a7 coordinates ciliogenesis in the epithelium of Kupffer's vesicle and thereby the generation of the nodal fluid flow required for LR asymmetry. Interestingly, knockdown of Slc7a7 depressed mTOR signaling activity in medaka embryos. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, together with Slc7a7 knockdown synergistically perturbed spaw expression, indicating an interaction between Slc7a7 and mTOR signaling affecting gene expression required for LR specification. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Slc7a7 governs the regulation of LR asymmetry development via the activation of mTOR signaling.

  15. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos.

  16. A Problem of Teaching the Concept of Integers as a Directed Distance in Grades Three Through Five and Its Relationship to Left-Right Conceptualization Level, Age Level and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Forsythe, Odene

    This study was designed to determine if it was feasible and appropriate to place the concept of integers as directed distances in the curricula for students in grades 3-5. Also investigated was whether the level of understanding of left-right conceptualization affected the understanding of the concept of integers and if sex classification affected…

  17. Role of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in cell growth and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Shelley B; Cummings, Brian S

    2008-10-30

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) are esterases that cleave glycerophospholipids to release fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Several studies demonstrate that PLA(2) regulate growth and signaling in several cell types. However, few of these studies have focused on Ca2+-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2) or Group VI PLA(2)). This class of PLA(2) was originally suggested to mediate phospholipid remodeling in several cell types including macrophages. As such, it was labeled as a housekeeping protein and thought not to play as significant of roles in cell growth as its older counterparts cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2) or Group IV PLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2) or Groups I-III, V and IX-XIV PLA(2)). However, several recent studies demonstrate that iPLA(2) mediate cell growth, and do so by participating in signal transduction pathways that include epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), mdm2, and even the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cell cycle regulator p21. The exact mechanism by which iPLA(2) mediates these pathways are not known, but likely involve the generation of lipid signals such as arachidonic acid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and lysophosphocholines (LPC). This review discusses the role of iPLA(2) in cell growth with special emphasis placed on their role in cell signaling. The putative lipid signals involved are also discussed.

  18. Role of Hfq in iron-dependent and -independent gene regulation in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, J R; McClure, Ryan; Lopez, Delia; Green, Olivia; Reinhard, Bjorn; Genco, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    In Neisseria meningitidis, iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated primarily by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. When complexed with iron, Fur represses gene expression by preventing transcription initiation. Fur can also indirectly activate gene expression via the repression of regulatory small RNAs (sRNA). One such Fur- and iron-regulated sRNA, NrrF, was previously identified in N. meningitidis and shown to repress expression of the sdhA and sdhC genes encoding subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. In the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, sRNA-mediated regulation requires a cofactor RNA-binding protein (Hfq) for proper gene regulation and stabilization. In this study, we examined the role of Hfq in NrrF-mediated regulation of the succinate dehydrogenase genes in N. meningitidis and the effect of an hfq mutation on iron-responsive gene regulation more broadly. We first demonstrated that the stability of NrrF, as well as the regulation of sdhC and sdhA in vivo, was unaltered in the hfq mutant. Secondly, we established that iron-responsive gene regulation of the Fur-regulated sodB gene was dependent on Hfq. Finally, we demonstrated that in N. meningitidis, Hfq functions in a global manner to control expression of many ORFs and intergenic regions via iron-independent mechanisms. Collectively these studies demonstrate that in N. meningitidis, iron- and NrrF-mediated regulation of sdhC and sdhA can occur independently of Hfq, although Hfq functions more globally to control regulation of other N. meningitidis genes primarily by iron-independent mechanisms.

  19. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J.

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the

  20. Prominent role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mucosal T cell-independent IgA induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Asano, Jumpei; Sato, Taku; Liu, Jiajia; Iwata, Makoto; Ohteki, Toshiaki

    2011-02-25

    Although both conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), the roles of pDCs in the gut remain largely unknown. Here we show a critical role for pDCs in T cell-independent (TI) IgA production by B cells in the GALT. When pDCs of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs) (which are representative GALT) were cultured with naive B cells to induce TI IgA class switch recombination (CSR), IgA production was substantially higher than in cocultures of these cells with cDCs. IgA production was dependent on APRIL and BAFF production by pDCs. Importantly, pDC expression of APRIL and BAFF was dependent on stromal cell-derived type I IFN signaling under steady-state conditions. Our findings provide insight into the molecular basis of pDC conditioning to induce mucosal TI IgA production, which may lead to improvements in vaccination strategies and treatment for mucosal-related disorders.

  1. TNF-α Contributes to Caspase-3 Independent Apoptosis in Neuroblastoma Cells: Role of NFAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Susana; Blanco, Almudena; Fresno, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that soluble factors in inflammatory central nervous system diseases not only regulate the inflammatory process but also directly influence electrophysiological membrane properties of neurons and astrocytes. In this context, the cytokine TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) has complex injury promoting, as well as protective, effects on neuronal viability. Up-regulated TNF-α expression has also been found in various neurodegenerative diseases such as cerebral malaria, AIDS dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, suggesting a potential pathogenic role of TNF-α in these diseases as well. We used the neuroblastoma cells SK-N-MC. Transcriptional activity was measured using luciferase reporter gene assays by using lipofectin. We performed cotransfection experiments of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) promoter constructed with a dominant negative version of NFAT (dn-NFAT). Cell death was performed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)5,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL assays. NFAT translocation was confirmed by Western blot. Involvement of NFAT in cell death was assessed by using VIVIT. P53, Fas-L, caspase-3, and caspase-9 expressions were carried out by Western blot. The mechanisms involved in TNF-α-induced cell death were assessed by using microarray analysis. TNF-α causes neuronal cell death in the absence of glia. TNF-α treatment results in nuclear translocation of NFAT through activation of calcineurin in a Ca2+ independent manner. We demonstrated the involvement of FasL/Fas, cytochrome c, and caspase-9 but the lack of caspase-3 activation. NB cell death was absolutely reverted in the presence of VIVIT, and partially diminished by anti-Fas treatment. These data demonstrate that TNF-α promotes FasL expression through NFAT activation in neuroblastoma cells and this event leads to increased apoptosis through independent caspase-3 activation. PMID:21298033

  2. Classification of Left-Right Hand Motor Imagery Electroencephalogram Signals Based on a Feature Extraction Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm%基于共空间模式的运动想象脑电信号识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘赛虎; 李文杰; 张义

    2014-01-01

    Classification of electroencephalogram(EEG)signal is an important issue in brain-computer interface(BCI). Based on the classification of the EEG signals,in this paper,we collect the left-right hand motor imagery EEG data of 7 subjects which are recorded by EGI-64 scalp electrodes placed according to the international 10/20 system. Firstly,the EEG data are denoised with extend Infomax-Independent Component Analysis ( ICA );Secondly, C3 and C4 electrodes features are extracted by using Common Spatial Pattern( CSP);Finally,the average classification rates of Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis(FLDA),Bayesian,Radial Basis Function(RBF)neural network and BP neural network methods are compared. The classification results show that the average classification rate of neural network is higher than the other two methods,and that the average classification rate of BP neural network can be up to 95. 36%,but the other three methods of running velocity is obviously faster than the BP neural network. The results provide a basis for real-time BCI system implementation.%脑-机接口技术领域的关键问题是脑电信号的分类识别研究.本文针对脑电信号的分类问题,基于EGI-64导脑电采集系统得到7名被试者的左右手运动想象脑电数据,首先采用扩展Infomax-ICA方法对脑电数据进行去噪处理;然后利用共空间模式方法对C3/C42个电极的脑电信号进行特征提取;最后比较了Fisher线性判别分析法、贝叶斯方法、径向神经网络和BP神经网络几种算法的平均分类率.结果表明:神经网络分类方法得到的平均分类率要高于其他2种方法,而BP神经网络方法的平均分类率最高,可以达到95.36%,但另外3种方法的运行速度明显高于BP神经网络.该结果为实时BCI系统实施提供了一定依据.

  3. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the models must abstract from domain-specific aspects, be based on the study of several design disciplines, and be useful for many design disciplines and for multidisciplinary design teams. This paper desc...

  4. A cohesin-independent role for NIPBL at promoters provides insights in CdLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Zuin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cohesin complex is crucial for chromosome segregation during mitosis and has recently also been implicated in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. The NIPBL protein is required for the loading of cohesin onto chromatin, but how and where cohesin is loaded in vertebrate cells is unclear. Heterozygous mutations of NIPBL were found in 50% of the cases of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS, a human developmental syndrome with a complex phenotype. However, no defects in the mitotic function of cohesin have been observed so far and the links between NIPBL mutations and the observed developmental defects are unclear. We show that NIPBL binds to chromatin in somatic cells with a different timing than cohesin. Further, we observe that high-affinity NIPBL binding sites localize to different regions than cohesin and almost exclusively to the promoters of active genes. NIPBL or cohesin knockdown reduce transcription of these genes differently, suggesting a cohesin-independent role of NIPBL for transcription. Motif analysis and comparison to published data show that NIPBL co-localizes with a specific set of other transcription factors. In cells derived from CdLS patients NIPBL binding levels are reduced and several of the NIPBL-bound genes have previously been observed to be mis-expressed in CdLS. In summary, our observations indicate that NIPBL mutations might cause developmental defects in different ways. First, defects of NIPBL might lead to cohesin-loading defects and thereby alter gene expression and second, NIPBL deficiency might affect genes directly via its role at the respective promoters.

  5. Role of prefrontal cortical calcium independent phospholipase A₂ in antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lynette Hui-Wen; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in depression. Blood flow and metabolism are decreased in the PFC of patients with depression compared to controls. Changes in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also associated with depression. This study was conducted to elucidate a possible role of PFC activity of an enzyme involved in the release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), i.e. calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA₂), in the effects of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) antidepressant, maprotiline, in mice. Treatment of Balb/C mice with maprotiline for 4 wk resulted in reduction in the level of behavioural despair, as determined by decreased immobility and increased climbing during the forced swim test. In contrast, mice treated with maprotiline plus bilateral prefrontal cortical injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA₂, showed significantly increased immobility and decreased climbing, to levels comparable to saline-treated controls, indicating abolishment of the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline. Lipidomic analyses showed significant decreases in phosphatidylcholine species containing long-chain PUFAs and increases in lysophosphatidylcholine after maprotiline treatment, indicating increased PLA₂ activity and endogenous release of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or DHA after maprotiline treatment. These changes in lipid profiles were absent in mice that received maprotiline and PFC injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA₂. Together, the results indicate that PFC iPLA₂ activity plays an important role in the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline, possibly through endogenous release of long-chain PUFAs.

  6. Search for heavy neutrinos and W$_R$ bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, M[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  7. Localization-Dependent and -Independent Roles of SLX4 in Regulating Telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S.J. Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SLX4, a scaffold for structure-specific DNA repair nucleases, is important for several types of DNA repair. Many repair proteins bind to sites of DNA damage, resulting in subnuclear “foci,” but SLX4 forms foci in human cells even without DNA damage. Using several approaches, we show that most, but not all, SLX4 foci localize to telomeres in a range of human cell lines irrespective of the mechanisms used to maintain telomere length. The SLX1 Holliday-junction-processing enzyme is recruited to telomeres by SLX4, and SLX4, in turn, is recruited by a motif that binds to the shelterin subunit TRF2 directly. We also show that TRF2-dependent recruitment of SLX4 prevents telomere damage. Furthermore, SLX4 prevents telomere lengthening and fragility in a manner that appears to be independent of telomere association. These findings reveal that SLX4 plays multiple roles in regulating telomere homeostasis.

  8. EGFR kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Muroni, Maria R; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Asunis, Anna; Tanca, Luciana; Onnis, Daniela; Pira, Giovanna; Manca, Alessandra; Dore, Simone; Uras, Maria G; Ena, Sara; De Miglio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with progression of many epithelial malignancies and represents a significant therapeutic target. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) has been widely investigated for EGFR molecular alterations, genetic evidences of EGFR gene activating mutations and/or gene amplification have been rarely confirmed in the literature. Therefore, until now EGFR-targeted therapies in clinical trials have been demonstrated unsuccessful. New evidence has been given about the interactions between EGFR and the sodium glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) in maintaining the glucose basal intracellular level to favour cancer cell growth and survival; thus a new functional role may be attributed to EGFR, regardless of its kinase activity. To define the role of EGFR in CCRCC an extensive investigation of genetic changes and functional kinase activities was performed in a series of tumors by analyzing the EGFR mutational status and expression profile, together with the protein expression of downstream signaling pathways members. Furthermore, we investigated the co-expression of EGFR and SGLT1 proteins and their relationships with clinic-pathological features in CCRCC. EGFR protein expression was identified in 98.4% of CCRCC. Furthermore, it was described for the first time that SGLT1 is overexpressed in CCRCC (80.9%), and that co-expression with EGFR is appreciable in 79.4% of the tumours. Moreover, the activation of downstream EGFR pathways was found in about 79.4% of SGLT1-positive CCRCCs. The mutational status analysis of EGFR failed to demonstrate mutations on exons 18 to 24 and the presence of EGFR-variantIII (EGFRvIII) in all CCRCCs analyzed. FISH analysis revealed absence of EGFR amplification, and high polysomy of chromosome 7. Finally, the EGFR gene expression profile showed gene overexpression in 38.2% of CCRCCs. Our study contributes to define the complexity of EGFR role in CCRCC, identifying its bivalent kinase

  9. Single Production of boson Z' from the Minimal Left-right Symmetric Models%最小左右对称模型中单个Z'玻色子的产生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红梅

    2008-01-01

    左右对称模型中的一般特征是左右手的费米子项通过一个新的中性规范玻色子Z'来联结.研究了在左右镜像模型和左右对称模型中新的规范玻色子Z'通过e-γ凝聚的产生过程,并讨论了在TeV能级的直线对撞机上探测该新粒子的可能性.结果表明,该过程的产生截面范围为16.23fb~206.2fb,并且左右镜像模型中的产生截面大于左右对称模型中的产生截面.在未来的高能直线对撞机上该新粒子的信号可以通过其轻子衰变道Z'→l+l-来探测.%The general consequence of left-right symmetric models is that the left and right fermionic sectors can be connected by a new neutral gauge bosch Z'. In this paper, we study the single production of the new gauge boson Z' from the mirror left-right model and the symmetric left-right model via e-γ collision and discuss the possibility of detecting these new particles in the TeV energy e+e- collider(LC). The results show that the production cross section of the new heavy gauge bosch Z' is in the range of 16.23fb~206.2fb, and cross sections in the mirror left-right model are bigger than those in the symmetric left-right model. The possible signatures of the heavy gauge bosons may be detected via the decay channel Z'→ l+l- in future high energy LC experiments.

  10. Family firms, expropriation and firm value: Evidence of the role of independent directors' tenure in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chee Yoong Liew; Ervina Alfan; Susela Devi

    2017-01-01

      This paper was conducted to examine whether there was a negative relationship between independent directors' tenure and firm value which indicated the existence of expropriation due to long tenure...

  11. A role for glutathione, independent of oxidative stress, in the developmental toxicity of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Michelle T.; Shapiro, Aaron M. [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wiley, Michael J. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, both in vivo and in embryo culture. We explored the ROS hypothesis further in vivo in pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Following maternal treatment with a teratogenic dose of MeOH, 4 g/kg via intraperitoneal (ip) injection on gestational day (GD) 12, there was no increase 6 h later in embryonic ROS formation, measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence, despite an increase observed with the positive control ethanol (EtOH), nor was there an increase in embryonic oxidatively damaged DNA, quantified as 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. MeOH teratogenicity (primarily ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) also was not altered by pre- and post-treatment with varying doses of the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, pretreatment with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, depleted maternal hepatic and embryonic GSH, and enhanced some new anomalies (micrognathia, agnathia, short snout, fused digits, cleft lip, low set ears), but not the most common teratogenic effects of MeOH (ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) in this strain. These results suggest that ROS did not contribute to the teratogenic effects of MeOH in this in vivo mouse model, in contrast to results in embryo culture from our laboratory, and that the protective effect of GSH in this model may arise from its role as a cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxification of formaldehyde. - Highlights: • In vivo, a free radical scavenger did not block methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis. • MeOH did not increase embryonic reactive oxygen species formation or DNA oxidation. • MeOH teratogenesis was enhanced by glutathione (GSH) depletion. • GSH may protect as the cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3). • Formaldehyde may be a ROS-independent

  12. Novel mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecules: role of thermodynamic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslenko, V I; Petrov, E G; Verkhratsky, A; Krishtal, O A

    2010-04-30

    A novel physical mechanism is proposed to explain the temperature-independent transition reactions in molecular systems. The mechanism becomes effective in the case of conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states. It is shown that at room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As an example, a physical interpretation of temperature-independent onset of P2X{3} receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes is provided.

  13. Independent School Department Heads: The Influence of Role Ambiguity, Relationships, and Professional Development on Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Little research exists on the career aspirations of department heads in independent schools. What does exist focuses on public school teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom. This study sought to determine the career aspirations, job satisfaction, and job efficacy of department heads. Using data from an original survey instrument…

  14. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important c

  15. Why are price stability and statutory independence of central banks negatively correlated? : the role of culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eelke de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates whether in OECD-countries the negative relation between central bank independence and inflation is related to culture, in the sense of common values and norms. It appears that inflation is lower in countries where people dislike uncertainty. The tolerance in a society with

  16. The thrombospondin repeat containing protein MIG-21 controls a left-right asymmetric Wnt signaling response in migrating C. elegans neuroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, T.C.; Williams, L.; Yang, P.T.; Luchtenberg, J.; Betist, M.C.; Ji, N.; van Oudenaarden, A.; Kenyon, C.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt proteins are secreted signaling molecules that play a central role in development and adult tissue homeostasis. Although several Wnt signal transduction mechanisms have been described in detail, it is still largely unknown how cells are specified to adopt such different Wnt signaling responses.

  17. Evolving perspectives of the role of novel agents in androgen-independent prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Kalmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer presents an intriguing clinical challenge, with a subtle interaction between hormone-responsive and refractory tumor cell elements. The treatment of advanced prostate carcinoma, which had remained stagnant for several decades following the understanding of the link between androgenic stimulation and carcinogenesis, has now started to make steady headway with chemotherapy and targeted approaches. Metastatic prostate cancer is almost always treated with initial androgen deprivation, in various forms. However, despite such treatment androgen-independent prostate cancer cells eventually emerge and progress to threaten life. The therapeutic objectives for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer are to maintain the quality of life and prolong survival. The out-dated nihilistic dogma of deferring chemotherapy until the most advanced stages in advanced prostate cancer is now falling by the wayside with the development of newer effective, tolerable agents.

  18. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions.

  19. Self-Learning and Independent Study And Their Role In Learning Retention Of Physical Education Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Mousavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New ways of Education focus on transferring learning responsibility tothe learner rather than teacher.Self -Learning and independent study is one of the active learning ways in which sustainability learning(retention is effectively achieved in some subjects and courses. Thestudy was quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate the effect ofindividual learning and learning retention of graduates in physicaleducation. Information was gathered through eight questions on thepackage (240 questions and the statistical population included graduates of physical education in state universities in second semester-2008-2011. The results showed that in general, independent study and self-learning would be effective in graduates` learning retention and those who had studied under individual training and education conditions had a higher retention level.

  20. Role for RNA: DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth; García Rodriguez, Néstor; Aguilera López, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops)...

  1. Role of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in cell growth and signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hooks, Shelley B; Cummings, Brian S.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2(PLA2) are esterases that cleave glycerophospholipids to release fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Several studies demonstrate that PLA2 regulate growth and signaling in several cell types. However, few of these studies have focused on Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2(iPLA2 or Group VI PLA2). This class of PLA2 was originally suggested to mediate phospholipid remodeling in several cell types including macrophages. As such, it was labeled as a housekeeping protein and thought...

  2. Independence and shared decision making: the role of smart home technology in empowering older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the concepts of independence and shared decision making in the context of smart home technologies for older adults. We conducted a Delphi study with three rounds involving smart home designers, and researchers as well as community dwelling older adults. While there were differences in the way different stakeholders define these concepts, the study findings provide clear implications for the design, implementation and evaluation of smart home applications.

  3. Oversight role of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms.

  4. Conflict of roles: a conflict of ideas? The unsettled relations between care team staff and independent mental health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mick; Ridley, Julie; Newbigging, Karen; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina; Cruse, Kaaren

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a national study of independent mental health advocacy, we explored the social relations of independent advocacy. The study was commissioned by the Department of Health (England), and involved a case study design covering eight different geographies and service configurations, and interviews or focus groups with a total of 289 stakeholders across two phases of inquiry. This paper focused on the analysis of qualitative data relevant to the relationship between mental health-care services and independent advocacy services, drawn from interviews with 214 participants in phase two of the study. Discussion of these particular findings affords insights into the working relations of independent advocacy within mental health services beset by reorganizational change and funding cuts, and increasing levels of legally-sanctioned compulsion and coercion. We offer a matrix, which accounts for the different types of working relationships that can arise, and how these are associated with various levels of understanding of independent advocacy and appreciation for the value of advocacy. The discussion is framed by the wider literature on advocacy and the claims by practitioners, such as nurses, for an advocacy role as part of their professional repertoire.

  5. Search for heavy neutrinos and W(R) bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Aguilo, E; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Mohammadi, A; Reis, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Ceard, L; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins Junior, M; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Malek, M; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Soares Jorge, L; Sznajder, A; Vilela Pereira, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Ellithi Kamel, A; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Karjalainen, A; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Calpas, B; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Weber, M; Bontenackels, M; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G

    2012-12-28

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N(μ), and right-handed W(R) bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0  fb(-1) sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W(R) mass, dependent on the value of M(W(R)). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W(R)), M(N(μ)) mass plane extends to M(W(R))=2.5  TeV.

