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Sample records for left-right asymmetry analyses

  1. De novo formation of left-right asymmetry by posterior tilt of nodal cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nonaka

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing mouse embryo, leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node determines left-right (L-R asymmetry. However, the mechanism by which the rotational movement of node cilia can generate a unidirectional flow remains hypothetical. Here we have addressed this question by motion and morphological analyses of the node cilia and by fluid dynamic model experiments. We found that the cilia stand, not perpendicular to the node surface, but tilted posteriorly. We further confirmed that such posterior tilt can produce leftward flow in model experiments. These results strongly suggest that L-R asymmetry is not the descendant of pre-existing L-R asymmetry within each cell but is generated de novo by combining three sources of spatial information: antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes, and the chirality of ciliary movement.

  2. Contribution of hedgehog signaling to the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob F; Miranda, Esther L; McClay, David R

    2016-03-15

    Most bilaterians exhibit a left-right asymmetric distribution of their internal organs. The sea urchin larva is notable in this regard since most adult structures are generated from left sided embryonic structures. The gene regulatory network governing this larval asymmetry is still a work in progress but involves several conserved signaling pathways including Nodal, and BMP. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of Hedgehog signaling and it's contribution to left-right asymmetry. We report that Hh signaling plays a conserved role to regulate late asymmetric expression of Nodal and that this regulation occurs after Nodal breaks left-right symmetry in the mesoderm. Thus, while Hh functions to maintain late Nodal expression, the molecular asymmetry of the future coelomic pouches is locked in. Furthermore we report that cilia play a role only insofar as to transduce Hh signaling and do not have an independent effect on the asymmetry of the mesoderm. From this, we are able to construct a more complete regulatory network governing the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A{sub b}, is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, Ab is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z`s is Ab = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of Ab = 0.935.

  4. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry for B quarks at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    The left-right asymmetry for b quarks, A b , is precisely predicted by the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of particle interactions, now the standard model for high-energy particle physics. As a test of this model, A b is directly measured at the SLC Large Detector (SLD) by taking advantage of the unique polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and measuring the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks. To measure the asymmetry, b quarks are identified using muons of high total and transverse momenta. The result for the 1993 data sample of 37,843 hadronic Z's is A b = 0.91 ± 0.19 ± 0.06, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. This result is in agreement with the standard model prediction of A b = 0.935

  5. The Bmp signaling pathway regulates development of left-right asymmetry in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 164-174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk LO1419; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bmp signaling * Nodal pathway * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan

    2017-04-04

    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus , Nodal , Lefty , and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx , whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal , whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  7. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory: New Insights from Hippocampal Left-Right Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gaby, Mohamady; Shipton, Olivia A; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-10-01

    All synapses are not the same. They differ in their morphology, molecular constituents, and malleability. A striking left-right asymmetry in the distribution of different types of synapse was recently uncovered at the CA3-CA1 projection in the mouse hippocampus, whereby afferents from the CA3 in the left hemisphere innervate small, highly plastic synapses on the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas those originating from the right CA3 target larger, more stable synapses. Activity-dependent modification of these synapses is thought to participate in circuit formation and remodeling during development, and further plastic changes may support memory encoding in adulthood. Therefore, exploiting the CA3-CA1 asymmetry provides a promising opportunity to investigate the roles that different types of synapse play in these fundamental properties of the CNS. Here we describe the discovery of these segregated synaptic populations in the mouse hippocampus, and discuss what we have already learnt about synaptic plasticity from this asymmetric arrangement. We then propose models for how the asymmetry could be generated during development, and how the adult hippocampus might use these distinct populations of synapses differentially during learning and memory. Finally, we outline the potential implications of this left-right asymmetry for human hippocampal function, as well as dysfunction in memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Left-right asymmetries of behaviour and nervous system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. A variety of studies have revealed sensory and motor asymmetries in behaviour, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system, in invertebrates. Asymmetries in behaviour are apparent in olfaction (antennal asymmetries) and in vision (preferential use of the left or right visual hemifield during activities such as foraging or escape from predators) in animals as different as bees, fruitflies, cockroaches, octopuses, locusts, ants, spiders, crabs, snails, water bugs and cuttlefish. Asymmetries of the nervous system include lateralized position of specific brain structures (e.g., in fruitflies and snails) and of specific neurons (e.g., in nematodes). As in vertebrates, lateralization can occur both at the individual and at the population-level in invertebrates. Theoretical models have been developed supporting the hypothesis that the alignment of the direction of behavioural and brain asymmetries at the population-level could have arisen as a result of social selective pressures, when individually asymmetrical organisms had to coordinate with each other. The evidence reviewed suggests that lateralization at the population-level may be more likely to occur in social species among invertebrates, as well as vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, William M; Morris, Andrew P; Evans, David M; Scerri, Thomas S; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Smith, George Davey; Ring, Susan M; Stein, John; Monaco, Anthony P; Talcott, Joel B; Fisher, Simon E; Webber, Caleb; Paracchini, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9)), is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666). As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR) asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%). We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%). Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  10. Right across the tree of life: the evolution of left-right asymmetry in the Bilateria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namigai, Erica K O; Kenny, Nathan J; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-06-01

    Directional left/right (LR) asymmetries, in which there are consistent, heritable differences in morphology between the left and right sides of bilaterally symmetrical organisms, are found in animals across the Bilateria. For many years, we have lacked evidence for shared mechanisms underlying their development. This led to the supposition that the mechanisms driving establishment of LR asymmetries, and consequently the asymmetries themselves, had evolved separately in the three major Superphyla that constitute the Bilateria. The recent discovery that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B) ligand Nodal plays a role in the regulation of LR asymmetry in both Deuterostomia and Lophotrochozoa has reignited debate in this field, as it suggests that at least this aspect of the development of the LR axis is conserved. In this review, we discuss evidence for shared mechanisms of LR asymmetry establishment across the bilaterian tree of life and consider how these mechanisms might have diverged across the Metazoa over the last 500 million years or so of evolution. As well as the likelihood that Nodal is an ancestral mechanism for regulating LR asymmetry, we reemphasize cytoskeletal architecture as a potential shared mechanism underlying symmetry breaking. However, convergent evolution remains a distinct possibility and study of a wider diversity of species will be needed to distinguish between conserved and lineage-specific mechanisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Left-right asymmetries and shape analysis on Ceroglossus chilensis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.

    2013-10-01

    Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.

  12. Ion flow regulates left-right asymmetry in sea urchin development.

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    Hibino, Taku; Ishii, Yuichiro; Levin, Michael; Nishino, Atsuo

    2006-05-01

    The degree of conservation among phyla of early mechanisms that pattern the left-right (LR) axis is poorly understood. Larvae of sea urchins exhibit consistently oriented LR asymmetry. The main part of the adult rudiment is formed from the left coelomic sac of larvae, the left hydrocoel. Although this left preference is conserved among all echinoderm larvae, its mechanism is largely not understood. Using two marker genes, HpNot and HpFoxFQ-like, which are asymmetrically expressed during larval development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, we examined in this study the possibility that the recently discovered ion flux mechanism controls asymmetry in sea urchins as it does in several vertebrate species. Several ion-transporter inhibitors were screened for the ability to alter the expression of the asymmetric marker genes. Blockers of the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (omeprazole, lansoprazole and SCH28080), as well as a calcium ionophore (A23187), significantly altered the normal sidedness of asymmetric gene expression. Exposure to omeprazole disrupted the consistent asymmetry of adult rudiment formation in larvae. Immuno-detection revealed that H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-like antigens in sea urchin embryos were present through blastula stage and exhibited a striking asymmetry being present in a single blastomere in 32-cell embryos. These results suggest that, as in vertebrates, endogenous spatially-regulated early transport of H(+) and/or K(+), and also of Ca(2+), functions in the establishment of LR asymmetry in sea urchin development.

  13. Measurement of the Left-Right Asymmetry in Z0 Events at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, A

    2004-01-05

    Recent results from the 1992 and 1993 left-right asymmetry cross section measurements at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are presented. Measurements made with SLAC running with a center-of-mass energy at the Z{sup 0}-pole (91.2 GeV) by the SLD detector and an average electron beam polarization of 22.4 {+-} 0.7% for 1992 and 62.6 {+-} 1.2% for 1993. The asymmetry measured was A{sub LR} = 0.100 {+-} 0.044 and A{sub LR} = 0.1656 {+-} 0.0073 for the 1992 and 1993 runs, respectively. This in turn allows them to calculate the weak mixing angle value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2378 {+-} 0.0056 and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} = 0.2288 {+-} 0.0009 for the two data sets.

  14. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  15. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z boson production at the SLAC Linear Collider. The left-right asymmetry provides a direct measurement of the e - -Z coupling and thus of the effective weak mixing angle; in addition, A LR is sensitive to the unknown top-quark and Higgs-boson masses. In 1992 the SLD detector recorded 10224 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons with an unpolarized positron beam at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV. The average electron beam polarization during the run was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. We measure A LR to be 0.101 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.004 (syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θeff/W = 0.2377 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0005 (syst.). This measurement of A LR is in agreement with comparable measurements and is consistent with Standard-Model predictions for allowed top and Higgs masses

  16. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  17. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  18. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was {rho}{sup lum} = (63.0{+-}1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A{sub LR} to be 0.1626{+-}0.0071(stat){+-}0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations.

  19. A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lath, A.

    1994-09-01

    The thesis presents a measurement of the left-right asymmetry, A LR , n the production cross section of Z Bosons produced by e + e - annihilations, using polarized electrons, at a center of mass energy of 91.26 Gev. The data presented was recorded by the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider during the 1993 run. The mean luminosity-weighted polarization of the electron beam was ρ lum = (63.0±1.1)%. Using a sample of 49,392 Z events, we measure A LR to be 0.1626±0.0071(stat)±0.0030(sys.), which determined the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(sys.). This result differs from that expected by the Standard Model of Particles and Fields by 2.5 standard deviations

  20. A variant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 regulates left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Many organs in vertebrates are left-right asymmetrical located. For example, liver is at the right side and stomach is at the left side in human. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf signaling is important for left-right asymmetry. To investigate the roles of Fgfr2 signaling in zebrafish left-right asymmetry, we used splicing blocking morpholinos to specifically block the splicing of fgfr2b and fgfr2c variants, respectively. We found that the relative position of the liver and the pancreas were disrupted in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, the left-right asymmetry of the heart became random. Expression pattern of the laterality controlling genes, spaw and pitx2c, also became random in the morphants. Furthermore, lefty1 was not expressed in the posterior notochord, indicating that the molecular midline barrier had been disrupted. It was also not expressed in the brain diencephalon. Kupffer's vesicle (KV size became smaller in fgfr2c morphants. Furthermore, KV cilia were shorter in fgfr2c morphants. We conclude that the fgfr2c isoform plays an important role in the left-right asymmetry during zebrafish development.

  1. Two novel type II receptors mediate BMP signalling and are required to establish left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, R.; van Dinther, M.; Bakkers, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Patient, R.; ten Dijke, P.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, like Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), are pivotal to establish left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. However, the receptors mediating this process are unknown. Here we identified two new type II receptors for BMPs

  2. MMP21 is mutated in human heterotaxy and is required for normal left-right asymmetry in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimier, Anne; Gabriel, George C.; Bajolle, Fanny; Tsang, Michael; Liu, Hui; Noll, Aaron; Schwartz, Molly; El Malti, Rajae; Smith, Laurie D.; Klena, Nikolai T.; Jimenez, Gina; Miller, Neil A.; Oufadem, Myriam; Moreau de Bellaing, Anne; Yagi, Hisato; Saunders, Carol J.; Baker, Candice N.; Di Filippo, Sylvie; Peterson, Kevin A.; Thiffault, Isabelle; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Cooley, Linda D.; Farrow, Emily G.; Masson, Cécile; Schoen, Patric; Deleuze, Jean-François; Nitschké, Patrick; Lyonnet, Stanislas; de Pontual, Loic; Murray, Stephen A.; Bonnet, Damien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Amiel, Jeanne; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Lo, Cecilia W.; Gordon, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Heterotaxy results from a failure to establish normal left-right asymmetry early in embryonic development. By whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing and high-throughput cohort resequencing we identified recessive mutations in matrix metallopeptidase 21 (MMP21), in nine index cases with heterotaxy. In addition, Mmp21 mutant mice and morphant zebrafish display heterotaxy and abnormal cardiac looping, respectively, suggesting a novel role for extra-cellular remodeling in the establishment of laterality in vertebrates. PMID:26437028

  3. A Preliminary Measurement of the Left-Right Parity-Violating ep Asymmetry at E158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesiada, J.

    2005-04-11

    This thesis investigates the parity-violating ep asymmetry based on the Run I data produced in Spring of 2002 by the E158 experiment, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main scientific objective of the experiment is the precision measurement of the weak mixing angle of the Standard Model. The ep asymmetry is an important background in the experiment and theoretically interesting in its own right, providing insights into the structure of the proton. The analysis centers upon identifying systematic error and consistency. The definite measurement of the ep asymmetry will await the final reprocessing of the data set during the Fall of 2002.

  4. Measurement of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry for charm quarks with D*+ and D+ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N.J.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Daoudi, M.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D.J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present a direct measurement of A c =2v c a c /(v 2 c +a 2 c ) from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of D * + and D + mesons in Z 0 events produced with the longitudinally polarized SLAC Linear Collider beam. These Z 0 →c over bar events are tagged on the basis of event kinematics and decay topology from a sample of hadronic Z 0 decays recorded by the SLAC Large Detector. We measure A 0 c = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  5. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  6. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  7. Tbx5 Buffers Inherent Left/Right Asymmetry Ensuring Symmetric Forelimb Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Sulaiman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The forelimbs and hindlimbs of vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric. The mechanisms that ensure symmetric limb formation are unknown but they can be disrupted in disease. In Holt-Oram Syndrome (HOS, caused by mutations in TBX5, affected individuals have left-biased upper/forelimb defects. We demonstrate a role for the transcription factor Tbx5 in ensuring the symmetric formation of the left and right forelimb. In our mouse model, bilateral hypomorphic levels of Tbx5 produces asymmetric forelimb defects that are consistently more severe in the left limb than the right, phenocopying the left-biased limb defects seen in HOS patients. In Tbx hypomorphic mutants maintained on an INV mutant background, with situs inversus, the laterality of defects is reversed. Our data demonstrate an early, inherent asymmetry in the left and right limb-forming regions and that threshold levels of Tbx5 are required to overcome this asymmetry to ensure symmetric forelimb formation.

  8. Lateralization in the invertebrate brain: left-right asymmetry of olfaction in bumble bee, Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Anfora

    Full Text Available Brain and behavioural lateralization at the population level has been recently hypothesized to have evolved under social selective pressures as a strategy to optimize coordination among asymmetrical individuals. Evidence for this hypothesis have been collected in Hymenoptera: eusocial honey bees showed olfactory lateralization at the population level, whereas solitary mason bees only showed individual-level olfactory lateralization. Here we investigated lateralization of odour detection and learning in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris L., an annual eusocial species of Hymenoptera. By training bumble bees on the proboscis extension reflex paradigm with only one antenna in use, we provided the very first evidence of asymmetrical performance favouring the right antenna in responding to learned odours in this species. Electroantennographic responses did not reveal significant antennal asymmetries in odour detection, whereas morphological counting of olfactory sensilla showed a predominance in the number of olfactory sensilla trichodea type A in the right antenna. The occurrence of a population level asymmetry in olfactory learning of bumble bee provides new information on the relationship between social behaviour and the evolution of population-level asymmetries in animals.

  9. Vertebrate Left-Right Asymmetry: What Can Nodal Cascade Gene Expression Patterns Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Axel; Ott, Tim; Kurz, Sabrina; Tingler, Melanie; Maerker, Markus; Fuhl, Franziska; Blum, Martin

    2017-12-29

    Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia). At the level of Nodal cascade gene activation, expression may be inverted, bilaterally induced, or absent. In a given genetic situation, patterns may be randomized or predominantly lacking laterality (absence or bilateral activation). We propose that the distributions of patterns observed may be indicative of the underlying molecular defects, with randomizations being primarily caused by defects in the flow-generating ciliary set-up, and symmetrical patterns being the result of impaired flow sensing, on the left, the right, or both sides. This prediction, the reasoning of which is detailed in this review, pinpoints functions of genes whose role in laterality determination have remained obscure.

  10. Left-right cortical asymmetries of regional cerebral blood flow during listening to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishizawa, Y; Olsen, T S; Larsen, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured during rest and during listening to simple words. The xenon-133 intracarotid technique was used and results were obtained from 254 regions of seven right hemispheres and seven left hemispheres. The measurements were performed just after carotid...... of the entire hemisphere. The focal rCBF increases were localized to the superior part of the temporal regions, the prefrontal regions, the frontal eye fields, and the orbitofrontal regions. Significant asymmetries were found in particular in the superior temporal region with the left side showing a more...

  11. Precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, R.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A{sub LR}) for Z boson production by e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions has been attained at the SLAC Linear Collider with the SLD detector. The author describes this measurement for the 1993 data run, emphasizing the significant improvements in polarized beam operation which took place for this run, where the luminosity-weighted electron beam polarization averaged 62.6 {+-} 1.2%. Preliminary 1993 results for A{sub LR} are presented. When combined with the (less precise) 1992 result, the preliminary result for the effective weak mixing angle is sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2290 {+-} 0.0010.

  12. Fine mapping of the pond snail left-right asymmetry (chirality) locus using RAD-Seq and fibre-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengning Maureen; Davey, John W; Banerjee, Ruby; Han, Jie; Yang, Fengtang; Aboobaker, Aziz; Blaxter, Mark L; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, "D". First, heterozygous (Dd) pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd) or sinistral (dd). Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (hybridization (FISH) of pachytene cells showed that the three BACs tightly cluster on the same bivalent chromosome. Fibre-FISH identified a region of greater that ∼0.4 Mb between two BAC clone markers that must contain D. This work therefore establishes the resources for molecular identification of the chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems.

  13. Natural reversal of left-right gut/gonad asymmetry in C. elegans males is independent of embryonic chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Davon C; Alcorn, Melissa R; Birsoy, Bilge; Rothman, Joel H

    2014-06-01

    Anatomical left-right (L/R) asymmetry in C. elegans is established in the four-cell embryo as a result of anteroposterior skewing of transverse mitotic spindles with a defined handedness. This event creates a chiral embryo and ultimately an adult body plan with fixed L/R positioning of internal organs and components of the nervous system. While this "dextral" configuration is invariant in hermaphrodites, it can be reversed by physical manipulation of the early embryo or by mutations that interfere with mitotic spindle orientation, which leads to viable, mirror-reversed (sinistral) animals. During normal development of the C. elegans male, the gonad develops on the right of the midline, with the gut bilaterally apposed on the left. However, we found that in males of the laboratory N2 strain and Hawaiian ("Hw") wild isolate, the gut/gonad asymmetry is frequently reversed in a temperature-dependent manner, independent of normal embryonic chirality. We also observed sporadic errors in gonad migration occurring naturally during early larval stages of these and other wild strains; however, the incidence of such errors does not correlate with the frequency of L/R gut/gonad reversals in these strains. Analysis of N2/Hw hybrids and recombinant inbred advanced intercross lines (RIAILs) indicate that the L/R organ reversals are likely to result from recessively acting variations in multiple genes. Thus, unlike the highly reproducible L/R asymmetries of most structures in hermaphrodites, the L/R asymmetry of the male C. elegans body plan is less rigidly determined and subject to natural variation that is influenced by a multiplicity of genes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Role of Cerl2 in the Establishment of Left-Right Asymmetries during Axis Formation and Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Belo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the asymmetric left-right (LR body axis is one of the fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development, and one still raising passionate discussions among scientists. Although the conserved role of nodal is unquestionable in this process, several of the details around this signaling cascade are still unanswered. To further understand this mechanism, we have been studying Cerberus-like 2 (Cerl2, an inhibitor of Nodal, and its role in the generation of asymmetries in the early vertebrate embryo. The absence of Cerl2 results in a wide spectrum of malformations commonly known as heterotaxia, which comprises defects in either global organ position (e.g., situs inversus totalis, reversed orientation of at least one organ (e.g., situs ambiguus, and mirror images of usually asymmetric paired organs (e.g., left or right isomerisms of the lungs. Moreover, these laterality defects are frequently associated with congenital heart diseases (e.g., transposition of the great arteries, or atrioventricular septal defects. Here, reviewing the knowledge on the establishment of LR asymmetry in mouse embryos, the emerging conclusion is that as necessary as is the activation of the Nodal signaling cascade, the tight control that Cerl2-mediates on Nodal signaling is equally important, and that generates a further regionalized LR genetic program in the proper time and space.

  15. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A LR ) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A LR experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4±1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617±0.0071(stat.)±0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2292±0.0009(stat.)±0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A LR is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model

  16. A precise measurement of the left-right asymmetry of Z Boson production at the SLAC linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    We present a precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry of Z boson production (A{sub LR}) observed in 1993 data at the SLAC linear collider. The A{sub LR} experiment provides a direct measure of the effective weak mixing angle through the initial state couplings of the electron to the Z. During the 1993 run of the SLC, the SLD detector recorded 49,392 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized positrons at a center-of-mass energy of 91.26 GeV. A Compton polarimeter measured the luminosity-weighted electron polarization to be (63.4{+-}1.3)%. ALR was measured to be 0.1617{+-}0.0071(stat.){+-}0.0033(syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin {sup 2}{theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2292{+-}0.0009(stat.){+-}0.0004(syst.). This measurement of A{sub LR} is incompatible at the level of two standard deviations with the value predicted by a fit of several other electroweak measurements to the Standard Model.