  6. Electron and Electronic Neutrino Production in the Left-right Symmetric Model at the Large Hadron Collider%左右对称模型中电子和电子中微子在LHC上的产生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔庆鹏

    2013-01-01

    Left-right symmetric model is one of the important extended models of the standard model of particle physics,at the same time, W- is one of the important characteristic particles that the left-right symmetric model R predicted. The contribution of W- for the production process R pp ud e-® ® n has been calculated at the Large e Hadron Collider (LHC), the numerical results are also analyzed and discussed here.%  左右对称模型是粒子物理标准模型的重要扩展模型之一,而W-粒子是左右对称模型中所预言的重R要特征粒子。计算了W-粒子对在大型强子对撞机中R pp ud e-®® n 产生过程的贡献,并对其数值结果进行e了分析和讨论。

  7. ATP4a Is Required for Wnt-Dependent Foxj1 Expression and Leftward Flow in Xenopus Left-Right Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Walentek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most vertebrate embryos break symmetry by a cilia-driven leftward flow during neurulation. In the frog Xenopus asymmetric expression of the ion pump ATP4a was reported at the 4-cell stage. The “ion-flux” model postulates that symmetry is broken flow-independently through an ATP4-generated asymmetric voltage gradient that drives serotonin through gap junctions to one side of the embryo. Here, we show that ATP4a is symmetrically expressed. Gene knockdown or pharmacological inhibition compromised organ situs, asymmetric marker gene expression, and leftward flow. The gastrocoel roof plate (GRP, where flow in frog occurs, revealed fewer, shortened, and misaligned cilia. Foxj1, a master control gene of motile cilia, was downregulated in the superficial mesoderm, from which the GRP develops. Specifically, ATP4 was required for Wnt/β-catenin-regulated Foxj1 induction and Wnt/PCP-dependent cilia polarization. Our work argues for evolutionary conservation of symmetry breakage in the vertebrates.

  8. Kinome-wide functional screen identifies role of PLK1 in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Neil E; Jansen, Valerie M; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Balko, Justin M; Estrada, Mónica V; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C; Allen, Eliezer V; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen independent and recur. ER(+) breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki-67 score in primary ER(+) breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth, and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small-molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity, and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared with parental MCF7 cells. Furthermore, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes antiapoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells, while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER(+) human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy.

  9. Catalytic-independent roles of UTX-1 in C. elegans development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Julien; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    We recently analyzed the functional roles of UTX-1 during development. utx-1 is an essential gene required for the correct embryonic and post-embryonic development of C. elegans, and it displays an H3K27me3 demethylase activity. Rescue experiments demonstrated that the enzymatic activity of UTX-1...

  10. Independent and collective roles of surface structures at different length scales on pool boiling heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Calvin H.; Rioux, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical Cu nanocavity surfaces are synthesized to examine the individual role of contact angles in connecting lateral Rayleigh-Taylor wavelength to vertical Kevin-Helmholtz wavelength on hydrodynamic instability for the onset of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). Solid and porous Cu pillar surfaces are sintered to investigate the individual role of pillar structure pitch at millimeter scale, named as module wavelength, on hydrodynamic instability at CHF. Last, spherical Cu nanocavities are coated on the porous Cu pillars to create a multiscale Cu structure, which is studied to examine the collective role and relative significance of contact angles and module wavelength on hydrodynamic instability at CHF, and the results indicate that module wavelength plays the dominant role on hydrodynamic instability at CHF when the height of surface structures is equal or above ¼ Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength. Pool boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) enhancements on spherical Cu nanocavity surfaces, solid and porous Cu pillar surfaces, and the integrated multiscale structure have been investigated, too. The experimental results reveal that the nanostructures and porous pillar structures can be combined together to achieve even higher enhancement of HTC than that of individual structures. PMID:27841322

  11. Independent and collective roles of surface structures at different length scales on pool boiling heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Calvin H; Rioux, Russell P

    2016-11-14

    Spherical Cu nanocavity surfaces are synthesized to examine the individual role of contact angles in connecting lateral Rayleigh-Taylor wavelength to vertical Kevin-Helmholtz wavelength on hydrodynamic instability for the onset of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). Solid and porous Cu pillar surfaces are sintered to investigate the individual role of pillar structure pitch at millimeter scale, named as module wavelength, on hydrodynamic instability at CHF. Last, spherical Cu nanocavities are coated on the porous Cu pillars to create a multiscale Cu structure, which is studied to examine the collective role and relative significance of contact angles and module wavelength on hydrodynamic instability at CHF, and the results indicate that module wavelength plays the dominant role on hydrodynamic instability at CHF when the height of surface structures is equal or above ¼ Kelvin-Helmholtz wavelength. Pool boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) enhancements on spherical Cu nanocavity surfaces, solid and porous Cu pillar surfaces, and the integrated multiscale structure have been investigated, too. The experimental results reveal that the nanostructures and porous pillar structures can be combined together to achieve even higher enhancement of HTC than that of individual structures.

  12. South Sudan Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubkar o. Sulaiman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 as the world's 195th independentState, 54th Member State of the African Union (AU and 209th Federation of InternationalFootball Association member (FIFA marks the final stage of a six year peace agreementending decades of protracted civil war. According to BBC between 1983 and the peaceagreement signed in January 2005, Sudan's civil war took nearly two million lives and leftmillions more displaced. It is reputed as Africa's longest-running civil war. The Sudanesecivil war took roots from its colonial experience, which led to forceful cohabitation ofArabic (North and African (South ethnic groups into a single state.

  13. The role of CD4 in antigen-independent activation of isolated single T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelso, A; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The membrane molecule CD4 (L3T4) is thought to facilitate activation of Class II H-2-restricted T cells by binding to Ia determinants on antigen-presenting cells. Recent reports suggest that CD4 can also contribute to antigen-independent activation by anti-T cell receptor (TCR) antibodies. An assay......+F23.1+ clone were micromanipulated into wells to which F23.1 had been immobilized, and their lymphokine secretion was measured 24 hr later. The frequency of lymphokine-secreting cells was consistently reduced up to 10-fold in the presence of soluble anti-CD4 antibody (GK1.5) but only up to 2.5-fold...

  14. The role of symmetry in the mass independent isotope effect in ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the internal distribution of “anomalous” isotope enrichments has important implications for validating theoretical postulates on the origin of these enrichments in molecules such as ozone and for understanding the transfer of these enrichments to other compounds in the atmosphere via mass transfer. Here, we present an approach, using the reaction NO2− + O3, for assessing the internal distribution of the Δ17O anomaly and the δ18O enrichment in ozone produced by electric discharge. The Δ17O results strongly support the symmetry mechanism for generating mass independent fractionations, and the δ18O results are consistent with published data. Positional Δ17O and δ18O enrichments in ozone can now be more effectively used in photochemical models that use mass balance oxygen atom transfer mechanisms to infer atmospheric oxidation chemistry. PMID:19307571

  15. SPO11-independent DNA repair foci and their role in meiotic silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Carofiglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian meiotic prophase, the initial steps in repair of SPO11-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are required to obtain stable homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis. The X and Y chromosomes pair and synapse only in the short pseudo-autosomal regions. The rest of the chromatin of the sex chromosomes remain unsynapsed, contains persistent meiotic DSBs, and the whole so-called XY body undergoes meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. A more general mechanism, named meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC, is activated when autosomes fail to synapse. In the absence of SPO11, many chromosomal regions remain unsynapsed, but MSUC takes place only on part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We asked if spontaneous DSBs occur in meiocytes that lack a functional SPO11 protein, and if these might be involved in targeting the MSUC response to part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We generated mice carrying a point mutation that disrupts the predicted catalytic site of SPO11 (Spo11(YF/YF, and blocks its DSB-inducing activity. Interestingly, we observed foci of proteins involved in the processing of DNA damage, such as RAD51, DMC1, and RPA, both in Spo11(YF/YF and Spo11 knockout meiocytes. These foci preferentially localized to the areas that undergo MSUC and form the so-called pseudo XY body. In SPO11-deficient oocytes, the number of repair foci increased during oocyte development, indicating the induction of S phase-independent, de novo DNA damage. In wild type pachytene oocytes we observed meiotic silencing in two types of pseudo XY bodies, one type containing DMC1 and RAD51 foci on unsynapsed axes, and another type containing only RAD51 foci, mainly on synapsed axes. Taken together, our results indicate that in addition to asynapsis, persistent SPO11-induced DSBs are important for the initiation of MSCI and MSUC, and that SPO11-independent DNA repair foci contribute to the MSUC response in oocytes.

  16. SPO11-independent DNA repair foci and their role in meiotic silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carofiglio, Fabrizia; Inagaki, Akiko; de Vries, Sandra; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Schoenmakers, Sam; Vermeulen, Christie; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Sleddens-Linkels, Esther; Grootegoed, J Anton; Te Riele, Hein P J; de Massy, Bernard; Baarends, Willy M

    2013-06-01

    In mammalian meiotic prophase, the initial steps in repair of SPO11-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are required to obtain stable homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis. The X and Y chromosomes pair and synapse only in the short pseudo-autosomal regions. The rest of the chromatin of the sex chromosomes remain unsynapsed, contains persistent meiotic DSBs, and the whole so-called XY body undergoes meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A more general mechanism, named meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), is activated when autosomes fail to synapse. In the absence of SPO11, many chromosomal regions remain unsynapsed, but MSUC takes place only on part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We asked if spontaneous DSBs occur in meiocytes that lack a functional SPO11 protein, and if these might be involved in targeting the MSUC response to part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We generated mice carrying a point mutation that disrupts the predicted catalytic site of SPO11 (Spo11(YF/YF)), and blocks its DSB-inducing activity. Interestingly, we observed foci of proteins involved in the processing of DNA damage, such as RAD51, DMC1, and RPA, both in Spo11(YF/YF) and Spo11 knockout meiocytes. These foci preferentially localized to the areas that undergo MSUC and form the so-called pseudo XY body. In SPO11-deficient oocytes, the number of repair foci increased during oocyte development, indicating the induction of S phase-independent, de novo DNA damage. In wild type pachytene oocytes we observed meiotic silencing in two types of pseudo XY bodies, one type containing DMC1 and RAD51 foci on unsynapsed axes, and another type containing only RAD51 foci, mainly on synapsed axes. Taken together, our results indicate that in addition to asynapsis, persistent SPO11-induced DSBs are important for the initiation of MSCI and MSUC, and that SPO11-independent DNA repair foci contribute to the MSUC response in oocytes.

  17. IFT88 Plays a Cilia- and PCP-Independent Role in Controlling Oriented Cell Divisions during Vertebrate Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Borovina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The role for cilia in establishing planar cell polarity (PCP is contentious. Although knockdown of genes known to function in ciliogenesis has been reported to cause PCP-related morphogenesis defects in zebrafish, genetic mutations affecting intraflagellar transport (IFT do not show PCP phenotypes despite the requirement for IFT in cilia formation. This discrepancy has been attributed to off-target effects of antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO injection, confounding maternal effects in zygotic mutant embryos, or an inability to distinguish between cilia-dependent versus cilia-independent protein functions. To determine the role of cilia in PCP, we generated maternal + zygotic IFT88 (MZift88 mutant zebrafish embryos, which never form cilia. We clearly demonstrate that cilia are not required to establish PCP. Rather, IFT88 plays a cilia-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions at gastrulation and neurulation. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of cilia gene function in normal development and in disease.

  18. IFT88 plays a cilia- and PCP-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions during vertebrate embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovina, Antonia; Ciruna, Brian

    2013-10-17

    The role for cilia in establishing planar cell polarity (PCP) is contentious. Although knockdown of genes known to function in ciliogenesis has been reported to cause PCP-related morphogenesis defects in zebrafish, genetic mutations affecting intraflagellar transport (IFT) do not show PCP phenotypes despite the requirement for IFT in cilia formation. This discrepancy has been attributed to off-target effects of antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) injection, confounding maternal effects in zygotic mutant embryos, or an inability to distinguish between cilia-dependent versus cilia-independent protein functions. To determine the role of cilia in PCP, we generated maternal + zygotic IFT88 (MZift88) mutant zebrafish embryos, which never form cilia. We clearly demonstrate that cilia are not required to establish PCP. Rather, IFT88 plays a cilia-independent role in controlling oriented cell divisions at gastrulation and neurulation. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of cilia gene function in normal development and in disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TRIM28 as an independent prognostic marker plays critical roles in glioma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zeng-Xin; Cai, Jia-Jun; Chen, Ling-Chao; Yue, Qi; Gong, Yan; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we examined the expression, biological function, and clinical significance of tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) in glioma, a locally aggressive brain tumor. First, TRIM28 expression was significantly higher in glioma (n = 138) than in non-glioma controls (n = 6). TRIM28 expression was positively correlated with tumor malignancy, and associated with poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Notably, TRIM28 expression was negatively correlated with p21 expression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A multivariate analysis that included relevant measures indicated that high TRIM28 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and PFS in GBM patients. In experiments with cultured glioma cells, down-regulating TRIM28 with shRNA increased p21 expression, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. In a xenograft model, down-regulating TRIM28 suppressed tumor growth. These results indicate that over-expression of TRIM28 is associated with poor outcome in glioma patients.

  20. Role of manganese superoxide dismutase on growth and invasive properties of human estrogen-independent breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Zilal; Minig, Vanessa; Leroy, Pierre; Dauça, Michel; Becuwe, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is known to play a role in cancer. MnSOD exerts a tumor suppressive effect in estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the in vitro role of MnSOD in the growth of some aggressive and highly metastatic estrogen-independent breast cancer cells, i.e., MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells. We show that estrogen-independent cells expressed a significantly higher basal MnSOD level compared to estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D). For MDA-MB231 cells, the high-MnSOD level was accompanied by an overproduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by a low expression of the major H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, catalase, and peroxiredoxin 3, compared to MCF-7 cells. Suppression of MnSOD expression by antisense RNA was associated with a decrease of H2O2 content and caused a stimulation of growth with a reduced cell doubling time but induced a decrease of colony formation. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB231 cells with H2O2 scavengers markedly reduced tumor cell growth and colony formation. In addition, MnSOD suppression or treatment with H2O2 scavengers reduced the invasive properties of MDA-MB231 cells up to 43%, with a concomitant decrease of metalloproteinase-9 activity. We conclude that MnSOD plays a role in regulating tumor cell growth and invasive properties of estrogen-independent metastatic breast cancer cells. These action are mediated by MnSOD-dependent H2O2 production. In addition, these results suggest that MnSOD up-regulation may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of metastatic breast cancers.

  1. Determination of stability constant of ternary surface complexes at liquid-solid interface in sea water by the rule of left-right shifts of S-shaped curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正斌; 刘莲生; 刘国盛; 俞志明

    1996-01-01

    A new method is suggested for determining the stability constant of ternary surface complexes (TSC) at liquid-solid interfaces in natural water. Its basic principle is based on the rule of left-right shift (RLRS) of S-shaped curve, from which the peak-type curve of E(%) with the concentration of organic matter is obtained. The peak-type curve is further used to obtain the (ksAM/kSM) values by using respectively the method of equality of E(%) when [H2A] = [H2A]0 (1) and the method of [H2A]max (2). From the known KSM,the stability constant KSAM of liquid-solid interfacial ternary surface complexes can be obtained.

  2. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Semo

    Full Text Available Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT, melanopsin knockout (Opn4(-/- and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/- Gnat1(-/- Cnga3(-/-. Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.

  3. A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasija, Shaarika; Norman, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) encoding genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) occur in most early onset familial Alzheimer's Disease. Despite the identification of the involvement of PSEN in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) ∼20 years ago, the underlying role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. To gain insight into the biological function of PSEN, we investigated the role of the PSEN homolog SEL-12 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic, cell biological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that mutations in sel-12 result in defects in calcium homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, consistent with mammalian PSEN, we provide evidence that SEL-12 has a critical role in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Furthermore, we found that in SEL-12-deficient animals, calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria leads to fragmentation of the mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that the impact that SEL-12 has on mitochondrial function is independent of its role in Notch signaling, γ-secretase proteolytic activity, and amyloid plaques. Our results reveal a critical role for PSEN in mediating mitochondrial function by regulating calcium transfer from the ER to the mitochondria.

  4. Independent role for presynaptic FMRP revealed by an FMR1 missense mutation associated with intellectual disability and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Leila K; Deng, Pan-Yue; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Oh, Young Mi; Cho, Yongcheol; Poidevin, Mickael J; Suhl, Joshua A; Visootsak, Jeannie; Cavalli, Valeria; Jin, Peng; Cheng, Xiaodong; Warren, Stephen T; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2015-01-27

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results in intellectual disability (ID) most often caused by silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The resulting absence of fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP) leads to both pre- and postsynaptic defects, yet whether the pre- and postsynaptic functions of FMRP are independent and have distinct roles in FXS neuropathology remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an independent presynaptic function for FMRP through the study of an ID patient with an FMR1 missense mutation. This mutation, c.413G > A (R138Q), preserves FMRP's canonical functions in RNA binding and translational regulation, which are traditionally associated with postsynaptic compartments. However, neuronally driven expression of the mutant FMRP is unable to rescue structural defects at the neuromuscular junction in fragile x mental retardation 1 (dfmr1)-deficient Drosophila, suggesting a presynaptic-specific impairment. Furthermore, mutant FMRP loses the ability to rescue presynaptic action potential (AP) broadening in Fmr1 KO mice. The R138Q mutation also disrupts FMRP's interaction with the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels that modulate AP width. These results reveal a presynaptic- and translation-independent function of FMRP that is linked to a specific subset of FXS phenotypes.

  5. NCoR1-independent mechanism plays a role in the action of the unliganded thyroid hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Arturo; Astapova, Inna; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Gallop, Molly R; Al-Sowaimel, Lujain; MacGowan, S M Dileas; Bergmann, Tim; Berg, Anders H; Tenen, Danielle E; Jacobs, Christopher; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Tsai, Linus; Hollenberg, Anthony N

    2017-09-18

    Nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) is considered to be the major corepressor that mediates ligand-independent actions of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) during development and in hypothyroidism. We tested this by expressing a hypomorphic NCoR1 allele (NCoR1ΔID), which cannot interact with the TR, in Pax8-KO mice, which make no thyroid hormone. Surprisingly, abrogation of NCoR1 function did not reverse the ligand-independent action of the TR on many gene targets and did not fully rescue the high mortality rate due to congenital hypothyroidism in these mice. To further examine NCoR1's role in repression by the unliganded TR, we deleted NCoR1 in the livers of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice and examined the effects on gene expression and enhancer activity measured by histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) acetylation. Even in the absence of NCoR1 function, we observed strong repression of more than 43% of positive T3 (3,3',5-triiodothyronine) targets in hypothyroid mice. Regulation of approximately half of those genes correlated with decreased H3K27 acetylation, and nearly 80% of these regions with affected H3K27 acetylation contained a bona fide TRβ1-binding site. Moreover, using liver-specific TRβ1-KO mice, we demonstrate that hypothyroidism-associated changes in gene expression and histone acetylation require TRβ1. Thus, many of the genomic changes mediated by the TR in hypothyroidism are independent of NCoR1, suggesting a role for additional signaling modulators in hypothyroidism.

  6. MTL-independent phenotypic switching in Candida tropicalis and a dual role for Wor1 in regulating switching and filamentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Porman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic switching allows for rapid transitions between alternative cell states and is important in pathogenic fungi for colonization and infection of different host niches. In Candida albicans, the white-opaque phenotypic switch plays a central role in regulating the program of sexual mating as well as interactions with the mammalian host. White-opaque switching is controlled by genes encoded at the MTL (mating-type-like locus that ensures that only a or α cells can switch from the white state to the mating-competent opaque state, while a/α cells are refractory to switching. Here, we show that the related pathogen C. tropicalis undergoes white-opaque switching in all three cell types (a, α, and a/α, and thus switching is independent of MTL control. We also demonstrate that C. tropicalis white cells are themselves mating-competent, albeit at a lower efficiency than opaque cells. Transcriptional profiling of C. tropicalis white and opaque cells reveals significant overlap between switch-regulated genes in MTL homozygous and MTL heterozygous cells, although twice as many genes are white-opaque regulated in a/α cells as in a cells. In C. albicans, the transcription factor Wor1 is the master regulator of the white-opaque switch, and we show that Wor1 also regulates switching in C. tropicalis; deletion of WOR1 locks a, α, and a/α cells in the white state, while WOR1 overexpression induces these cells to adopt the opaque state. Furthermore, we show that WOR1 overexpression promotes both filamentous growth and biofilm formation in C. tropicalis, independent of the white-opaque switch. These results demonstrate an expanded role for C. tropicalis Wor1, including the regulation of processes necessary for infection of the mammalian host. We discuss these findings in light of the ancestral role of Wor1 as a transcriptional regulator of the transition between yeast form and filamentous growth.

  7. Pivotal roles of p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways in manganese-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chunhua [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Ma, Xa; Shi, Shangshi [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Jianya; Nie, Xiaoke [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Han, Jingling; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoke [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Shengyang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Junkang, E-mail: Jiang_junkang@163.com [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 Jiangsu (China)

    2014-12-15

    Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) has been known to lead to neuronal loss and a clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). p53 plays an integral role in the development of various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of p53 in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that p53 was critically involved in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum through both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that p53 was remarkably upregulated in the striatum of rats following Mn exposure. Coincidentally, increased level of cleaved PARP, a hallmark of apoptosis, was observed. Furthermore, using nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells as a neuronal cell model, we showed that Mn exposure decreased cell viability and induced apparent apoptosis. Importantly, p53 was progressively upregulated, and accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic p53 had a remarkable distribution in mitochondria, suggesting an involvement of p53 mitochondrial translocation in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Mn-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) could be partially rescued by pretreatment with inhibitors of p53 transcriptional activity and p53 mitochondrial translocation, Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and Pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ), respectively. Moreover, blockage of p53 activities with PFT-α and PFT-μ significantly attenuated Mn-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with PFT-α and PFT-μ ameliorated Mn-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Collectively, these findings implicate that p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways may play crucial roles in the regulation of Mn-induced neuronal death. - Highlights: • p53 is

  8. Roles of XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D in RAD51-independent SSA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heïdi Serra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination is key to the maintenance of genome integrity in all living organisms. Recombination can however generate mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, making the regulation and the choice of specific pathways of great importance. In addition to end-joining through non-homologous recombination pathways, DNA breaks are repaired by two homology-dependent pathways that can be distinguished by their dependence or not on strand invasion catalysed by the RAD51 recombinase. Working with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we present here an unexpected role in recombination for the Arabidopsis RAD51 paralogues XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D in the RAD51-independent single-strand annealing pathway. The roles of these proteins are seen in spontaneous and in DSB-induced recombination at a tandem direct repeat recombination tester locus, both of which are unaffected by the absence of RAD51. Individual roles of these proteins are suggested by the strikingly different severities of the phenotypes of the individual mutants, with the xrcc2 mutant being the most affected, and this is confirmed by epistasis analyses using multiple knockouts. Notwithstanding their clearly established importance for RAD51-dependent homologous recombination, XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D thus also participate in Single-Strand Annealing recombination.

  9. A Damage-Independent Role for 53BP1 that Impacts Break Order and Igh Architecture during Class Switch Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During class switch recombination (CSR, B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH, altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB formation in individual cells. We demonstrate that the upstream switch region Sμ is first targeted during recombination and that the mechanism underlying this control relies on 53BP1. Surprisingly, regulation of break order occurs through residual binding of 53BP1 to chromatin before the introduction of damage and independent of its established role in DNA repair. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that 53BP1 mediates changes in chromatin architecture that affect break order. Finally, our results explain how changes in Igh architecture in the absence of 53BP1 could promote inversional rearrangements that compromise CSR.

  10. MITF-independent pro-survival role of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF complex in melanoma cells.

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    Lubica Ondrušová

    Full Text Available Metastasized malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis because of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The central role in the melanoma transcriptional network has the transcription factor MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. It has been shown recently that the expression of MITF and some of its target genes require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here we demonstrate that survival of melanoma cells requires functional SWI/SNF complex not only by supporting expression of MITF and its targets and but also by activating expression of prosurvival proteins not directly regulated by MITF. Microarray analysis revealed that besides the MITF-driven genes, expression of proteins like osteopontin, IGF1, TGFß2 and survivin, the factors known to be generally associated with progression of tumors and the antiapoptotic properties, were reduced in acute BRG1-depleted 501mel cells. Western blots and RT-PCR confirmed the microarray findings. These proteins have been verified to be expressed independently of MITF, because MITF depletion did not impair their expression. Because these genes are not regulated by MITF, the data suggests that loss of BRG1-based SWI/SNF complexes negatively affects survival pathways beyond the MITF cascade. Immunohistochemistry showed high expression of both BRM and BRG1 in primary melanomas. Exogenous CDK2, osteopontin, or IGF1 each alone partly relieved the block of proliferation imposed by BRG1 depletion, implicating that more factors, besides the MITF target genes, are involved in melanoma cell survival. Together these results demonstrate an essential role of SWI/SNF for the expression of MITF-dependent and MITF-independent prosurvival factors in melanoma cells and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a potential and effective target in melanoma therapy.

  11. The yeast PUF protein Puf5 has Pop2-independent roles in response to DNA replication stress.

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    Ana Traven

    Full Text Available PUFs are RNA binding proteins that promote mRNA deadenylation and decay and inhibit translation. Yeast Puf5 is the prototype for studying PUF-dependent gene repression. Puf5 binds to the Pop2 subunit of the Ccr4-Pop2-NOT mRNA deadenylase, recruiting the deadenylase and associated translational repressors to mRNAs. Here we used yeast genetics to show that Puf5 has additional roles in vivo that do not require Pop2. Deletion of PUF5 caused increased sensitivity to DNA replication stress in cells lacking Pop2, as well as in cells mutated for two activities recruited to mRNAs by the Puf5-Pop2 interaction, the deadenylase Ccr4 and the translational repressor Dhh1. A functional Puf5 RNA binding domain was required, and Puf5 cytoplasmic localisation was sufficient for resistance to replication stress, indicating posttranscriptional gene expression control is involved. In contrast to DNA replication stress, in response to the cell wall integrity pathway activator caffeine, PUF5 and POP2 acted in the same genetic pathway, indicating that functions of Puf5 in the caffeine response are mediated by Pop2-dependent gene repression. Our results support a model in which Puf5 uses multiple, Pop2-dependent and Pop2-independent mechanisms to control mRNA expression. The Pop2-independent roles for Puf5 could involve spatial control of gene expression, a proposition supported by our data indicating that the active form of Puf5 is localised to cytoplasmic foci.

  12. Mutations in zebrafish leucine-rich repeat-containing six-like affect cilia motility and result in pronephric cysts, but have variable effects on left-right patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serluca, Fabrizio C; Xu, Bo; Okabe, Noriko; Baker, Kari; Lin, Shin-Yi; Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Konieczkowski, David J; Jaffe, Kimberly M; Bradner, Joshua M; Fishman, Mark C; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2009-05-01

    Cilia defects have been implicated in a variety of human diseases and genetic disorders, but how cilia motility contributes to these phenotypes is still unknown. To further our understanding of how cilia function in development, we have cloned and characterized two alleles of seahorse, a zebrafish mutation that results in pronephric cysts. seahorse encodes Lrrc6l, a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein that is highly conserved in organisms that have motile cilia. seahorse is expressed in zebrafish tissues known to contain motile cilia. Although mutants do not affect cilia structure and retain the ability to interact with Disheveled, both alleles of seahorse strongly affect cilia motility in the zebrafish pronephros and neural tube. Intriguingly, although seahorse mutations variably affect fluid flow in Kupffer's vesicle, they can have very weak effects on left-right patterning. Combined with recently published results, our alleles suggest that the function of seahorse in cilia motility is separable from its function in other cilia-related phenotypes.

  13. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...... about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  14. Signaling properties of CD38 in the mouse immune system: enzyme-dependent and -independent roles in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Frances E

    2006-01-01

    The 5th international CD38 meeting, held in Torino, Italy, spanned a range of topics from the role of CD38 as a signaling receptor in lymphocytic tumors to the importance of CD38-derived metabolites in NAD(+) metabolism, calcium signaling, and immune function. This meeting was particularly exciting as data were presented demonstrating that collaborative experiments between enzymologists, biochemists, cell biologists, immunologists, and clinicians have started to unravel the secrets of CD38 biology. It is now clear that all of the products of the CD38 enzyme reaction regulate calcium signal transduction in cell types as diverse as sea urchin oocytes and mammalian lymphocytes. It is also apparent that CD38 plays important immunomodulatory role(s), however there is still much debate on how CD38 mediates its immunoregulatory functions and whether the enzymatic products generated by CD38 are important for immunity. The data presented at this meeting have begun to resolve some of these controversies. First, CD38 regulates the function of leukocytes by enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent mechanisms. Second, CD38 regulates inflammatory responses by modulating the activity of the responding leukocytes and by altering the activity of non-hematopoietic cells in the inflamed tissue. Finally, crosstalk between CD38 and other NAD(+) utilizing enzymes such as ART2, SIRT1, and PARP-1 impacts NAD(+) homeostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Thus, immunity is regulated by CD38 in multiple and unexpected ways and the new research challenge will be to determine whether we can exploit the complex biology of CD38 to therapeutically regulate the immune system.

  15. Role of prefrontal cortical calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in antinociceptive effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepresssant maprotiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wee-Siong; Shalini, Suku-Maran; Torta, Federico; Wenk, Markus R; Stohler, Christian; Yeo, Jin-Fei; Herr, Deron R; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2017-01-06

    The prefrontal cortex is essential for executive functions such as decision-making and planning. There is also accumulating evidence that it is important for the modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated a possible role of prefrontal cortical calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in antinociception induced by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) and tetracyclic (tricyclic) antidepressant, maprotiline. Intraperitoneal injections of maprotiline increased iPLA2 mRNA and protein expression in the prefrontal cortex. This treatment also reduced grooming responses to von-Frey hair stimulation of the face after facial carrageenan injection, indicating decreased sensitivity to pain. The antinociceptive effect of maprotiline was abrogated by iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide injection to the prefrontal cortex, indicating a role of this enzyme in antinociception. In contrast, injection of iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide to the somatosensory cortex did not reduce the antinociceptive effect of maprotiline. Lipidomic analysis of the prefrontal cortex showed decrease in phosphatidylcholine species, but increase in lysophosphatidylcholine species, indicating increased PLA2 activity, and release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after maprotiline treatment. Differences in sphingomyelin/ceramide were also detected. These changes were not observed in maprotiline-treated mice that received iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide to the prefrontal cortex. Metabolites of DHA and EPA may help to strengthen a known supraspinal antinociceptive pathway from the prefrontal cortex to the periaqueductal gray. Together, results indicate a role of prefrontal cortical iPLA2 and its enzymatic products in the antinociceptive effect of maprotiline.

  16. Complex role of STIM1 in the activation of store-independent Orai1/3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; González-Cobos, José C.; Jardin, Isaac; Romanin, Christoph; Matrougui, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Orai proteins contribute to Ca2+ entry into cells through both store-dependent, Ca2+ release–activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels (Orai1) and store-independent, arachidonic acid (AA)-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-regulated Ca2+ (LRC) channels (Orai1/3 heteromultimers). Although activated by fundamentally different mechanisms, CRAC channels, like ARC and LRC channels, require stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). The role of endoplasmic reticulum–resident STIM1 (ER-STIM1) in CRAC channel activation is widely accepted. Although ER-STIM1 is necessary and sufficient for LRC channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the minor pool of STIM1 located at the plasma membrane (PM-STIM1) is necessary for ARC channel activation in HEK293 cells. To determine whether ARC and LRC conductances are mediated by the same or different populations of STIM1, Orai1, and Orai3 proteins, we used whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recording to compare AA- and LTC4-activated currents in VSMCs and HEK293 cells. We found that both cell types show indistinguishable nonadditive LTC4- and AA-activated currents that require both Orai1 and Orai3, suggesting that both conductances are mediated by the same channel. Experiments using a nonmetabolizable form of AA or an inhibitor of 5-lipooxygenase suggested that ARC and LRC currents in both cell types could be activated by either LTC4 or AA, with LTC4 being more potent. Although PM-STIM1 was required for current activation by LTC4 and AA under whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in both cell types, ER-STIM1 was sufficient with perforated patch recordings. These results demonstrate that ARC and LRC currents are mediated by the same cellular populations of STIM1, Orai1, and Orai3, and suggest a complex role for both ER-STIM1 and PM-STIM1 in regulating these store-independent Orai1/3 channels. PMID:24567509

  17. Critical and independent role for SOCS3 in either myeloid or T cells in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Carow

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3 negatively regulates STAT3 activation in response to several cytokines such as those in the gp130-containing IL-6 receptor family. Thus, SOCS3 may play a major role in immune responses to pathogens. In the present study, the role of SOCS3 in M. tuberculosis infection was examined. All Socs3(fl/fl LysM cre, Socs3(fl/fl lck cre (with SOCS3-deficient myeloid and lymphoid cells, respectively and gp130(F/F mice, with a mutation in gp130 that impedes binding to SOCS3, showed increased susceptibility to infection with M. tuberculosis. SOCS3 binding to gp130 in myeloid cells conveyed resistance to M. tuberculosis infection via the regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signalling. SOCS3 was redundant for mycobacterial control by macrophages in vitro. Instead, SOCS3 expression in infected macrophages and DCs prevented the IL-6-mediated inhibition of TNF and IL-12 secretion and contributed to a timely CD4+ cell-dependent IFN-γ expression in vivo. In T cells, SOCS3 expression was essential for a gp130-independent control of infection with M. tuberculosis, but was neither required for the control of infection with attenuated M. bovis BCG nor for M. tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated mice. Socs3(fl/fl lck cre mice showed an increased frequency of γδ+ T cells in different organs and an enhanced secretion of IL-17 by γδ+ T cells in response to infection. Socs3(fl/fl lck cre γδ+ T cells impaired the control of infection with M. tuberculosis. Thus, SOCS3 expression in either lymphoid or myeloid cells is essential for resistance against M. tuberculosis via discrete mechanisms.

  18. Critical and Independent Role for SOCS3 in Either Myeloid or T Cells in Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carow, Berit; Reuschl, Ann-Kathrin; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Jenkins, Brendan J.; Ernst, Matthias; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Chambers, Benedict J.; Rottenberg, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates STAT3 activation in response to several cytokines such as those in the gp130-containing IL-6 receptor family. Thus, SOCS3 may play a major role in immune responses to pathogens. In the present study, the role of SOCS3 in M. tuberculosis infection was examined. All Socs3fl/fl LysM cre, Socs3fl/fl lck cre (with SOCS3-deficient myeloid and lymphoid cells, respectively) and gp130F/F mice, with a mutation in gp130 that impedes binding to SOCS3, showed increased susceptibility to infection with M. tuberculosis. SOCS3 binding to gp130 in myeloid cells conveyed resistance to M. tuberculosis infection via the regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signalling. SOCS3 was redundant for mycobacterial control by macrophages in vitro. Instead, SOCS3 expression in infected macrophages and DCs prevented the IL-6-mediated inhibition of TNF and IL-12 secretion and contributed to a timely CD4+ cell-dependent IFN-γ expression in vivo. In T cells, SOCS3 expression was essential for a gp130-independent control of infection with M. tuberculosis, but was neither required for the control of infection with attenuated M. bovis BCG nor for M. tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated mice. Socs3fl/fl lck cre mice showed an increased frequency of γδ+ T cells in different organs and an enhanced secretion of IL-17 by γδ+ T cells in response to infection. Socs3fl/fl lck cre γδ+ T cells impaired the control of infection with M. tuberculosis. Thus, SOCS3 expression in either lymphoid or myeloid cells is essential for resistance against M. tuberculosis via discrete mechanisms. PMID:23853585

  19. A p53-independent role for the MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3 in DNA damage response initiation

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    Kumar Sonia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian DNA-damage response (DDR has evolved to protect genome stability and maximize cell survival following DNA-damage. One of the key regulators of the DDR is p53, itself tightly regulated by MDM2. Following double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs, mediators including ATM are recruited to the site of DNA-damage. Subsequent phosphorylation of p53 by ATM and ATM-induced CHK2 results in p53 stabilization, ultimately intensifying transcription of p53-responsive genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis. Methods In the current study, we investigated the stabilization and activation of p53 and associated DDR proteins in response to treatment of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116p53+/+ with the MDM2 antagonist, Nutlin-3. Results Using immunoblotting, Nutlin-3 was observed to stabilize p53, and activate p53 target proteins. Unexpectedly, Nutlin-3 also mediated phosphorylation of p53 at key DNA-damage-specific serine residues (Ser15, 20 and 37. Furthermore, Nutlin-3 induced activation of CHK2 and ATM - proteins required for DNA-damage-dependent phosphorylation and activation of p53, and the phosphorylation of BRCA1 and H2AX - proteins known to be activated specifically in response to DNA damage. Indeed, using immunofluorescent labeling, Nutlin-3 was seen to induce formation of γH2AX foci, an early hallmark of the DDR. Moreover, Nutlin-3 induced phosphorylation of key DDR proteins, initiated cell cycle arrest and led to formation of γH2AX foci in cells lacking p53, whilst γH2AX foci were also noted in MDM2-deficient cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first solid evidence showing a secondary role for Nutlin-3 as a DDR triggering agent, independent of p53 status, and unrelated to its role as an MDM2 antagonist.

  20. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independently of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterise their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals.We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp- and OGTT-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion, and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs-per-allele [95%CI]:−0.03[−0.04,−0.01];p=0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (−0.01[−0.01,−0.0;p=0.02) and gluteofemoral fat-mass (−0.03[−0.05,−0.02;p=1.4×10−6), and with higher ALT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.002) and gamma-GT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (pinteraction=0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI- or waist-strata(pinteraction>0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size. PMID:24947364

  1. Peter Pan functions independently of its role in ribosome biogenesis during early eye and craniofacial cartilage development in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugner, Verena; Tecza, Aleksandra; Gessert, Susanne; Kühl, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The Xenopus oocyte possesses a large maternal store of ribosomes, thereby uncoupling early development from the de novo ribosome biosynthesis required for cell growth. Brix domain-containing proteins, such as Peter Pan (PPan), are essential for eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that PPan is expressed maternally as well as in the eye and cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) during early Xenopus laevis development. Depletion of PPan and interference with rRNA processing using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in eye and cranial cartilage malformations. Loss of PPan, but not interference with rRNA processing, led to an early downregulation of specific marker genes of the eye, including Rx1 and Pax6, and of NCCs, such as Twist, Slug and FoxD3. We found that PPan protein is localized in the nucleoli and mitochondria and that loss of PPan results in increased apoptosis. These findings indicate a novel function of PPan that is independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.

  2. DDR2 plays a role in fibroblast migration independent of adhesion ligand and collagen activated DDR2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Herrera, Mireya Liliana; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto

    2012-12-07

    Discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that can be activated by soluble collagen and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions including organism growth and wound repair. In the current studies, we used fibronectin and collagen-coated 2D surfaces and collagen matrices in combination with siRNA technology to investigate the role of DDR2 in a range of fibroblast motile activities. Silencing DDR2 with siRNA inhibited cell spreading and migration, and similar inhibition occurred regardless whether cells were interacting with fibronectin or collagen surfaces. Under the assay conditions used, DDR2 tyrosine kinase activation was not observed unless soluble collagen was added to the incubation medium. Finally silencing DDR2 also inhibited human fibroblast migration in 3D collagen matrices but had no effect on 3D collagen matrix remodeling and contraction. Taken together, our findings suggest that DDR2 is required for normal fibroblast spreading and migration independent of adhesion ligand and collagen activation of DDR2 tyrosine kinase.

  3. 左右双Higgs模型中新的重顶夸克在LHeC上的产生%Production of New Heavy T Quark in the Left-right Twin Higgs Model at LHeC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军; 秦鑫

    2013-01-01

    在左右双Higgs模型(LRTH)中,研究了单个顶夸克在大型强子-电子对撞机上通过e+b→ve-T和γb→W-T过程的产生.对于顶夸克主要的衰变模式T→φ-b→ tbb,这两个过程会分别产生3b+1+ET和3b+21+ET的末态信号.当电子能量Ee=500 GeV,质子能量取Ep=7 TeV时,发现产生截面在顶夸克质量小于600 GeV时会达到几十fb.也对T→W+b的衰变模式进行了唯像分析.%In the context of the left-right twin Higgs model, we study single production of the Tquark at the Large Had-ron electron Collider (LHeC), which proceed via the processes W-T. For the main decay mode tbb, these two processes mainly transfers to the final states of 3b+l+Er and Zb+2l+ET, respectively. With the electron energy Et= 500 GeV and photon energy Ep = 7 TeV, we find that the production rates can reach tens fb when the heavy Tquark mass smaller than 600 GeV. A simply phenomenological analysis is also given for the decay mode T→W+ b.

  4. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterize their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp- and oral glucose tolerance test-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs per allele [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01]; P = 0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01 [-0.01, -0.0]; P = 0.02) and gluteofemoral fat mass (-0.03 [-0.05, -0.02; P = 1.4 × 10(-6)) and with higher alanine transaminase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.002) and γ-glutamyl transferase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (Pinteraction = 0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI or waist strata (Pinteraction > 0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Why are some independent inventors 'heroes' and others 'hobbyists'? The moderating role of technological diversity and specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Rost, Katja; von Wartburg, Iwan

    2009-01-01

    's Edisons or weekend hobbyists: technical impact and success of inventions by independent inventors. Res. Policy 33, 1167-1183] on the tennis racket industry shows that independent inventors are a heterogeneous group which includes both "heroes" who contribute substantially to technological progress...... and "hobbyists" who make only a marginal contribution. What is not asked - and therefore not explained - is why this distinction arises. In this paper,we focus on the type of prior technological knowledge (in terms of technological specialization and diversity) applied by independent inventors...... study reveals that technological specialization pays off more for independent inventors than for their corporate counterparts. Therefore, those independent inventors who apply low degrees of diversity and high degrees of specialization are capable of reaching the same level as or even outperforming...

  6. 一种双频左/右旋圆极化可重构环形缝隙微带天线%A dual-frequency left/right hand circular polarized reconfigurable annular slot microstrip antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜哲; 杨雪霞; 龚波; 王业清

    2013-01-01

    A dual-frequency left/right hand circular polarized reconfigurable annular slot microstrip antenna with a frequency ratio of 1.9 was designed. The antenna is in the linear and circular polarization state respectively at high and low frequency. In this antenna, the ground was divided into five parts by an annular slot combined with four orthogonal linear slot arms which were crossed by two pairs of PIN diode switches and capacitors. Through controlling the PIN diode switches, the left and right hand circular polarization of the antenna can switch to each other at low frequency, with no change in the linear polarization property of the antenna at high frequency. The results show that, at low frequency of 1.6 GHz, the antenna shows a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 12.5% (from 1.5 GHz to 1.7 GHz); while at high frequency of 3.06 GHz, the antenna show a 10 dB return loss impedance bandwidth of 100 MHz with few change in the radiation pattern and linear polarization.%设计了一种频率比为1.9的双频左/右旋圆极化可重构环形缝隙微带天线,其在高频段和低频段分别工作于线极化和圆极化状态.在该天线中,环形缝隙和相互正交的四个缝隙臂将接地面分为五部分,缝隙臂上跨接两对PIN二极管开关和隔直电容.通过二极管开关的控制,天线在低频频率上可实现左/右旋圆极化的切换,在高频频率上则可保持其线极化性能不变.实验结果表明,天线在1.6 GHz的低频段上具有12.5%的3dB轴比带宽,在3.06 GHz的高频段上其-10 dB阻抗绝对带宽为100 MHz,成线极化状态,辐射方向图近似不变.