  17. [Establishment of visceral left-right asymmetry in mammals: the role of ciliary action and leftward fluid flow in the region of Hensen's node].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A S

    2013-01-01

    During individual development of vertebrates, the anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and left-right axes of the body are established. Although the vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric outside, their internal structure is asymmetric. Of special interest is the insight into establishment of visceral left-right asymmetry in mammals, since it has not only basic but also an applied medical significance. As early as 1976, it was hypothesized that the ciliary action could be associated with the establishment of left-right asymmetry in mammals. Currently, the majority of researchers agree that the ciliary action in the region of Hensen's node and the resulting leftward laminar fluid flow play a key role in the loss of bilateral symmetry and triggering of expression of the genes constituting the Nodal-Ptx2 signaling cascade, specific of the left side of the embryo. The particular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still insufficiently clear. There are three competing standpoints on how leftward fluid flow induces expression of several genes in the left side of the embryo. The morphogen gradient hypothesis postulates that the leftward flow creates a high concentration of a signaling biomolecule in the left side of Hensen's node, which, in turn, stimulates triggering of.gene expression of the Nodal-Ptx2 cascade. The biomechanical hypothesis (or two-cilia model) states that the immotile cilia located in the periphery of Hensen's node act as mechanosensors, activate mechanosensory ion channels, and trigger calcium signaling in the left side of the embryo. Finally, the "shuttle-bus model" holds that leftward fluid flow carries the lipid vesicles, which are crashed when colliding immotile cilia in the periphery of Hensen's node to release the contained signaling biomolecules. It is also noteworthy that the association between the ciliary action and establishment of asymmetry has been recently discovered in representatives of the lower invertebrates. In this paper, the author

  18. Observation of parity violation and a left-right asymmetry in the reaction /sup 35/Cl (n, p) /sup 35/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.; Vesna, V.A.; Gledenov, Y.M.; Lobashev, V.M.; Okunev, I.S.; Popov, Y.P.; Rigol' , K.; Smotritskii, L.M.

    1984-09-10

    The P-odd and left-right asymmetry in the emission of protons by the compound nucleus in the reaction /sup 35/Cl (n, p) /sup 35/S have been measured for the first time. The coefficients are a/sub p/ = -(1.51 +- 0.34) x 10/sup -4/ and a/sup LR//sub p/ = -(2.40 +- 0.43) x 10/sup -4/. A limitation is found on the dependence of the total cross section on the neutron helicity: Vertical Bar..cap alpha../sub n/Vertical Bar<2 x 10/sup -6/ (at a 90% confidence level).

  19. The Left-Right asymmetry of top quarks in associated top-charged Higgs bosons at the LHC as a probe of the tan$\\beta$ parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, J; Djouadi, A; Macorini, G; Mirabella, E; Orlando, N; Renard, F M; Verzegnassi, C

    2011-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model involve two Higgs doublet fields to break the electroweak symmetry, leading to the existence of three neutral and two charged Higgs particles. In particular, this is the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. A very important parameter is $\\tan\\beta$ defined as the ratio of the vacuum expectation value of the two Higgs doublets. In this paper we focus on the left-right asymmetry in the production of polarised top quarks in association with charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. This quantity allows for a theoretically clean determination of $\\tan\\beta$. In the MSSM, the asymmetry remains sensitive to the strong and electroweak radiative corrections and, thus, to the superparticle spectrum. Some possible implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Anatomy of Mixing-Induced CP Asymmetries in Left-Right-Symmetric Models with Spontaneous CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Patricia; Matias, J.; Ball, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the pattern of CP violation in K, B_d and B_s mixing in a symmetrical SU(2)_R x SU(2)_L x U(1) model with spontaneous CP violation. We calculate the phases of the left and right quark mixing matrices beyond the small phase approximation and perform a careful analysis of all relevant restrictions on the model's parameters from Delta m_K, Delta m_B, epsilon, epsilon'/epsilon and the CP asymmetry in B->J/psi K_S. We find that, with current experimental data, the mass of the right-handed charged gauge boson, M2, is restricted to be in the range 2.75 to 13 TeV and the mass of the flavour-changing neutral Higgs boson, MH, in 10.2 to 14.6 TeV. This means in particular that the decoupling limit M2, MH -> infinity is already excluded by experiment. We also find that the model favours opposite signs of epsilon and sin 2beta and is excluded if sin 2beta > 0.1.

  1. The left-right forward-backward asymmetry of heavy quarks measured with jet charge and with leptons at the SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1994-10-01

    The authors present direct measurements of the left-right asymmetry of b- and c-quarks from the decay of Z 0 bosons produced in the annihilation of longitudinally polarized electrons and unpolarized positrons. Two complementary techniques are presented: (1) Z 0 → b bar b decays are tagged using track impact parameters with b bar b discrimination provided by momentum-weighted track charge; (2) semileptonic b-decays are tagged using high p and p T muons and electrons. The preliminary results from their 1993 data sample are: A b = 0.93 ± 0.13 ± 0.13 for the jet charge and A b = 0.93 ± 0.14 ± 0.09, and A c = 0.40 ± 0.23 ± 0.20 for the leptons, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  2. Primordial germ cells in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo demonstrate left-right asymmetry and polarized distribution of the EMA1 epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Friedman-Einat, Miriam; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2014-05-01

    Despite the importance of the chicken as a model system, our understanding of the development of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) is far from complete. Here we characterized the morphology of PGCs at different developmental stages, their migration pattern in the dorsal mesentery of the chicken embryo, and the distribution of the EMA1 epitope on PGCs. The spatial distribution of PGCs during their migration was characterized by immunofluorescence on whole-mounted chicken embryos and on paraffin sections, using EMA1 and chicken vasa homolog antibodies. While in the germinal crescent PGCs were rounded and only 25% of them were labeled by EMA1, often seen as a concentrated cluster on the cell surface, following extravasation and migration in the dorsal mesentery PGCs acquired an elongated morphology, and 90% exhibited EMA1 epitope, which was concentrated at the tip of the pseudopodia, at the contact sites between neighboring PGCs. Examination of PGC migration in the dorsal mesentery of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20-22 embryos demonstrated a left-right asymmetry, as migration of cells toward the genital ridges was usually restricted to the right, rather than the left, side of the mesentery. Moreover, an examination of another group of cells that migrate through the dorsal mesentery, the enteric neural crest cells, revealed a similar preference for the right side of the mesentery, suggesting that the migratory pathway of PGCs is dictated by the mesentery itself. Our findings provide new insights into the migration pathway of PGCs in the dorsal mesentery, and suggest a link between EMA1, PGC migration and cell-cell interactions. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying migration of PGCs in avians. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  3. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the scale of left-right symmetry breaking. Keywords. Leptogenesis; baryogenesis; domain walls; left-right symmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 98.80.Cq; 98.80.Ft. Explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem.

  4. Cilia in Left-Right Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kyosuke; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2017-10-03

    Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow. These motile cilia at the node are unique in that they rotate in the clockwise direction, unlike other immotile cilia such as airway cilia that show planar beating. The second type of cilia essential for L-R asymmetry is immotile cilia that are peripherally located immotile cilia. They sense a flow-dependent signal, which is either chemical or mechanical in nature. Although Ca 2+ signaling is implicated in flow sensing, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  6. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schlueter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proepicardium (PE is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.

  7. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Left Right Patterning, Evolution and Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain M. Dykes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of heart development are determined by the left right axis and as a result several congenital diseases have their origins in aberrant left-right patterning. Establishment of this axis occurs early in embryogenesis before formation of the linear heart tube yet impacts upon much later morphogenetic events. In this review I discuss the differing mechanisms by which left-right polarity is achieved in the mouse and chick embryos and comment on the evolution of this system. I then discus three major classes of cardiovascular defect associated with aberrant left-right patterning seen in mouse mutants and human disease. I describe phenotypes associated with the determination of atrial identity and venous connections, looping morphogenesis of the heart tube and finally the asymmetric remodelling of the embryonic branchial arch arterial system to form the leftward looped arch of aorta and associated great arteries. Where appropriate, I consider left right patterning defects from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating how developmental processes have been modified in species over time and illustrating how comparative embryology can aide in our understanding of congenital heart disease.

  9. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  10. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.

    1989-10-01

    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  11. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  12. Left-Right Symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the limit on the scale of Left-Right symmetry breaking. We focus on the minimal SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_B-L gauge theory with the seesaw mechanism and discuss the two possibilities of defining Left-Right symmetry as parity or charge conjugation. In the commonly adopted case of parity, we perform a complete numerical study of the quark mass matrices and the associated left and right mixing matrices without any assumptions usually made in the literature about the ratio of vacuum expectation values. We find that the usual lower limit on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson from the K mass difference, M_WR>2.5TeV, is subject to a possible small reduction due to the difference between right and left Cabibbo angles. In the case of charge conjugation the limit on M_WR is somewhat more robust. However, the more severe bounds from CP-violating observables are absent in this case. In fact, the free phases can also resolve the present mild discrepancy between the Standard Model and CP-violat...

  13. The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Yong, L.W.; Lu, T.M.; Huang, S.W.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Yu, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb 17 (2015) ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nodal signaling * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry * Mouth opening * Embryonic development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2015

  14. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  15. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  16. Stomach curvature is generated by left-right asymmetric gut morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam; Amin, Nirav M; Johnson, Caroline; Bagley, Kristen; Ghashghaei, H Troy; Nascone-Yoder, Nanette

    2017-04-15

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of internal anatomy, yet the emergence of morphological asymmetry remains one of the least understood phases of organogenesis. Asymmetric rotation of the intestine is directed by forces outside the gut, but the morphogenetic events that generate anatomical asymmetry in other regions of the digestive tract remain unknown. Here, we show in mouse and Xenopus that the mechanisms that drive the curvature of the stomach are intrinsic to the gut tube itself. The left wall of the primitive stomach expands more than the right wall, as the left epithelium becomes more polarized and undergoes radial rearrangement. These asymmetries exist across several species, and are dependent on LR patterning genes, including Foxj1 , Nodal and Pitx2 Our findings have implications for how LR patterning manifests distinct types of morphological asymmetries in different contexts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Reciprocal Signaling between the Ectoderm and a Mesendodermal Left-Right Organizer Directs Left-Right Determination in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessodes, Nathalie; Haillot, Emmanuel; Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Lahaye, François; Lepage, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    During echinoderm development, expression of nodal on the right side plays a crucial role in positioning of the rudiment on the left side, but the mechanisms that restrict nodal expression to the right side are not known. Here we show that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm. FGF/ERK and BMP2/4 signaling are required to initiate nodal expression in this organizer, while Delta/Notch signaling is required to suppress formation of this organizer on the left side of the archenteron. Furthermore, we report that the H+/K+-ATPase is critically required in the Notch signaling pathway upstream of the S3 cleavage of Notch. Our results identify several novel players and key early steps responsible for initiation, restriction, and propagation of left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis of a non-chordate deuterostome and uncover a functional link between the H+/K+-ATPase and the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23271979

  18. Systematic Mapping and Statistical Analyses of Valley Landform and Vegetation Asymmetries Across Hydroclimatic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Terrain aspect alters the spatial distribution of insolation across topography, driving eco-pedo-hydro-geomorphic feedbacks that can alter landform evolution and result in valley asymmetries for a suite of land surface characteristics (e.g. slope length and steepness, vegetation, soil properties, and drainage development). Asymmetric valleys serve as natural laboratories for studying how landscapes respond to climate perturbation. In the semi-arid montane granodioritic terrain of the Idaho batholith, Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, prior works indicate that reduced insolation on northern (pole-facing) aspects prolongs snow pack persistence, and is associated with thicker, finer-grained soils, that retain more water, prolong the growing season, support coniferous forest rather than sagebrush steppe ecosystems, stabilize slopes at steeper angles, and produce sparser drainage networks. We hypothesize that the primary drivers of valley asymmetry development are changes in the pedon-scale water-balance that coalesce to alter catchment-scale runoff and drainage development, and ultimately cause the divide between north and south-facing land surfaces to migrate northward. We explore this conceptual framework by coupling land surface analyses with statistical modeling to assess relationships and the relative importance of land surface characteristics. Throughout the Idaho batholith, we systematically mapped and tabulated various statistical measures of landforms, land cover, and hydroclimate within discrete valley segments (n=~10,000). We developed a random forest based statistical model to predict valley slope asymmetry based upon numerous measures (n>300) of landscape asymmetries. Preliminary results suggest that drainages are tightly coupled with hillslopes throughout the region, with drainage-network slope being one of the strongest predictors of land-surface-averaged slope asymmetry. When slope-related statistics are excluded, due to possible autocorrelation, valley

  19. Inclusive asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The polarized proton beam was used to measure left-right asymmetries for the reactions p + p → p, K +- , π +- + anything and also some information on the reaction p + n → p, K +- , π + + anything are presented. The incident momentum is 11.8 GeV/c. The data are preliminary. Six references

  20. Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.

  1. Exotic fermions in the left-right symmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Volkas, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study is made of non-standard fermion multiplets in left-right symmetric models with gauge group SU(3) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) BL . Constraints from gauge anomaly cancellation and invariance of Yukawa coupling terms are used to define interesting classes of exotic fermions. The standard quark lepton spectrum of left-right symmetric models was identified as the simplest member of an infinite class. Phenomenological implications of the next simplest member of this class are then studied. Classes of exotic fermions which may couple to the standard fermions through doublet Higgs bosons were also considered, then shown that some of these exotics may be used to induce a generalised universal see-saw mechanism. 12 refs., 1 tab

  2. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quiroz, Norma

    2016-01-01

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  3. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-11-04

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  4. Left-right splitting for electromagnetic scattering in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Spivack, M; Sillence, C; 10.1049/ip-smt:20040945

    2004-01-01

    The left-right splitting method and its application to electromagnetic scattering by large 3D scatterers are described. Exact numerical solutions to the governing integral equations can be prohibitively expensive for large scatterers. Under the assumption that energy is predominantly forward-scattered, the solution is expressed as a series of terms, each of which is rapidly and efficiently evaluated. In many cases only one or two terms are needed, and the formulation provides additional physical insight.

  5. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  6. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is calculated via doubly charged Higgs, which occur naturally in left-right symmetric models. We find that the comparison with known half-lives yields values of phenomenological parameters which are compatible with earlier analyses of neutral current data. In particular, we obtain a right-handed gauge-boson mass lower bound of the order of 240 GeV. Using this result and expressions for neutrino masses derived in a parity non-conserving left-right symmetric model, we obtain msub(νsub(e)) < 1.5 eV, msub(νsub(μ)) < 0.05 MeV and msub(νsub(tau)) < 18 MeV

  7. Duality in Left-Right Symmetric Seesaw Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Frigerio, M.

    2006-01-01

    We consider type I+II seesaw mechanism, where the exchanges of both right-handed neutrinos and isotriplet Higgs bosons contribute to the neutrino mass. Working in the left-right symmetric framework and assuming the mass matrix of light neutrinos m ν and the Dirac-type Yukawa couplings to be known, we find the triplet Yukawa coupling matrix f, which carries the information about the masses and mixing of the right-handed neutrinos. We show that in this case there exists a duality: for any solution f, there is a dual solution f-circumflex=m ν /v L -f, where v L is the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs boson. Thus, unlike in pure type I (II) seesaw, there is no unique allowed structure for the matrix f. For n lepton generations the number of solutions is 2 n . We develop an exact analytic method of solving the seesaw nonlinear matrix equation for f

  8. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, g R  ≠ g L , taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density

  9. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  10. Follow your gut: relaying information from the site of left-right symmetry breaking in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijoh, Yukio; Viotti, Manuel; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-06-01

    A central unresolved question in the molecular cascade that drives establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates are the mechanisms deployed to relay information between the midline site of symmetry-breaking and the tissues which will execute a program of asymmetric morphogenesis. The cells located between these two distant locations must provide the medium for signal relay. Of these, the gut endoderm is an attractive candidate tissue for signal transmission since it comprises the epithelium that lies between the node, where asymmetry originates, and the lateral plate, where asymmetry can first be detected. Here, focusing on the mouse as a model, we review our current understanding and entertain open questions concerning the relay of LR information from its origin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Callosal microstructure affects the timing of electrophysiological left-right differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Heins, Nina; Schlüter, Caroline; Fraenz, Christoph; Beste, Christian; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan

    2017-12-01

    The neural architecture of the corpus callosum shows pronounced inter-individual differences. These differences are thought to affect timing of interhemispheric interactions and, in turn, functional hemispheric asymmetries. The present study aimed at elucidating the neuronal mechanisms underlying this relationship. To this end, we used a combined DTI and EEG study design. In 103 right-handed and healthy adult participants, we determined the microstructural integrity of the posterior third of the corpus callosum and examined in how far this microstructural integrity was related to between-hemisphere timing differences in neurophysiological correlates of attentional processes in the dichotic listening task. The results show that microstructural integrity of the posterior callosal third correlated with attentional timing differences in a verbal dichotic listening condition but not in a noise control condition. Hence, this association between callosal microstructure and between-hemisphere timing differences is specific for stimuli, which trigger hemispheric bottom-up processing in an asymmetric fashion. Specifically, higher microstructural integrity was associated with decreased left-right differences in the latency of the N1 event-related potential component and hence more symmetric processing of dichotic stimuli between the two hemispheres. Our data suggest that microstructure of the posterior callosal third affects functional hemispheric asymmetries by modulating the timing of interhemispheric interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Potential Players of Left-Right Asymmetry in Female Chicken Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhiyi; Lu, Yanan; Rui, Lei; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Fang; Tu, Chengfang; Li, Zandong

    2017-06-20

    Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6), E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1). By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1. Side-specific genes were primarily derived from the autosome rather than the sex chromosome. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were most enriched in the Piwi-interactiing RNA (piRNA) metabolic process, germ plasm, chromatoid body, P granule, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, and methane metabolism. A total of 111 DEGs, five gene ontology (GO) terms, and three pathways were significantly different between the left and right gonads among all the development stages. We also present the gene number and the percentage within eight development-dependent expression patterns of DEGs in the left and right gonads of female chicken.

  13. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  14. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M.; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis. PMID:24478662

  15. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  16. Spontaneous CP Violation in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the pattern of CP violation in \\Kd, \\Bd and \\Bs mixing in a symmetrical \\model model with spontaneous CP violation. Performing a careful analysis of all relevant restrictions on the model's parameters from $\\Delta M_K$, $\\Delta M_{B_d}$, $\\Delta M_{B_s}$, $\\epsilon_K$, the sign of \\ee and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in \\goldd, we find that the mass of the right-handed charged gauge-boson, $M_2$, is restricted to be in the range 2.75 to 13$ $TeV, and that the mass of the flavour-changing neutral-Higgs bosons, $M_H$, must be between 10.2 to 14.6$ $TeV. We also find that the model, although still compatible with present experimental data, cannot accomodate the SM prediction of large CP violation in \\goldd, but, on the other hand, predicts a large CP-asymmetry of ${\\cal O}(40%)$ in \\golds. These specific predictions make it possible to submit the model to a scrupulous test at B factories and hadron colliders.

  17. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...

  18. What's Left of the Left-Right Dimension? Why the Economic Policy Positions of Europeans Do Not Fit the Left-Right Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otjes, Simon

    2018-01-01

    In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension. There is also a role for the legacy of communist dictatorship: citizens who were socialised in democratic countries have views that fit the left-right dimension better than those socialised during communism.

  19. An Analysis of $B_{s}$ Decays in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model with Spontaneous CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Patricia; Ball, Patricia; Fleischer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Non-leptonic B_s decays into CP eigenstates that are caused by \\bar b -> \\bar cc\\bar s quark-level transitions, such as B_s -> D_s^+D^-_s, J/psi eta^(') or J/psi phi, provide a powerful tool to search for ``new physics'', as the CP-violating effects in these modes are tiny in the Standard Model. We explore these effects for a particular scenario of new physics, the left-right-symmetric model with spontaneous CP violation. In our analysis, we take into account all presently available experimental constraints on the parameters of this model, i.e. those implied by K- and B-decay observables; we find that CP asymmetries as large as O(40%) may arise in the B_s channels, whereas the left-right-symmetric model favours a small CP asymmetry in the ``gold-plated'' mode B_d -> J/psi K_S. Such a pattern would be in favour of B-physics experiments at hadron machines, where the B_s modes are very accessible.

  20. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  1. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, Cesar [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán 2,E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ−e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  2. Organization of left-right coordination of neuronal activity in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Markin, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, we construct and analyse two computational models of spinal locomotor circuits consisting of left and right rhythm generators interacting bilaterally via several neuronal pathways mediated by different CINs. The CIN populations incorporated in the models include the genetically identified......Different locomotor gaits in mammals, such as walking or galloping, are produced by coordinated activity in neuronal circuits in the spinal cord. Coordination of neuronal activity between left and right sides of the cord is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons cross the midline...... and the left-right synchronous hopping-like pattern in mutants lacking specific neuron classes, and speed-dependent asymmetric changes of flexor and extensor phase durations. The models provide insights into the architecture of spinal network and the organization of parallel inhibitory and excitatory CIN...

  3. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is initiated in an early embryonic structure called the ventral node in human and mouse, and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in the frog. Within these structures, each epithelial cell bears a single motile cilium, and the concerted beating of these cilia produces a leftward fluid flow that is required to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. The leftward fluid flow is thought to result from the posterior tilt of the cilia, which protrude from near the posterior portion of each cell's apical surface. The cells, therefore, display a morphological planar polarization. Planar cell polarity (PCP is manifested as the coordinated, polarized orientation of cells within epithelial sheets, or as directional cell migration and intercalation during convergent extension. A set of evolutionarily conserved proteins regulates PCP. Here, we provide evidence that vertebrate PCP proteins regulate planar polarity in the mouse ventral node and in the Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate. Asymmetric anterior localization of VANGL1 and PRICKLE2 (PK2 in mouse ventral node cells indicates that these cells are planar polarized by a conserved molecular mechanism. A weakly penetrant Vangl1 mutant phenotype suggests that compromised Vangl1 function may be associated with left-right laterality defects. Stronger functional evidence comes from the Xenopus GRP, where we show that perturbation of VANGL2 protein function disrupts the posterior localization of motile cilia that is required for leftward fluid flow, and causes aberrant expression of the left side-specific gene Nodal. The observation of anterior-posterior PCP in the mouse and in Xenopus embryonic organizers reflects a strong evolutionary conservation of this mechanism that is important for body plan determination.