  7. Killing of gram-negative bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of an O2-independent bactericidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J; Victor, M; Stendhal, O; Elsbach, P

    1982-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a cationic bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) present in both rabbit and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes is the principal O2-independent bactericidal agent of these cells toward several strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium (1978. J. Biol. Chem. 253: 2664--2672; 1979. J. Biol. Chem. 254: 11000--11009). To further evaluate the possible role of this protein in the killing of gram-negative bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, we have measured the bactericidal activity of intact rabbit peritoneal exudate leukocytes under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and of intact human leukocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Anaerobic conditions were created by flushing the cells under a nitrogen stream. Effective removal of oxygen was demonstrated by the inability of nitrogen-flushed leukocytes to mount a respiratory burst (measured as increased conversion of 1-[14C]glucose leads to 14CO2 or by superoxide production) during bacterial ingestion. At a bacteria/leukocyte ratio of 10:1, killing of gram-positive, BPI-resistant, Staphylococcus epidermidis is markedly impaired in the absence of oxygen (76.4 +/- 3.3% killing in room air, 29.2 +/- 8.2% killing in nitrogen). Essentially all increased bacterial survival is intracellular. In contrast, both a nonopsonized rough strain (MR-10) and an opsonized smooth strain (MS) of S. typhimurium 395 are killed equally well in room air and nitrogen. A maximum of 70--80 MR-10 and 30--40 MS are killed per leukocyte either in the presence or absence of oxygen. There is no intracellular bacterial survival in either condition indicating that intracellular O2-independent bactericidal system(s) of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes can at least match the leukocyte's ingestive capacity. Whole homogenates and crude acid extracts manifest similar bactericidal capacity toward S. typhimurium 395. This activity can be accounted for by the BPI content of these

  8. Naturally-Emerging Technology-Based Leadership Roles in Three Independent Schools: A Social Network-Based Case Study Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velastegui, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating case study investigates the naturally emerging roles of technology brokers and technology leaders in three independent schools in New York involving 92 school educators. A multiple and mixed method design utilizing Social Network Analysis (SNA) and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FSQCA) involved gathering…

  9. Why are some independent inventors 'heroes' and others 'hobbyists'? The moderating role of technological diversity and specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Rost, Katja; von Wartburg, Iwan

    2009-01-01

    Despite a substantial body of research investigating the market significance of inventions by independent inventors, relatively little attention has been devoted to understanding their technological significance. A recent study conducted by [Dahlin, K., Taylor, M., Fichman, M., 2004. Today...... and "hobbyists" who make only a marginal contribution. What is not asked - and therefore not explained - is why this distinction arises. In this paper,we focus on the type of prior technological knowledge (in terms of technological specialization and diversity) applied by independent inventors...... study reveals that technological specialization pays off more for independent inventors than for their corporate counterparts. Therefore, those independent inventors who apply low degrees of diversity and high degrees of specialization are capable of reaching the same level as or even outperforming...

  10. Role of TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein neosynthesis, p38alphaMAPK, and cdc42 in hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence-like morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrétien, Aline; Dierick, Jean-François; Delaive, Edouard;

    2008-01-01

    The role of TGF-beta1 in hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence-like morphogenesis has been described. The aim of this work was to investigate whether TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein synthesis are involved in this morphogenesis and to study possible mechanisms occurring earlier than TGF......-beta1 overexpression. Among the multiple TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein neosynthesis, followed or not by posttranslational modifications, identified by proteomic analysis herein, those of ezrin, L-caldesmon, and HSP27 were particularly studied. Rho-GTPase cdc42 was shown to be responsible...

  11. Phosphoproteome analysis demonstrates the potential role of THRAP3 phosphorylation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoko; Arakawa, Noriaki; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Hisashi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the androgen-independent growth mechanism is critical for developing effective treatment strategies to combat androgen-independent prostate cancer. We performed a comparative phosphoproteome analysis using a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, and an LNCaP-derived androgen-independent cell line, LNCaP-AI, to identify phosphoproteins involved in this mechanism. We performed quantitative comparisons of the phosphopeptide levels in tryptic digests of protein extracts from these cell lines using MS. We found that the levels of 69 phosphopeptides in 66 proteins significantly differed between LNCaP and LNCaP-AI. In particular, we focused on thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 (THRAP3), which is a known transcriptional coactivator of the androgen receptor. The phosphorylation level of THRAP3 was significantly lower at S248 and S253 in LNCaP-AI cells. Furthermore, pull-down assays showed that 32 proteins uniquely bound to the nonphosphorylatable mutant form of THRAP3, whereas 31 other proteins uniquely bound to the phosphorylation-mimic form. Many of the differentially interacting proteins were identified as being involved with RNA splicing and processing. These results suggest that the phosphorylation state of THRAP3 at S248 and S253 might be involved in the mechanism of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth by changing the interaction partners.

  12. Governance and oversight of researcher access to electronic health data: the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for MHRA database research, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P; Cassell, J A; Saunders, M H; Stevens, R

    2017-03-01

    In order to promote understanding of UK governance and assurance relating to electronic health records research, we present and discuss the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) for MHRA database research in evaluating protocols proposing the use of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We describe the development of the Committee's activities between 2006 and 2015, alongside growth in data linkage and wider national electronic health records programmes, including the application and assessment processes, and our approach to undertaking this work. Our model can provide independence, challenge and support to data providers such as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database which has been used for well over 1,000 medical research projects. ISAC's role in scientific oversight ensures feasible and scientifically acceptable plans are in place, while having both lay and professional membership addresses governance issues in order to protect the integrity of the database and ensure that public confidence is maintained.

  13. Kinome wide functional screen identifies role of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Neil; Jansen, Valerie M.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Balko, Justin M.; Estrada, Mónica V.; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen-independent and recur. ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki67 score in primary ER+ breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared to parental MCF7 cells. Further, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes anti-apoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER+ human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. PMID:25480943

  14. Building Groups and Independence: The Role of Food in the Lives of Young People in Danish Sports Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Mine; Holm, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study, examines the role of food in the social interaction of 11- to 17-year-old youths in sports centres in Denmark. The sports centres serve as a free space where young people receive no adult supervision. This is underlined by their understanding and use of food in this environment. Food serves as a medium…

  15. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica rhomboid protease 1 has a role in migration and motility as validated by two independent genetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastew, Elena; Morf, Laura; Singh, Upinder

    2015-07-01

    Rhomboid proteins represent a recently discovered family of intramembrane proteases present in a broad range of organisms and with increasing links to human diseases. The enteric parasite Entamoeba histolytica has evolved multiple mechanisms to adapt to the human host environment and establish infection. Our recent studies identified EhROM1 as a functional E. histolytica rhomboid protease with roles in adhesion to and phagocytosis of host cells. Since those studies were performed in a non-virulent strain, roles in parasite virulence could not be assessed. We focused this study on the comparison and validation of two genetic manipulation techniques: overexpression of a dominant-negative catalytic mutant of EhROM1 and knock down of EhROM1 using a RNAi-based silencing approach followed by functional studies of phenotypic analyses in virulent parasites. Both the EhROM1 catalytic mutant and parasites with EhROM1 downregulation were reduced in cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and directional and non-directional transwell migration. Importantly, the role for EhROM1 in cell migration mimics similar roles for rhomboid proteases from mammalian and apicomplexan systems. However, the EhROM1 catalytic mutant and EhROM1 downregulation parasites had different phenotypes for erythrophagocytosis, while complement resistance was not affected in either strain. In summary, in this study we genetically manipulated E. histolytica rhomboid protease EhROM1 by two different approaches and identified similarly attenuated phenotypes by both approaches, suggesting a novel role for EhROM1 in amebic motility.

  17. Role of department in organization of independent work of students to the terms of teaching in higher educational establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghyppo A.Y.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of organization by the students of the independent teaching is considered in the given article, and some approaches of department to the decision of the given problem. By the questionnaire questioning principal reasons which interfere with freshmen quickly to adapt oneself to the terms of teaching in higher educational establishment are exposed. In addition, the benefit of introductory semester and object «Introduction to speciality» is analyses. Importance of the special course opens up «Organization and technology of educational labour of students», which is read by a department and directed on the receipt by the students of the generalized knowledge's about educational activity, and specific of educational labour on a faculty.

  18. Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Yuval; Montoro, Daniel T; Muhonen, Ethan; Walmsley, Graham G; Lo, David; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Januszyk, Michael; Connolly, Andrew J; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

    2014-07-08

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.

  19. Language Learning, Thinking Trends and the Left-right Brain Theory among Malaysian Chinese%马来西亚华人的语言学习思考倾向与左右脑论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡炎标[马来西亚; 周芳萍[马来西亚

    2012-01-01

    results also shown that when learning a language, the Chinese students tend to be logical thinking rather than intuitive thinking, good memory of text rather than memory of image, learning the details better than overall learning, love to do the summarize more than writing the out-line of composition. The results showed that although nearly half of the Chinese students love to use the right-brain thinking, but in learning the language, they are in favor of left brain thinking. The results exclude the saying that“Chinese optimize the right brain”. In addition, ANOVA anal-ysis results showed that Chinese, Malays and Indians have no differences in the left brain and right brain thinking tendencies ( p>0 . 05 ) , thus deny the argument that different ethnic groups have different left and right brain thinking disposition. Thus, the terms of“Secretary secretary”, the“head head” that leads to the argument of the left-right brain and the Europeani-zation of Chinese Language among the Malaysian Chinese are not relia-ble.%姚德怀先生在《语文散记》中提起香港基本法应用“财政司长”、“警务处处长”、“律政司长”、“审计署署长”,有时同字连用,有时同字不重复。就应该用单字或重复字,姚引用左脑、右脑之学说,“右脑主综合、图像;左脑主分析、逻辑。”而据说“中国人善用右脑、西欧人善用左脑”,因此华人用右脑来思考,单用“司”、“处”算是合理。而用“司司”、“处处”可能是华人长期练习应用左脑所产生的汉语欧化的现象。在马来西亚,人们也常在“卫生局局长”、“医院院长”、“雪州州行政议员”中应用重复字。这是否也是马来西亚华人长期应用左脑所产生的现象呢?在学习语言时,马来西亚华人是否偏向左脑思考呢?就此问题,作者做了一项学术研究。研究目的是:(一)确定马来西亚华人的语言学习与思考倾向;(二)比

  20. “A DNA Damage Response (DDR) –independent Role for the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Gene Product"

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzo, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive hereditary syndrome characterized by cerebellar degeneration, telangiectasia, precocious aging, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition and insulin-resistant diabetes. A-T is caused by defects in Ataxia-Telagiectasia Mutated (Atm) gene. Atm encodes a ser/thr kinase (ATM) of the PI3 kinase family that plays a crucial role in the DNA damage response (DDR). Although some A-T features are easily explained by defects in DDR, others, like precocious aging,...

  1. DNA polymerases beta and lambda mediate overlapping and independent roles in base excision repair in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena K Braithwaite

    Full Text Available Base excision repair (BER is a DNA repair pathway designed to correct small base lesions in genomic DNA. While DNA polymerase beta (pol beta is known to be the main polymerase in the BER pathway, various studies have implicated other DNA polymerases in back-up roles. One such polymerase, DNA polymerase lambda (pol lambda, was shown to be important in BER of oxidative DNA damage. To further explore roles of the X-family DNA polymerases lambda and beta in BER, we prepared a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with deletions in the genes for both pol beta and pol lambda. Neutral red viability assays demonstrated that pol lambda and pol beta double null cells were hypersensitive to alkylating and oxidizing DNA damaging agents. In vitro BER assays revealed a modest contribution of pol lambda to single-nucleotide BER of base lesions. Additionally, using co-immunoprecipitation experiments with purified enzymes and whole cell extracts, we found that both pol lambda and pol beta interact with the upstream DNA glycosylases for repair of alkylated and oxidized DNA bases. Such interactions could be important in coordinating roles of these polymerases during BER.

  2. The mechanism of epipodophyllotoxin-induced thymocyte apoptosis: possible role of a novel Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Georgoff, I; Fleisher, S; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Fresa, K L

    1993-10-15

    The epipodophyllotoxins, etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26), inhibit topoisomerase II activity by stabilization of the cleavable complex between the enzyme and DNA and formation of protein-bound double-stranded DNA breaks. While it is thought that these agents are cytotoxic by preventing cells from completing the S phase or undergoing mitosis, recent evidence suggests that these agents are also potent inducers of programmed cell death or apoptosis in both normal and malignant cells. We have examined the intracellular pathway leading to epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis in normal mouse thymocytes. Epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis may proceed via a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of topoisomerase activity per se because novobiocin and coumermycin, which inhibit the ATPase subunit of topoisomerase II, were relatively inefficient inducers of apoptosis in these cells, under conditions where strong apoptosis by the epipodophyllotoxins and dexamethasone could be observed. In addition, camptothecin, which inhibits topoisomerase I by stabilization of the cleavable complex between that enzyme and DNA, was also a poor inducer of apoptosis in these cells. Our data suggest that epipodophyllotoxin-induced mouse thymocyte apoptosis, like that induced by dexamethasone, proceeds via a mechanism that involves protein kinase C (PKC) or a similar enzyme. Apoptosis induced by VM-26 or by dexamethasone was inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2- methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H7), an inhibitor of both PKC and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, but was relatively unaffected by N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA1004), a more specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. A more specific inhibitor of PKC, sangivamycin, also inhibited both VM-26-induced and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Both VM-26- and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis were unaffected by EGTA, a calcium (Ca2+) chelator, under conditions that inhibited apoptosis induced by

  3. Adaptation Independent Modulation of Auditory Hair Cell Mechanotransduction Channel Open Probability Implicates a Role for the Lipid Bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anthony W; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Sachs, Frederick; Ricci, Anthony J

    2016-03-09

    The auditory system is able to detect movement down to atomic dimensions. This sensitivity comes in part from mechanisms associated with gating of hair cell mechanoelectric transduction (MET) channels. MET channels, located at the tops of stereocilia, are poised to detect tension induced by hair bundle deflection. Hair bundle deflection generates a force by pulling on tip-link proteins connecting adjacent stereocilia. The resting open probability (P(open)) of MET channels determines the linearity and sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Classically, P(open) is regulated by a calcium-sensitive adaptation mechanism in which lowering extracellular calcium or depolarization increases P(open). Recent data demonstrated that the fast component of adaptation is independent of both calcium and voltage, thus requiring an alternative explanation for the sensitivity of P(open) to calcium and voltage. Using rat auditory hair cells, we characterize a mechanism, separate from fast adaptation, whereby divalent ions interacting with the local lipid environment modulate resting P(open). The specificity of this effect for different divalent ions suggests binding sites that are not an EF-hand or calmodulin model. GsMTx4, a lipid-mediated modifier of cationic stretch-activated channels, eliminated the voltage and divalent sensitivity with minimal effects on adaptation. We hypothesize that the dual mechanisms (lipid modulation and adaptation) extend the dynamic range of the system while maintaining adaptation kinetics at their maximal rates.

  4. An antiapoptotic role for telomerase RNA in human immune cells independent of telomere integrity or telomerase enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Francesca S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2014-12-11

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of linear chromosomes. It contains two core canonical components: the essential RNA component, hTR, which provides the template for DNA synthesis, and the reverse transcriptase protein component, hTERT. Low telomerase activity in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown, however, whether telomerase, in addition to its long-term requirement for telomere maintenance, is also necessary for short-term immune cell proliferation and survival. We report that overexpression of enzymatically inactive hTR mutants protected against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in stimulated CD4 T cells. Furthermore, hTR knockdown reproducibly induced apoptosis in the absence of any detectable telomere shortening or DNA damage response. In contrast, hTERT knockdown did not induce apoptosis. Strikingly, overexpression of hTERT protein caused apoptosis that was rescued by overexpression of enzymatically inactive hTR mutants. Hence, we propose that hTR can function as a noncoding RNA that protects from apoptosis independent of its function in telomerase enzymatic activity and long-term telomere maintenance in normal human immune cells. These results imply that genetic or environmental factors that alter hTR levels can directly affect immune cell function to influence health and disease.

  5. Capsid protein: evidences about the partial protective role of neutralizing antibody-independent immunity against dengue in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Marcos, Ernesto; Suzarte, Edith; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2014-05-01

    The role of cellular immune response in dengue virus infection is not yet fully understood. Only few studies in murine models propose that CD8(+) T-cells are associated with protection from infection and disease. At the light of recent reports about the protective role of CD8(+) T-cells in humans and the no correlation between neutralizing antibodies and protection observed in several studies, a vaccine based on cell-mediated immunity constitute an attractive approach. Our group has developed a capsid-based vaccine as nucleocpasid-like particles from dengue-2 virus, which induced a protective CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell-mediated immunity in mice, without the contribution of neutralizing antibodies. Herein we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this molecule in monkeys. Neither IgG antibodies against the whole virus nor neutralizing antibodies were elicited after the antigen inoculation. However, animals developed a cell-mediated immunity, measured by gamma interferon secretion and cytotoxic capacity. Although only one out of three vaccinated animals was fully protected against viral challenge, a viral load reduction was observed in this group compared with the placebo one, suggesting that capsid could be the base on an attractive vaccine against dengue.

  6. The role of flow-independent viscoelasticity in the biphasic tensile and compressive responses of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C Y; Mow, V C; Ateshian, G A

    2001-10-01

    articular cartilage, under stress-relaxation and dynamic loading, can be achieved when properly taking into account both flow-dependent and flow-independent viscoelasticity effects, as well as tension-compression nonlinearity.

  7. Independent Role of Underlying Kidney Disease on Renal Prognosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease under Nephrology Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca De Nicola

    Full Text Available Primary kidney disease is suggested to affect renal prognosis of CKD patients; however, whether nephrology care modifies this association is unknown. We studied patients with CKD stage I-IV treated in a renal clinic and with established diagnosis of CKD cause to evaluate whether the risk of renal event (composite of end-stage renal disease and eGFR decline ≥ 40% linked to the specific diagnosis is modified by the achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of therapeutic goals for hypertension (BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria ≥ 1 50 mg/24h and/or diabetes and ≤ 140/90 in those with proteinuria <150 mg/24h and without diabetes anemia (hemoglobin, Hb ≥ 11 g/dL, and proteinuria (≤ 0.5 g/24h. Survival analysis started after first year of nephrology care. We studied 729 patients (age 64 ± 15 y; males 59.1%; diabetes 34.7%; cardiovascular disease (CVD 44.9%; hypertensive nephropathy, HTN 53.8%; glomerulonephritis, GN 17.3%; diabetic nephropathy, DN 15.9%; tubule-interstitial nephropathy, TIN 9.5%; polycystic kidney disease, PKD 3.6%. During first year of Nephrology care, therapy was overall intensified in most patients and prevalence of main therapeutic goals generally improved. During subsequent follow up (median 3.3 years, IQR 1.9-5.1, 163 renal events occurred. Cox analysis disclosed a higher risk for PKD (Hazard Ratio 5.46, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.28-10.6 and DN (1.28,2.99-3.05, versus HTN (reference, independently of age, gender, CVD, BMI, eGFR or CKD stage, use of RAS inhibitors and achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of each of the three main therapeutic goals. No interaction was found on the risk of CKD progression between diagnostic categories and month-12 eGFR (P=0.737, as with control of BP (P=0.374, Hb (P=0.248 or proteinuria (P=0.590. Therefore, in CKD patients under nephrology care, diagnosis of kidney disease should be considered in conjunction with the main

  8. Independent Role of Underlying Kidney Disease on Renal Prognosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease under Nephrology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Luca; Provenzano, Michele; Chiodini, Paolo; Borrelli, Silvio; Garofalo, Carlo; Pacilio, Mario; Liberti, Maria Elena; Sagliocca, Adelia; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Primary kidney disease is suggested to affect renal prognosis of CKD patients; however, whether nephrology care modifies this association is unknown. We studied patients with CKD stage I-IV treated in a renal clinic and with established diagnosis of CKD cause to evaluate whether the risk of renal event (composite of end-stage renal disease and eGFR decline ≥ 40%) linked to the specific diagnosis is modified by the achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of therapeutic goals for hypertension (BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg in patients with proteinuria ≥ 1 50 mg/24h and/or diabetes and ≤ 140/90 in those with proteinuria nephrology care. We studied 729 patients (age 64 ± 15 y; males 59.1%; diabetes 34.7%; cardiovascular disease (CVD) 44.9%; hypertensive nephropathy, HTN 53.8%; glomerulonephritis, GN 17.3%; diabetic nephropathy, DN 15.9%; tubule-interstitial nephropathy, TIN 9.5%; polycystic kidney disease, PKD 3.6%). During first year of Nephrology care, therapy was overall intensified in most patients and prevalence of main therapeutic goals generally improved. During subsequent follow up (median 3.3 years, IQR 1.9-5.1), 163 renal events occurred. Cox analysis disclosed a higher risk for PKD (Hazard Ratio 5.46, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.28-10.6) and DN (1.28,2.99-3.05), versus HTN (reference), independently of age, gender, CVD, BMI, eGFR or CKD stage, use of RAS inhibitors and achievement or maintenance in the first year of nephrology care of each of the three main therapeutic goals. No interaction was found on the risk of CKD progression between diagnostic categories and month-12 eGFR (P=0.737), as with control of BP (P=0.374), Hb (P=0.248) or proteinuria (P=0.590). Therefore, in CKD patients under nephrology care, diagnosis of kidney disease should be considered in conjunction with the main risk factors to refine renal risk stratification.

  9. Studies of the role of selenium-independent and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases in eicosanoid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are involved in the biotransformation and/or detoxification of a wide range of organic compounds, including allylic epoxides. GSTs catalyze the transformation of prostaglandin (PG)H[sub 2] into PGE[sub 2] and/or PGF[sub 2alpha]. Specific GST isozymes possessing non-selenium glutathione-peroxidase activity (NonSe-GSH-PX) catalyze the direct reduction of PGH[sub 2] to PGF[sub 2alpha]. Other GST isozymes have been reported to catalyze the transformation of leukotriene (LT)A[sub 4] into LTC[sub 4]. In this study, human liver GSTs were purified and individual isozymes were characterized by SDS electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, substrate specificities, immunological cross reactivities, and their ability to catalyze the transformation of PGH[sub 2] to PGF[sub 2alpha], and LTA[sub 4] to LTC[sub 4]. The GST isozyme expression pattern in man varies between individuals. Se-dependent GSH-PX activity (Se-GSH-PX) also plays a role in eicosanoid metabolism. The author infused Se-adequate and Se-deficient dairy cattle with endotoxin into the mammary gland to simulate an inflammation. Arachidonic acid metabolites were extracted and analyzed in both the milk and the milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). PMN's cytosol was assayed for Se- and nonSe-GSH-PX, and GST activity. The results indicate that the Se-deficient cows had lower levels (p < 0.05) of PGE[sub 2] and TXB[sub 2] released into the milk following challenge; however, there was no significant effect on the arachidonic acid metabolites produced by the milk PMNs. Although the Se-deficient cows had significantly lower levels (p < 0.05) of Se-GSH-PX activity, there was no effect on the GST nor NonSe-GSH-PX activity. Overall, eicosanoid biosynthesis is complex, being influenced by both dietary and enzymatic manipulation. The data support Se- and nonSe-GSH-PX playing important roles in eicosanoid formation.

  10. Evidence that the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette G5/G8-independent pathway plays a determinant role in cholesterol gallstone formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Li, Xiaodan; Patel, Shailendra B; Wang, David Q-H

    2016-09-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporter, Abcg5/g8, is Lith9 in mice, and two gallstone-associated variants in ABCG5/G8 have been identified in humans. Although ABCG5/G8 plays a critical role in determining hepatic sterol secretion, cholesterol is still secreted to bile in sitosterolemic patients with a defect in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 and in either Abcg5/g8 double- or single-knockout mice. We hypothesize that in the defect of ABCG5/G8, an ABCG5/G8-independent pathway is essential for regulating hepatic secretion of biliary sterols, which is independent of the lithogenic mechanism of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. To elucidate the effect of the ABCG5/G8-independent pathway on cholelithogenesis, we investigated the biliary and gallstone characteristics in male wild-type (WT), ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-), and ABCG8 (-/-) mice fed a lithogenic diet or varying amounts of cholesterol, treated with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, or injected intravenously with [(3) H]sitostanol- and [(14) C]cholesterol-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We found that ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) and ABCG8 (-/-) mice displayed the same biliary and gallstone phenotypes. Although both groups of knockout mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic cholesterol output compared to WT mice, they still formed gallstones. The LXR agonist significantly increased biliary cholesterol secretion and gallstones in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The 6-hour recovery of [(14) C]cholesterol in hepatic bile was significantly lower in both groups of knockout mice than in WT mice and [(3) H]sitostanol was detected in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The ABCG5/G8-independent pathway plays an important role in regulating biliary cholesterol secretion, the transport of HDL-derived cholesterol from plasma to bile, and gallstone formation, which works independently of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. Further studies are needed to observe whether this pathway is also

  11. (Pro)renin receptor and insulin resistance: possible roles of angiotensin II-dependent and -independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Kazi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-09-25

    A growing body of evidence has suggested the potential role of (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal injuries during the development of hypertension and diabetes. However, there is very little information on the contribution of (P)RR to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. In this regard, our preliminary data showed that the development of insulin resistance was associated with nonproteolytic activation of prorenin as well as local angiotensin II generation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. In fructose-fed rats, insulin resistance was also associated with nonproteolytic activation of prorenin and skeletal muscle angiotensin II generation. Furthermore, inhibition of (P)RR with handle region decoy peptide (HRP) improved the development of fructose-induced insulin resistance. However, in other animal model, such as transgenic rats overexpressing the human renin gene, HRP failed to ameliorate glucose intolerance. In this review, we will summarized the current knowledge regarding the possible contribution of (P)RR to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.

  12. Evidence for an inositol hexakisphosphate-dependent role for Ku in mammalian nonhomologous end joining that is independent of its role in the DNA-dependent protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joyce C.Y.; Salerno, Brenda; Hanakahi, Les A.

    2008-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an important pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability in mammalian cells. While Ku70/80 (Ku) functions in NHEJ as part of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), genetic evidence indicates that the role of Ku in NHEJ goes beyond its participation in DNA-PK. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) was previously found to stimulate NHEJ in vitro and Ku was identified as an IP6-binding factor. Through mutational analysis, we identified a bipartite IP6-binding site in Ku and generated IP6-binding mutants that ranged from 1.22% to 58.48% of wild-type binding. Significantly, these Ku IP6-binding mutants were impaired for participation in NHEJ in vitro and we observed a positive correlation between IP6 binding and NHEJ. Ku IP6-binding mutants were separation-of-function mutants that bound DNA and activated DNA-PK as well as wild-type Ku. Our observations identify a hitherto undefined IP6-binding site in Ku and show that this interaction is important for DSB repair by NHEJ in vitro. Moreover, these data indicate that in addition to binding of exposed DNA termini and activation of DNA-PK, the Ku heterodimer plays a role in mammalian NHEJ that is regulated by binding of IP6. PMID:18776215

  13. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  14. Endocytic Trafficking towards the Vacuole Plays a Key Role in the Auxin Receptor SCFTIR-Independent Mechanism of Lateral Root Formation in A.thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricio Pérez-Henríquez; Natasha V.Raikhel; Lorena Norambuena

    2012-01-01

    Plants' developmental plasticity plays a pivotal role in responding to environmental conditions.One of the most plastic plant organs is the root system.Different environmental stimuli such as nutrients and water deficiency may induce lateral root formation to compensate for a low level of water and/or nutrients.It has been shown that the hormone auxin tunes lateral root development and components for its signaling pathway have been identified.Using chemical biology,we discovered an Arabidopsis thaliana lateral root formation mechanism that is independent of the auxin receptor SCFTIR.The bioactive compound Sortin2 increased lateral root occurrence by acting upstream from the morphological marker of lateral root primordium formation,the mitotic activity.The compound did not display auxin activity.At the cellular level,Sortin2 accelerated endosomal trafficking,resulting in increased trafficking of plasma membrane recycling proteins to the vacuole.Sortin2 affected Late endosome/PVC/MVB trafficking and morphology.Combining Sortin2 with well-known drugs showed that endocytic trafficking of Late E/PVC/MVB towards the vacuole is pivotal for Sortin2induced SCFTIR-independent lateral root initiation.Our results revealed a distinctive role for endosomal trafficking in the promotion of lateral root formation via a process that does not rely on the auxin receptor complex SCFTIR.

  15. A glutathione-independent glyoxalase of the DJ-1 superfamily plays an important role in managing metabolically generated methylglyoxal in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasim, Sahar; Hussin, Nur Ahmad; Alomar, Fadhel; Bidasee, Keshore R; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Wilson, Mark A

    2014-01-17

    Methylglyoxal is a cytotoxic reactive carbonyl compound produced by central metabolism. Dedicated glyoxalases convert methylglyoxal to d-lactate using multiple catalytic strategies. In this study, the DJ-1 superfamily member ORF 19.251/GLX3 from Candida albicans is shown to possess glyoxalase activity, making this the first demonstrated glutathione-independent glyoxalase in fungi. The crystal structure of Glx3p indicates that the protein is a monomer containing the catalytic triad Cys(136)-His(137)-Glu(168). Purified Glx3p has an in vitro methylglyoxalase activity (Km = 5.5 mM and kcat = 7.8 s(-1)) that is significantly greater than that of more distantly related members of the DJ-1 superfamily. A close Glx3p homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YDR533C/Hsp31) also has glyoxalase activity, suggesting that fungal members of the Hsp31 clade of the DJ-1 superfamily are all probable glutathione-independent glyoxalases. A homozygous glx3 null mutant in C. albicans strain SC5314 displays greater sensitivity to millimolar levels of exogenous methylglyoxal, elevated levels of intracellular methylglyoxal, and carbon source-dependent growth defects, especially when grown on glycerol. These phenotypic defects are complemented by restoration of the wild-type GLX3 locus. The growth defect of Glx3-deficient cells in glycerol is also partially complemented by added inorganic phosphate, which is not observed for wild-type or glucose-grown cells. Therefore, C. albicans Glx3 and its fungal homologs are physiologically relevant glutathione-independent glyoxalases that are not redundant with the previously characterized glutathione-dependent GLO1/GLO2 system. In addition to its role in detoxifying glyoxals, Glx3 and its close homologs may have other important roles in stress response.

  16. Role functioning before start of adjuvant treatment was an independent prognostic factor for survival and time to failure. A report from the Nordic adjuvant interferon trial for patients with high-risk melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, Yvonne; Johansson, Hemming; Aamdal, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at randomization as independent prognostic factors for survival and time to failure, and to explore associations between HRQoL and treatment effects.......To investigate the role of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at randomization as independent prognostic factors for survival and time to failure, and to explore associations between HRQoL and treatment effects....

  17. A novel 2.5D culture platform to investigate the role of stiffness gradients on adhesion-independent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Phillip Pebworth

    Full Text Available Current studies investigating the role of biophysical cues on cell migration focus on the use of culture platforms with static material parameters. However, migrating cells in vivo often encounter spatial variations in extracellular matrix stiffness. To better understand the effects of stiffness gradients on cell migration, we developed a 2.5D cell culture platform where cells are sandwiched between stiff tissue culture plastic and soft alginate hydrogel. Under these conditions, we observed migration of cells from the underlying stiff substrate into the alginate matrix. Observation of migration into alginate in the presence of integrin inhibition as well as qualitative microscopic analyses suggested an adhesion-independent cell migration mode. Observed migration was dependent on alginate matrix stiffness and the RhoA-ROCK-myosin-II pathway; inhibitors specifically targeting ROCK and myosin-II arrested cell migration. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of the 2.5D culture platform to advance our understanding of the effects of stiffness gradients and mechanotransductive signaling on adhesion-independent cell migration.

  18. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Zand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  19. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra; Pierce, Katherine; Thomson, Nicole; Baig, M Waseem; Teodorescu, Cristiana; Nibras, Sohail; Maxim, Rolanda

    2014-02-19

    Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek's Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  20. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra; Pierce, Katherine; Thomson, Nicole; Baig, M. Waseem; Teodorescu, Cristiana; Nibras, Sohail; Maxim, Rolanda

    2014-01-01

    Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost. PMID:27417463

  1. Caspase-independent apoptosis in Friend's erythroleukemia cells: role of mitochondrial ATP synthesis impairment in relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Marina; Genero, Nadia; Mavelli, Irene

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the central components of both caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis signalling pathways through release of different apoptogenic proteins. We previously documented that parental and differentiated Friend's erythroleukemia cells were induced to apoptosis by oligomycin and H(2)O(2) exposure, showing that the energy impairment occurring in both cases as a consequence of a severe mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATPsynthase inactivation was a common early feature. Here we provide evidence for AIF and Endo G mitochondrio-nuclear relocation in both cases, as a component of caspase-independent apoptosis pathways. No detectable change in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and no variation in mitochondrial levels of Bcl-2 and Bax are observed. These results point to the osmotic rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane as occurring in response to cell exposure to the two energy-impairing treatments under conditions preserving the mitochondrial inner membrane. A critical role of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)ATP synthase inhibition in this process is also suggested.

  2. Role of cytosolic and calcium independent phospholipases A(2) in insulin secretion impairment of INS-1E cells infected by S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporarello, N; Salmeri, M; Scalia, M; Motta, C; Parrino, C; Frittitta, L; Olivieri, M; Toscano, M A; Anfuso, C D; Lupo, G

    2015-12-21

    Cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) play a significant role in insulin β-cells secretion. Bacterial infections may be responsible of the onset of diabetes. The mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus infection of INS-1 cells alters glucose-induced insulin secretion has been examined. After acute infection, insulin secretion and PLA2 activities significantly increased. Moreover, increased expressions of phospho-cPLA2, phospho-PKCα and phospho-ERK 1/2 were observed. Chronic infection causes a decrease in insulin release and a significant increase of iPLA2 and COX-2 protein expression. Moreover, insulin secretion in infected cells could be restored using specific siRNAs against iPLA2 isoform and specific COX-2 inhibitor.

  3. HL-1 mouse cardiomyocyte injury and death after simulated ischemia and reperfusion: roles of pH, Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, and Na+/H+ exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann-Dorit; Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Lambert, Ian H;

    2009-01-01

    The Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) VI (iPLA(2)-VI) and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) are highly pH-sensitive proteins that exert both protective and detrimental effects in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. Here, we investigated the role of extracellular pH (pH(o)) in ischemia-reperfusion...... injury and death and in regulation and function of iPLA(2)-VI and NHE1 under these conditions. HL-1 cardiomyocytes were exposed to simulated ischemia (SI; 0.5% O(2), 8 mM K(+), and 20 mM lactate) at pH(o) 6.0 and 7.4, with or without 4 or 8 h of reperfusion (SI/R). Cytochrome c release and caspase-3...... previous studies of iPLA(2)-VIA and NHE1 during cardiac I/R....

  4. Independent role based multi-leveled trust evaluation scheme%一种角色独立的多层次信任度计算方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海艳; 岳席文; 王汝传

    2011-01-01

    为设计细粒度的信任度计算方案,提高信任度计算结果的准确性,提出了角色独立的多层次信任度计算方案.通过将评价因子分为关键因子、主要因子和次要因子,实现细粒度的评价过程;利用评价权重的概念,对各次交互赋予权值,决定每次交互对信任度的影响;采用角色独立的策略,实现同一节点在作为申请方和提供方2种不同角色时具有不同的信任度.将这种信任度计算方法应用于搭建的P2P文件共享系统中,给出了文件共享系统评价值和评价权重的计算方法,以及交互评价与信任度计算流程.4种仿真攻击实验表明,该方法能够较好地区分恶意节点与正常交互节点,提高信任模型的抗恶意攻击能力.%In order to design a fine-grained trust evaluation scheme and improve the accuracy of trust evaluation result, an independent role-based multi-leveled trust evaluation scheme is presented in this paper. Evaluation factors are classified into key factors, main factors and subordinate factors so that fine-grained evaluation process is enabled. Evaluation weight is also introduced and impact of each interaction on trust evaluation is decided upon specified evaluation weight. Furthermore, for each node, trust as an applicant role and as a provider role are distinguished with independent role policy. Applying the proposed trust evaluation scheme to the establishment of P2P (peer to peer) file sharing system, calculation of evaluation value and evaluation weight is given, followed with a detailed description of the interaction and trust evaluation process. Simulation of four designed attacks demonstrates that the proposed scheme can effectively differentiate malicious nodes from normal ones and help trust model improve the ability of anti-malicious attacks.

  5. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  6. Murine Herc6 Plays a Critical Role in Protein ISGylation In Vivo and Has an ISGylation-Independent Function in Seminal Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Kei-ichiro; Hishiki, Takayuki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Abe, Takaya; Cheng, Chuyi; Yan, Ming; Fan, Jun-Bao; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Zhang, Dong-Er; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2015-05-01

    ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) to proteins is a multistep process involving interferon (IFN)-inducible UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), and ISG15 E3 ligases (E3s). Studies performed over the past several years have shown that ISGylation plays a pivotal role in the host antiviral response against certain viruses. Recent in vitro studies revealed that human Herc5 and mouse Herc6 are major ISG15 E3 ligases, respectively. However, the global function of Herc5/6 proteins in vivo still remains unclear. Here, we report generation and initial characterization of Herc6 knockout mice. Substantial reductions of ISGylation were observed in Herc6-deficient cells after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA injection of mice or IFN treatment of cells. On the other hand, Herc6-deficient cells and wild-type (WT) cells had similar responses to IFN stimulation, Sendai virus (Z strain) infection, and vesicular stomatitis virus infection. These results indicate that Herc6 does not play a critical role in antiviral defense of these viral infections in mice. Interestingly, male Herc6-deficient mice showed seminal vesicle hypertrophy. No such problem was detected in WT and ISG15 activating enzyme Ube1L-deficient mice. These results suggest that in addition to promoting protein ISGylation, Herc6 has a novel and protein ISGylation-independent function in the male reproductive system.

  7. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  8. A novel role for Mc1r in the parallel evolution of depigmentation in independent populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Gross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of degenerate characteristics remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Only recently has the identification of mutations underlying regressive phenotypes become accessible through the use of genetic analyses. Focusing on the Mexican cave tetra Astyanax mexicanus, we describe, here, an analysis of the brown mutation, which was first described in the literature nearly 40 years ago. This phenotype causes reduced melanin content, decreased melanophore number, and brownish eyes in convergent cave forms of A. mexicanus. Crosses demonstrate non-complementation of the brown phenotype in F(2 individuals derived from two independent cave populations: Pachón and the linked Yerbaniz and Japonés caves, indicating the same locus is responsible for reduced pigmentation in these fish. While the brown mutant phenotype arose prior to the fixation of albinism in Pachón cave individuals, it is unclear whether the brown mutation arose before or after the fixation of albinism in the linked Yerbaniz/Japonés caves. Using a QTL approach combined with sequence and functional analyses, we have discovered that two distinct genetic alterations in the coding sequence of the gene Mc1r cause reduced pigmentation associated with the brown mutant phenotype in these caves. Our analysis identifies a novel role for Mc1r in the evolution of degenerative phenotypes in blind Mexican cavefish. Further, the brown phenotype has arisen independently in geographically separate caves, mediated through different mutations of the same gene. This example of parallelism indicates that certain genes are frequent targets of mutation in the repeated evolution of regressive phenotypes in cave-adapted species.

  9. A novel role for Mc1r in the parallel evolution of depigmentation in independent populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B Gross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of degenerate characteristics remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Only recently has the identification of mutations underlying regressive phenotypes become accessible through the use of genetic analyses. Focusing on the Mexican cave tetra Astyanax mexicanus, we describe, here, an analysis of the brown mutation, which was first described in the literature nearly 40 years ago. This phenotype causes reduced melanin content, decreased melanophore number, and brownish eyes in convergent cave forms of A. mexicanus. Crosses demonstrate non-complementation of the brown phenotype in F(2 individuals derived from two independent cave populations: Pachón and the linked Yerbaniz and Japonés caves, indicating the same locus is responsible for reduced pigmentation in these fish. While the brown mutant phenotype arose prior to the fixation of albinism in Pachón cave individuals, it is unclear whether the brown mutation arose before or after the fixation of albinism in the linked Yerbaniz/Japonés caves. Using a QTL approach combined with sequence and functional analyses, we have discovered that two distinct genetic alterations in the coding sequence of the gene Mc1r cause reduced pigmentation associated with the brown mutant phenotype in these caves. Our analysis identifies a novel role for Mc1r in the evolution of degenerative phenotypes in blind Mexican cavefish. Further, the brown phenotype has arisen independently in geographically separate caves, mediated through different mutations of the same gene. This example of parallelism indicates that certain genes are frequent targets of mutation in the repeated evolution of regressive phenotypes in cave-adapted species.

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system has an exotoxin S/T/Y independent pathogenic role during acute lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Galle

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS is a complex nanomachine of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It forms a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the host eukaryotic cell membrane for injection of bacterial proteins that manipulate host cell signaling. However, few studies have focused on the effector-independent functions of the T3SS. Using a murine model of acute lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human opportunistic pathogen, we compared the pathogenicity of mutant bacteria that lack all of the known effector toxins ( ΔSTY, with mutant bacteria that also lack the major translocator protein PopB (ΔSTY/ΔPopB and so cannot form a functional T3SS channel in the host cell membrane. Mortality was higher among mice challenged with ΔSTY compared to mice challenged with ΔSTY/ΔPopB mutant bacteria. In addition, mice infected with ΔSTY showed decreased bacterial clearance from the lungs compared to those infected with ΔSTY/ΔPopB. Infection was in both cases associated with substantial killing of lung infiltrating macrophages. However, macrophages from ΔSTY-infected mice died by pro-inflammatory necrosis characterized by membrane permeabilization and caspase-1 mediated IL-1β production, whereas macrophages from ΔSTY/ΔPopB infected mice died by apoptosis, which is characterized by annexin V positive staining of the cell membrane and caspase-3 activation. This was confirmed in macrophages infected in vitro. These results demonstrate a T3SS effector toxin independent role for the T3SS, in particular the T3SS translocator protein PopB, in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa during acute lung infection.

  11. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Taichi [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kondo, Natsuko [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, Ibaraki Prefectual University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-mati, Inasiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus-Copernicus-University in Torun, ul. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Thompson, Larry H. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, L452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Helleday, Thomas [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Off Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Asada, Hideo [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  12. The TGF-β/Smad repressor TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury independently of a Smad signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hneino

    Full Text Available Despite advances in radiation delivery protocols, exposure of normal tissues during the course of radiation therapy remains a limiting factor of cancer treatment. If the canonical TGF-β/Smad pathway has been extensively studied and implicated in the development of radiation damage in various organs, the precise modalities of its activation following radiation exposure remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 signaling and target genes expression may depend on radiation-induced modifications in Smad transcriptional co-repressors/inhibitors expressions (TGIF1, SnoN, Ski and Smad7. In endothelial cells (HUVECs and in a model of experimental radiation enteropathy in mice, radiation exposure increases expression of TGF-β/Smad pathway and of its target gene PAI-1, together with the overexpression of Smad co-repressor TGIF1. In mice, TGIF1 deficiency is not associated with changes in the expression of radiation-induced TGF-β pathway-related transcripts following localized small intestinal irradiation. In HUVECs, TGIF1 overexpression or silencing has no influence either on the radiation-induced Smad activation or the Smad3-dependent PAI-1 overexpression. However, TGIF1 genetic deficiency sensitizes mice to radiation-induced intestinal damage after total body or localized small intestinal radiation exposure, demonstrating that TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In conclusion, the TGF-β/Smad co-repressor TGIF1 plays a role in radiation-induced normal tissue damage by a Smad-independent mechanism.