  4. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  5. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry in children: meta-analyses of the effects of psychosocial risk factors and associations with internalizing and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A; Huffmeijer, Renske; Biro, Szilvia; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-09-01

    Asymmetry of frontal cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in children is influenced by the social environment and considered a marker of vulnerability to emotional and behavioral problems. To determine the reliability of these associations, we used meta-analysis to test whether variation in resting frontal EEG asymmetry is consistently associated with (a) having experienced psychosocial risk (e.g., parental depression or maltreatment) and (b) internalizing and externalizing behavior outcomes in children ranging from newborns to adolescents. Three meta-analyses including 38 studies (N = 2,523) and 50 pertinent effect sizes were carried out. The studies included in the analyses reported associations between frontal EEG asymmetry and psychosocial risk (k = 20; predominantly studies with maternal depression as the risk factor) as well as internalizing (k = 20) and externalizing (k = 10) behavior outcomes. Psychosocial risk was significantly associated with greater relative right frontal asymmetry, with an effect size of d = .36 (p < .01), the effects being stronger in girls. A non-significant relation was observed between right frontal asymmetry and internalizing symptoms (d = .19, p = .08), whereas no association between left frontal asymmetry and externalizing symptoms was observed (d = .04, p = .79). Greater relative right frontal asymmetry appears to be a fairly consistent marker of the presence of familial stressors in children but the power of frontal asymmetry to directly predict emotional and behavioral problems is modest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Production and detection at SSC of Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.; Kayser, B.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Deshpande, N.G.; Grifols, J.; Mendez, A.; Olness, F.; Pal, P.B.

    1986-12-01

    We discuss the production and detection at SSC of charged and neutral Higgs bosons of the left-right symmetric theories. The H + , which is largely a member of a left-right ''bidoublet,'' should be detectable. The H 2 0 , a more unusual Higgs particle which, apart from mixing, is in a right-handed triplet and does not couple to quarks, may be detectable too

  7. In silico analyses reveal nuclear asymmetry of spongiocytes and compact cells of adrenocorticotrophic hormone-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Mu, Yiming; Lu, Juming

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available about the risk of progression of seemingly benign adrenocortical hyperplasias to carcinomatous conditions. Using in silico approaches of digitally archived tissue sections, the nuclear morphometric parameters were compared to assess nuclear asymmetry as an index for nuclear atypia. Four groups of nuclei were used for the current study: spongiocytes and compact cells obtained from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular hyperplasia, which were hypothesized to be high risk for nuclear asymmetry, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia samples were used as internal controls. Analyses reveal high nuclear irregularity index of spongiocytes and shape factor abnormalities of both spongiocytes and compact cells of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia compared with the other 2 groups (high F values and very low P values after analyses of variances), thus confirming the hypothesis that ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia present with subtle morphometric features of nuclear atypia. This probably puts this class of adrenocortical tumors at risk of dysplastic progression, and more studies are needed to test the hypothesis.

  8. Right-handed quark mixing in left-right symmetric theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2015-02-20

    We give exact formulas for the right-handed analog of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the minimal left-right symmetric theory, for the case when the left-right symmetry is generalized parity as in the original version of the theory. We derive its explicit form and give a physical reason for the known and surprising fact that the right-handed mixing angles are close to the CKM ones, in spite of the left-right symmetry being badly broken in nature. We exemplify our results on the production of the right-handed charged gauge boson and the computation of K(L)-K(S) mass difference.

  9. Dual-mode operation of neuronal networks involved in left-right alternation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Bouvier, Julien; Borgius, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    between these different groups of commissural neurons and left-right alternation, are lacking. Here we show, using intersectional mouse genetics, that ablation of a group of transcriptionally defined commissural neurons - the V0 population - leads to a quadrupedal hopping at all frequencies of locomotion......All forms of locomotion are repetitive motor activities that require coordinated bilateral activation of muscles. The executive elements of locomotor control are networks of spinal neurons that determine gait pattern through the sequential activation of motor-neuron pools on either side of the body...... axis. However, little is known about the constraints that link left-right coordination to locomotor speed. Recent advances have indicated that both excitatory and inhibitory commissural neurons may be involved in left-right coordination. But the neural underpinnings of this, and a possible causal link...

  10. Cancellation of leading divergences in left-right electroweak model and heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Romanenko, N.V.

    1997-01-01

    The fine-tuning principles are analyzed in search for estimation of heavy-particle masses in the left-right symmetric model. The modification of Veltman condition based on the hypothesis of the compression between fermion and boson energies within the left-right model multiples is proposed. The hypothesis is supplied with the requirement of the stability under rescaling. With regard to these requirements the necessity of existence of right-handed Majorana neutrinos with masses of order of right-handed gauge bosons is shown and estimations on the top-quark which are in a good agreement with the experimental value are obtained

  11. Shaping the zebrafish heart: from left-right axis specification to epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, J.; Verhoeven, M.C.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although vertebrates appear bilaterally symmetric on the outside, various internal organs, including the heart, are asymmetric with respect to their position and/or their orientation based on the left/right (L/R) axis. The L/R axis is determined during embryo development. Determination of the L/R

  12. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  13. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  14. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  15. Loop-induced decays of Higgs boson in the left-right twin Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao-Bei, Liu; Xue-Lei, Wang; Yao-Bein, Liu; Xue-Lei, Wang

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the loop-induced decays of the Higgs boson into pairs of gluons and photons in the left-right twin Higgs model. The study shows that the deviation of the partial widths for these decays relative to their Standard Model (SM) values scales with 1/f 2 , where f ∼ TeV is the symmetry breaking scale in the model. For the mass mixing parameter M equals 150 GeV, the LHC and a linear e + e - collider would be sensitive to the deviation in Γ(H → gg) for f ≤ 770(660) GeV at the 1(2) σ level. So the Higgs boson processes at the LHC can be a sensitive probe for the left-right twin Higgs model. (authors)

  16. Why PeV scale left-right symmetry is a good thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Urjit A.

    2017-10-01

    Left-right symmetric gauge theory presents a minimal paradigm to accommodate massive neutrinos with all the known conserved symmetries duly gauged. The work presented here is based on the argument that the see-saw mechanism does not force the new right-handed symmetry scale to be very high, and as such some of the species from the spectrum of the new gauge and Higgs bosons can have masses within a few orders of magnitude of the TeV scale. The scale of the left-right parity breaking in turn can be sequestered from the Planck scale by supersymmetry. We have studied several formulations of such just beyond Standard Model (JBSM) theories for their consistency with cosmology. Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domain walls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left-right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space. Finally, we have also studied a left-right symmetric model in the context of metastable supersymmetric vacua and obtained constraints on the mass scale of right-handed symmetry. In all the cases studied, the mass scale of the right-handed neutrino M_R remains bounded from above, and in some of the cases the scale 10^9 GeV favourable for supersymmetric thermal leptogenesis is disallowed. On the other hand, PeV scale remains a viable option, and the results warrant a more detailed study of such models for their observability in collider and astroparticle experiments.

  17. Polaris, a Protein Involved in Left-Right Axis Patterning, Localizes to Basal Bodies and Cilia

    OpenAIRE

    Taulman, Patrick D.; Haycraft, Courtney J.; Balkovetz, Daniel F.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in Tg737 cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including random left-right axis specification, polycystic kidney disease, liver and pancreatic defects, hydrocephalus, and skeletal patterning abnormalities. To further assess the biological function of Tg737 and its role in the mutant pathology, we identified the cell population expressing Tg737 and determined the subcellular localization of its protein product called Polaris. Tg737 expression is associated ...

  18. Rare top quark decays in Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, R.; Miranda, O. G.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC) decay t → H0 + c in the context of Alternative Left-Right symmetric Models (ALRM) with extra isosinglet heavy fermions; the FCNC decays may place at tree level and are only supressed by the mixing between ordinary top and charm quarks. We also comment on the decay process t → c + γ, which involves radiative corrections

  19. OVEX1, a novel chicken endogenous retrovirus with sex-specific and left-right asymmetrical expression in gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magre Solange

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chickens, as in most birds, female gonad morphogenesis is asymmetrical. Gonads appear first rather similarly, but only the left one undergoes full differentiation and gives rise to a functional ovary. The right gonad, in which the cortex does not develop, remains restricted to the medulla and finally regresses. Opportunity was taken of this left-right asymmetry to perform a suppression subtractive hybridization screening to select for transcripts preferentially expressed in the developing left ovary as compared to the right one, and thus identify genes that are potentially involved in the process of ovarian differentiation. Results One of these transcripts, named Ovex1 according to its expression profile, corresponds to an endogenous retrovirus that has not been previously characterized. It is transcribed as full-length and singly spliced mRNAs and contains three uninterrupted open reading frames coding potentially for proteins with homology to Gag and Pro-Pol retroviral polyproteins and a third protein showing only a weak similarity with Env glycoproteins. Ovex1 is severely degenerated; it is devoid of typical long terminal repeats and displays some evidence of recombination. An orthologous Ovex1 locus was identified in the genome of zebra finch, a member of a different bird order, and similar sequences were detected in turkey, guinea fowl, and duck DNA. The relationship between these sequences follows the bird phylogeny, suggesting vertical transmission of the endogenous retrovirus for more than 100 million years. Ovex1 is transcribed in chicken gonads with a sex-dependent and left-right asymmetrical pattern. It is first expressed in the cortex of the left indifferent gonads of both sexes. Expression is transient in the left testis and absent in the right one. In developing ovaries, Ovex1 transcription increases sharply in the left cortex and is weakly detected in the medulla. After folliculogenesis, Ovex1-expressing

  20. Mechanisms of Left-Right Coordination in Mammalian Locomotor Pattern Generation Circuits: A Mathematical Modeling View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Rybak, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor gait in limbed animals is defined by the left-right leg coordination and locomotor speed. Coordination between left and right neural activities in the spinal cord controlling left and right legs is provided by commissural interneurons (CINs). Several CIN types have been genetically identified, including the excitatory V3 and excitatory and inhibitory V0 types. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic elimination of all V0 CINs caused switching from a normal left-right alternating activity to a left-right synchronized “hopping” pattern. Furthermore, ablation of only the inhibitory V0 CINs (V0D subtype) resulted in a lack of left-right alternation at low locomotor frequencies and retaining this alternation at high frequencies, whereas selective ablation of the excitatory V0 neurons (V0V subtype) maintained the left–right alternation at low frequencies and switched to a hopping pattern at high frequencies. To analyze these findings, we developed a simplified mathematical model of neural circuits consisting of four pacemaker neurons representing left and right, flexor and extensor rhythm-generating centers interacting via commissural pathways representing V3, V0D, and V0V CINs. The locomotor frequency was controlled by a parameter defining the excitation of neurons and commissural pathways mimicking the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate on locomotor frequency in isolated rodent spinal cord preparations. The model demonstrated a typical left-right alternating pattern under control conditions, switching to a hopping activity at any frequency after removing both V0 connections, a synchronized pattern at low frequencies with alternation at high frequencies after removing only V0D connections, and an alternating pattern at low frequencies with hopping at high frequencies after removing only V0V connections. We used bifurcation theory and fast-slow decomposition methods to analyze network behavior in the above regimes and transitions between them. The model

  1. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlák, M.; Bob, P.; Roman, R.; Ježek, S.; Damborská, A.; Chládek, Jan; Shaw, D. J.; Kukleta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2013), s. 711-719 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electrodermal activity * pointwise trasinformation * autonomic nervous system * asymmetry * stress Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  2. Tests of the left-right electroweak model at linear collider

    OpenAIRE

    Huitu, K.; Maalampi, J.; Pandita, P. N.; Puolamaki, K.; Raidal, M.; Romanenko, N.

    1999-01-01

    The left-right model is a gauge theory of electroweak interactions based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)_R . The main motivations for this model are that it gives an explanation for the parity violation of weak interactions, provides a mechanism (see-saw) for generating neutrino masses, and has B-L as a gauge symmetry. The quark-lepton symmetry in weak interactions is also maintained in this theory. The model has many predictions one can directly test at a TeV-scale linear collider. We will consi...

  3. The electric dipole moment of the neutron in the left-right supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in the left-right supersymmetric model, including one-loop contributions from the chargino, the neutralino and the gluino diagrams. We discuss the dependence of the EDM on the phases of the model, as well as on the mass parameters in the left and right sectors. The neutron EDM imposes different conditions on the supersymmetric spectrum from either the electron EDM, or the neutron EDM in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The neutron EDM may be a clue to an extended gauge structure in supersymmetry. (author)

  4. The spinal control of locomotion and step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry from slow to moderate speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Charline; Labarre, Audrey; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Frigon, Alain

    2015-08-01

    When speed changes during locomotion, both temporal and spatial parameters of the pattern must adjust. Moreover, at slow speeds the step-to-step pattern becomes increasingly variable. The objectives of the present study were to assess if the spinal locomotor network adjusts both temporal and spatial parameters from slow to moderate stepping speeds and to determine if it contributes to step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. To determine the role of the spinal locomotor network, the spinal cord of 6 adult cats was transected (spinalized) at low thoracic levels and the cats were trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Cats were implanted with electrodes to chronically record electromyography (EMG) in several hindlimb muscles. Experiments began once a stable hindlimb locomotor pattern emerged. During experiments, EMG and bilateral video recordings were made during treadmill locomotion from 0.1 to 0.4 m/s in 0.05 m/s increments. Cycle and stance durations significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas swing duration remained unaffected. Extensor burst duration significantly decreased with increasing speed, whereas sartorius burst duration remained unchanged. Stride length, step length, and the relative distance of the paw at stance offset significantly increased with increasing speed, whereas the relative distance at stance onset and both the temporal and spatial phasing between hindlimbs were unaffected. Both temporal and spatial step-to-step left-right asymmetry decreased with increasing speed. Therefore, the spinal cord is capable of adjusting both temporal and spatial parameters during treadmill locomotion, and it is responsible, at least in part, for the step-to-step variability in left-right symmetry observed at slow speeds. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric models with a universal seesaw mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppisch, Frank F.; Hati, Chandan; Patra, Sudhanwa; Pritimita, Prativa; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-02-01

    We discuss a class of left-right symmetric theories with a universal seesaw mechanism for fermion masses and mixing and the implications for neutrinoless double beta (0 ν β β ) decay where neutrino masses are governed by natural type-II seesaw dominance. The scalar sector consists of left- and right-handed Higgs doublets and triplets, while the conventional Higgs bidoublet is absent in this scenario. We use the Higgs doublets to implement the left-right and the electroweak symmetry breaking. On the other hand, the Higgs triplets with induced vacuum expectation values can give Majorana masses to light and heavy neutrinos and mediate 0 ν β β decay. In the absence of the Dirac mass terms for the neutrinos, this framework can naturally realize type-II seesaw dominance even if the right-handed neutrinos have masses of a few TeV. We study the implications of this framework in the context of 0 ν β β decay.

  6. Using Convolutional Neural Network Filters to Measure Left-Right Mirror Symmetry in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Brachmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for measuring symmetry in images by using filter responses from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. The aim of the method is to model human perception of left/right symmetry as closely as possible. Using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN approach has two main advantages: First, CNN filter responses closely match the responses of neurons in the human visual system; they take information on color, edges and texture into account simultaneously. Second, we can measure higher-order symmetry, which relies not only on color, edges and texture, but also on the shapes and objects that are depicted in images. We validated our algorithm on a dataset of 300 music album covers, which were rated according to their symmetry by 20 human observers, and compared results with those from a previously proposed method. With our method, human perception of symmetry can be predicted with high accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inclusion of features from higher CNN layers, which encode more abstract image content, increases the performance further. In conclusion, we introduce a model of left/right symmetry that closely models human perception of symmetry in CD album covers.

  7. Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lebret, James M.; Kiehn, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal circuits involved in left-right coordination are a fundamental feature of rhythmic locomotor movements. These circuits necessarily include commissural interneurons (CINs) that have axons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. The properties of CINs have been described in some detail...... cord central pattern generators (CPGs). The means by which reciprocal inhibition and integration of sensory information are maintained in swimming vertebrates is described, with similarities between the three basic populations of commissural interneurons highlighted. The subsequent section concentrates......, using whole cell patch clamp, to record from anatomically defined CINs located in the rhythm-generating region of the lumbar segments. Initial results would suggest that the firing pattern of these neurons shows a greater diversity than that previously described in swimming central pattern generators...

  8. Functional identification of interneurons responsible for left-right coordination of hindlimbs in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Simon J.B.; Kiehn, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Local neuronal networks that are responsible for walking are poorly characterized in mammals. Using an innovative approach to identify interneuron inputs onto motorneuron populations in a neonatal rodent spinal cord preparation, we have investigated the network responsible for left......-right coordination of the hindlimbs. We demonstrate how commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons traverse the midline to innervate contralateral neurons, are organized such that distinct flexor and extensor centers in the rostral lumbar spinal cord define activity in both flexor and extensor caudal motor pools....... In addition, the nature of some connections are reconfigured on switching from rest to locomotion via a mechanism that might be associated with synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. These results from identified pattern-generating interneurons demonstrate how interneuron populations create an effective...

  9. Modelling genetic reorganization in the mouse spinal cord affecting left-right coordination during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Kiehn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The spinal neural circuit contains inhibitory (CINi) and excitatory (CINe) commissural interneurons with axons crossing the mid-line. Direction of these axons to the other side of the cord is controlled by axon guidance molecules, such as Netrin-1 and DCC. The cord also contains...... the effects of these genetic transformations, we used a computational model of the spinal circuits containing left and right rhythm-generating neuron populations (RGs), each with a subpopulation of EphA4-positive neurons, and CINi and CINe populations mediating mutual inhibition and excitation between...... glutamatergic interneurons, whose axon guidance involves the EphA4 receptor. In EphA4 knockout (KO) and Netrin-1 KO mice, the normal left-right alternating pattern is replaced with a synchronized hopping gait, and the cord of DCC KO mice exhibits uncoordinated left and right oscillations. To investigate...

  10. Radiative Yukawa couplings in the simplest left-right symmetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Emidio; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2017-02-01

    We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the standard model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )Y. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs S U (2 )R doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the S U (2 )R gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the S U (2 )R breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the standard model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric framework recovers additional appealing features typical of these models, allowing for instance to identify the hypercharges of the involved fermions with their B -L charges and offering a straightforward solution to the strong C P problem. The scheme gives rise to a distinguishing phenomenology that potentially can be tested at the LHC and future colliders through the same interactions that result in the radiative generation of Yukawa couplings, as well as by exploiting the properties of the additional S U (2 )R Higgs doublet.

  11. Phenomenological aspects of a left-right model based on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doas, Alex G.; Nishi, Celso C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Motivated by the problem of explaining the observed maximal parity violation in the electroweak interactions, we develop a model based on the SU(3) L x SU(3) R x U(1) X gauge symmetry, where anomalies cancellation restricts the number of families is restricted to be a multiple of three. Left-right symmetry is fully realized in the model and the standard model arises in the low energy limit. The fermionic representation content has, besides standard model fields, nine additional neutrinos which could be linked with problems like neutrino oscillation, warm dark matter and baryogenesis; six new quarks which could show up at the TeV; and also new gauge bosons whose production and associated effects observed in colliders shall indicate the parity restoration. Our focus will be mainly on the spontaneous symmetry breakdown patterns leading to a compatible scenario for particle interactions with the well tested standard model. In order to break the symmetries we take into account a set of scalar fields representation content composed by: two sextets and two bi-triplets. These fields are sufficient to implement a successful mass generation mechanisms, furnishing also a consistent mixing among the fermions. We discuss the main phenomenological issues of the model. (author)

  12. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  13. Conservation Motivation, Social Equality and Left-Right Ideological Preferences in Western and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how attitudes towards social equality can influence the relationship between conservation motivation (or openness) and personal ideological preferences on the left-right dimension, and how this relationship pattern differs between Western and Central & Eastern European (CEE) respondents. Using data from the European Social Survey (2012) we found that individual-level of conservation motivation reduces cultural egalitarianism in both the Western European and the CEE regions, but its connection with economic egalitarianism is only relevant in the CEE region where it fosters economic egalitarianism. Since both forms of egalitarianism were related to leftist ideological preferences in Western Europe, but in the CEE region only economic egalitarianism was ideologically relevant, we concluded that the classic “rigidity of the right” phenomenon is strongly related to cultural (anti)egalitarianism in Western Europe. At the same time, conservation motivation serves as a basis for the “rigidity of the left” in the post-socialist CEE region, in a great part due to the conventional egalitarian economic views. PMID:28580030

  14. Universal seesaw and 0νββ in new 3331 left-right symmetric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Borah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of left-right symmetric model with enlarged gauge group SU(3c×SU(3L×SU(3R×U(1X without having scalar bitriplet. In the absence of scalar bitriplet, there is no Dirac mass term for fermions including usual quarks and leptons. We introduce new isosinglet vector-like fermions so that all the fermions get their masses through a universal seesaw mechanism. We extend our discussion to neutrino mass and its implications in neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ. We show that for TeV scale SU(3R gauge bosons, the heavy-light neutrino mixing contributes dominantly to 0νββ that can be observed at ongoing experiments. The new physics contributions arising from purely left-handed currents via exchange of keV scale right-handed neutrinos and the so called mixed helicity λ-diagram can saturate the KamLANDZen bound. We show that the right handed neutrinos in this model can have mass in the sub keV range and can be long lived compared to the age of the Universe. The contributions of these right handed neutrinos to flavour physics observables like μ→eγ and muon g−2 is also discussed. Towards the end we also comment on different possible symmetry breaking patterns of this enlarged gauge symmetry to that of the standard model.

  15. Higgs bosons and sleptons in an alternative left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenological structure of the combined Higgs-boson--slepton sector of the alternative left-right-supersymmetric model introduced by Ma is explored. Constraints upon and relations between Higgs-boson and slepton masses are derived and a tightly constrained mass spectrum is found. In general, one neutral Higgs boson is never heavier than 98 GeV, one neutral Higgs boson is always nearly degenerate in mass with the extra neutral gauge boson Z 2 0 , and the charged Higgs boson can in principle be as light as 22 GeV. Further constraints require large ratios of Higgs vacuum expectation values, strongly favor the W R mass above ∼423 GeV, predict one Higgs-boson mass to be always very close to 98 GeV, and masses of the other Higgs bosons and the sleptons to be bounded from above and preferably not much above the Z mass. In addition, the possibility of detecting light Higgs bosons at CERN LEP and the SLAC Linear Collider is briefly discussed

  16. Online adaptive learning of Left-Right Continuous HMM for bearings condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartella, F; Liu, T; Meganck, S; Lemeire, J; Sahli, H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) approaches used for condition assessment of bearings assume that all the possible system states are fixed and known a priori and that training data from all of the associated states are available. Moreover, the training procedure is performed offline, and only once at the beginning, with the available training set. These assumptions significantly impede component diagnosis applications when all of the possible states of the system are not known in advance or environmental factors or operative conditions change during the tool's usage. The method introduced in this paper overcomes the above limitations and proposes an approach to detect unknown degradation modalities using a Left-Right Continuous HMM with a variable state space. The proposed HMM is combined with Change Point Detection algorithms to (i) estimate, from historical observations, the initial number of the model's states, as well as to perform an initial guess of the parameters, and (ii) to adaptively recognize new states and, consequently, adjust the model parameters during monitoring. The approach has been tested using real monitoring data taken from the NASA benchmark repository. A comparative study with state of the art techniques shows improvements in terms of reduction of the training procedure iterations, and early detection of unknown states.

  17. Mapping and explaining the use of the left-right divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Freire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is about mapping and explaining the use of the Left-Right divide across 14 countries from 5 Continents and relies on the richness of the post electoral mass surveys from the Comparative National Election Project: 14 countries and 18 elections spread over 5 continents. The paper shows not only how extensively the LR divide is used in these 14 countries, but also explains variation across both individuals and countries in terms of the factors determining LR recognition and use. Overall, it is shown that, although seen world-wide, the LR divide (both for self-placement and party placement is more present in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and countries with freer media systems than in new democracies and societies with less free media systems. In the case of parties LR placement, party size also counts: larger parties are more easily placed. Additionally, we also show that LR recognition is more socially and politically determined in long consolidated and middle-aged democracies and in countries with more freedom of the press than in new democracies and in systems with less free media system. These findings add to the existing knowledge about these topics because previous studies were either country/Continent specific, or, if global in nature, never invested in explaining individual and system variation across 14 from 5 Continents. Besides, these findings mean that in the long term probably the new democracies will converge with the long consolidated or middle-aged ones, but this is an empirical question to be researched in future studies.

  18. Four generations versus left-right symmetry. A comparative numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Tillmann J.

    2012-06-18

    In this work, we present a comparative numerical analysis of the Standard Model (SM) with a sequential fourth generation (SM4) and the left-right symmetric Standard model (LRM). We focus on the constraints induced by flavour violating {Delta}F=2 processes in the K and B system while the results of studies of collider bounds and electroweak precision tests are taken into account as external inputs. In contrast to many previous studies of both models considered in this work, we do make not any ad-hoc assumptions on the structure of the relevant mixing matrices. Therefore, we employ powerful Monte Carlo methods in order to approximate the viable parameter space of the models. In preparation of our numerical analysis, we present all relevant formulae and review the different numerical methods used in this work. In order to better understand the patterns of new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes, we perform a fit including all relevant {Delta}F=2 constraints in the context of the Standard Model. The result of this fit is then used in a general discussion on new effects in {Delta}F=2 processes in the context of generic extensions of the Standard Model. Our numerical analysis of the SM4 and the LRM demonstrates that in both models the existing anomalies in {Delta}=2 processes can easily be resolved. We transparently show how the different observables are connected to each other by their dependence on combinations of mixing parameters. In our analysis of rare decays in the SM4, we establish patterns of flavour violation that could in principle be used to disprove this model on the basis of {Delta}F=1 processes alone. In the LRM, we discuss the importance of the contributions originating from the exchange of heavy, flavour changing, neutral Higgs bosons as well as the inability of the LRM to entirely solve the V{sub ub} problem.

  19. A new genus of long-legged flies displaying remarkable wing directional asymmetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Runyon, Justin B; Hurley, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    A previously unknown group of flies is described whose males exhibit directional asymmetry, in that the left wing is larger than, and of a different shape from, the right wing. To our knowledge, wing asymmetry of this degree has not previously been reported in an animal capable of flight. Such consistent asymmetry must result from a left-right axis during development, a level of differentiation whose existence has been questioned for insects. Wing asymmetry of this magnitude has implications ...

  20. Multiple photon emission and b quark asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1989-08-01

    We discuss the effects of multiple photon final states in high precision tests of the SU 2L x U 1 model wherein one measures the b quark asymmetries at a very high luminosity Z 0 factory, such as the possible high luminosity upgrade of the CERN LEP collider. The specific asymmetries analyzed are the forward-backward asymmetry A FB , the left-right polarized asymmetry A LR and the polarized forward-backward asymmetry A FB,pol. . The radiative effects are found to be significant for A FB as expected, but they are not as large, on a percentage basis, as the corresponding result for muons. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  1. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  2. Single transverse-spin asymmetry in high transverse momentum pion production in pp collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We study the single-spin (left-right) asymmetry in single-inclusive pion production in hadronic scattering. This asymmetry is power-suppressed in the transverse momentum of the produced pion and can be analyzed in terms of twist-three parton correlation functions in the proton. We present new...

  3. Nasopupillary asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Eduardo; Muñoz, Diana; Matheus, Evelyn; Morales, Diana

    2014-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of nasopupillary asymmetry (difference in nasopupillary distances) in the population and its relation with the interpupillary distance. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted by reviewing of 1262 medical records. The values of nasopupillary asymmetry and the interpupillary distance were obtained. A statistical analysis was made and the correlation between these variables was established. Seventy-nine percent of the population presented some degree of nasopupillary asymmetry. The interpupillary distance had a very low correlation with the nasopupillary asymmetry (r = 0.074, P = 0.0). It is advisable to use the nasopupillary distance of each eye as a standard measurement.

  4. Lepton number violating signals of the top quark partners in the left-right twin Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the collider signatures of the left-right twin Higgs model in the case that the right-handed neutrino mass is less than the mass of the right-handed gauge boson. In this scenario, new leptonic decay chains open up, allowing the particles which cancel the one-loop quadratic divergences of the Higgs, the right-handed gauge bosons and top-partners, to be discovered. Half of these events contain same-sign leptons without missing energy, which have no genuine standard model background and for which the backgrounds are purely instrumental. These signals may be used to complement other collider searches and, in certain regions of parameter space, may be the only way to observe the particles responsible for natural electroweak symmetry breaking in the left-right twin Higgs model.

  5. Tbx6 regulates left/right patterning in mouse embryos through effects on nodal cilia and perinodal signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The determination of left/right body axis during early embryogenesis sets up a developmental cascade that coordinates the development of the viscera and is essential to the correct placement and alignment of organ systems and vasculature. Defective left-right patterning can lead to congenital cardiac malformations, vascular anomalies and other serious health problems. Here we describe a novel role for the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx6 in left/right body axis determination in the mouse. RESULTS: Embryos lacking Tbx6 show randomized embryo turning and heart looping. Our results point to multiple mechanisms for this effect. First, Dll1, a direct target of Tbx6, is down regulated around the node in Tbx6 mutants and there is a subsequent decrease in nodal signaling, which is required for laterality determination. Secondly, in spite of a lack of expression of Tbx6 in the node, we document a profound effect of the Tbx6 mutation on the morphology and motility of nodal cilia. This results in the loss of asymmetric calcium signaling at the periphery of the node, suggesting that unidirectional nodal flow is disrupted. To carry out these studies, we devised a novel method for direct labeling and live imaging cilia in vivo using a genetically-encoded fluorescent protein fusion that labels tubulin, combined with laser point scanning confocal microscopy for direct visualization of cilia movement. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the transcription factor gene Tbx6 is essential for correct left/right axis determination in the mouse and acts through effects on notch signaling around the node as well as through an effect on the morphology and motility of the nodal cilia.

  6. Class voting and Left-Right party positions: A comparative study of 15 Western democracies, 1960-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Giedo; Evans, Geoffrey; Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2013-03-01

    Studies that explain the class voting have often focused on "bottom-up" social factors, but paid little attention to 'top-down' political factors. We argue that party positions on left-right ideology have an effect on the strength of class voting. This argument is tested by estimating the impact of the Left-Right party positions on the class-vote association through a Two-Step Hierarchical analysis of integrated data from 15 countries in Western-Europe, the United States and Australia (1960-2005) supplemented with data from the Comparative Manifesto Project. Although there is a general trend for class voting to decline over time, partially accounted for by the impact of education, we find that most variation in class voting does not take the form of a linear decline. The ideological positions of left-wing parties alone do not have any effect, but the polarization of parties along the left-right dimension is associated with substantially higher levels of class voting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutations in zebrafish pitx2 model congenital malformations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome but do not disrupt left-right placement of visceral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongchang; Buel, Sharleen M; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Pitx2 is a conserved homeodomain transcription factor that has multiple functions during embryonic development. Mutations in human PITX2 cause autosomal dominant Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), characterized by congenital eye and tooth malformations. Pitx2(-/-) knockout mouse models recapitulate aspects of ARS, but are embryonic lethal. To date, ARS treatments remain limited to managing individual symptoms due to an incomplete understanding of PITX2 function. In addition to regulating eye and tooth development, Pitx2 is a target of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signaling pathway that mediates left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs. Based on its highly conserved asymmetric expression domain, the Nodal-Pitx2 axis has long been considered a common denominator of LR development in vertebrate embryos. However, functions of Pitx2 during asymmetric organ morphogenesis are not well understood. To gain new insight into Pitx2 function we used genome editing to create mutations in the zebrafish pitx2 gene. Mutations in the pitx2 homeodomain caused phenotypes reminiscent of ARS, including aberrant development of the cornea and anterior chamber of the eye and reduced or absent teeth. Intriguingly, LR asymmetric looping of the heart and gut was normal in pitx2 mutants. These results suggest conserved roles for Pitx2 in eye and tooth development and indicate Pitx2 is not required for asymmetric looping of zebrafish visceral organs. This work establishes zebrafish pitx2 mutants as a new animal model for investigating mechanisms underlying congenital malformations in ARS and high-throughput drug screening for ARS therapeutics. Additionally, pitx2 mutants present a unique opportunity to identify new genes involved in vertebrate LR patterning. We show Nodal signaling-independent of Pitx2-controls asymmetric expression of the fatty acid elongase elovl6 in zebrafish, pointing to a potential novel pathway during LR organogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-mass right-handed gauge bosons, manifest left-right symmetry, and the K/sub L/-K/sub s/ mass difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Raychaudhuri, A.

    1983-01-01

    We calculate the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference in left-right-symmetric models with four quarks. It is found that a low right-handed mass scale requires strong deviations from manifest left-right symmetry

  9. Left-Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chang, Ming-Lang; Yang, Jiun-Yue; Kuo, Dar; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2017-06-07

    Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18-22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (P T ) than those from the right lung. The P T of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (R I/E ) of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (F MPD ) from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F 50 ) from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the P T , F MPD , F 50 , and R I/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might account for the observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases.

  10. Left-Right Orientation and Electoral Choices: Divergences in the Relationships With Authority and Out-Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passini, Stefano; Villano, Paola

    2017-01-01

    New political parties and movements have recently grown across Europe. These parties often state their distance from the classic left-right juxtaposition, even if their voters still place themselves in the left-right continuum. The aim of the present research was to focus on the Italian political context and to analyze differences between left of center and right of center self-positioned people on attitudes concerning authority-individual and intergroup relationships. The results confirm the hypotheses. Left of center voters have lower attitudes of authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, prejudice, and ethnocentrism; they are less supportive of harsh punitive methods toward delinquents; and attach more importance to democratic values as compared with right of center voters. These differences are significant also considering voters within the same party. Although participants have declared they vote for the same party/movement, the voters who place themselves on the left of center indeed appear to have different views from those on the right of center, as concerns the relationship with authority and attitudes toward minorities.

  11. Left-right difference in fetal liver oxygenation during hypoxia estimated by BOLD MRI in a fetal sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, A; Holm, D; Pedersen, M; Tietze, A; Stausbøl-Grøn, B; Duus, L; Uldbjerg, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during varying oxygenation levels. Eight ewes carrying singleton fetuses at gestational age 125 days (term, 145 days) were included in the study. Under anesthesia the ewes were ventilated with gas containing different levels of oxygen, thereby subjecting the fetuses to hyperoxia (mean ± SD maternal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), 23.2 ± 8.2 kPa) and hypoxia (mean maternal arterial pO2, 7.1 ± 0.5 kPa). Changes in oxygenation within the fetal liver were assessed by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During hyperoxia there was no difference between the BOLD signal in the left and right sides of the fetal liver; mean change in BOLD (ΔBOLD)(hyperox), -0.9 ± 3.7%. During hypoxia, however, the decrease in the BOLD signal was more pronounced in the right side as compared with the left side, thereby creating a significant increase in the left-right difference in the BOLD signal; mean ΔBOLD(hypox), 5.2 ± 2.2% (P = 0.002, paired t-test). The left-right difference was directly proportional to the degree of hypoxia (R2 = 0.86, P = 0.007). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating differences in oxygenation between the left and right sides of the fetal liver during hypoxia, a difference that can be explained by increased ductus venosus shunting. Thus, the BOLD MRI technique is a promising non-invasive tool that might be useful for the future monitoring of the human fetus. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Quark-lepton unification and eight-fold ambiguity in the left-right symmetric seesaw mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosteins, P.; Lavignac, St.; Savoy, C.A

    2006-07-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, including a broad class of left-right symmetric and Grand United theories, the light neutrino mass matrix is given by the left-right symmetric seesaw formula M{sub {nu}} = f*v{sub L} - v{sup 2}/v{sub R}*Y{sub {nu}}*f{sup -1}*Y{sub {nu}}, in which the right-handed neutrino mass matrix and the SU(2){sub L} triplet couplings are proportional to the same matrix f. We propose a systematic procedure for reconstructing the 2{sup n} solutions (in the n-family case) for the matrix f as a function of the Dirac neutrino couplings (Y{sub {nu}}){sub ij} and of the light neutrino mass parameters, which can be used in both analytical and numerical studies. We apply this procedure to a particular class of supersymmetric SO(10) models with two 10-dimensional and a pair of 126 + 126 representations in the Higgs sector, and study the properties of the corresponding 8 right-handed neutrino spectra. Then, using the reconstructed right-handed neutrino and triplet parameters, we study lepton-genesis and lepton flavour violation in these models, and comment on flavour effects in lepton-genesis in the type I limit. We find that the mixed solutions where both the type I and the type II seesaw mechanisms give a significant contribution to neutrino masses provide new opportunities for successful lepton-genesis in SO(10) Great Unified Theories. (authors)

  13. Elimination of Left-Right Reciprocal Coupling in the Adult Lamprey Spinal Cord Abolishes the Generation of Locomotor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Messina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL, before and after spinal transections (T at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head. For experimental animals with ML spinal lesions, sensory stimulation could elicit well-coordinated locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some significant differences in the parameters of locomotor activity compared to those for normal animals. Computer models representing normal animals or experimental animals with ML spinal lesions could mimic many of the differences in locomotor activity. For experimental animals with ML and T spinal lesions, right and left rostral hemi-spinal cords, disconnected from intact caudal cord, usually produced tonic or unpatterned muscle activity. Hemi-spinal cords sometimes generated spontaneous or sensory-evoked relatively high frequency “burstlet” activity that probably is analogous to the previously described in vitro “fast rhythm”, which is thought to represent lamprey locomotor activity. However, “burstlet” activity in the present study had parameters and features that were very different than those for lamprey locomotor activity: average frequencies were ~25 Hz, but individual frequencies could be >50 Hz; burst proportions (BPs often varied with cycled time; “burstlet” activity usually was not accompanied by a rostrocaudal phase lag; and following ML spinal lesions alone, “burstlet” activity could occur in the presence or absence of swimming burst activity, suggesting the two were generated

  14. Integration of left-right Pitx2 transcription and Wnt signaling drives asymmetric gut morphogenesis via Daam2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ian C; Thomsen, Michael; Gludish, David W; Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Bai, Yan; Martin, James F; Kurpios, Natasza A

    2013-09-30

    A critical aspect of gut morphogenesis is initiation of a leftward tilt, and failure to do so leads to gut malrotation and volvulus. The direction of tilt is specified by asymmetric cell behaviors within the dorsal mesentery (DM), which suspends the gut tube, and is downstream of Pitx2, the key transcription factor responsible for the transfer of left-right (L-R) information from early gastrulation to morphogenesis. Although Pitx2 is a master regulator of L-R organ development, its cellular targets that drive asymmetric morphogenesis are not known. Using laser microdissection and targeted gene misexpression in the chicken DM, we show that Pitx2-specific effectors mediate Wnt signaling to activate the formin Daam2, a key Wnt effector and itself a Pitx2 target, linking actin dynamics to cadherin-based junctions to ultimately generate asymmetric cell behaviors. Our work highlights how integration of two conserved cascades may be the ultimate force through which Pitx2 sculpts L-R organs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of the Higgs boson associated with a top quark pair in the left-right twin Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie-Fen; Cao, Jun; Yan, Lei-Bing

    2010-09-01

    In the left-right twin Higgs (LRTH) model, we first examine the effects on the t\\bar{t}h production at the ILC and LHC. Our results show that in the allowed parameter space, the absolute values of the relative correction can be significantly large and thus provide a good test for the LRTH model. We also estimate the new production channel of t\\bar{T}h or T\\bar{t}h at the LHC and find that, with reasonable parameter values of the LRTH model, the values of the total hadronic cross-section can reach the level of 102 fb. The dominant decay mode T\\rightarrow \\phi^{+}b \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}b , with h\\rightarrow b\\bar{b} (or h→W+W-) can make the processes pp\\rightarrow t\\bar{T}h+T\\bar{t}h give rise to the t\\bar{t}bb\\bar{b}\\bar{b} (or t\\bar{t}bbW^{+}W^{-} ) final state, which has less background than ht\\bar{t} production, and thus this new channel may likely be observable at the LHC.

  16. Non-minimal flavored S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} left-right symmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Izquierdo, Juan Carlos [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-08-15

    We propose a non-minimal left-right symmetric model with parity symmetry where the fermion mixings arise as a result of imposing an S{sub 3} x Z{sub 2} flavor symmetry, and an extra Z{sup e}{sub 2} symmetry is considered in the lepton sector. Then the neutrino mass matrix possesses approximately the μ-τ symmetry. The breaking of the μ-τ symmetry induces sizable non-zero θ{sub 13}, and the deviation of θ{sub 23} from 45 {sup circle} is strongly controlled by an ε free parameter and the neutrino masses. So, an analytic study of the CP parities in the neutrino masses is carried out to constrain the ε parameter and the lightest neutrino mass that accommodate the mixing angles. The results are: (a) the normal hierarchy is ruled out for any values of the Majorana phases; (b) for the inverted hierarchy the values of the reactor and atmospheric angles are compatible up to 2, 3 σ C.L.; (c) the degenerate ordering is the most favorable such that the reactor and atmospheric angle are compatible with the experimental data for a large set of values of the free parameters. The model predicts defined regions for the effective neutrino mass, the neutrino mass scale and the sum of the neutrino masses for the favored cases. Therefore, this model may be testable by the future experiments. (orig.)

  17. Are consumers aware of top-bottom but not of left-right inferences? Implications for shelf space positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Ana; Raghubir, Priya

    2015-09-01

    We propose that the horizontal and vertical position of an item on a display is a source of information that individuals use to make judgments. Six experiments using 1 × 5 or 5 × 5 displays show that consumers judge that products placed at the bottom (vs. top) and on the left-hand (vs. middle and right-hand) side of a display are less expensive and of lower quality (Study 1a using a bar display, Study 1b using wine, and Study 1c using Swatch watches). Results support the claim that verticality effects (top-bottom) are attenuated when participants are less involved with the decision task (Study 2 using Swatch watches and chocolates) and when they are exposed to information that questions the diagnosticity of using vertical position as a cue (Study 3 using wine). However, the horizontality (left-right) effect is robust to both of these manipulations. Horizontality effects are exacerbated for participants primed with a number line (Study 4 also using wine), suggesting that exposure to the number line (where higher numbers are on the right) is a possible antecedent of the horizontality effect. The verticality effects may, on the other hand, reflect people's retail experience of seeing higher priced products on higher shelves, which leads to their forming a similar expectation. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical implications for visual information processing as well as practical implications for retail management. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  19. The left-right Pitx2 pathway drives organ-specific arterial and lymphatic development in the intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aparna; Welsh, Ian C.; Sivakumar, Aravind; Gludish, David W.; Shilvock, Abigail R.; Noden, Drew M.; Kurpios, Natasza A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The dorsal mesentery (DM) is the major conduit for blood and lymphatic vessels in the gut. The mechanisms underlying their morphogenesis are challenging to study and remain unknown. Here we show that arteriogenesis in the DM begins during gut rotation and proceeds strictly on the left side, dependent on the Pitx2 target gene Cxcl12. Although competent Cxcr4-positive angioblasts are present on the right, they fail to form vessels and progressively emigrate. Surprisingly, gut lymphatics also initiate in the left DM and arise only after – and dependent on – arteriogenesis, implicating arteries as drivers of gut lymphangiogenesis. Our data begin to unravel the origin of two distinct vascular systems and demonstrate how early L-R molecular asymmetries are translated into organ-specific vascular patterns. We propose a dual origin of gut lymphangiogenesis, where prior arterial growth is required to initiate local lymphatics that only subsequently connect to the vascular system. PMID:25482882

  20. Zic3 is required in the extra-cardiac perinodal region of the lateral plate mesoderm for left-right patterning and heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengxin; Zhu, Lirong; Hu, Lingyun; Slesnick, Timothy C; Pautler, Robia G; Justice, Monica J; Belmont, John W

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in ZIC3 cause human X-linked heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations. A mouse model with targeted deletion of Zic3 demonstrates an early role for Zic3 in gastrulation, CNS, cardiac and left-right axial development. The observation of multiple malformations in Zic3(null) mice and the relatively broad expression pattern of Zic3 suggest its important roles in multiple developmental processes. Here, we report that Zic3 is primarily required in epiblast derivatives to affect left-right patterning and its expression in epiblast is necessary for proper transcriptional control of embryonic cardiac development. However, cardiac malformations in Zic3 deficiency occur not because Zic3 is intrinsically required in the heart but rather because it functions early in the establishment of left-right body axis. In addition, we provide evidence supporting a role for Zic3 specifically in the perinodal region of the posterior lateral plate mesoderm for the establishment of laterality. These data delineate the spatial requirement of Zic3 during left-right patterning in the mammalian embryo, and provide basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction of Zic3 with signaling pathways involved in the early establishment of laterality.