  13. The independent roles of mechanical, structural and adhesion characteristics of 3D hydrogels on the regulation of cancer invasion and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer N; Singh, Anirudha; Rothenberg, Ashley R; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Ewald, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Metastasis begins with the escape, or dissemination, of cancer cells from the primary tumor. We recently demonstrated that tumors preferentially disseminate into collagen I and not into basement membrane protein gels (Matrigel). In this study, we used synthetic polymer systems to define material properties that could induce dissemination into Matrigel. We first specifically varied rigidity by varying the crosslinking density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) networks within Matrigel scaffolds. Increased microenvironmental rigidity limited epithelial growth but did not promote dissemination. We next incorporated adhesive signals into the PEG network using peptide-conjugated cyclodextrin (α-CDYRGDS) rings. The α-CDYRGDS rings threaded along the PEG polymers, enabling independent control of matrix mechanics, adhesive peptide composition, and adhesive density. Adhesive PEG networks induced dissemination of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells at intermediate values of adhesion and rigidity. Our data reveal that microenvironmental signals can induce dissemination of normal and malignant epithelial cells without requiring the fibrillar structure of collagen I or containing collagen I-specific adhesion sequences. Finally, the nanobiomaterials and assays developed in this study are generally useful both in 3D culture of primary mammalian tissues and in the systematic evaluation of the specific role of mechanical and adhesive inputs on 3D tumor growth, invasion, and dissemination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Independent School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, E. Laurence

    This book deals with the management of privately supported schools and offers guidelines on how these schools might be operated more effectively and economically. The discussions and conclusions are based on observations and data from case studies of independent school operations. The subjects discussed include the role and organization of…

  15. Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics,Randall Laboratory of Physics, The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastián,Colima 28045 (Mexico)

    2015-01-21

    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  16. Spontaneous CP Violation in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the pattern of CP violation in \\Kd, \\Bd and \\Bs mixing in a symmetrical \\model model with spontaneous CP violation. Performing a careful analysis of all relevant restrictions on the model's parameters from $\\Delta M_K$, $\\Delta M_{B_d}$, $\\Delta M_{B_s}$, $\\epsilon_K$, the sign of \\ee and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in \\goldd, we find that the mass of the right-handed charged gauge-boson, $M_2$, is restricted to be in the range 2.75 to 13$ $TeV, and that the mass of the flavour-changing neutral-Higgs bosons, $M_H$, must be between 10.2 to 14.6$ $TeV. We also find that the model, although still compatible with present experimental data, cannot accomodate the SM prediction of large CP violation in \\goldd, but, on the other hand, predicts a large CP-asymmetry of ${\\cal O}(40%)$ in \\golds. These specific predictions make it possible to submit the model to a scrupulous test at B factories and hadron colliders.

  17. $\\lambda$-deformations of left-right asymmetric CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, George; Siampos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    We compute the all-loop anomalous dimensions of current and primary field operators in deformed current algebra theories based on a general semi-simple group, but with different (large) levels for the left and right sectors. These theories, unlike their equal level counterparts, possess a new non-trivial fixed point in the IR. By computing the exact in $\\lambda$ two- and three-point functions for these operators we deduce their OPEs and their equal-time commutators. Using these we argue on the nature of the CFT at the IR fixed point. The associated to the currents Poisson brackets are a two-parameter deformation of the canonical structure of the isotropic PCM.

  18. Characteristics of Left-Right Spiral Hollow Cylindrical Roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Lu; Qiping Chen; Yujiang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Based on new rolling⁃sliding compound bearings, the wear between the one⁃way spiral hollow cylindrical roller and the ribs of the inner and outer ring of rolling⁃sliding compound bearings is reduced by innovational structural design. A new left⁃right spiral hollow cylindrical roller is proposed to replace the one⁃way spiral hollow cylindrical roller. The finite element analysis models of ordinary cylindrical rollers, one⁃way spiral hollow cylindrical rollers and left⁃right spiral hollow cylindrical rollers are respectively established by ABAQUS. The axial displacement of their center mass and the stress distribution of left⁃right spiral hollow cylindrical rollers are compared and analyzed. Theoretical study results show that this new left⁃right spiral hollow cylindrical roller not only inherits the advantages of one⁃way spiral hollow cylindrical rollers, but also avoids the axial offset and the serious wear of the one⁃way spiral hollow cylindrical roller. And the theory research conclusion is verified by the experiment. The left⁃right spiral hollow cylindrical roller has the advantages to overcome boundary stress concentration like logarithmic convex roller. The rolling⁃sliding compound bearings equipped with the new rollers can be better to adapt to the impact of vibration load.

  19. λ-Deformations of left-right asymmetric CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Siampos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    We compute the all-loop anomalous dimensions of current and primary field operators in deformed current algebra theories based on a general semi-simple group, but with different (large) levels for the left and right sectors. These theories, unlike their equal level counterparts, possess a new non-trivial fixed point in the IR. By computing the exact in λ two- and three-point functions for these operators we deduce their OPEs and their equal-time commutators. Using these we argue on the nature of the CFT at the IR fixed point. The associated to the currents Poisson brackets are a two-parameter deformation of the canonical structure of the isotropic PCM.

  20. Left-Right Entanglement Entropy of Boundary States

    CERN Document Server

    Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal gas of photons. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  1. The phenotype of many independently isolated +1 frameshift suppressor mutants supports a pivotal role of the P-site in reading frame maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kristina; Björk, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The main features of translation are similar in all organisms on this planet and one important feature of it is the way the ribosome maintain the reading frame. We have earlier characterized several bacterial mutants defective in tRNA maturation and found that some of them correct a +1 frameshift mutation; i.e. such mutants possess an error in reading frame maintenance. Based on the analysis of the frameshifting phenotype of such mutants we proposed a pivotal role of the ribosomal grip of the peptidyl-tRNA to maintain the correct reading frame. To test the model in an unbiased way we first isolated many (467) independent mutants able to correct a +1 frameshift mutation and thereafter tested whether or not their frameshifting phenotypes were consistent with the model. These 467+1 frameshift suppressor mutants had alterations in 16 different loci of which 15 induced a defective tRNA by hypo- or hypermodifications or altering its primary sequence. All these alterations of tRNAs induce a frameshift error in the P-site to correct a +1 frameshift mutation consistent with the proposed model. Modifications next to and 3' of the anticodon (position 37), like 1-methylguanosine, are important for proper reading frame maintenance due to their interactions with components of the ribosomal P-site. Interestingly, two mutants had a defect in a locus (rpsI), which encodes ribosomal protein S9. The C-terminal of this protein contacts position 32-34 of the peptidyl-tRNA and is thus part of the P-site environment. The two rpsI mutants had a C-terminal truncated ribosomal protein S9 that destroys its interaction with the peptidyl-tRNA resulting in +1 shift in the reading frame. The isolation and characterization of the S9 mutants gave strong support of our model that the ribosomal grip of the peptidyl-tRNA is pivotal for the reading frame maintenance.

  2. HL-1 mouse cardiomyocyte injury and death after simulated ischemia and reperfusion: roles of pH, Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, and Na+/H+ exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ann-Dorit; Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine Falsig

    2009-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) VI (iPLA(2)-VI) and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) are highly pH-sensitive proteins that exert both protective and detrimental effects in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. Here, we investigated the role of extracellular pH (pH(o)) in ischemia-reperfusion injury and death and in regulation and function of iPLA(2)-VI and NHE1 under these conditions. HL-1 cardiomyocytes were exposed to simulated ischemia (SI; 0.5% O(2), 8 mM K(+), and 20 mM lactate) at pH(o) 6.0 and 7.4, with or without 4 or 8 h of reperfusion (SI/R). Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation were reduced after acidic compared with neutral SI, whereas necrotic death, estimated as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase release, was similar in the two conditions. Inhibition of iPLA(2)-VI activity by bromoenol lactone (BEL) elicited cardiomyocyte necrosis during normoxia and after acidic, yet not after neutral, SI. The isoform-selective enantiomers R- and S-BEL both mimicked the effect of racemic BEL after acidic SI. In contrast, inhibition of NHE activity by EIPA had no significant effect on necrosis after SI. Both neutral and acidic SI were associated with a reversible loss of F-actin and cortactin integrity. Inhibition of iPLA(2)-VI disrupted F-actin, cortactin, and mitochondrial integrity, whereas inhibition of NHE slightly reduced stress fiber content. iPLA(2)-VIA and NHE1 mRNA levels were reduced during SI and upregulated in a pH(o)-dependent manner during SI/R. This also affected the subcellular localization of iPLA(2)-VIA. Thus, the mode of cell death and the roles and regulation of iPLA(2)-VI and NHE1 are at least in part determined by the pH(o) during SI. In addition to having clinically relevant implications, these findings can in part explain the contradictory results obtained from previous studies of iPLA(2)-VIA and NHE1 during cardiac I/R.

  3. cAMP-independent dilation of coronary arterioles to adenosine : role of nitric oxide, G proteins, and K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T W; Kuo, L

    1999-10-01

    Adenosine is known to play an important role in the regulation of coronary blood flow during metabolic stress. However, there is sparse information on the mechanism of adenosine-induced dilation at the microcirculatory levels. In the present study, we examined the role of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), G proteins, cyclic nucleotides, and potassium channels in coronary arteriolar dilation to adenosine. Pig subepicardial coronary arterioles (50 to 100 microm in diameter) were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized to 60 cm H(2)O without flow for in vitro study. The arterioles developed basal tone and dilated dose dependently to adenosine. Disruption of endothelium, blocking of endothelial ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels by glibenclamide, and inhibition of NO synthase by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and of soluble guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one produced identical attenuation of vasodilation to adenosine. Combined administration of these inhibitors did not further attenuate the vasodilatory response. Production of NO from coronary arterioles was significantly increased by adenosine. Pertussis toxin, but not cholera toxin, significantly inhibited vasodilation to adenosine, and this inhibitory effect was only evident in vessels with an intact endothelium. Tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, and a high concentration of extraluminal KCl abolished vasodilation of denuded vessels to adenosine; however, inhibition of calcium-activated potassium channels by iberiotoxin had no effect on this dilation. Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, a cAMP antagonist, inhibited vasodilation to cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP but failed to block adenosine-induced dilation. Furthermore, vasodilations to 8-Br-cAMP and sodium nitroprusside were not inhibited by glibenclamide, indicating that cAMP- and cGMP-induced dilations are not mediated by the activation of K(ATP) channels. These results suggest that adenosine activates both endothelial and smooth muscle pathways to exert

  4. The role of independent motion in object segmentation in the ventral visual stream: Learning to recognise the separate parts of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, I V; Stringer, S M

    2011-03-25

    This paper investigates how the visual areas of the brain may learn to segment the bodies of humans and other animals into separate parts. A neural network model of the ventral visual pathway, VisNet, was used to study this problem. In particular, the current work investigates whether independent motion of body parts can be sufficient to enable the visual system to learn separate representations of them even when the body parts are never seen in isolation. The network was shown to be able to separate out the independently moving body parts because the independent motion created statistical decoupling between them.

  5. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithurbide, Solenne; Bentchikou, Esma; Coste, Geneviève; Bost, Bruno; Servant, Pascale; Sommer, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA) pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO-) independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  6. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solenne Ithurbide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO- independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  7. The phenotype of many independently isolated +1 frameshift suppressor mutants supports a pivotal role of the P-site in reading frame maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Jäger

    Full Text Available The main features of translation are similar in all organisms on this planet and one important feature of it is the way the ribosome maintain the reading frame. We have earlier characterized several bacterial mutants defective in tRNA maturation and found that some of them correct a +1 frameshift mutation; i.e. such mutants possess an error in reading frame maintenance. Based on the analysis of the frameshifting phenotype of such mutants we proposed a pivotal role of the ribosomal grip of the peptidyl-tRNA to maintain the correct reading frame. To test the model in an unbiased way we first isolated many (467 independent mutants able to correct a +1 frameshift mutation and thereafter tested whether or not their frameshifting phenotypes were consistent with the model. These 467+1 frameshift suppressor mutants had alterations in 16 different loci of which 15 induced a defective tRNA by hypo- or hypermodifications or altering its primary sequence. All these alterations of tRNAs induce a frameshift error in the P-site to correct a +1 frameshift mutation consistent with the proposed model. Modifications next to and 3' of the anticodon (position 37, like 1-methylguanosine, are important for proper reading frame maintenance due to their interactions with components of the ribosomal P-site. Interestingly, two mutants had a defect in a locus (rpsI, which encodes ribosomal protein S9. The C-terminal of this protein contacts position 32-34 of the peptidyl-tRNA and is thus part of the P-site environment. The two rpsI mutants had a C-terminal truncated ribosomal protein S9 that destroys its interaction with the peptidyl-tRNA resulting in +1 shift in the reading frame. The isolation and characterization of the S9 mutants gave strong support of our model that the ribosomal grip of the peptidyl-tRNA is pivotal for the reading frame maintenance.

  8. Neuropeptide-induced androgen independence in prostate cancer cells: roles of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Etk/Bmx, Src, and focal adhesion kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L F; Guan, J; Qiu, Y; Kung, H J

    2001-12-01

    The bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) family of neuropeptides has been implicated in various in vitro and in vivo models of human malignancies including prostate cancers. It was previously shown that bombesin and/or neurotensin (NT) acts as a survival and migratory factor(s) for androgen-independent prostate cancers. However, a role in the transition from an androgen-dependent to -refractory state has not been addressed. In this study, we investigate the biological effects and signal pathways of bombesin and NT on LNCaP, a prostate cancer cell line which requires androgen for growth. We show that both neurotrophic factors can induce LNCaP growth in the absence of androgen. Concurrent transactivation of reporter genes driven by the prostate-specific antigen promoter or a promoter carrying an androgen-responsive element (ARE) indicate that growth stimulation is accompanied by androgen receptor (AR) activation. Furthermore, neurotrophic factor-induced gene activation was also present in PC3 cells transfected with the AR but not in the parental line which lacks the AR. Given that bombesin does not directly bind to the AR and is known to engage a G-protein-coupled receptor, we investigated downstream signaling events that could possibly interact with the AR pathway. We found that three nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, and Etk/BMX play important parts in this process. Etk/Bmx activation requires FAK and Src and is critical for neurotrophic factor-induced growth, as LNCaP cells transfected with a dominant-negative Etk/BMX fail to respond to bombesin. Etk's activation requires FAK, Src, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Likewise, bombesin-induced AR activation is inhibited by the dominant-negative mutant of either Src or FAK. Thus, in addition to defining a new G-protein pathway, this report makes the following points regarding prostate cancer. (i) Neurotrophic factors can activate the AR, thus circumventing the normal growth

  9. Exploring the role of need for cognition, field independence and locus of control on the incidence of lucid dreams during a 12 week induction study

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, David; Clegg, Helen; Roe, Chris A; Smith, G. D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of two proposed theories, the predispositional and experiential, regarding the association of personality variables to lucid dreaming incidence during a 12-week lucid dreaming induction programme. The study found no differences between those who did and did not report lucid dreams during the programme on baseline measures of Field Independence, Locus of Control or Need for Cognition. There was an observed significant change towards a Field Independent ori...

  10. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities Asociación entre roles ocupacionales, independencia, tecnología de apoyo y poder adquisitivo en sujetos con deficiencia física Associação entre papéis ocupacionais, independência, tecnologia assistiva e poder aquisitivo em sujeitos com deficiência física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marinho Cezar da Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. METHOD: 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. RESULTS: an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. CONCLUSION: even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities. OBJETIVO: el propósito fue verificar si existe asociación entre los roles ocupacionales, la independencia en Actividades de la Vida Diaria, el poder adquisitivo y la tecnología de apoyo en sujetos con deficiencias físicas. MÉTODO: participaron 91 sujetos con deficiencia física. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Lista de Identificación de Roles Ocupacionales, Criterio de Clasificación Económica Brasil, Índice de Barthel y un Formulario de caracterización de los sujetos. RESULTADOS: fue identificada asociación entre un mayor número de roles en los sujetos y mayor independencia y menor número de tecnologías utilizadas. Las clases de mayor poder adquisitivo mostraron asociación con menor status funcional de dependencia. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque la tecnología no estuviera asociada directamente con la independencia, esta última mostró asociación con mayor número de roles

  11. Single strand annealing and ATP-independent strand exchange activities of yeast and human DNA2: possible role in Okazaki fragment maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda-Sasa, Taro; Polaczek, Piotr; Campbell, Judith L

    2006-12-15

    The Dna2 protein is a multifunctional enzyme with 5'-3' DNA helicase, DNA-dependent ATPase, 3' exo/endonuclease, and 5' exo/endonuclease. The enzyme is highly specific for structures containing single-stranded flaps adjacent to duplex regions. We report here two novel activities of both the yeast and human Dna2 helicase/nuclease protein: single strand annealing and ATP-independent strand exchange on short duplexes. These activities are independent of ATPase/helicase and nuclease activities in that mutations eliminating either nuclease or ATPase/helicase do not inhibit strand annealing or strand exchange. ATP inhibits strand exchange. A model rationalizing the multiple catalytic functions of Dna2 and leading to its coordination with other enzymes in processing single-stranded flaps during DNA replication and repair is presented.

  12. Identification of a Survival-independent Metastasis-enhancing Role of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1  with a Hypoxia-tolerant Tumor Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During tumor progression, malignant cells must repeatedly survive microenvironmental stress. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling has emerged as one major pathway allowing cellular adaptation to stress. Recent findings led to the hypothesis that HIF-1α may enhance the metastatic potential of tumor cells by a survival-independent mechanism. So far it has not been shown that HIF-1α also directly regulates invasive processes during metastasis in addition to conferring a survival advantag...

  13. Employee Reviews on Company Independent Sites and its Impact on Organizational Attractiveness: Role of Information Realism, Person – Environment Fit and Source Credibility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavleen Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on recruitment has focused on the traditional sources of recruitment like company brochures, career fairs, and impact of such sources on intent to join the organization, productivity and turnover intention. The influence of recruitment related information on pre hire outcomes is still scarce and inconclusive. With the advent of technology and access to Internet, company websites have become an important source of recruitment. Apart from company websites, job seekers are now using company independent websites, forums or online communities to gather a more truthful picture and information about the job and organizational attributes. Social media too has become increasingly important medium where the current employees’ share how it is to work with the organization However research on web based recruitment is limited to company websites. Despite the widespread growth and practical use of these new and innovative media very little is known about how these independent sites influence recruitment pre hire outcomes. In this direction the proposed study presents a conceptual framework about how job seekers perceive company independent websites as a tool for providing recruitment communication and their impact on organizational attractiveness using Information Realism, Person-Environment fit framework, Source Credibility framework.

  14. Role of metalloproteases in vaccinia virus epitope processing for transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B7 class I antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-03-23

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8(+) lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8(+) T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections.

  15. The role of biofilms in persistent infections and factors involved in ica-independent biofilm development and gene regulation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira, Fabienne Antunes; Beltrame, Cristiana Ossaille; Côrtes, Marina Farrel

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus biofilms represent a unique micro-environment that directly contribute to the bacterial fitness within hospital settings. The accumulation of this structure on implanted medical devices has frequently caused the development of persistent and chronic S. aureus-associated infections, which represent an important social and economic burden worldwide. ica-independent biofilms are composed of an assortment of bacterial products and modulated by a multifaceted and overlapping regulatory network; therefore, biofilm composition can vary among S. aureus strains. In the microniches formed by biofilms-produced by a number of bacterial species and composed by different structural components-drug refractory cell subpopulations with distinct physiological characteristics can emerge and result in therapeutic failures in patients with recalcitrant bacterial infections. In this review, we highlight the importance of biofilms in the development of persistence and chronicity in some S. aureus diseases, the main molecules associated with ica-independent biofilm development and the regulatory mechanisms that modulate ica-independent biofilm production, accumulation, and dispersion.

  16. 听障儿童角色游戏中自主性指导策略研究%Strategies for Improving the Independence of Hearing-impaired Children in Role Plays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳丽

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨增加听障儿童角色游戏自主参与时间,发展交往能力的策略。方法以56名4~5岁听障儿童为研究对象,观察、记录调整干预指导策略前后其在角色游戏中自主参与游戏时间的变化,采用SPSS 19.0软件对两次数据进行配对样本t检验。结果指导策略调整前后,教师在角色游戏中介入的时间具有极其显著性差异(P=0.00);听障儿童在角色游戏中自主游戏的时间发生了极其显著的改变(P=0.00)。结论调整角色游戏指导策略是提高听障儿童角色游戏自主性的有效方法,教师要缩短对儿童游戏的控制时间,引导儿童自主组织、实施和评价游戏。%Objective To explore the strategies to increase the independent participation time in role plays and to develop the communication skills of hearing-impaired children. Methods A total of 56 hearing-impaired children aged 4-5 were included in this study. The independent participation time in role plays were recorded before and after adjusting the instruction strategies. The results were compared and analyzed with paired sample t-test using SPSS 19.0 software. Results There were significant differences before and after adjusting the strategies in the time of teachers’ involvement in role plays(P=0.00). There were extremely significant differences in the time when children independently led the process of role plays(P=0.00). Conclusion Adjusting organizing strategies is an effective way to enhance the independence of hearing-impaired children in role plays. The teachers need to reduce their control over games and instruct children to organize, conduct and evaluate games independently.