  1. The coiled-coil domain containing protein CCDC40 is essential for motile cilia function and left-right axis formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker-Heck, Anita; Zohn, Irene E; Okabe, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the respiratory tract associated with the abnormal function of motile cilia. Approximately half of individuals with PCD also have alterations in the left-right org...

  2. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixing-Induced CP Asymmetries in Radiative B Decays in and beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, D.; Gronau, M.; Soni, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the standard model (SM) the photon in radiative B 0 and B s decays is predominantly left handed. Thus, mixing-induced CP asymmetries in b→sγ and b→dγ are suppressed by m s /m b and m d /m b , respectively, and are very small. In many extensions of the SM, such as the left-right symmetric model (LRSM), the amplitude of right-handed photons grows proportional to the virtual heavy fermion mass, which can lead to large asymmetries. In the LRSM, asymmetries larger than 50% are possible even when radiative decay rate measurements agree with SM predictions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Puzzling asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published paper, the LHCb Collaboration has reported on a possible deviation from the Standard Model. Theorists are now working to calculate precisely this effect and to evaluate the implications that such unexpected result could have on the established theory.   The Standard Model is able to predict the decay rates of particles with high precision. In most cases, experimentalists confirm the value predicted by theory and the figure is added to the official publications. However, this time, things seem to have taken a different route. Studying data collected in 2011, the LHCb Collaboration found that in a specific decay – a B particle transforming into a K particle plus two charged muons (B -> Kμ-μ+) – the branching ratio of the neutral B in the corresponding decay (i.e. B0 -> K0μ-μ+) is different from that of the positively charged B (i.e. B+ -> K+μ-μ+). Such an “isospin asymmetry&rdquo...

  5. Common origin of 3.55 keV x-ray line and gauge coupling unification with left-right dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2017-12-01

    We present a minimal left-right dark matter framework that can simultaneously explain the recently observed 3.55 keV x-ray line from several galaxy clusters and gauge coupling unification at high energy scale. Adopting a minimal dark matter strategy, we consider both left and right handed triplet fermionic dark matter candidates which are stable by virtue of a remnant Z2≃(-1 )B -L symmetry arising after the spontaneous symmetry breaking of left-right gauge symmetry to that of the standard model. A scalar bitriplet field is incorporated whose first role is to allow radiative decay of right handed triplet dark matter into the left handed one and a photon with energy 3.55 keV. The other role this bitriplet field at TeV scale plays is to assist in achieving gauge coupling unification at a high energy scale within a nonsupersymmetric S O (10 ) model while keeping the scale of left-right gauge symmetry around the TeV corner. Apart from solving the neutrino mass problem and giving verifiable new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and charged lepton flavor violation, the model with TeV scale gauge bosons can also give rise to interesting collider signatures like diboson excess, dilepton plus two jets excess reported recently in the large hadron collider data.

  6. Limits on the dipole moments of the $\\tau$-lepton via the process $e^{+}e^{-} \\to \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}\\gamma$ in a left-right symmetric model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Noriega, Luis; 10.1142/S0217732304014689

    2004-01-01

    Limits on the anomalous magnetic moment and the electric dipole moment of the tau lepton are calculated through the reaction e/sup + /e/sup -/ to tau /sup +/ tau /sup -/ gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model. The results are based on the recent data reported by the L3 collaboration at CERN LEP. Due to the stringent limit of the model mixing angle phi , the effect of this angle on the dipole moments is quite small.

  7. Sex, age, and cognitive correlates of asymmetries in thickness of the cortical mantle across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    hemisphere than in the left on the lateral surface, whereas it derived from a steeper decline with age in the left hemisphere than in the right on the mesial surface. Finally, measures of performance on working memory and vocabulary tasks improved with increasing magnitudes of normal asymmetries in regions......We assessed the correlations of age, sex, and cognitive performance with measures of asymmetry in cortical thickness on high-resolution MRIs in 215 healthy human children and adults, 7-59 years of age. A left > right asymmetry in thickness of the cortical mantle was present throughout the entire...

  8. An introduction to cross-sections and asymmetries measurable using polarised beams in high-energy e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of polarised beams at SLC, and hopefully LEP, is an important development. This will allow access to a range of precision measurements which exploit the parity violating nature of the Z boson. This report gives an introduction to the basic quantities which may be measured with polarised beams. These are the left-right asymmetry (A LR ), forward-backward asymmetries with and without polarisation (A R FB , A L FB , A FB ) and the ''improved'' polarised forward-backward asymmetry (A pol FB ). The final state polarisation measurement is also discussed. (author)

  9. Short-distance QCD corrections to K{sup 0}K̄{sup 0} mixingat next-to-leading order in Left-Right models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Véronique [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Descotes-Genon, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, CNRS,University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-08-23

    Left-Right (LR) models are extensions of the Standard Model where left-right symmetry is restored at high energies, and which are strongly constrained by kaon mixing described in the framework of the |ΔS|=2 effective Hamiltonian. We consider the short-distance QCD corrections to this Hamiltonian both in the Standard Model (SM) and in LR models. The leading logarithms occurring in these short-distance corrections can be resummed within a rigourous Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach integrating out heavy degrees of freedom progressively, or using an approximate simpler method of regions identifying the ranges of loop momentum generating large logarithms in the relevant two-loop diagrams. We compare the two approaches in the SM at next-to-leading order, finding a very good agreement when one scale dominates the problem, but only a fair agreement in the presence of a large logarithm at leading order. We compute the short-distance QCD corrections for LR models at next-to-leading order using the method of regions, and we compare the results with the EFT approach for the WW{sup ′} box with two charm quarks (together with additional diagrams forming a gauge-invariant combination), where a large logarithm occurs already at leading order. We conclude by providing next-to-leading-order estimates for cc, ct and tt boxes in LR models.

  10. Comparison of vascular width and accuracy of subjective assessment of pulmonary flow X-ray films of children with left-right shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenbarth, R.; Toeroek, M.; Hannover Medizinische Hochschule

    1985-01-01

    The authors established a comparative relationship between accuracy of measurement of pulmonary flow and extent of vascular widening in 72 children with Left-Right shunt vitiae; this accuracy of pulmonary flow measurement had been subjectively estimated by 4 investigators without knowing the diagnosis and in comparison to the haemodynamic values (percentage of correct findings). The following procedure was adopted: In a control group of 143 healthy children, we first determined the vascular diameter of the right descending pulmonary artery, of the right upper lobal vein, and of the peripheral vessels in the upper and lower pulmonary fields, at an accurately defined distance from the point of the hilus, and compared with the vascular diameters of the children with left-right shunt, employing the method of discrimination analysis. Comparison of the judgement by the 4 investigators with the degree of increase of the vascular diameters showed an accuracy of 65-100% if the right descending pulmonary artery became wider by 2.6 mm, and an accuracy of 79-95% if the mean vascular width in the right upper field increased by 0.7 mm. The accuracy was 83-94% if the mean vascular width in the right lower field increased by 0.6 mm. Statistical studies also showed that the judgement of the 4 investigators was influenced by different vessels. (orig.) [de

  11. Evolutionary plasticity of habenular asymmetry with a conserved efferent connectivity pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Villalón

    Full Text Available The vertebrate habenulae (Hb is an evolutionary conserved dorsal diencephalic nuclear complex that relays information from limbic and striatal forebrain regions to the ventral midbrain. One key feature of this bilateral nucleus is the presence of left-right differences in size, cytoarchitecture, connectivity, neurochemistry and/or gene expression. In teleosts, habenular asymmetry has been associated with preferential innervation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN. However, the degree of conservation of this trait and its relation to the structural asymmetries of the Hb are currently unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first systematic comparative analysis of structural and connectional asymmetries of the Hb in teleosts. We found striking inter-species variability in the overall shape and cytoarchitecture of the Hb, and in the frequency, strength and to a lesser degree, laterality of habenular volume at the population level. Directional asymmetry of the Hb was either to the left in D. rerio, E. bicolor, O. latipes, P. reticulata, B. splendens, or to the right in F. gardneri females. In contrast, asymmetry was absent in P. scalare and F. gardneri males at the population level, although in these species the Hb displayed volumetric asymmetries at the individual level. Inter-species variability was more pronounced across orders than within a single order, and coexisted with an overall conserved laterotopic representation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the IPN. These results suggest that the circuit design involving the Hb of teleosts promotes structural flexibility depending on developmental, cognitive and/or behavioural pressures, without affecting the main midbrain connectivity output, thus unveiling a key conserved role of this connectivity trait in the function of the circuit. We propose that ontogenic plasticity in habenular

  12. Strange particle production and s-quark asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, S.

    1996-08-01

    Using hadronic Z 0 decays recorded by the SLD experiment at SLAC, we have studied the production of strange particles as a function of momentum. A high-purity sample of K ± was tagged using Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID). The φ, Λ and K s were reconstructed in the K + K - , p-π and π + π - modes respectively, and CRID identification of K ± and p was used to obtain pure samples of φ and Λ. We have used the high electron-beam polarisation delivered by the SLC to measure the left-right forward-backward production asymmetries of these particles, and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the underlying strange quark asymmetry in Z 0 decays

  13. Asymmetry Inside The Symmetry: Mechanisms and Disorders Of Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Alanay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of the left-right (L-R axis is a feature of vertebrates that is apparent in the viscera and vasculature. An understanding of L-R patterning in human dev elopment is aided by familiarity with key events and important pathways in mammalian embryogenesis.The induction of L-R asymmetry follows the establishment of the anteroposterior (A-P or rostrocaudal and dorsov entral (D-V axes and requires the pre-existing midline symmetry to be broken before sidedness is induced via a series of complex, coordinated molecular signaling events. In this review, our aim is to describe the molecular background of this embryological process, and give brief knowledge concerning its clinical consequences.

  14. Functional Hemispheric (Asymmetries in the Aged Brain—Relevance for Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Esteves

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional hemispheric asymmetries have been described in different cognitive processes, such as decision-making and motivation. Variations in the pattern of left/right activity have been associated with normal brain functioning, and with neuropsychiatric diseases. Such asymmetries in brain activity evolve throughout life and are thought to decrease with aging, but clear associations with cognitive function have never been established. Herein, we assessed functional laterality during a working memory task (N-Back in a healthy aging cohort (over 50 years old and associated these asymmetries with performance in the test. Activity of lobule VI of the cerebellar hemisphere and angular gyrus was found to be lateralized to the right hemisphere, while the precentral gyrus presented left > right activation during this task. Interestingly, 1-Back accuracy was positively correlated with left > right superior parietal lobule activation, which was mostly due to the influence of the left hemisphere. In conclusion, although regions were mostly symmetrically activated during the N-Back task, performance in working memory in aged individuals seems to benefit from lateralized involvement of the superior parietal lobule.

  15. Asymmetries at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius U.

    2014-10-28

    In this report, we summarize the latest results of the top-quark pair production asymmetry and present the new result of bottom-quark pair production asymmetry. By looking at the results obtained by the CDF experiment, one can see a discrepancy in both $t\\bar{t}$ inclusive and lepton-based measurements. The D0 results of the $t\\bar{t}$ production asymmetry are compatible with the standard-model predictions as well as with the CDF results. The CDF measurement of $b\\bar{b}$ production asymmetry presents consistency with both zero and with the standard-model predictions.

  16. Single vector-like top partner production in the left-right twin Higgs model at TeV energy eγ colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhanying; Yang Guang; Yang Bingfang

    2013-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs model contains a new vector-like heavy top quark, which mixes with the SM-like top quark. In this work, we studied the single vector-like top partner production via process e - γ → νeT-barb at the International Linear Collider. We calculated the production cross section at tree level and displayed the relevant differential distributions. The result shows that there will be 125 events produced each year with √s=2 TeV and the integrated luminosity Script Lint ≈ 500 fb -1 , and the b-quark tagging and the relevant missing energy cut will be helpful to detect this new effect. (authors)

  17. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  18. Leptogenesis and gravity: Baryon asymmetry without decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-03-10

    A popular class of theories attributes the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe to CP-violating decays of super-heavy BSM particles in the Early Universe. Recently, we discovered a new source of leptogenesis in these models, namely that the same Yukawa phases which provide the CP violation for decays, combined with curved-spacetime loop effects, lead to an entirely new gravitational mechanism for generating an asymmetry, driven by the expansion of the Universe and independent of the departure of the heavy particles from equilibrium. In this Letter, we build on previous work by analysing the full Boltzmann equation, exploring the full parameter space of the theory and studying the time-evolution of the asymmetry. Remarkably, we find regions of parameter space where decays play no part at all, and where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is determined solely by gravitational effects.

  19. The relationship between skull asymmetry and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamori, Yuriko; Yuge, Mariko; Kanda, Toyoko; Ashida, Hiromi; Fukase, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between brain damage and skull asymmetry or supine head position preference, we classified CT findings of 330 cases with cerebral palsy or risk of motor disturbance into 6 groups according to skull shape. Those were severe (I, n = 37) and mild (II, n = 114) grades in the right occipital flatness, severe (III, n = 34) and mild (IV, n = 58) grades in the left occipital flatness, long skull with temporal flatness (V, n = 33) and symmetric round skull (control, n = 54). It was considered that the asymmetry of cortical atrophy in appearance was formed physicaly by skull asymmetry but that the asymmetric dilatation in appearance of lateral ventricle was related to the asymmetry of brain damage. The severity and the asymmetry of brain damage were tend to increase the grade of skull asymmetry. The incidence of cases with the right occipital flatness was 1.6 times more frequently than the left sided. The incidence of cases whose left (lateral) ventricle was larger than the right was 4.1 times more than the cases whose right ventricle was larger than the left. The cases with occipital flatness in the contralateral side of the larger lateral ventricle were found more than the cases with occipital flatness in the ipsilateral side of the larger ventricle, that is to say, the direction of supine head position preference during early infant was suspected to be the more severely disturbed side of body. These results suggest that the supine head position preference to the right in newborn babies and infants with scoliosis or cerebral palsy might be the result of transient or permanent asymmetric (left > right) brain dysfunction. (author)

  20. The Bergen left-right discrimination test: practice effects, reliable change indices, and strategic performance in the standard and alternate form with inverted stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Philip; Ohmann, Hanno A; Markowitsch, Hans J; Piefke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Several authors pointed out that left-right discrimination (LRD) tasks may be entangled with differential demands on mental rotation (MR). However, studies considering this interrelationship are rare. To differentially assess LRD of stimuli with varying additional demands on MR, we constructed and evaluated an extended version of the Bergen right-left discrimination (BRLD) test including additional subtests with inverted stickmen stimuli in 174 healthy participants (50♂, 124♀) and measured subjective reports on participants' strategies to accomplish the task. Moreover, we analyzed practice effects and reliable change indices (RCIs) on BRLD performance, as well as gender differences. Performance significantly differed between subtests with high and low demands on MR with best scores on subtests with low demands on MR. Participants' subjective strategies corroborate these results: MR was most frequently reported for subtests with highest MR demands (and lowest test performance). Pronounced practice effects were observed for all subtests. Sex differences were not observed. We conclude that our extended version of the BRLD allows for the differentiation between LRD with high and low demands on MR abilities. The type of stimulus materials is likely to be critical for the differential assessment of MR and LRD. Moreover, RCIs provide a basis for the clinical application of the BRLD.

  1. Search for a Heavy Right-Handed W Boson and Heavy Right-Handed Neutrino of the Left-Right Symmetric Extension of the Standard Theory

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00345539

    A search for a heavy right-handed $W_{R}$ boson, and heavy right-handed neutrinos $N_{\\ell}$ ($\\ell = e, \\mu$) performed by the CMS experiment is summarized here. Using the 2.6 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the CMS experiment in 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, this search seeks evidence of a $W_{R}$ boson and $N_{\\ell}$ neutrinos in events with two leptons and two jets. The data do not significantly exceed expected backgrounds, and are consistent with expected results of the Standard Theory given uncertainties. For Standard Theory extensions with strict left-right symmetry, and assuming only one $N_{\\ell}$ flavor contributes significantly to the $W_{R}$ decay width, mass limits are set in the two-dimensional $(M_{W_{R}}, M_{N_{\\ell}})$ plane at 95\\% confidence level. The limits extend to a $W_{R}$ mass of 3.3 TeV in the electron channel and 3.5 TeV in the muon channel, and span a wide range of $M_{N_{\\ell}}$ masses below $M_{W_{R}}$.

  2. A semi-Markov model for stroke with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Matthews, Fiona E; van den Hout, Ardo

    2013-02-20

    This paper presents a parametric method of fitting semi-Markov models with piecewise-constant hazards in the presence of left, right and interval censoring. We investigate transition intensities in a three-state illness-death model with no recovery. We relax the Markov assumption by adjusting the intensity for the transition from state 2 (illness) to state 3 (death) for the time spent in state 2 through a time-varying covariate. This involves the exact time of the transition from state 1 (healthy) to state 2. When the data are subject to left or interval censoring, this time is unknown. In the estimation of the likelihood, we take into account interval censoring by integrating out all possible times for the transition from state 1 to state 2. For left censoring, we use an Expectation-Maximisation inspired algorithm. A simulation study reflects the performance of the method. The proposed combination of statistical procedures provides great flexibility. We illustrate the method in an application by using data on stroke onset for the older population from the UK Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Dissymmetry and Asymmetry - A Hopeless Conflict in Chemical Literature. Chandan Saha Suchandra Chakraborty. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 768-778 ...

  4. Asymmetry of eye color in the common cuckoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ha-Na; Lee, Jin-Won; Yoo, Jeong-Chil

    2017-08-08

    Bilateral symmetry is assumed to contribute to the evolution of eye color, with the left and right eye being the same color in most vertebrates; yet, few studies tested this assumption. Here, we compared the amount of iris flecking (black spots presented on the iris) between the left and right eye of 76 adult common cuckoos Cuculus canorus. We found considerable variation in the total amount of iris flecking among individuals, with variation being associated with body size and sex. We also found that the amount of iris flecking differed between the left and right eye and that this left-right asymmetry was not random, with the left eye almost always being darker than the right eye. Furthermore, this asymmetry was negatively associated with wing length; however, this effect was limited to individuals with dark eyes. Overall, the asymmetric, but non-random, distribution of iris flecking between the left and right eye may indicate that selection pressures driving asymmetry (such as visual lateralization) act on the development of iris colors, even though this effect might be limited, due to the role of bilateral symmetry.

  5. A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel. The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.

  6. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Symmetry OUT, Asymmetry IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lourenço

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a perfect vertebrate body plan poses many questions that thrill developmental biologists. Special attention has been given to the symmetric segmental patterning that allows the formation of the vertebrae and skeletal muscles. These segmented structures derive from bilaterally symmetric units called somites, which are formed under the control of a segmentation clock. At the same time that these symmetric units are being formed, asymmetric signals are establishing laterality in nearby embryonic tissues, allowing the asymmetric placement of the internal organs. More recently, a “shield” that protects symmetric segmentation from the influence of laterality cues was uncovered. Here we review the mechanisms that control symmetric versus asymmetric development along the left-right axis among vertebrates. We also discuss the impact that these studies might have in the understanding of human congenital disorders characterized by congenital vertebral malformations and abnormal laterality phenotypes.

  8. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  9. Lepton asymmetry in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1998-01-01

    An estimate of the possible magnitude of the lepton asymmetry in B d decay is given in terms of observables. The asymmetry in B s decays is also discussed. It is concluded that the lepton asymmetry is not useful for detecting new physics in B-bar B mixing. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  11. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamberg, Leonard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rossi, Patrizia [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  12. Search for heavy neutrinos and W$_R$ bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, M[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  13. Strength Asymmetry Increases Gait Asymmetry and Variability in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P.; Cook, Summer B.; Mackala, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the research was to determine how knee extensor strength asymmetry influences gait asymmetry and variability since these gait parameters have been related to mobility and falls in older adults. Methods Strength of the knee extensors was measured in 24 older women (65 – 80 yr). Subjects were separated into symmetrical strength (SS, n = 13) and asymmetrical strength (SA, n = 11) groups using an asymmetry cutoff of 20%. Subjects walked at a standard speed of 0.8 m s−1 and at maximal speed on an instrumented treadmill while kinetic and spatiotemporal gait variables were measured. Gait and strength asymmetry were calculated as the percent difference between legs and gait variability as the coefficient of variation over twenty sequential steps. Results SA had greater strength asymmetry (27.4 ± 5.5%) than SS (11.7 ± 5.4%, P speeds, SA had greater single (7.1% vs. 2.5%) and double-limb support time asymmetry (7.0 vs. 4.3%) than SS and greater single-limb support time variability (9.7% vs. 6.6%, all P speed interactions occurred for weight acceptance force variability (P = 0.02) and weight acceptance force asymmetry (P = 0.017) with greater variability at the maximal speed in SA (5.0 ± 2.4% vs. 3.7 ± 1.2%) and greater asymmetry at the maximal speed in SA (6.4 ± 5.3% vs. 2.5 ± 2.3%). Conclusion Gait variability and asymmetry are greater in older women with strength asymmetry and increase when they walk near their maximal capacities. The maintenance of strength symmetry, or development of symmetry through unilateral exercise, may be beneficial in reducing gait asymmetry, gait variability, and fall risk in older adults. PMID:22617401

  14. LHCb Semileptonic Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika

    2013-01-01

    A recent LHCb measurement of the CP violating flavour specific asymmetry in $B_s^0$ decays, $a^s_{ls}$, is presented. This measurement is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ $=$ 7 TeV, collected during the 2011 run of the LHC. The result is $a^s_{ls} = (-0.24 \\pm 0.54_{\\rm stat} \\pm 0.33_{\\rm syst})\\times 10^{-2}$, which is the most precise measurement of this quantity to date and agrees with the Standard Model prediction.