  17. Rottlerin induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death through a PKC-delta-independent pathway in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells: the protective role of autophagy in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Kim, Young-Rae; Seo, Kang-Sik; Park, Ji-Hoon; Jung, Yeon-Joo; Park, Jong-Il; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Lim, Kyu; Hwang, Byung-Doo

    2008-07-01

    Rottlerin is widely used as a protein kinase C-delta inhibitor. Recently, several reports have shown the possible apoptosis-inducing effect of rottlerin in some cancer cell lines. Here we report that rottlerin induces not only apoptosis but also autophagy via a PKC-delta-independent pathway in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Rottlerin treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth, and cytoplasmic vacuolations were markedly shown. These vacuoles were identified as acidic autolysosomes by electron microscopy, acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) staining and transfection of green fluorescent protein-LC3. The LC3-II protein level also increased after treatment with rottlerin. Prolonged exposure to rottlerin eventually caused apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus. However, the activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were not changed, and PARP did not show signs of cleavage. Interestingly, the pretreatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of autophagy (3-methyladenine) accelerated rottlerin-induced apoptosis as revealed by an analysis of the subdiploid fraction and TUNEL assay. Nevertheless, the knockdown of PKC-delta by RNA interference neither affected cell growth nor acidic vacuole formation. Similarly, rottlerin-induced cell death was not prevented by PKC-delta overexpression. Taken together, these findings suggest that rottlerin induces early autophagy and late apoptosis in a PKC-delta-independent manner, and the rottlerin-induced early autophagy may act as a survival mechanism against late apoptosis in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.

  18. Distinct roles of autophagy-dependent and -independent functions of FIP200 revealed by generation and analysis of a mutant knock-in mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Song; Wang, Chenran; Yeo, Syn; Liang, Chun-Chi; Okamoto, Takako; Sun, Shaogang; Wen, Jian; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chen et al. generated a FIP200-4A mutant knock-in mouse model and found that specifically blocking FIP200 interaction with Atg13 abolishes autophagy in vivo. Analysis of the new mouse model showed that nonautophagic functions of FIP200 are sufficient to fully support embryogenesis by maintaining a protective role in TNFα-induced apoptosis. However, FIP200-mediated canonical autophagy is required to support neonatal survival and tumor cell growth.

  19. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Advances in Dyslexia Genetics-New Insights Into the Role of Brain Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracchini, S; Diaz, R; Stein, J

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a common condition affecting up to 10% school-aged children. There is strong evidence that genetics plays an important role in dyslexia and is expected to be complex in nature. Few specific susceptibility factors have been identified so far, but their functional characterization has provided novel insights into the biology of dyslexia. In particular, they point to an unexpected role of candidate genes for dyslexia in the biology of cilia, cellular organelles required in many processes including the establishment of left-right asymmetries early in development. This observation has brought back into the spotlight the old idea of a link between dyslexia and handedness. Yet much of the genetics contributing to dyslexia remains unexplained. The lack of biological markers, clear diagnostic criteria, and homogeneous assessment strategies are just some of the factors preventing the collection of the cohorts powered enough for large-scale genetic studies. While the technology and methods to generate and handle large-scale data have reached unprecedented potential, the main challenge remains in establishing universal guidelines to collect suitable phenotype information across independent studies. These difficulties reflect the complex nature of dyslexia which is highly heterogeneous and often co-occurs with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health.

  2. Independent Losses of Function in a Polyphenol Oxidase in Rice: Differentiation in Grain Discoloration between Subspecies and the Role of Positive Selection under Domestication[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchun; Tang, Tian; Qian, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Yan, Meixian; Zeng, Dali; Han, Bin; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Li, Jiayang

    2008-01-01

    Asian rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars originated from wild rice and can be divided into two subspecies by several criteria, one of which is the phenol reaction (PHR) phenotype. Grains of indica cultivars turn brown in a phenol solution that accelerates a similar process that occurs during prolonged storage. By contrast, the grains of japonica do not discolor. This distinction may reflect the divergent domestication of these two subspecies. The PHR is controlled by a single gene, Phr1; here, we report the cloning of Phr1, which encodes a polyphenol oxidase. The Phr1 gene is indeed responsible for the PHR phenotype, as transformation with a functional Phr1 can complement a PHR negative cultivar. Phr1 is defective in all japonica lines but functional in nearly all indica and wild strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the defects in Phr1 arose independently three times. The multiple recent origins and rapid spread of phr1 in japonica suggest the action of positive selection, which is further supported by several population genetic tests. This case may hence represent an example of artificial selection driving the differentiation among domesticated varieties. PMID:19033526

  3. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  4. Severe Zinc Depletion of Escherichia coli: ROLES FOR HIGH AFFINITY ZINC BINDING BY ZinT, ZINC TRANSPORT AND ZINC-INDEPENDENT PROTEINS*

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, A.I.; Hunt, S; Stokes, S.L.; Bramall, N.; Bunch, J.; Cox, A G; McLeod, C.W.; Poole, R K

    2009-01-01

    Zinc ions play indispensable roles in biological chemistry. However, bacteria have an impressive ability to acquire Zn2+ from the environment, making it exceptionally difficult to achieve Zn2+ deficiency, and so a comprehensive understanding of the importance of Zn2+ has not been attained. Reduction of the Zn2+ content of Escherichia coli growth medium to 60 nM or less is reported here for the first time, without recourse to chelators of poor specificity. Cells grown in Zn2+-deficient medium ...

  5. The progestin levonorgestrel induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rabbit jugular vein via inhibition of calcium entry and protein kinase C: role of cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkert, Olaf; Kuhl, Herbert; Busse, Rudi; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2000-01-01

    The progestin and oestrogen component of oral contraceptives have been involved in the development of venous thromboembolic events in women. In the present study we determined the vasoactive effects of sex steroids used in oral contraceptives in isolated preconstricted rabbit jugular veins in the presence of diclofenac and examined the underlying mechanisms.The natural hormone progesterone, the synthetic progestins levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel, gestodene and chlormadinone acetate, and the synthetic estrogen 17 α-ethinyloestradiol induced concentration-dependent relaxations of endothelium-intact veins constricted with U46619. Levonorgestrel also inhibited constrictions evoked by either a high potassium (K+) solution or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the absence and presence of extracellular calcium (Ca2+). In addition, levonorgestrel depressed contractions evoked by Ca2+ and reduced 45Ca2+ influx in depolarized veins.Relaxations to levonorgestrel in U46619-constricted veins were neither affected by the presence of the endothelium nor by the inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, NS2028, but were significantly improved either by the selective cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or in the absence of diclofenac, and decreased by the protein kinase A inhibitor, Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. Rolipram also potentiated relaxations to levonorgestrel in PMA-constricted veins in the presence, but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Levonorgestrel increased levels of cyclic AMP and inhibited PMA-induced activation of protein kinase C in veins.These findings indicate that levonorgestrel caused endothelium-independent relaxations of jugular veins via inhibition of Ca2+ entry and of protein kinase C activation. In addition, the cyclic AMP effector pathway contributes to the levonorgestrel-induced relaxation possibly by depressing Ca2+ entry. PMID:10952682

  6. Women's empowerment and contraceptive use: the role of independent versus couples' decision-making, from a lower middle income country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined--and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with

  7. Women's empowerment and contraceptive use: the role of independent versus couples' decision-making, from a lower middle income country perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Hameed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined--and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15-49 years in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR, to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. RESULTS: Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. CONCLUSION: Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to

  8. Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate

  9. The role of P2X7 receptor in ATP-mediated human leukemia cell death:calcium influx-independent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujun Zhang; Lijun Meng; Baoling He; Jing Chen; Peng Liu; Jie Zhao; Yufen Zhang; Ming Li; Dong An

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor leads to a rapid,bidirectional flux of cations, causing broad range of hiological responses including cytotoxicity.However,the mechanism of P2X7-mediated cytotoxicity remains largely unexplored.In our previous study,the lack of P2X7-mediated calcium response under normal conditions was found in P2X7+ hematopoietic cell lines.In this study, the P2X7-mediated cytotoxicity in different type of cells(P2X7-,P2X7+ with calcium response,and P2X7+ without calcium response)was investigated.Our results showed that P2X7 agonists, adenosine 5'-triphosphate(ATP)or 2'+3'-O-(4 benzoylbenzoyl)ATP,dose-dependently reduced the cell viability in all P2X7+ cells tested,including J6-1,LCL,and Namalva cells which are negative for P2X7-mediated calcium response, although these effects were lower than those observed in KG1a cells which has normal P2X7 functions.The cytotoxic effect could be blocked by P2X7antagonists, oxidized ATP and 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine.In addition,externalization of phosphatidylserine could be detected in a time-dependent manner and apoptotic morphological changes Could be observed after the activation of P2X7 receptor in J6-1 cells.Furthermore,P2X7-mediated pore formation could be detected in KG1a and J6-1 cells under low-ionic conditions,but not under low-divalent conditions.These effects could not be observed in P2X7-Ramos cells.These results suggested that P2X7 receptor-mediated cytotoxic effects may occur independent of calcium response.

  10. The two tryptophans of β2-microglobulin have distinct roles in function and folding and might represent two independent responses to evolutionary pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monti Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently discovered that the two tryptophans of human β2-microglobulin have distinctive roles within the structure and function of the protein. Deeply buried in the core, Trp95 is essential for folding stability, whereas Trp60, which is solvent-exposed, plays a crucial role in promoting the binding of β2-microglobulin to the heavy chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI. We have previously shown that the thermodynamic disadvantage of having Trp60 exposed on the surface is counter-balanced by the perfect fit between it and a cavity within the MHCI heavy chain that contributes significantly to the functional stabilization of the MHCI. Therefore, based on the peculiar differences of the two tryptophans, we have analysed the evolution of β2-microglobulin with respect to these residues. Results Having defined the β2-microglobulin protein family, we performed multiple sequence alignments and analysed the residue conservation in homologous proteins to generate a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that Trp60 is highly conserved, whereas some species have a Leu in position 95; the replacement of Trp95 with Leu destabilizes β2-microglobulin by 1 kcal/mol and accelerates the kinetics of unfolding. Both thermodynamic and kinetic data fit with the crystallographic structure of the Trp95Leu variant, which shows how the hydrophobic cavity of the wild-type protein is completely occupied by Trp95, but is only half filled by Leu95. Conclusions We have established that the functional Trp60 has been present within the sequence of β2-microglobulin since the evolutionary appearance of proteins responsible for acquired immunity, whereas the structural Trp95 was selected and stabilized, most likely, for its capacity to fully occupy an internal cavity of the protein thereby creating a better stabilization of its folded state.

  11. Comparative Assessment of the Prognostic Value of Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury Reveals an Independent Role for Serum Levels of Neurofilament Light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiez Al Nimer

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a common cause of death and disability, worldwide. Early determination of injury severity is essential to improve care. Neurofilament light (NF-L has been introduced as a marker of neuroaxonal injury in neuroinflammatory/-degenerative diseases. In this study we determined the predictive power of serum (s- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF- NF-L levels towards outcome, and explored their potential correlation to diffuse axonal injury (DAI. A total of 182 patients suffering from TBI admitted to the neurointensive care unit at a level 1 trauma center were included. S-NF-L levels were acquired, together with S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE. CSF-NF-L was measured in a subcohort (n = 84 with ventriculostomies. Clinical and neuro-radiological parameters, including computerized tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging, were included in the analyses. Outcome was assessed 6 to 12 months after injury using the Glasgow Outcome Score (1-5. In univariate proportional odds analyses mean s-NF-L, -S100B and -NSE levels presented a pseudo-R2 Nagelkerke of 0.062, 0.214 and 0.074 in correlation to outcome, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, in addition to a model including core parameters (pseudo-R2 0.33 towards outcome; Age, Glasgow Coma Scale, pupil response, Stockholm CT score, abbreviated injury severity score, S100B, S-NF-L yielded an extra 0.023 pseudo-R2 and a significantly better model (p = 0.006 No correlation between DAI or CT assessed-intracranial damage and NF-L was found. Our study thus demonstrates that S-NF-L correlates to TBI outcome, even if used in models with S100B, indicating an independent contribution to the prediction, perhaps by reflecting different pathophysiological processes, not possible to monitor using conventional neuroradiology. Although we did not find a predictive value of NF-L for DAI, this cannot be completely excluded. We suggest further studies, with volume quantification of axonal

  12. Roles for the E4 orf6, orf3, and E1B 55-kilodalton proteins in cell cycle-independent adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, F D; Ornelles, D A

    1999-09-01

    Adenoviruses bearing lesions in the E1B 55-kDa protein (E1B 55-kDa) gene are restricted by the cell cycle such that mutant virus growth is most impaired in cells infected during G(1) and least restricted in cells infected during S phase (F. D. Goodrum and D. A. Ornelles, J. Virol. 71:548-561, 1997). A similar defect is reported here for E4 orf6-mutant viruses. An E4 orf3-mutant virus was not restricted for growth by the cell cycle. However, orf3 was required for enhanced growth of an E4 orf6-mutant virus in cells infected during S phase. The cell cycle restriction may be linked to virus-mediated mRNA transport because both E1B 55-kDa- and E4 orf6-mutant viruses are defective at regulating mRNA transport at late times of infection. Accordingly, the cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of late viral mRNA was reduced in G(1) cells infected with the mutant viruses compared to that in G(1) cells infected with the wild-type virus. By contrast, this ratio was equivalent among cells infected during S phase with the wild-type or mutant viruses. Furthermore, cells infected during S phase with the E1B 55-kDa- or E4 orf6-mutant viruses synthesized more late viral protein than did cells infected during G(1). However, the total amount of cytoplasmic late viral mRNA was greater in cells infected during G(1) than in cells infected during S phase with either the wild-type or mutant viruses, indicating that enhanced transport of viral mRNA in cells infected during S phase cannot account for the difference in yields in cells infected during S phase and in cells infected during G(1). Thus, additional factors affect the cell cycle restriction. These results indicate that the E4 orf6 and orf3 proteins, in addition to the E1B 55-kDa protein, may cooperate to promote cell cycle-independent adenovirus growth.

  13. Reticulate leaves and stunted roots are independent phenotypes pointing at opposite roles of the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator defective in cue1 in the plastids of both organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eStaehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP serves not only as a high energy carbon compound in glycolysis, but it acts also as precursor for plastidial anabolic sequences like the shikimate pathway, which produces aromatic amino acids (AAA and subsequently secondary plant products. After conversion to pyruvate, PEP can also enter de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids, and the non-mevalonate way of isoprenoid production. As PEP cannot be generated by glycolysis in chloroplasts and a variety of non-green plastids, it has to be imported from the cytosol by a phosphate translocator (PT specific for PEP (PPT. A loss of function of PPT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the chlorophyll a/b binding protein underexpressed1 (cue1 mutant, which is characterised by reticulate leaves and stunted roots. Here we dissect the shoot- and root phenotypes, and also address the question whether or not long distance signalling by metabolites is involved in the perturbed mesophyll development of cue1. Reverse grafting experiments showed that the shoot- and root phenotypes develop independently from each other, ruling out long distance metabolite signalling. The leaf phenotype could be transiently modified even in mature leaves, e.g. by an inducible PPT1RNAi approach or by feeding aromatic amino acids (AAA, the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ, or the putative signalling molecule dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG. Hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid did not rescue the cue1 leaf phenotype. The low cell density1 (lcd1 mutant shares the reticulate leaf-, but not the stunted root phenotype with cue1. It could neither be rescued by AAA nor by tZ. In contrast, tZ and AAA further inhibited root growth both in cue1 and wild-type plants. Based on our results, we propose a model that PPT1 acts as a net importer of PEP into chloroplast, but as an overflow valve and hence exporter in

  14. Analysis of natural variants of the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site reveals that primary sequence plays a key role in cap-independent translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría, María Inés; González, Angel; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; León, Ursula; Vollrath, Valeska; Marsac, Delphine; Monasterio, Octavio; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; Soza, Alejandro; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES) spans a region of ∼340 nt that encompasses most of the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the viral mRNA and the first 24–40 nt of the core-coding region. To investigate the implication of altering the primary sequence of the 5′UTR on IRES activity, naturally occurring variants of the 5′UTR were isolated from clinical samples and analyzed. The impact of the identified mutations on translation was evaluated in the context of RLuc/FLuc bicistronic RNAs. Results show that depending on their location within the RNA structure, these naturally occurring mutations cause a range of effects on IRES activity. However, mutations within subdomain IIId hinder HCV IRES-mediated translation. In an attempt to explain these data, the dynamic behavior of the subdomain IIId was analyzed by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Despite the loss of function, MD simulations predicted that mutant G266A/G268U possesses a structure similar to the wt-RNA. This prediction was validated by analyzing the secondary structure of the isolated IIId RNAs by circular dichroism spectroscopy in the presence or absence of Mg2+ ions. These data strongly suggest that the primary sequence of subdomain IIId plays a key role in HCV IRES-mediated translation. PMID:19106142

  15. Poly(ADP-ribosylation acts in the DNA demethylation of mouse primordial germ cells also with DNA damage-independent roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ciccarone

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribosylation regulates chromatin structure and transcription driving epigenetic events. In particular, Parp1 is able to directly influence DNA methylation patterns controlling transcription and activity of Dnmt1. Here, we show that ADP-ribose polymer levels and Parp1 expression are noticeably high in mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs when the bulk of DNA demethylation occurs during germline epigenetic reprogramming in the embryo. Notably, Parp1 activity is stimulated in PGCs even before its participation in the DNA damage response associated with active DNA demethylation. We demonstrate that PARP inhibition impairs both genome-wide and locus-specific DNA methylation erasure in PGCs. Moreover, we evidence that impairment of PARP activity causes a significant reduction of expression of the gene coding for Tet1 hydroxylases involved in active DNA demethylation. Taken together these results demonstrate new and adjuvant roles of poly(ADP-ribosylation during germline DNA demethylation and suggest its possible more general involvement in genome reprogramming.

  16. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  17. Independent candidates in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Gonzalo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of independent candidates in Mexico, because through the so-called political reform of 2012 was incorporated in the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States the right of citizens to be registered as independent candidates. Also, in September 2013 was carried out a reform of Article 116 of the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States in order to allow independent candidates in each state of the Republic. However, prior to the constitutio...

  18. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  19. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  20. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  1. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  2. Fostering Musical Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Eric; Allsup, Randall Everett

    2016-01-01

    Musical independence has always been an essential aim of musical instruction. But this objective can refer to everything from high levels of musical expertise to more student choice in the classroom. While most conceptualizations of musical independence emphasize the demonstration of knowledge and skills within particular music traditions, this…

  3. On Background Independence

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to ...

  4. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  5. A Student Guide for Independent Study Telecourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Designed for students enrolled in telecourses offered by Evergreen Valley College (EVC) on an independent study basis, this guide explains the role of telecourses in the college curriculum, differences and similarities between telecourses and traditional courses, procedures for contacting instructors, and the roles of the college and the student…

  6. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.;

    2011-01-01

    to sensory and motor outcome in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Danish study on human SCI.Methods:We included 19 individuals with chronic incomplete SCI and 16 healthy controls. Participants underwent MRI and a neurological examination including sensory testing for light......Study design:Cross-sectional descriptive analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcome.Objectives:The aim of this study was to present anatomically consistent and independent spinal cord atrophy measures based on standard MRI material and analyze their specific relations...... touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared...

  7. Study on Class Advisers' Role Positioning and Working Mechanism in Independent Colleges%独立学院班主任角色定位及工作机制探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文霞

    2014-01-01

    班主任是高校教育的关键实施者之一,在学生成长成才的过程中占据特殊位置,发挥重要作用。本文着眼于独立学院的班主任工作问题,认为班主任同时肩负班级管理者、心理辅导者、学业指导者、生活帮助者以及人生导师五种角色,进而提出,学校管理者可以从四个方面入手实现班主任工作机制的高效运作,即加强班主任工作规范,建设高素质的班主任队伍,制定行之有效的评价体系,完善激励机制等。%The class adviser is one of the key implementers of education in colleges and universities, occupies a special po-sition and plays an important role in the process of students' growth. This article focuses on the work problems of class ad-visers in independent colleges. According to the article, class adviser should be a class manager, psychological mentor, aca-demic guider, life assistant and life coach at the same time. Further, the school managers can realize the efficient operation of the class advisers' working mechanism from four aspects, that is, strengthening the job specification, building a high-qual-ity teacher team, formulating an effective evaluation system, and improving the incentive mechanism.

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  9. Distro’: Independent Creativity for Independent Industr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sri Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To shortened this introduction, ‘Distro’ is one of cultural phenomenon in theyoung generation nowadays. The word of ‘Distro’ is the shortened of DistributionOutlet. The phenomenon of ‘Distro’ has been some kind of new trends inproducing and distributing creative design products of goods amongst theyoungsters independently, in an independence industry that open for challengingand competitiveness for everyone. This field research has been done in the city ofYogyakarta, reknown as the second city in creative design products after the cityof Bandung. Yogyakarta is welknown as the students’ city as well as the capital cityof culture of Indonesia. As a students’ city it is normal that Yogyakarta is growingin numbers of young people who pursued to study here and enriched the cultureof the city to become more multicultural and the varieties of pluralism as well.This sociocultural phenomenon not only brought some dynamic changing tosociety, economy and cultural life of the city, but also social problems that needsto be overcome. My first research question then is about how the existence of‘Distro’ in Yogyakarta can be a positive answer for social problems that may arisesfrom the hegemony of globalization markets domestically? My second questionis how the creative product designs are being made and distributed creatively inindependent industry? Lastly, my third question is dealling with the genres ofthe design products and how it can be a new trend in art expression? ‘Distro’ is aproduct of culture and it is also creating cultural change in some aspects of the lifeof the youngsters who are ‘Distro’ enthusiasts. ‘Distro’ phenomenon basically is anoffensive to the hegemony of internationally branded product design which turnsto become more over-dominated to the domestic markets and industry and thus,‘Distro’ has the spirit of survival whilts at the same time producing opportunity ofenterpreneurship

  10. Symmetry implies independence

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, R

    2007-01-01

    Given a quantum system consisting of many parts, we show that symmetry of the system's state, i.e., invariance under swappings of the subsystems, implies that almost all of its parts are virtually identical and independent of each other. This result generalises de Finetti's classical representation theorem for infinitely exchangeable sequences of random variables as well as its quantum-mechanical analogue. It has applications in various areas of physics as well as information theory and cryptography. For example, in experimental physics, one typically collects data by running a certain experiment many times, assuming that the individual runs are mutually independent. Our result can be used to justify this assumption.