  15. Wdr18 is required for Kupffer's vesicle formation and regulation of body asymmetry in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Correct specification of the left-right (L-R axis is important for organ morphogenesis. Conserved mechanisms involving cilia rotation inside node-like structures and asymmetric Nodal signaling in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM, which are important symmetry-breaking events, have been intensively studied. In zebrafish, the clustering and migration of dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs is critical for the formation of the Kuppfer's vesicle (KV. However, molecular events underlying DFC clustering and migration are less understood. The WD-repeat proteins function in a variety of biological processes, including cytoskeleton assembly, intracellular trafficking, mRNA splicing, transcriptional regulation and cell migration. However, little is known about the function of WD-repeat proteins in L-R asymmetry determination. Here, we report the identification and functional analyses of zebrafish wdr18, a novel gene that encodes a WD-repeat protein that is highly conserved among vertebrate species. wdr18 was identified from a Tol2 transposon-mediated enhancer trap screen. Follow-up analysis of wdr18 mRNA expression showed that it was detected in DFCs or the KV progenitor cells and later in the KV at early somitogenesis stages. Morpholino knockdown of wdr18 resulted in laterality defects in the visceral organs, which were preceded by the mis-expression of Nodal-related genes, including spaw and pitx2. Examination of morphants at earlier stages revealed that the KV had fewer and shorter cilia which are immotile and a smaller cavity. We further investigated the organization of DFCs in wdr18 morphant embryos using ntl and sox17 as specific markers and found that the clustering and migration of DFC was altered, leading to a disorganized KV. Finally, through a combination of wdr18 and itgb1b morpholino injections, we provided evidence that wdr18 and itgb1b genetically interact in the laterality determination process. Thus, we reveal a new and essential role for WD

  16. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  17. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  18. Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    We studied 21 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (8 men, 13 women; aged 53-85, mean 71.1 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebro-vascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with [sup 123]I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of right-left hemispheric asymmetry of cerebral blood flow (left, n=6; rightleft=right, n=12). General scores (MMS, T-IQ) were not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe were significantly lower than in other groups, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry detected by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. (author).

  19. Asymmetry and Symmetry in the Beauty of Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hessamian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in the published literature has mostly been on symmetry as the critical source for beauty judgment. In fact, both symmetry and asymmetry serve as highly aesthetic sources of beauty, whether the context is perceptual or conceptual. The human brain is characterized by symbolic cognition and this type of cognition facilitates a range of aesthetic reactions. For example, both art and natural scenery contain asymmetrical elements, which nevertheless render the whole effect beautiful. A further good case in point is, in fact, human faces. Normally, faces are structurally left-right symmetrical content-wise but not size-wise or function-wise. Attractiveness has often been discussed in terms of content-wise full-face symmetry. To test whether or not attractiveness can be gleaned only from the presence of left-right full-faces we tested half faces. Three separate groups of participants viewed and rated the attractiveness of 56 full-faces (women’s and men’s, their 56 vertical left hemi-faces and 56 vertical right hemi-faces. We found no statistically significant differences in the attractiveness ratings of full- and hemi-faces (whether left or right. Instead, we found a strong and significant positive correlation between the ratings of the hemi- and full-faces. These results are consistent with the view that the underpinning of human facial beauty is complex and that bilateral symmetry does not constitute a principle factor in beauty assessment. We discuss that the highly evolved human brain, compared to other animals, as well as symbolic and abstract cognition in humans enable a wide variety of aesthetic reactions.

  20. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

      Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all thre...... the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage....

  1. Attentional reorienting triggers spatial asymmetries in a search task with cross-modal spatial cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Paladini

    Full Text Available Cross-modal spatial cueing can affect performance in a visual search task. For example, search performance improves if a visual target and an auditory cue originate from the same spatial location, and it deteriorates if they originate from different locations. Moreover, it has recently been postulated that multisensory settings, i.e., experimental settings, in which critical stimuli are concurrently presented in different sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory, may trigger asymmetries in visuospatial attention. Thereby, a facilitation has been observed for visual stimuli presented in the right compared to the left visual space. However, it remains unclear whether auditory cueing of attention differentially affects search performance in the left and the right hemifields in audio-visual search tasks. The present study investigated whether spatial asymmetries would occur in a search task with cross-modal spatial cueing. Participants completed a visual search task that contained no auditory cues (i.e., unimodal visual condition, spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and spatially non-informative auditory cues. To further assess participants' accuracy in localising the auditory cues, a unimodal auditory spatial localisation task was also administered. The results demonstrated no left/right asymmetries in the unimodal visual search condition. Both an additional incongruent, as well as a spatially non-informative, auditory cue resulted in lateral asymmetries. Thereby, search times were increased for targets presented in the left compared to the right hemifield. No such spatial asymmetry was observed in the congruent condition. However, participants' performance in the congruent condition was modulated by their tone localisation accuracy. The findings of the present study demonstrate that spatial asymmetries in multisensory processing depend on the validity of the cross-modal cues, and occur under specific attentional conditions, i.e., when

  2. Exclusion of pituitary homeobox 2 gene polymorphism in vertical mandibular asymmetry patients: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyanti, Ervina; Boel, Trelia; Soegiharto, Benny; Ilyas, Syafruddin; Irani Nainggolan, Lidya; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    Pituitary Homeobox 2 (PITX2), is an active gene as a paired-related homeobox gene that encodes multiple isoforms. Its Nodal pathway in determination of left-right patterning during embryogenesis has been reported in satellite cells and expressed in adult human skeletal muscle. PITX2A and PITX2B are produced by alternative splicing and used of different promoters. PITX2C uses an alternative promoter located upstream of exon 4. PITX2D is produced by PITX2C alternative promoter and differential splicing. The 5’-primers and 3’- antisense primer were unique for each isoforms. Variability measurement in vertical dimension showed stronger genetic component than sagittal. This study aims to obtain the genotype marker of vertical mandibular asymmetry related to PITX2A and PITX2D isoform by visualization of the amplified product on stained gel to allele specific oligonucleotide between the case and control with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Determination of vertical mandibular asymmetry based on condylar height asymmetry index of pre-treatment panoramic radiograph using Kjellberg’s technique whilst vertical mandibular growth pattern using lateral cephalogram. The differences of condylar height asymmetry in case-control based on vertical growth pattern was compared using Pearson’s chi-squared test. DNA extraction of 129 out-coming orthodontic patients in Universitas Sumatera Utara Dental Hospital were obtained from Buccal swab. Then DNA samples were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with NciI restriction enzyme prior to electrophoresis visualization. There was no significant statistical difference in vertical mandibular asymmetry compared to vertical mandibular growth pattern. The RFLP analysis did not show any polymorphism for PITX2A and PITX2D isoform. All of the samples showed wild type homozygote. Further analysis method, except RFLP, were required to understand the genetic factor in the variance of vertical mandibular

  3. Search for heavy neutrinos and W(R) bosons with right-handed couplings in a left-right symmetric model in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7  TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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    2012-12-28

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N(μ), and right-handed W(R) bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0  fb(-1) sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W(R) mass, dependent on the value of M(W(R)). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W(R)), M(N(μ)) mass plane extends to M(W(R))=2.5  TeV.

  4. [Dreams and interhemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korabel'nikova, E A; Golubev, V L

    2001-01-01

    The dreams of 103 children and adolescents, aged 10-17 years, have been studied. The test group included 78 patients with neurotic disorders; control one consisted of 25 healthy subjects. Dream features, which were common for those with preferentially left asymmetry profile both in patients as well as in healthy subjects, were: less expressed novelty factor and frequent appearance of rare phenomena, such as "déjà vu in wakefulness", reality, "mixed" (overlapped) dreams, prolonged dreams in repeat sleep, frequent changes of personages and scenes of action. Left-hander dream peculiarities, being detected only in neurotic patients but not in healthy subjects, emerged as lucid phenomena deficit, "dream in dreams" and "dream reminiscence in dream" syndrome, which have been found only in left-handers. Right and left hemispheres seem to contribute in different ways to a dream formation. In authors believe that the left hemisphere seems to provide dream origin while the right hemisphere provides dream vividness, figurativeness and affective activation level.

  5. Looking for charming asymmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    New results presented by the LHCb collaboration on the decay of particles containing a “charm” quark delve deeper into the mystery of matter-antimatter asymmetry.   A view of the LHCb experimental cavern. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN’s LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. At the VIII International Workshop on Charm Physics, which took place in Bologna earlier this month, the LHCb Collaboration presented the most precise measurement to date of a phenomenon called Charge-Parity (CP) violation among particles that contain a charm quark. CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the “C” part) and if its spatia...

  6. Information Asymmetry and Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena TUPANGIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Information asymmetry defines relationships where an agent holds information while another does not hold it. Thus, to the extent that one of the parties to the financing agreement has information more or less accurate than another, the asymmetry of information appears to be a major constraint in the financing of a project. Banks, in their capacity of financial intermediary, operate the transfer of funds to agents in need of financing, to the borrowers, being necessary in this process to have more information in order to benefit of expertise in assessing borrowers. The research of information asymmetry and credit risk consists of interrogating the following aspects: information issues between the bank and borrowers; settlement of information issues; bank’s activism towards information asymmetry. In our approach we will look at the first aspect, namely the information issues between the bank and the borrowers.

  7. Lepton asymmetries from neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Reasonably large relic neutrino asymmetries can be generated by active-sterile neutrino oscillations. After briefly discussing possible applications, I describe the Quantum Kinetic Equation formalism used to compute the asymmetry growth curves. I then show how the basic features of these curves can be understood on the basis of the adiabatic limit approximation in the collision dominated epoch, and the pure MSW effect at lower temperatures (author)

  8. Leptogenesis with left-right domain walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gauge theories and the standard Big Bang cosmology remains an open problem. The combination B + L of the baryon and lepton numbers is known to be anomalous in the standard model (sM). For T >TEW, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition, the B +L violation becomes unsuppressed [1-3]. Thus any B +L.

  9. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika [Takeda General Hospital, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP), using the Matsuda`s quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (left, n=5; rightleft=right, n=8). We decided that lateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author).

  10. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Gorga, Michael P; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M

    2008-03-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the right ear in infant auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The present study analyzed 2640 infant responses to further explore these effects. Ear differences in OAE SNR, signal, and noise were evaluated separately and across frequencies (1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz), and ABR asymmetries were compared with cochlear asymmetries. Analyses of ear-canal reflectance and admittance showed that asymmetries in middle-ear functioning did not explain cochlear and brainstem asymmetries. Current results are consistent with earlier studies showing right-ear dominance for TEOAE and ABR. Noise levels were higher in the right ear for OAEs and ABRs, causing ear asymmetries in SNR to differ from those in signal level. No left-ear dominance for DPOAE signal was observed. These results do not support a theory that ear asymmetries in cochlear processing mimic hemispheric brain specialization for auditory processing.

  11. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  12. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  13. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  14. Analysis of side writing asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The side writing asymmetry of a recording head was investigated using an overwrite configuration that enhances the edge effects. The track profiles of the overwrite patterns were measured for analyzing the side writing performance of the head. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) images of the overwrite

  15. Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam

    2018-03-01

    The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.

  16. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon

    2004-01-01

    All biological objects exhibit some degree of asymmetry, but for some parts of the human body, excessive asymmetry is a sign of pathology. Hence, the problem is to draw the line between categorization of objects being too asymmetric and objects exhibiting normal asymmetry. With a measure of asymm...

  17. Abnormal asymmetry of white matter tracts between ventral posterior cingulate cortex and middle temporal gyrus in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Woo; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha E; Kubicki, Marek; Lee, Jungsun

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormalities in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in schizophrenia patients. However, it remains unclear whether the white matter tracts connecting these structures are impaired in schizophrenia. Our study investigated the integrity of these white matter tracts (vPCC-MTG tract) and their asymmetry (left versus right side) in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients and 24 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We extracted left and right vPCC-MTG tract on each side from T1W and diffusion MRI (dMRI) at 3T. We then calculated the asymmetry index of diffusion measures of vPCC-MTG tracts as well as volume and thickness of vPCC and MTG using the formula: 2×(right-left)/(right+left). We compared asymmetry indices between patients and controls and evaluated their correlations with the severity of psychiatric symptoms and cognition in patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), video-based social cognition scale (VISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Asymmetry of fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the vPCC-MTG tract, while present in healthy controls, was not evident in schizophrenia patients. Also, we observed that patients, not healthy controls, had a significant FA decrease and RD increase in the left vPCC-MTG tract. There was no significant association between the asymmetry indices of dMRI measures and IQ, VISC, or PANSS scores in schizophrenia. Disruption of asymmetry of the vPCC-MTG tract in schizophrenia may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-dependence of sensorimotor and cerebral electroencephalographic asymmetry in rats subjected to unilateral cerebrovascular stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyanova, Slavianka G; Mitreva, Rumiana G; Kortenska, Lidia V; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Ngomba, Richard T

    2013-11-19

    The human population mostly affected by stroke is more than 65 years old. This study was designed to meet the recommendation that models of cerebral ischemia in aged animals are more relevant to the clinical setting than young animal models. Until now the majority of the pre-clinical studies examining age effects on stroke outcomes have used rats of old age. Considering the increasing incidence of stroke among younger than old human population, new translational approaches in animal models are needed to match the rejuvenation of stroke. A better knowledge of alterations in stroke outcomes in middle-aged rats has important preventive and management implications providing clues for future investigations on effects of various neuroprotective and neurorestorative drugs against cerebrovascular accidents that may occur before late senescence. We evaluated the impact of transient focal ischemia, induced by intracerebral unilateral infusion of endothelin-1 (Et-1) near the middle cerebral artery of conscious rats, on volume of brain damage and asymmetry in behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) output measures in middle-aged (11-12 month-old) rats. We did not find any age-dependent difference in the volume of ischemic brain damage three days after Et-1 infusion. However, age was an important determinant of neurological and EEG outcomes after stroke. Middle-aged ischemic rats had more impaired somatosensory functions of the contralateral part of the body than young ischemic rats and thus, had greater left-right reflex/sensorimotor asymmetry. Interhemispheric EEG asymmetry was more evident in middle-aged than in young ischemic rats, and this could tentatively explain the behavioral asymmetry. With a multiparametric approach, we have validated the endothelin model of ischemia in middle-aged rats. The results provide clues for future studies on mechanisms underlying plasticity after brain damage and motivate investigations of novel neuroprotective strategies against

  19. New Views on Strand Asymmetry in Insect Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin; Sharkey, Michael J.; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ye, Gong-Yin; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera); the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew) was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms. PMID:20856815

  20. New views on strand asymmetry in insect mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jun Wei

    Full Text Available Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. Understanding the mutation processes that shape strand asymmetry is essential for comprehensive knowledge of genome evolution, demographical population history and accurate phylogenetic inference. Previous studies found that the relative contributions of different substitution types to strand asymmetry are associated with replication alone or both replication and transcription. However, the relative contributions of replication and transcription to strand asymmetry remain unclear. Here we conducted a broad survey of strand asymmetry across 120 insect mitochondrial genomes, with special reference to the correlation between the signs of skew values and replication orientation/gene direction. The results show that the sign of GC skew on entire mitochondrial genomes is reversed in all species of three distantly related families of insects, Philopteridae (Phthiraptera, Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera and Braconidae (Hymenoptera; the replication-related elements in the A+T-rich regions of these species are inverted, confirming that reversal of strand asymmetry (GC skew was caused by inversion of replication origin; and finally, the sign of GC skew value is associated with replication orientation but not with gene direction, while that of AT skew value varies with gene direction, replication and codon positions used in analyses. These findings show that deaminations during replication and other mutations contribute more than selection on amino acid sequences to strand compositions of G and C, and that the replication process has a stronger affect on A and T content than does transcription. Our results may contribute to genome-wide studies of replication and transcription mechanisms.

  1. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  2. Methods of statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina Anastasia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methodical problems concerning the practical use of fluctuating asymmetry level of bio-objects are considered. The questions connected with the variety of value asymmetry calculation methods and the use of asymmetry indicators efficiency and integrated indexes are discussed in detail. Discrepancy of research results when using several estimates of asymmetry is connected with their statistical properties and peculiarity of their normal variability which define sensitivity and operability of indicators. Concrete examples illustrating the negative influence of arithmetic transformations on the revealing properties of indicators are given: disturbance of normal distribution and the need of using rough nonparametric criteria , the increase of the importance of rare casual deviations, the introduction of additional variability components into an asymmetry level. Problems which arise in calculating asymmetry integrated indexes when signs unite with different levels of statistical parameters are separately considered. It is recommended to use the indicator of fluctuating asymmetry based on normalized deviation.

  3. Knowledge asymmetries about product "goodness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    agencies, the companies themselves and scientific research.  The purpose of the Ipod application Good GuideTM is to offer consumers a tool for mediating knowledge asymmetries about the products from multiple perspectives.  In light of this new technology, this paper argues for a shift from the notion......, Goodguide.com, uses an IpodTM application to inform consumers about product ratings from individual health, social and environmental perspectives.  This application gathers data from corporations on their product ingredients, and use organizational rating systems based on information from U.S. Federal...... of institutionalization of CSR as a company-focused model (Schultz & Wehmeier 2010) to a focus on inter-institutional and institution-consumer knowledge asymmetries affecting consumer sensemaking practices in purchasing.  Data from the Good GuideTM Ipod application, YouTube Videos about a legal controversy involving...

  4. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  6. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  7. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Dietrich, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of the regenerator in a Stirling-type pulse tube cooler as observed in experiments was analysed in a numerical study. The asymmetry was reproduced using a one-dimensional model of the cooler where the regenerator was modelled using two identical...... mass flow rate on the pressure difference and temperature....

  8. Constant fluctuating asymmetry but not directional asymmetry along the geographic distribution of Drosophila antonietae (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The population dynamics of a species tends to change from the core to the periphery of its distribution. Therefore, one could expect peripheral populations to be subject to a higher level of stress than more central populations (the center–periphery hypothesis and consequently should present a higher level of fluctuating asymmetry. To test these predictions we study asymmetry in wing shape of five populations of Drosophila antonietae collected throughout the distribution of the species using fluctuating asymmetry as a proxy for developmental instability. More specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1 what types of asymmetry occur in populations of D. antonietae? (2 Does the level of fluctuating asymmetry vary among populations? (3 Does peripheral populations have a higher fluctuating asymmetry level than central populations? We used 12 anatomical landmarks to quantify patterns of asymmetry in wing shape in five populations of D. antonietae within the framework of geometric morphometrics. Net asymmetry – a composite measure of directional asymmetry + fluctuating asymmetry – varied significantly among populations. However, once net asymmetry of each population is decomposed into directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, most of the variation in asymmetry was explained by directional asymmetry alone, suggesting that populations of D. antonietae have the same magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry throughout the geographical distribution of the species. We hypothesize that larval development in rotting cladodes might play an important role in explaining our results. In addition, our study underscores the importance of understanding the interplay between the biology of a species and its geographical patterns of asymmetry.

  9. Multiple-photon effects in asymmetries: μ bar μ vs b bar b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.

    1990-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of multiple-photon emission, in the context of Z 0 physics at the SLAC Linear Collider and the CERN e + e - collider LEP, on the forward-backward, left-right, and polarized forward-backward asymmetries for e + e - →μ + μ - +n(γ) and e + e - →b bar b+n(γ). We focus on this Z 0 -physics scenario in the presence of detector cuts. Realistic calculations are carried out with our Monte Carlo--based Yennie-Frautschi-Suura event-by-event approach to SU 2L xU 1 radiative corrections at high energies. We conclude that the multiple-photon effects should be taken into account for high-precision Z 0 physics. We find further that, for high-luminosity unpolarized Z 0 physics, the b bar b+n(γ) final state looks much more promising as a way to measure the respective forward-backward asymmetry when it is compared to μ + μ - +n(γ) insofar as radiative corrections are concerned

  10. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  11. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  12. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  13. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G.; Herrera, G.; Mercado, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study single spin asymmetries of D 0 and D - mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  14. THE ONTOGENY OF ASYMMETRY IN EARWIG FORCEPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Joseph L

    1999-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry may play an important role in the evolution of naturally selected and secondary sexual traits. However, very little is known about how asymmetries arise or how organisms maintain symmetry during development. Here I propose three mutually exclusive patterns for the development of asymmetries through consecutive growth stages: (1) compensatory growth, in which growth of the shorter side is greatest at the following growth stage; (2) persistent growth, in which growth of the longer side is greatest at the following growth stage; and (3) uncorrelated growth in which growth of the following stage is unrelated to the asymmetry at the previous one. I followed the growth in the forceps of male earwigs through four successive instars. Dyar's rule was used as a null model of insect growth. In the molt from the second to third instar, asymmetries increased through uncorrelated growth and with the magnitude but not the sign expected from Dyar's rule. However, following this, at the molts between instars 3-4 and 4-5, compensatory growth maintained asymmetries at a lower level than expected from Dyar's rule. Although there was no reduction in the absolute magnitude of asymmetry, relative asymmetry did decline. The net growth of forceps length did not follow Dyar's rule. The interpretation of patterns of growth were more sensitive and informative than the interpretation of the relations between asymmetries at consecutive instars. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  16. Amplitude normalization reduces cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) amplitude asymmetries in normal subjects: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Fowler, Andrea; Jacobson, Gary P

    2014-03-01

    of age. cVEMPs were recorded at four different EMG target levels ranging from 100 to 400 μV. The absolute peak-to-peak amplitude of P13-N23, absolute latency of P13, and the left/right amplitude asymmetry of P13-N23 were measured both with and without the use of EMG amplitude correction techniques. IAAs were calculated using 10 different conditions of varying EMG asymmetry with and without amplitude correction. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to detect tonic EMG level-dependent differences separately for P13 latency, P13-N23 peak-to-peak amplitude, and mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude cVEMP responses. The amplitude of cVEMP responses from the left and right side were used to calculate IAA for subsequent analyses. Linear regression analyses compared level of tonic EMG with cVEMP amplitude. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine if IAAs were significantly reduced following amplitude correction. Any differences found were investigated using unplanned linear contrasts. The uncorrected cVEMP amplitude and RMS EMG all increased significantly with increases in the EMG target levels. With amplitude correction, cVEMP amplitude did not change significantly with changes in RMS EMG or EMG target levels. These findings suggest that the use of amplitude correction techniques represent an effective method of neutralizing the factor of variability in tonic EMG level on the cVEMP that would be otherwise uncontrolled. Indeed when correction is employed in cases of extreme tonic EMG asymmetry, the upper limit of percent IAA is roughly half of that when EMG correction techniques are not used. Our findings are also in agreement with those of Bogle et al (2013) showing that the input/output growth function for P13/N23 amplitude is not linear but, in fact, saturates at supra-maximal stimulation levels. Accordingly, and contrary to what has been published previously, achieving maximum muscle activation may

  17. Evaluating asymmetry in prosthetic gait with step-length asymmetry alone is flawed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Roeles, S.; van der Pas, S.C.H.; Bosboom, O.; Beek, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic gait is often asymmetric in step length, but the direction of this asymmetry varies inconsistently across amputees. This situation is akin to that seen in stroke patients, where step-length asymmetry has been shown to be the additive result of asymmetries in trunk progression and

  18. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of B quarks using momentum-weighted track charge at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A b by analyzing the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e + e - → Z 0 → b bar b. Data were taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), with the Stanford Large Detector (SLD), which records the products of e + e - interactions at a center of mass energy √s = 91.2 GeV/c 2 at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC/SLD experimental apparatus provides a unique and ideal environment for measuring electroweak asymmetries. Heavy flavor decays of the Z 0 were identified inclusively by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and SLD's precise tracking detectors. Two analysis techniques for measuring A b are presented: a binned fit to the left-right forward-backwards asymmetry of tagged events signed with momentum-weighted track charge, and a self-calibrating maximum-likelihood technique using momentum-weighted charge from the two hemispheres in each tagged event. From our 1994-1995 sample of 3.6 pb -1 , having a luminosity-weighted average e - polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb -1 , having a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain A b = 0.848 ± 0.046(stat.) ± 0.050(syst.)

  19. Aging affects hemispheric asymmetry in the neural representation of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, T J; Nicol, T; Kraus, N

    2000-01-15

    Hemispheric asymmetries in the processing of elemental speech sounds appear to be critical for normal speech perception. This study investigated the effects of age on hemispheric asymmetry observed in the neurophysiological responses to speech stimuli in three groups of normal hearing, right-handed subjects: children (ages, 8-11 years), young adults (ages, 20-25 years), and older adults (ages > 55 years). Peak-to-peak response amplitudes of the auditory cortical P1-N1 complex obtained over right and left temporal lobes were examined to determine the degree of left/right asymmetry in the neurophysiological responses elicited by synthetic speech syllables in each of the three subject groups. In addition, mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, which are elicited by acoustic change, were obtained. Whereas children and young adults demonstrated larger P1-N1-evoked response amplitudes over the left temporal lobe than over the right, responses from elderly subjects were symmetrical. In contrast, MMN responses, which reflect an echoic memory process, were symmetrical in all subject groups. The differences observed in the neurophysiological responses were accompanied by a finding of significantly poorer ability to discriminate speech syllables involving rapid spectrotemporal changes in the older adult group. This study demonstrates a biological, age-related change in the neural representation of basic speech sounds and suggests one possible underlying mechanism for the speech perception difficulties exhibited by aging adults. Furthermore, results of this study support previous findings suggesting a dissociation between neural mechanisms underlying those processes that reflect the basic representation of sound structure and those that represent auditory echoic memory and stimulus change.

  20. Recent HERMES Results on DVCS Associated Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, R.

    2002-11-01

    The latest HERMES measurements of the beam--spin and beam--charge azimuthal asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons are reported. The asymmetries are associated with the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process and can provide new information on the structure of the nucleon.

  1. The Hemispheric Asymmetry of Polar Faculae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the north–south (N–S) asymmetry of the polar faculae at relatively low (RLLs), relatively high (RHLs) as well as total latitudes (TLs) respectively, are investigated. It is found that. the polar faculae behave in a different asymmetrical way at different latitudinal bands;; the asymmetry of solar activity ...

  2. Bs semileptonic asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Dufour, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    When neutral $B^{0}_{s,d}$ mesons evolve in time they can change into their own antiparticles. In this mixing process CP symmetry is not necessarily conserved, as the probability for a $B^{0}$ meson to change into a $\\bar{B}^{0}$ meson can be different from the probability for the reverse process. The CP violation in the $B^{0}_{s}$ system as measured using semileptonic decays, defined as $a^{s}_{sl}$, is very small according to the Standard Model. However, earlier measurements of the semileptonic mixing asymmetry in both the $B_s^{0}$ and $B_d^{0}$ systems have shown a $3 \\sigma$ deviation with respect to the Standard Model value. A measurement of $a^{s}_{sl}$ performed using $1 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected at the LHCb detector is presented, together with an outlook to the updated $3 \\text{fb}^{-1}$ result.

  3. Propulsive force asymmetry during tethered-swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, K B; Pereira, G; Papoti, M; Bento, P C B; Rodacki, A

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether: i) tethe-red-swimming can be used to identify the asymmetry during front crawl swimming style; ii) swimmers that perform unilateral breathing present greater asymmetry in comparison to others that use bilateral breathing; iii) swimmers of best performance present smaller asymmetry than their counterparts; iv) repeated front crawl swimming movements influence body asymmetry. 18 swimmers were assessed for propulsive force parameters (peak force, mean force, impulse and rate of force development) during a maximal front crawl tethered-swimming test lasting 2 min. A factorial analysis showed that propulsive forces decreased at the beginning, intermediate and end of the test (pforce parameters (p>0.05). When performance was considered (below or above mean group time), a larger asymmetry was found in the sub-group of lower performance in comparison to those of best performance (pforces can be detected using tethered-swimming. The propulsive forces decreased during the test but asymmetries did not change under testing conditions. Although breathing preference did not influence asymmetry, swimmers with best performance were less asymmetric than their counterparts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Relic density of neutrinos with primordial asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Sergio; Pinto, Teguayco; Raffelt, Georg G

    2009-06-19

    We study flavor oscillations in the early Universe, assuming primordial neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries. Including collisions and pair processes in the kinetic equations, we not only estimate the degree of flavor equilibration, but for the first time also kinetic equilibration among neutrinos and with the ambient plasma. Typically, the restrictive big-bang nucleosynthesis bound on the nu_{e}nu[over]_{e} asymmetry indeed applies to all flavors as claimed in the previous literature, but fine-tuned initial asymmetries always allow for a large surviving neutrino excess radiation that may show up in precision cosmological data.

  5. Automated quantification and analysis of mandibular asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, T. A.; Hermann, N. V.; Larsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an automated method of spatially detailed 3D asymmetry quantification in mandibles extracted from CT and apply it to a population of infants with unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS). An atlas-based method employing non-rigid registration of surfaces is used for determining deformation ...... after mirroring the mandible across the MSP. A principal components analysis of asymmetry characterizes the major types of asymmetry in the population, and successfully separates the asymmetric UCS mandibles from a number of less asymmetric mandibles from a control population....

  6. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  7. Molecular asymmetry in extraterrestrial chemistry: Insights from a pristine meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2008-03-11

    The nonracemic amino acids of meteorites provide the only natural example of molecular asymmetry measured so far outside the biosphere. Because extant life depends on chiral homogeneity for the structure and function of biopolymers, the study of these meteoritic compounds may offer insights into the establishment of prebiotic attributes in chemical evolution as well as the origin of terrestrial homochirality. However, all efforts to understand the origin, distribution, and scope of these amino acids' enantiomeric excesses (ee) have been frustrated by the ready exposure of meteorites to terrestrial contaminants and the ubiquitous homochirality of such contamination. We have analyzed the soluble organic composition of a carbonaceous meteorite from Antarctica that was collected and stored under controlled conditions, largely escaped terrestrial contamination and offers an exceptionally pristine sample of prebiotic material. Analyses of the meteorite diastereomeric amino acids alloisoleucine and isoleucine allowed us to show that their likely precursor molecules, the aldehydes, also carried a sizable molecular asymmetry of up to 14% in the asteroidal parent body. Aldehydes are widespread and abundant interstellar molecules; that they came to be present, survived, and evolved in the solar system carrying ee gives support to the idea that biomolecular traits such as chiral asymmetry could have been seeded in abiotic chemistry ahead of life.

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate Chip Sea Star as a biomarker for environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. V. Trono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, pertains to small and random departures from perfect symmetry of an organism's bilateral traits and has been used as a measurement of developmental instability and as a potential indicator of stress in populations. It measures the variations from symmetry of a symmetrical structure whose sides are said to be genetically identical, with similar history of gene activity and experiencing the same environment. Symmetries are potentially the basis for studies on FA. Hence, this study assessed the potential of FA as a reliable developmental instability and environmental stress indicator in five-fold dihedral symmetrical Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate chip sea fish from three (3 different sites (Linamon, Lanao del Norte; Initao, Misamis Oriental and Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. FA for each population from every site was measured for comparison. In this study, anatomical landmarks were subjected to Procrustes superimposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA using "Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data" (SAGE program. Results showed highly significant FA and significant DA for population from Jasaan and Linamon where habitat disturbance due to anthropogenic activities were prevalent. Thus, experienced more stress compared to the other populations, suggesting that significant variation in size or left-right side of each individual could be a product of genotype-environment interaction. Moreover, insignificant FA and high DA was obtained from Initao (protected seascape area which indicated that variation among individual genotypes and asymmetry in phenotypes is mostly induced by genetics under less stressful environment. Significant FA and increase FA present inability of species to buffer stress in its developmental pathways and have implications on species fitness. Hypothesis assumes that fluctuating asymmetry has costs, reflects the quality of individuals and the level of genetic and environmental stress experienced by

  9. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Sivers asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Sivers asymmetry of the proton has been extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003 0.03. The asymmetry is different from zero and positive also in the low x region, where sea-quarks dominate. The kinematic dependence of the asymmetry has also been investigated and results are given for various intervals of hadron and virtual photon fractional energy. In contrast to the case of the Collins asymmetry, the results on the Sivers asymmetry suggest a strong dependence on the four-momentum transfer to the nucleon, in agreement with the most recent calculations.

  10. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  11. Bilateral Asymmetry in the Human Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Helen K

    2017-04-01

    Asymmetry of the human axial skeleton has received much less attention that of the limb skeleton. Pelvic morphology is subject to multiple selective factors, including bipedal locomotion and obstetrics, among others, as well as environmental factors such as biomechanical loading. How these various factors influence or restrict asymmetry of the pelvis is unknown and few studies have investigated levels and patterns of pelvic asymmetry. This study examines percentage directional (%DA) and absolute (%AA) asymmetry in 14 bilaterally paired dimensions of the pelvic canal, non-canal pelvis, and femur in female (n = 111) and male (n = 126) skeletons from nine geographically dispersed skeletal samples. Directional asymmetries were uniformly low for all measures and lacked any consistent patterning across the variables, while %AA was highest in the pelvic canal, particularly the posterior aspects. Few sex differences and no population differences were found for %DA and %AA; however the latter was correlated with coefficients of variation across the 14 variables in both sexes. While sample mean %DA were low, standard deviations of the canal variables were high and the majority of individuals in both sexes displayed %DA values >±0.5, suggesting asymmetry is common, if not directionally consistent. Biomechanical loading of the pelvic girdle may influence asymmetry of both the canal and non-canal aspects of the pelvis; however it is unlikely that these asymmetries negatively affect obstetric function, given the prevalence for %DA found in this study. Anat Rec, 300:653-665, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment

  13. Bottom production asymmetries at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrbin, E.; Vogt, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present results on bottom hadron production asymmetries at the LHC within both the Lund string fragmentation model and the intrinsic bottom model. The main aspects of the models are summarized and specific predictions for pp collisions at 14 TeV are given. Asymmetries are found to be very small at central rapidities increasing to a few percent at forward rapidities. At very large rapidities intrinsic production could dominate but this region is probably out of reach of any experiment.

  14. On the asymmetry of selected Fraunhofer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostik, R.I.; Orlova, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is made of the asymmetry of Fraunhofer lines observed with the double-pass monochromator of the horizontal solar telescope ASU-5 of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The conclusion is that the character of macromotion in the radial direction varies with height; in a tangential direction the motions at different depths are homogeneous. The asymmetry of weak lines is due to convection rather than to wave motions. (Auth.)

  15. ``Green's function'' approach & low-mode asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Clark, Dan; Salmonson, Jay; MacLaren, Steve; Ma, Tammy; Khan, Shahab; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Jo; Czajka, C.; Tipton, Robert; Landen, Otto; Kyrala, Georges; 2 Team; 1 Team

    2017-10-01

    Long wavelength, low mode asymmetries are believed to play a leading role in limiting the performance of current ICF implosions on NIF. These long wavelength modes are initiated and driven by asymmetries in the x-ray flux from the hohlraum; however, the underlying hydrodynamics of the implosion also act to amplify these asymmetries. The work presented here aim to deepen our understanding of the interplay of the drive asymmetries and the underlying implosion hydrodynamics in determining the final imploded configuration. This is accomplished through a synthesis of numerical modeling, analytic theory, and experimental data. In detail, we use a Green's function approach to connect the drive asymmetry seen by the capsule to the measured inflight and hot spot symmetries. The approach has been validated against a suite of numerical simulations. Ultimately, we hope this work will identify additional measurements to further constrain the asymmetries and increase hohlraum illumination design flexibility on the NIF. The technique and derivation of associated error bars will be presented. LLC, (LLNS) Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  17. The effects of hand preference and gender on finger tapping performance asymmetry by the use of an infra-red light measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S L; Oliveira, R M; Krahe, T E; Filgueiras, C C

    2000-01-01

    We used an infra-red device to study the effects of gender and handwriting preference on manual asymmetry in tapping rate and intertap variability. Our sample (n=102) consisted of approximately equal number of subjects with respect to gender (52 women and 50 men) and handedness (52 right-handers and 50 left-handers). Data on overall performance indicated that men performed more quickly and regularly than women. The index used for measuring manual asymmetry was the difference between the hands as a proportion of the total. Therefore, the asymmetry index was adjusted to remove the influence of overall performance. The analyses based on asymmetry scores indicated a significant handedness effect: right-handers showed greater manual asymmetries than left-handers for both tapping rate and intertap variability. In addition, right handers exhibited a significant greater asymmetry for intertap variability than tapping rate. Taken together, these data may reflect greater hemispheric differences in right-handers, specially for intertap variability.

  18. Chromatin architecture of the Pitx2 locus requires CTCF and Pitx2 dependent asymmetry that mirrors embryonic gut laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ian C.; Kwak, Hojoong; Chen, Frances L.; Werner, Melissa; Shopland, Lindsay S.; Danko, Charles G.; Lis, John T.; Zhang, Min; Martin, James F.; Kurpios, Natasza A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Expression of Pitx2 on the left side of the embryo patterns left-right (LR) organs including the dorsal mesentery (DM), whose asymmetric cell behavior directs gut looping. Despite the importance of organ laterality, chromatin-level regulation of Pitx2 remains undefined. Here we show that genes immediately neighboring Pitx2 in chicken and mouse, including a long noncoding RNA, Playrr (Pitx2 locus asymmetric regulated RNA), are expressed on the right side and repressed by Pitx2. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of Playrr, 3D fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and variations of chromatin conformation capture (3C), demonstrate that mutual antagonism between Pitx2 and Playrr is coordinated by asymmetric chromatin interactions dependent on Pitx2 and CTCF. We demonstrate that transcriptional and morphological asymmetries driving gut looping are mirrored by chromatin architectural asymmetries at the Pitx2 locus. We propose a model where Pitx2 auto-regulation directs chromatin topology to coordinate LR transcription of this locus essential for LR organogenesis. PMID:26411685

  19. Chromatin Architecture of the Pitx2 Locus Requires CTCF- and Pitx2-Dependent Asymmetry that Mirrors Embryonic Gut Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ian C; Kwak, Hojoong; Chen, Frances L; Werner, Melissa; Shopland, Lindsay S; Danko, Charles G; Lis, John T; Zhang, Min; Martin, James F; Kurpios, Natasza A

    2015-10-13

    Expression of Pitx2 on the left side of the embryo patterns left-right (LR) organs including the dorsal mesentery (DM), whose asymmetric cell behavior directs gut looping. Despite the importance of organ laterality, chromatin-level regulation of Pitx2 remains undefined. Here, we show that genes immediately neighboring Pitx2 in chicken and mouse, including a long noncoding RNA (Pitx2 locus-asymmetric regulated RNA or Playrr), are expressed on the right side and repressed by Pitx2. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of Playrr, 3D fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and variations of chromatin conformation capture (3C) demonstrate that mutual antagonism between Pitx2 and Playrr is coordinated by asymmetric chromatin interactions dependent on Pitx2 and CTCF. We demonstrate that transcriptional and morphological asymmetries driving gut looping are mirrored by chromatin architectural asymmetries at the Pitx2 locus. We propose a model whereby Pitx2 auto-regulation directs chromatin topology to coordinate LR transcription of this locus essential for LR organogenesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromatin Architecture of the Pitx2 Locus Requires CTCF- and Pitx2-Dependent Asymmetry that Mirrors Embryonic Gut Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C. Welsh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of Pitx2 on the left side of the embryo patterns left-right (LR organs including the dorsal mesentery (DM, whose asymmetric cell behavior directs gut looping. Despite the importance of organ laterality, chromatin-level regulation of Pitx2 remains undefined. Here, we show that genes immediately neighboring Pitx2 in chicken and mouse, including a long noncoding RNA (Pitx2 locus-asymmetric regulated RNA or Playrr, are expressed on the right side and repressed by Pitx2. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of Playrr, 3D fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and variations of chromatin conformation capture (3C demonstrate that mutual antagonism between Pitx2 and Playrr is coordinated by asymmetric chromatin interactions dependent on Pitx2 and CTCF. We demonstrate that transcriptional and morphological asymmetries driving gut looping are mirrored by chromatin architectural asymmetries at the Pitx2 locus. We propose a model whereby Pitx2 auto-regulation directs chromatin topology to coordinate LR transcription of this locus essential for LR organogenesis.

  1. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks at SLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbo, V.V.

    1997-07-01

    This thesis presents a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A b using the Left-Right Forward-Backward asymmetry of b anti b pair production at the Z 0 pole. The measurement was done at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) using data from the SLAC Large Detector (SLD). The authors take advantage of the high polarization of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) electron beam. To identify heavy flavor decays of the Z 0 , they use a b-tag based on the topological reconstruction of the mass of the B vertex. Discrimination between the b and anti b quark directions is provided by a self-calibrating jet-charge technique. This technique allows calibration of the analyzing power from data and gives a much reduced model dependence. Based on the 1994--95 (1993) sample of 100,000 (50,000) Z 0 decays recorded with an electron beam polarization of e > = 77% (63%), they have obtained A b = 0.911 ± 0.045(stat) ± 0.045(syst). This value is in good agreement with the Standard Model

  2. Hemispheric specialization in children as reflected in the longitudinal development of ear asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, D J; Hoefkens, M; Van der Vlugt, H

    1979-12-01

    The longitudinal development of ear asymmetry has been investigated in two samples of kindergarten and primary school children over an age range of six years. Ear preference in a dichotic digit test, administered four times, did not appear to be affected by age and sex: right ear advantage was predominant at all times. Individual comparison showed the development of ear advantage to depend on initial preference. Initially left eared subjects when changing ear advantage do so from left to right at early and from right to left at later school ages. The left-right shift may be due to the school teaching of linguistic skills which could selectively activate the left cerebral hemisphere. This explanation is supported by the finding that initially right eared subjects tended to conserve that preference at early school ages. Acknowledgements. We would like to thank Mr. P. Borgman and his staff of the Johannesschool in Amsterdam as well as their pupils who did not protest despite being examined year after year. The cooperation of the Free University Audio-Visual Center (Mr. Fred Van Hilst) is kindly acknowledged. Finally we would like to thank Dr. Paul Harris who was willing to read the English text critically and all others who assisted in the completion of this research.

  3. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  4. Superheavy thermal dark matter and primordial asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    The early universe could feature multiple reheating events, leading to jumps in the visible sector entropy density that dilute both particle asymmetries and the number density of frozen-out states. In fact, late time entropy jumps are usually required in models of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which typically produces an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry that is much too large. An important consequence of late time dilution, is that a smaller dark matter annihilation cross section is needed to obtain the observed dark matter relic density. For cosmologies with high scale baryogenesis, followed by radiation-dominated dark matter freeze-out, we show that the perturbative unitarity mass bound on thermal relic dark matter is relaxed to 10 10 GeV. We proceed to study superheavy asymmetric dark matter models, made possible by a sizable entropy injection after dark matter freeze-out, and identify how the Affleck-Dine mechanism would generate the baryon and dark asymmetries.

  5. Asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.B.; Bonasera, A.; Cammarata, P.; Hagel, K.; Heilborn, L.; Kohley, Z.; Mabiala, J.; May, L.W.; Marini, P.; Raphelt, A.; Souliotis, G.A.; Wuenschel, S.; Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron–proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N−Z)/A . An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei

  6. Forward-backward asymmetries with quark jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davier, M.; Richard, F.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging experimental problems at LEP is the measurement of the weak couplings of the quarks. As is well known for lepton pair production, forward-backward asymmetries are very sensitive to these couplings. The problem of determining the jet flavour in order to measure such asymmetries is considered. Two methods are discussed: (i) measuring the charge of the jet which should reflect the quark charge with unfortunately large fluctuations. This could be a way to isolate Q=2/3 quarks (top) and measure the asymmetry for these tanti t pairs; and (ii) using leading particles to assign the jet flavour. It is known that, when E/Esub(beam) =x→1, the probability that the leading meson carries the initial quark with approach unity. The second method is discussed in detail. (Auth.)

  7. Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2011-01-01

    In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.