  11. The Critical Independence Number and an Independence Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Craig Eric

    2009-01-01

    An independent set $I_c$ is a \\textit{critical independent set} if $|I_c| - |N(I_c)| \\geq |J| - |N(J)|$, for any independent set $J$. The \\textit{critical independence number} of a graph is the cardinality of a maximum critical independent set. This number is a lower bound for the independence number and can be computed in polynomial-time. Any graph can be decomposed into two subgraphs where the independence number of one subgraph equals its critical independence number, where the critical independence number of the other subgraph is zero, and where the sum of the independence numbers of the subgraphs is the independence number of the graph. A proof of a conjecture of Graffiti.pc yields a new characterization of K\\"{o}nig-Egervary graphs: these are exactly the graphs whose independence and critical independence numbers are equal.

  12. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  13. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L. C. Van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  14. CPI:Great Success in Independent Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yajie; Wang Cong; Yuan Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The main strategy and development direction of CPI is independent innovating,striding over key sectors,supporting to develop and leading the future.CPI is always insisting in the guiding principles of "combining imports with independent innovation" to promote the science and technology work,and encourage the leading and supporting role of science and technology towards production and business,project construction and development of CPI.

  15. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  16. Field Independent Cosmic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayem Sk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown earlier that Noether symmetry does not admit a form of corresponding to an action in which is coupled to scalar-tensor theory of gravity or even for pure theory of gravity taking anisotropic model into account. Here, we prove that theory of gravity does not admit Noether symmetry even if it is coupled to tachyonic field and considering a gauge in addition. To handle such a theory, a general conserved current has been constructed under a condition which decouples higher-order curvature part from the field part. This condition, in principle, solves for the scale-factor independently. Thus, cosmological evolution remains independent of the form of the chosen field, whether it is a scalar or a tachyon.

  17. TO BE INDEPENDENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石波

    2000-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Introduction At present, in the college, English extensive reading class, most students are not used to being independent. They always ask the teacher to explain the passages sentence by sentence and they need a lot of time to use the dictionary. Yet, we should take the responsibility for the students by making clear the difference between intensive and extensive reading. The traditional teaching approaches pays more attention to the teacher-centered way;the teacher always plays a monodrama, and the teacher dominates the class. The students are lack initiative. Some students do not know where they could start from, and the others are short of fast-reading skills, always fixing their eyes on one word or one sentence. Under the new situation and new thinking, students should learn to be more independent.

  18. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization....

  19. Random Independence Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Whitney provided a set of axioms for a structure commonly called i a matroid. Matroid theory (see ( Tutte , 19711, [Lawler, 19761) has applications to a wide...applicable in this case. On the other hand, there is no known efficient ( polynomial time) algorithm for constructing cliques of size 2 log n with...intersection. The problem of constructing a maximal independent set in the intersection of k matroids has a polynomial time (in tEl) algorithm [Lawler, 197

  20. Independence among People with Disabilities: II. Personal Independence Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Margaret A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Developed Personal Independence Profile (PIP) as an instrument to measure aspects of independence beyond physical and cognitive functioning in people with diverse disabilities. PIP was tested for reliability and validity with 185 subjects from 10 independent living centers. Findings suggest that the Personal Independence Profile measures the…

  1. Ergodic theory independence and dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the ergodic theory and topological dynamics of actions of countable groups. It is organized around the theme of probabilistic and combinatorial independence, and highlights the complementary roles of the asymptotic and the perturbative in its comprehensive treatment of the core concepts of weak mixing, compactness, entropy, and amenability. The more advanced material includes Popa's cocycle superrigidity, the Furstenberg-Zimmer structure theorem, and sofic entropy. The structure of the book is designed to be flexible enough to serve a variety of readers. The discussion of dynamics is developed from scratch assuming some rudimentary functional analysis, measure theory, and topology, and parts of the text can be used as an introductory course. Researchers in ergodic theory and related areas will also find the book valuable as a reference.

  2. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack o

  3. The Public Sphere and Online, Independent Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, David

    2006-01-01

    The rapid evolution of online, independent journalism affords educators an opportunity to increase students' understanding of the nature and power of the news media. Drawing from Habermas's theories of the role of the public sphere in democratic discourse, the author, as founder of an online news publication, traces trends in concentrated…

  4. Building groups and independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Mine; Holm, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study, examines the role of food in the social interaction of 11-to-17-year-old youths in sports centres in Denmark. The sports centres serve as a free space where young people receive no adult supervision. This i s underlined by their understanding and use...

  5. Building groups and independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Mine; Holm, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study, examines the role of food in the social interaction of 11-to-17-year-old youths in sports centres in Denmark. The sports centres serve as a free space where young people receive no adult supervision. This i s underlined by their understanding and use...

  6. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  7. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  8. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  9. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present arti....... The green Paper proposes that a solution could be to prohibit NAS to audit clients. Research results indicate alternative possibilitiers: e.g. banning the most harmful non-audit services and / or limiting the relative share of fees from NAS......In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...

  10. Diboson excess and Z‧-predictions via left-right nonlinear Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jing; Yepes, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The excess events reported by the ATLAS collaboration in the WZ-final state, and by the CMS collaboration in the e+e-jj, Wh and jj-final states, may be induced by the decays of a heavy boson W‧ in the 1.8-2 TeV mass range, here modeled via the larger local group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)B-L in a nonlinear dynamical Higgs scenario. The W‧-production cross-section at the 13 TeV LHC is around 700-1200 fb. This framework also predicts a heavy Z‧ boson with a mass of 2.5-4 TeV, and some decay channels testable in the LHC Run II. We determine the cross-section times branching fractions for the dijet, dilepton and top-pair Z‧-decay channels at the 13 TeV LHC around 2.3, 7.1, 70.2 fb, respectively, for MZ‧ = 2.5 TeV, while one/two orders of magnitude smaller for the dijet/dilepton and top-pair modes at MZ‧ = 4 TeV. Nonzero contributions from the effective operators, and the underlying Higgs sector of the model, will induce sizeable enhancement in the W+W- and Zh-final states that could be probed in the future LHC Run II.

  11. #Politics on Twitter goes beyond the left-right ideology divide

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Leticia; Hanna, Alex; Yang, JungHwan; Shah, Dhavan V.

    2015-01-01

    In U.S. politics, the main narrative tends to manifest as left vs right, Democrat vs. Republican, but is this reflected in the social media sphere as well? In new research which maps how hashtags in political tweets were used in the lead up to the 2010 Congressional midterm elections, Leticia Bode, Alex Hanna, JungHwan Yang, and Dhavan V. Shah found that some hashtags occurred in discussion groups that were there ideological opposite. They write that this ‘hashjacking’ was a way in which cons...

  12. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Tina T. Liu; Marlene eBehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypical...

  13. Standardization of motion sickness induced by left-right and up-down reversing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.; Brumley, E. A.; Kolafa, J. J.; Wood, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Reversing prisms are known to produce symptoms of motion sickness, and have been used to provide a chronic stimulus for training subjects on symptom recognition and regulation. However, testing procedures with reversing prisms have not been standardized. A set of procedures were evaluated which could be standardized using prisms for provocation and to compare the results between Right/Left Reversing Prisms (R/L-RP) and Up/Down Reversing Prisms (U/D-RP). Fifteen subjects were tested with both types of prisms using a self paced walking course throughout the laboratory with work stations established at specified intervals. The work stations provided tasks requiring eye-hand-foot coordination and various head movements. Comparisons were also made between these prism tests and two other standardized susceptibility tests, the KC-135 parabolic static chair test and the Staircase Velocity Motion Test (SVMT). Two different types of subjective symptom reports were compared. The R/L-RP were significantly more provocative than the U/D-RP. The incidence of motion sickness symptoms for the R/L-RP was similar to the KC-135 parabolic static chair test. Poor correlations were found between the prism tests and the other standardized susceptibility tests, which might indicate that different mechanisms are involved in provoking motion sickness for these different tests.

  14. The Effect of Left-Right Reversal on Film: Watching Kurosawa Reversed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The mirror reversal of an image is subtly different from the original. Often such change goes unnoticed in pictures, although it can affect preference. For the first time we studied the effect of mirror reversal of feature films. People watched Yojimbo or Sanjuro in a cinema, both classic films by Akira Kurosawa. They knew that this was a study and filled out a questionnaire. On one day Yojimbo was shown in its original orientation, and on another day the film was mirror reversed. Sanjuro was shown reversed on one day and non-reversed on another day. Viewers did not notice the reversal, even when they had seen the film before and considered themselves fans of Kurosawa. We compared this with estimates from a survey. In addition, the question about the use of space (scenography revealed that although people who had seen the film before gave higher ratings compared with those who had not, this was only true when the film was not reversed.

  15. Gravity induced left-right gauge theory at LHC and experimental tests

    CERN Document Server

    Parida, M K

    2014-01-01

    Embedding LHC scale $W_R, Z_R$ bosons in the non-supersymmetric GUT models of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions requires either a number of intermediate symmetries, or a number of nonstandard light particle degrees of freedom in the minimal chain. We show that inclusion of effect of gravity not only does away with all the additional intermediate symmetries, but also it predicts the minimal set of light Higgs scalars tailored after neutrino masses, and dilepton or trilepton signals. The heavy-light neutrino mixings are predicted and the heavy sterile Majorana fermions act as an additional source of dilepton production. Current CMS data is found to yield the bound $M_{W_R}\\ge 2.5-2.8$ TeV. Other verifiable predictions are briefly pointed out.

  16. Linear polarization to left/right-handed circular polarization conversion using ultrathin planar chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Luo, Yang; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-09-01

    We propose ultrathin planar chiral metamaterials (CMs) based on square split rings (SSRs), which can change linearly polarized (LP) electromagnetic (EM) wave to circularly polarized (CP) EM wave at will. The EM resonant properties of the proposed CMs including magnitude, phase, retrieved electromagnetic parameters, and chirality are demonstrated. According to the polarization property of the proposed CMs, a CP patch antenna using the proposed CMs is constructed. Placing the proposed CMs in the presence of a conventional LP patch antenna, the antenna polarization mode can be changed from LP mode to CP mode. The antenna performances are investigated numerically and experimentally. A simple method for realizing CP antenna is provided using the present CMs. It can be expected that the proposed CP antenna can be used in electronic reconnaissance and jamming, mobile communication, and global position system.

  17. Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability. Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (internet addiction). Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories. The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.

  18. Split and merge of left-right circular polarized light through coupled magnetic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jijun; Cao, Jing; Zhu, Min; Zhu, Zhipan [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). Faculty of Science; Fang, Yun-tuan [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). School of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering

    2012-08-15

    In order to obtain the means to control light polarization, we designed a structure of coupled magnetic resonators and studied its transmission properties by the 4 x 4 transfer matrix method. The incidence of linearly polarized light results in two transmission resonant peaks of left-handed circular polarization at shorter wavelengths and two transmission resonant peaks of right-handed circular polarization at longer wavelengths, respectively. Through adjusting the magnetizations, the inner left-handed circular polarization and right-handed circular polarization can be merged into one linear polarization, while the two outside resonant peaks keep their circular polarization. The polarized direction of the output linearly polarized light can be controlled by the polarized direction of incidence light. The incidence light with one polarization can output light with three kinds of polarizations through the designed structure. (orig.)

  19. Left-right differences in Eustachian tube function in children with ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Akkerman, A.E.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Engel, J.A.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the intraindividual variation in Eustachian tube (ET) function in children with ventilation tubes. METHODS: The forced response test, the pressure equilibration test and the sniff test were performed on both ears of 148 children. The results of both ears were compared. RESULTS: N

  20. Diboson excess and $Z'$-predictions via left-right non-linear Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The excess events reported by the ATLAS Collaboration in the $WZ$-final state, and by the CMS Collaboration in the $e^+\\!e^- jj$, $Wh$ and $jj$-final states, may be induced by the decays of a heavy boson $W'$ in the 1.8-2 TeV mass range, here modelled via the larger local group $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}$ in a non-linear dynamical Higgs scenario. The $W'$-production cross section at the 13 TeV LHC is around 700-1200 fb. This framework also predicts a heavy $Z'$ boson with a mass of 2.5-4 TeV, and some decay channels testable in the LHC Run II. We determine the cross section times branching fractions for the dijet, dilepton and top-pair $Z'$-decay channels at the 13 TeV LHC around 2.3, 7.1, 70.2 fb respectively, for $M_{Z'}= 2.5$ TeV, while one/two orders of magnitude smaller for the dijet/dilepton and top-pair modes at $M_{Z'}= 4$ TeV. Non-zero contributions from the effective operators, and the underlying Higgs sector of the model, will induce sizeable enhancement in the $W^+W^-$ and $Z h$-final...

  1. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina T. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia (CP refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half is the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves can be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well.

  2. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina T; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half) was the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves could be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well.

  3. Muscle-Sparing Blepharoplasty: A Prospective Left-Right Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lee; Deptula, Peter; Mazhar, Momal; Murariu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard upper blepharoplasty involves removal of both the skin and a portion of the underlying orbicularis oculi muscle. The senior author had observed sluggishness of eyelid closure, lagophthalmos as well as varying degrees of eye irritation in certain patients during the early postoperative period. He postulated that these findings could be due to orbicularis muscle excision. He therefore undertook a prospective study 27 years ago comparing standard blepharoplasty on one eyelid to skin-only excision on the fellow eyelid. Methods A randomized, prospective, single-blinded study was designed using the fellow eye as an internal control. 22 patients undergoing upper blepharoplasty procedure requiring greater than 5 mm of skin resection and with no history of ophthalmologic disease, dry eye, or previous eyelid surgery were selected. Upper blepharoplasty was performed with skin-only removal on one side, and combined skin-muscle removal on the other side. Patients were evaluated until six months after surgery except for two patients who were lost to follow-up after three months. Sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos, dry eye and aesthetic result were outcome measures scored by patient survey, the operating surgeon, and a blinded expert panel. Results There were comparable aesthetic outcomes in both eyelids. The incidence of sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos and dry eye syndrome were significantly higher in eyelids where wide segments of muscle had been resected. Conclusions Muscle-sparing upper blepharoplasty produces similar aesthetic outcomes as conventional blepharoplasty, while significantly reducing the complications of sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos and dry eye disease. The authors therefore recommend muscle-sparing upper blepharoplasty. PMID:25276652

  4. Muscle-Sparing Blepharoplasty: A Prospective Left-Right Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStandard upper blepharoplasty involves removal of both the skin and a portion of the underlying orbicularis oculi muscle. The senior author had observed sluggishness of eyelid closure, lagophthalmos as well as varying degrees of eye irritation in certain patients during the early postoperative period. He postulated that these findings could be due to orbicularis muscle excision. He therefore undertook a prospective study 27 years ago comparing standard blepharoplasty on one eyelid to skin-only excision on the fellow eyelid.MethodsA randomized, prospective, single-blinded study was designed using the fellow eye as an internal control. 22 patients undergoing upper blepharoplasty procedure requiring greater than 5 mm of skin resection and with no history of ophthalmologic disease, dry eye, or previous eyelid surgery were selected. Upper blepharoplasty was performed with skin-only removal on one side, and combined skin-muscle removal on the other side. Patients were evaluated until six months after surgery except for two patients who were lost to follow-up after three months. Sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos, dry eye and aesthetic result were outcome measures scored by patient survey, the operating surgeon, and a blinded expert panel.ResultsThere were comparable aesthetic outcomes in both eyelids. The incidence of sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos and dry eye syndrome were significantly higher in eyelids where wide segments of muscle had been resected.ConclusionsMuscle-sparing upper blepharoplasty produces similar aesthetic outcomes as conventional blepharoplasty, while significantly reducing the complications of sluggish eyelid closure, lagophthalmos and dry eye disease. The authors therefore recommend muscle-sparing upper blepharoplasty.

  5. Study on relationships of electromagnetic band structures and left/right handed structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chu; CHEN ZhiNing; WANG YunYi; YANG Ning

    2007-01-01

    Two types of dual periodic circuits are introduced. The distributions of passbands and stopbands are generated from their dispersion relationships. Based on the study, Brillouin diagrams of three representative special cases are drawn; S parameters of these three cases are simulated by Aglient ADS; the S parameters of one of the three cases are verified by an experiment. The phase characteristics are compared with those generated from the dispersion relationship. The theoretical analysis and the experimental verification show that both types of the periodic structures can behave as electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures, right-handed structures (RHS), and left-handed structures (LHS), when they operate at different frequency ranges. Thus, the possibility of a physical structure showing these three different characteristics at different frequency ranges is proven.

  6. Collider Phenomenology of Higgs Bosons in Left-Right Symmetric Randall-Sundrum Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

    2005-01-01

    We study the corrections to Higgs physics in a model of a single warped extra dimension with all fields except the Higgs in the bulk, and a gauge symmetry extended to $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_{B-L}$. We find that generically the Higgs coupling to electroweak gauge boson pairs is suppressed, the coupling to gluons is enhanced, and the coupling to photons is often suppressed, but can be enhanced.

  7. Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model

    CERN Document Server

    Hetzel, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C\\times SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model....

  8. Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Smith

    Full Text Available Disgust has been described as the most primitive and central of emotions. Thus, it is not surprising that it shapes behaviors in a variety of organisms and in a variety of contexts--including homo sapien politics. People who believe they would be bothered by a range of hypothetical disgusting situations display an increased likelihood of displaying right-of-center rather than left-of-center political orientations. Given its primal nature and essential value in avoiding pathogens disgust likely has an effect even without registering in conscious beliefs. In this article, we demonstrate that individuals with marked involuntary physiological responses to disgusting images, such as of a man eating a large mouthful of writhing worms, are more likely to self-identify as conservative and, especially, to oppose gay marriage than are individuals with more muted physiological responses to the same images. This relationship holds even when controlling for the degree to which respondents believe themselves to be disgust sensitive and suggests that people's physiological predispositions help to shape their political orientations.

  9. Class I myosins have overlapping and specialized functions in left-right asymmetric development in Drosophila

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okumura, Takashi; Sasamura, Takeshi; Inatomi, Momoko; Hozumi, Shunya; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Hatori, Ryo; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Nakazawa, Naotaka; Suzuki, Emiko; Maeda, Reo; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    .... Drosophila melanogaster has three class I myosin genes, Myosin 31DF (Myo31DF), Myosin 61F (Myo61F), and Myosin 95E (Myo95E). Myo31DF, Myo61F, and Myo95E belong to the Myosin ID, Myosin IC, and Myosin IB families, respectively...

  10. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid ...

  11. The effect of left-right reversal on film: Watching Kurosawa reversed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, Marco; Bode, Carole; Bruno, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The mirror reversal of an image is subtly different from the original. Often such change goes unnoticed in pictures, although it can affect preference. For the first time we studied the effect of mirror reversal of feature films. People watched Yojimbo or Sanjuro in a cinema, both classic films by Akira Kurosawa. They knew that this was a study and filled out a questionnaire. On one day Yojimbo was shown in its original orientation, and on another day the film was mirror reversed. Sanjuro was shown reversed on one day and non-reversed on another day. Viewers did not notice the reversal, even when they had seen the film before and considered themselves fans of Kurosawa. We compared this with estimates from a survey. In addition, the question about the use of space (scenography) revealed that although people who had seen the film before gave higher ratings compared with those who had not, this was only true when the film was not reversed. PMID:23145243

  12. Disgust sensitivity and the neurophysiology of left-right political orientations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Kevin B; Oxley, Douglas; Hibbing, Matthew V; Alford, John R; Hibbing, John R

    2011-01-01

    .... People who believe they would be bothered by a range of hypothetical disgusting situations display an increased likelihood of displaying right-of-center rather than left-of-center political orientations...

  13. A Preliminary Measurement of the Left-Right Parity-Violating ep Asymmetry at E158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesiada, J.

    2005-04-11

    This thesis investigates the parity-violating ep asymmetry based on the Run I data produced in Spring of 2002 by the E158 experiment, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main scientific objective of the experiment is the precision measurement of the weak mixing angle of the Standard Model. The ep asymmetry is an important background in the experiment and theoretically interesting in its own right, providing insights into the structure of the proton. The analysis centers upon identifying systematic error and consistency. The definite measurement of the ep asymmetry will await the final reprocessing of the data set during the Fall of 2002.

  14. Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Jamil

    2015-02-04

    The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.

  15. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  16. On gauge-independence in quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilevich, D V

    1995-01-01

    We prove gauge-independence of one-loop path integral for on-shell quantum gravity obtained in a framework of modified geometric approach. We use projector on pure gauge directions constructed via quadratic form of the action. This enables us to formulate the proof entirely in terms of determinants of non-degenerate elliptic operators without reference to any renormalization procedure. The role of the conformal factor rotation in achieving gauge-independence is discussed. Direct computations on CP^2 in a general three-parameter background gauge are presented. We comment on gauge dependence of previous results by Ichinose.

  17. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  18. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  19. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining...... independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  20. Independent sets in chain cacti

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-ch...