  8. Vessel asymmetry as an additional diagnostic tool in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Barry J

    2009-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the local mechanical stress exceeds the local mechanical strength of the wall tissue. On the basis of this hypothesis, the knowledge of the stress acting on the wall of an unruptured aneurysm could be useful in determining the risk of rupture. The role of asymmetry has previously been identified in idealized AAA models and is now studied using realistic AAAs in the current work. METHODS: Fifteen patient-specific AAAs were studied to estimate the relationship between wall stress and geometrical parameters. Three-dimensional AAA models were reconstructed from computed tomography scan data. The stress distribution on the AAA wall was evaluated by the finite element method, and peak wall stress was compared with both diameter and centerline asymmetry. A simple method of determining asymmetry was adapted and developed. Statistical analyses were performed to determine potential significance of results. RESULTS: Mean von Mises peak wall stress +\\/- standard deviation was 0.4505 +\\/- 0.14 MPa (range, 0.3157-0.9048 MPa). Posterior wall stress increases with anterior centerline asymmetry. Peak stress increased by 48% and posterior wall stress by 38% when asymmetry was introduced into a realistic AAA model. CONCLUSION: The relationship between posterior wall stress and AAA asymmetry showed that excessive bulging of one surface results in elevated wall stress on the opposite surface. Assessing the degree of bulging and asymmetry that is experienced in an individual AAA may be of benefit to surgeons in the decision-making process and may provide a useful adjunct to diameter as a surgical intervention guide.

  9. Top asymmetry and the search for a light hadronic resonance in association with single top

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D

    2011-01-01

    The exchange of a light $t$-channel flavor-changing gauge boson, $\\Vp$, with mass $\\sim m_{top}$ remains a leading explanation for the anomalous forward backward asymmetry in top quark production at the Tevatron. Unlike other ideas, including heavier $t$-channel mediators, the light $\\Vp$ model is not easily seen in the $\\mtt$ distribution. We advocate a more promising strategy. While current analyses at hadron colliders may not be sensitive, we propose searching for a $jj$ resonance in association with single top that may allow discovery in existing data. Deviations in the lepton charge asymmetry in this sample should also be present.

  10. Line-shape asymmetry of water vapor absorption lines in the 720-nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral line-shape analyses were performed for water vapor lines broadened by argon, oxygen, and xenon in the 720-nm wavelength region. A line-shape asymmetry was observed, which is attributed to statistical dependence or correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions. The generalized (asymmetric) Galatry profile, which results from the soft-collision profile and includes correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions, was fitted to the observed line shapes and was found to compare favorably with the observed data. The most prominent asymmetries were observed with xenon as the buffer gas.

  11. Directional and fluctuating asymmetry in finger and a-b ridge counts in psychosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fañanás Lourdes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported alterations in finger and a-b ridge counts, and their derived measures of asymmetry, in schizophrenia compared to controls. Because ridges are fully formed by the end of the second trimester, they may provide clues to disturbed early development. The aim of this study was to assess these measures in a sample of patients with psychosis and normal controls. Methods Individuals with psychosis (n = 240, and normal controls (n = 228 were drawn from a catchment-area case-control study. Differences in finger and a-b ridge count and Fluctuating Asymmetry were assessed in three group comparisons (non-affective psychosis versus controls; affective psychosis versus controls; non-affective psychosis versus affective psychosis. The analyses were performed separately for males and females. Results There were no significant group differences for finger nor a-b ridge counts. While there were no group difference for Directional Asymmetry, for Fluctuating Asymmetry measures men with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of the index finger ridge count (a when compared to controls (FA-correlation score, p = 0.02, and (b when compared to affective psychosis (adjusted FA-difference score, p = 0.04. Conclusion Overall, measures of finger and a-b ridge counts, and their derived measures of directional and fluctuating asymmetry were not prominent features of psychosis in this sample. While directional asymmetry in cerebral morphology is reduced in schizophrenia, this is not reflected in dermatoglyphic variables.

  12. Directional and fluctuating asymmetry in finger and a-b ridge counts in psychosis: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Loesch, Danuta; Chant, David; Welham, Joy; El-Saadi, Ossama; Fañanás, Lourdes; Mowry, Bryan; McGrath, John

    2003-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported alterations in finger and a-b ridge counts, and their derived measures of asymmetry, in schizophrenia compared to controls. Because ridges are fully formed by the end of the second trimester, they may provide clues to disturbed early development. The aim of this study was to assess these measures in a sample of patients with psychosis and normal controls. Methods Individuals with psychosis (n = 240), and normal controls (n = 228) were drawn from a catchment-area case-control study. Differences in finger and a-b ridge count and Fluctuating Asymmetry were assessed in three group comparisons (non-affective psychosis versus controls; affective psychosis versus controls; non-affective psychosis versus affective psychosis). The analyses were performed separately for males and females. Results There were no significant group differences for finger nor a-b ridge counts. While there were no group difference for Directional Asymmetry, for Fluctuating Asymmetry measures men with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of the index finger ridge count (a) when compared to controls (FA-correlation score, p = 0.02), and (b) when compared to affective psychosis (adjusted FA-difference score, p = 0.04). Conclusion Overall, measures of finger and a-b ridge counts, and their derived measures of directional and fluctuating asymmetry were not prominent features of psychosis in this sample. While directional asymmetry in cerebral morphology is reduced in schizophrenia, this is not reflected in dermatoglyphic variables. PMID:12659652

  13. Cerebral asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in gray- and white-matter asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. Forty-eight right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (24 males and 24 females) and 48 right-handed age- and sex-matched healthy controls (24 males and 24 females) were included in this study. The effects of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry and white-matter fractional anisotropy (FA) asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of FA maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The mean gray- and white-matter volumes were significantly smaller in the schizophrenia group than in the control group. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no significant effect of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant effect of diagnosis on white-matter FA asymmetry. Our results of voxel-based analyses showed no significant differences in either gray-matter volume asymmetry or white-matter FA asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Quark Model Contributions to Parton Flavor Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, C. J.; Olivares, V.; Londergan, J. T.

    2003-04-01

    Simple Quark model calculations of the nucleon sea yield an excess of baru over bard anti-quarks, exactly opposite to what is observed. By calculating the effects of flavor-dependent corrections to the energies of the lowest lying four 4Q-barQ states in the sea, we investigate the extent to which the sign of the flavor asymmetry can be reversed in these models without the explicit introduction of mesonic degrees of freedom. Sea quark polarizations and charge asymmetries are also calculated.

  15. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  16. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldes, Iason; Bell, Nicole F; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-10-31

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. We, instead, examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2→2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1→2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  17. Top (and Bottom) asymmetries at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pinamonti, Michele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The latest top pair production charge asymmetry measurements by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations are presented: inclusive and differential measurements in the single lepton and dilepton channels based on the full 7 TeV data-set, a combination of the 7 TeV single lepton measurements by the two experiments, and a measurement in the single lepton channel on the full 8 TeV data-set performed by the CMS experiment. The first measurement of the bottom pair producion charge asymmetry by the LHCb experiment is also mentioned.

  18. Inheritance of dermatoglyphic asymmetry in 500 Indian pedigrees: complex segregation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Bibha; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    The major aim of this study is to determine the mode of inheritance of asymmetry of quantitative dermatoglyphic traits based on principal factors through the application of complex segregation (genetic model fitting) analyses on a large ethnically homogeneous sample of 500 Indian pedigrees (2435 individuals) of two generations. By segregation analysis of the traits- PC1_FA both Mendelian and Environmental models were rejected (< 0.001) with the General model, i.e. that despite presence of significant inheritance (rejection of Environmental model), the nature of inheritance is more complex, than Mendelian one. Although a little genetic effect was observed due to familial correlations on asymmetry traits, no evidence was found of major gene contribution to be involved, but this does not contradict the notion postulated by several earlier authors that asymmetry (fluctuating) provides a measure of developmental instability in human.

  19. Effects of inter-limb asymmetries on physical and sports performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Read, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a specified criteria based on a quality review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria, relating participant asymmetry scores to physical and sports performance measures. The findings of this systematic review indicate that inter-limb differences in strength may be detrimental to jumping, kicking and cycling performance. When inter-limb asymmetries are quantified during jumping based exercises, they have been primarily used to examine their association with change of direction speed with mixed findings. Inter-limb asymmetries have also been quantified in anthropometry, sprinting, dynamic balance and sport-specific actions, again with inconsistent findings. However, all results have been reported using associative analysis with physical or sport performance metrics with no randomised controlled trials included. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanisms that underpin inter-limb differences and the magnitude of performance changes that can be accounted for by these asymmetries.

  20. Differential actigraphy for monitoring asymmetry in upper limb motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M

    2016-09-21

    Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from  -100% (only the left arm moves) to  +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range  -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r  =  0.66, p  <  0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r  =  0.70, p  <  0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.

  1. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.

    2018-01-01

    measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing....

  2. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  3. Neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadim Guzey

    2008-01-22

    Using a simple model for nuclear GPDs, we study the role of the neutron contribution to nuclear DVCS observables. As an example, we use the beam-spin asymmetry $A_{LU}^A$ measured in coherent and incoherent DVCS on a wide range of nuclear targets in the HERMES and JLab kinematics. We find that at small values of the momentum transfer $t$, $A_{LU}^A$ is dominated by the coherent-enriched contribution, which enhances $A_{LU}^A$ compared to the free proton asymmetry $A_{LU}^p$, $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=1.8-2.2$. At large values of $t$, the nuclear asymmetry is dominated by the incoherent contribution and $A_{LU}^A/(\\phi)A_{LU}^p(\\phi)=0.66-0.74$. The deviation of $A_{LU}^A(\\phi)/A_{LU}^p(\\phi)$ from unity at large $t$ is a result of the neutron contribution, which gives a possibility to constain neutron GPDs in incoherent nuclear DVCS. A similar trend is expected for other DVCS asymmetries.

  4. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, W

    2015-01-01

    ) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P 

  5. Effect of stress on structural brain asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš; Čermáková, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Koutella, A.; Kutová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2016), s. 253-264 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laterality * asymmetry * brain * evolution * stress * neuropsychiatric disorders Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  6. Spin asymmetries in inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Using the now closed Argonne ZGS polarized-proton beam, and the Michigan polarized-proton target, we have studied the one-spin and two-spin asymmetries of pion and proton production in the inclusive reactions p up arrow + p up arrow → p + Anything, and p up arrow + p up arrow → pi/sup +/ + Anything at P/sub lab/ = 6, 11.75, and 12.75 GeV/c. We observed experimental one-spin and two-spin asymmetries by scattering the polarized-proton beam from our polarized-proton target in each of the four possible initial spin states. These inclusive one-spin and two-spin asymmetries were calculated using the measured experimental spin asymmetries and three types of background measurements taken at P/sub lab/ = 6 and 11.75 GeV/c. We varied the transverse momentum P/sub perpendicular/) of the outgoing pion or proton from 0.71 to 1.55 GeV/c, and Feynman x variable from -0.08 to 0.67

  7. Binomial distribution for the charge asymmetry parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that for high energy collisions the distribution with respect to the charge asymmetry z = nsub(F) - nsub(B) is binomial, where nsub(F) and nsub(B) are the forward and backward charge multiplicities. (orig.)

  8. Dominant limb asymmetry associated with prospective injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify associations between dominant lower limb asymmetry in unanticipated agility performance and prospective injury occurrence. Female netball players (N=24) performed unanticipated 180° turn agility sprints on both the dominant and non-dominant legs interspersed with an additional ...

  9. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  10. Exploring handedness asymmetries in the Simon effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Julia C; Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Spatially corresponding stimulus-response pairings usually produce shorter reaction times (RTs) than do non-corresponding pairings, even when the spatial dimension of the stimulus is irrelevant to the task. This "Simon effect" for visual stimuli and manual responses is often larger for the stimulus location on the side to which the person's dominant hand is operating. The present study aimed at replicating and examining the nature of this asymmetry. To determine whether the Simon effect asymmetry is a function of the hand distinction or of conceptual spatial codes, performance with left and right manual key-presses was compared to that with vocal responses "left" and "right." Whether the asymmetric Simon effect pattern is restricted to spatial stimuli was tested by comparing effects obtained with left and right located squares to those found with the centered words Left and Right. The asymmetry was only replicated for the spatial stimulus-manual response Simon task, for which a second experiment showed similar results when the hands and response box were not visible during task performance. The analysis revealed a general dominant-hand RT advantage that similarly adds to both corresponding and non-corresponding trials and is rather independent from the Simon effect. This advantage yields an apparent asymmetry when the data are analyzed as a function of correspondence for each stimulus location because the corresponding and non-corresponding RTs that are compared come from different hands.

  11. Measuring Asymmetry in Insect-Plant Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Claudia P T [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); De Almeida, Adriana M [Departamento de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto, E-mail: claudia@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: adrianam@ufrn.br, E-mail: corso@cb.ufrn.br [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN - Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078 972, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    In this work we focus on interaction networks between insects and plants and in the characterization of insect plant asymmetry, an important issue in coevolution and evolutionary biology. We analyze in particular the asymmetry in the interaction matrix of animals (herbivorous insects) and plants (food resource for the insects). Instead of driving our attention to the interaction matrix itself we derive two networks associated to the bipartite network: the animal network, D{sub 1}, and the plant network, D{sub 2}. These networks are constructed according to the following recipe: two animal species are linked once if they interact with the same plant. In a similar way, in the plant network, two plants are linked if they interact with the same animal. To explore the asymmetry between D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} we test for a set of 23 networks from the ecologic literature networks: the difference in size, {Delta}L, clustering coefficient difference, {Delta}C, and mean connectivity difference, {Delta}. We used a nonparametric statistical test to check the differences in {Delta}L, {Delta}C and {Delta}. Our results indicate that {Delta}L and {Delta} show a significative asymmetry.

  12. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  13. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  14. Sagittal otolith morphogenesis asymmetry in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, T; Mahe, K; Villanueva, M C; De Pontual, H; Ernande, B

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated and compared asymmetry in sagittal otolith shape and length between left and right inner ears in four roundfish and four flatfish species of commercial interest. For each species, the effects of ontogenetic changes (individual age and total body length), sexual dimorphism (individual sex) and the otolith's location on the right or left side of the head, on the shape and length of paired otoliths (between 143 and 702 pairs according to species) were evaluated. Ontogenetic changes in otolith shape and length were observed for all species. Sexual dimorphism, either in otolith shape and length or in their ontogenetic changes, was detected for half of the species, be they round or flat. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was detected in one roundfish species each, but its inconsistency across species and its small average amplitude (6·17% for shape and 1·99% for length) suggested that it has barely any biological relevance. Significant directional asymmetry in otolith shape and length was found for all flatfish species except otolith length for one species. Its average amplitude varied between 2·06 and 17·50% for shape and between 0·00 and 11·83% for length and increased significantly throughout ontogeny for two species, one dextral and one sinistral. The longer (length) and rounder otolith (shape) appeared to be always on the blind side whatever the species. These results suggest differential biomineralization between the blind and ocular inner ears in flatfish species that could result from perturbations of the proximal-distal gradient of otolith precursors in the endolymph and the otolith position relative to the geometry of the saccular epithelium due to body morphology asymmetry and lateralized behaviour. The fact that asymmetry never exceeded 18% even at the individual level suggests an evolutionary canalization of otolith shape symmetry to avoid negative effects on fish hearing and balance. Technically

  15. Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quiroz, Norma

    2015-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  16. Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics,Randall Laboratory of Physics, The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastián,Colima 28045 (Mexico)

    2015-01-21

    We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.

  17. Higgs bosons in the left-right model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, G.G.; Boyarkin, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The model with the SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L gauge group, containing one bidoublet and two triplets in the Higgs sector, is considered. The link between the constants determining the physical Higgs boson interactions and the neutrino oscillation parameters is found. It is shown that the observation of the ultrahigh-energy neutrinos with the help of the processes e - ν e →W - Z, e - ν e →μ - ν μ , gives us information on the singly charged Higgs bosons. The processes of the doubly charged Higgs boson production, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 γ, e - μ - →Δ (--) 1 Z, are investigated. From the point of view of detecting the neutral Higgs bosons the process of the electron-muon recharge e - μ + →e + μ - is studied. (orig.)

  18. GDH Integral on the Proton from Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Inclusive double spin electron asymmetries have been measured by scattering polarized electrons off the solid polarized 15NH3 target in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2000-2001. The virtual photon asymmetry A1 (x), the longitudinal spin structure function, g1 (x, Q2), and the first moment, γ1p, have been evaluated for a kinematic range of 0.05 ≥ Q2 ≥ 4.5 GeV2. The extracted results complement the existing data in the resonance region, extending it to lower and higher Q2 regions. The results are important in the study of Q2 evolution of nucleon structure from the hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom.

  19. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  20. Helicity and isospin asymmetries in the electroproduction of nucleon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-10-01

    We investigate the helicity asymmetries and isospin ratios of ratiative transition amplitudes for nucleon resonances electroproduced off proton and neutron targets at momentum transfers of Q 2 ≤3 GeV 2 . Calculations were done in the framework of a relativized constituent quark model which includes many-body effects due to the quark interaction potential and to a relativistic treatment of the center-of-mass motion of the three quark system. We find significant deviations from the predictions of the nonrelativistic quark models and the SU(6) W algebraic approach based on the single quark transition hypothesis. Our calculated relativistic corrections lead to an overall better agreement with the experimental data. The question if some of the low-lying P-wave baryons are of hermaphrodite nature is briefly discussed. Finally we analyse the electroexcitation of the missing [20,1 + ] P-wave resonances. (orig.)

  1. Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Stewart C.; Majd, Saman.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax asymmetries (the lack of full loss offsets) under current corporate income tax law and a stylized tax reform proposal. The government's tax claim on the firm's pretax cash flows is modelled as a series of path-dependent call options and valued by option pricing procedures and Monte Carlo simulation.The tax reform investigated reduces the statutory tax rate, eliminates the investment tax credit and sets tax depreciation approximately equal to economic ...

  2. Relic neutrino asymmetry evolution from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    The exact Quantum Kinetic Equations for a two-flavour active-sterile neutrino system are used to provide a systematic derivation of approximate evolution equations for the relic neutrino asymmetry. An extension of the adiabatic approximation for matter-affected neutrino oscillations is developed which incorporates decoherence due to collisions. Exact and approximate expressions for the decoherence and repopulation functions are discussed. A first pass is made over the exact treatment of multi-flavour partially incoherent oscillations. (authors)

  3. Detecting Gait Asymmetry with Wearable Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    goal is to utilize these features to detect actual injuries, with the quantification of rehabilitation progress as a logical future continuation. The...gait in post-stroke patients: Is this deficit distinct from asymmetry? a cohort study,” Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation 8(1), 23 (2011...symmetry and regularity in transfemoral amputees assessed by trunk accelerations,” J Neuroeng Rehabil 7(4) (2010). [16] D. Gouwanda and S. Arosha

  4. [Lateralization of behavioral reactions and otolith asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized behavior is widely spread among vertebrate animals and is determined first of ally by structural-functional brain asymmetry as well as by the presence of somatic and visceral asymmetry. Some kinds of asymmetric reactions are suggested to be due to the presence of asymmetry at the level of sense organs, in particular, of otolith organs. This review presents data on value and character of otolith asymmetry (OA) in animals of various species and classes, on action upon it of weightlessness and hypergravity; the problem of effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions is considered. In symmetric vertebrates, OA has been shown to be of fluctuation character and its chi coefficient varies in diapason from -0.2 to 0.2; in the overwhelmed majority of individuals, /chi/ otolith organs to work coordinately; this it why OA is at the equally low level regardless of the individual's taxonomic and ecologic position, its size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analysis of auditory and vestibular stimuli, therefore in nature the majority of such individuals are eliminated in the process of natural selection. Unlike symmetrical vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA--otoliths of the lower labyrinth, on a average, are significantly heavier than those of the upper labyrinth. Their organs are the only example when OA with directed character seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the sound source. The short-time action of weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity ( or = 3g, as well as some diseases and shifts connected with processes of aging can enhance OA and cause several functional disturbances.

  5. Measurement of semileptonic asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    CP violation in neutral B meson mixing is an excellent place to search for the effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. I report on the first measurements of the CP violating semileptonic asymmetries in the B_s0 and B_d0 systems from LHCb. Both are consistent with the Standard Model expectations and are the most precise single measurements of these parameters to date.

  6. A study of w boson decay charge asymmetry using hadronic tau decays in proton - anti-proton collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuns, Edward William [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation presents a measurement of the tau charge asymmetry in events where the taus are produced by W decays. This charge asymmetry appears as different rapidity distributions for positive and negative taus. Two competing effects generate tau charge asymmetry. The production mechanism for the W gauge boson generates a charge asymmetry which is a function of the ratio of parton distribution functions, d(x)=u(x), measured at x ~ MW/√s. This is the dominant effect for tau charge asymmetry at small rapidity. At higher rapidity, however, the competing charge asymmetry from parity violation in W decay to taus becomes dominant. This tau asymmetry measurement is consistent with the Standard Model with a x2 per degree of freedom equal to 2.5 for 4 degrees of freedom when the asymmetry measurement is folded about y = 0, taking advantage of the CP symmetry of the underlying physics, and 8.9 for 8 degrees of freedom when it is not. This measurement introduces some methods and variables of interest to future analyses using hadronic decay modes of taus. This work was done using the CDF detector in $\\bar{p}$p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV at Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator.

  7. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  8. Esthetic evaluation of dental and gingival asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Pinho, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which smile asymmetries were less esthetic, dental or gingival. Laypeople (297), generalists (223), prosthodontists (50) and orthodontists (49), evaluated the esthetics of digitally-modified images taken from the same frontal intra-oral photograph, using the same lips, simulating upper maxillary midline shift, occlusal plane inclination, asymmetric incisal edge and asymmetric gingival migration. The images were later paired into 3 groups. The only ones considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the 0.5 mm shorter upper central incisor and the asymmetric gingival migration (2 mm) of the upper central incisor. In the paired images, upper maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane inclination, the former was rated less esthetic, while in the asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration pair, the latter was considered to be less esthetic. Laypeople and generalists consider smiles more attractive. The only images considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the central incisor shorter by 0.5 mm and the 2 mm asymmetric gingival migration of the upper central incisor. In the horizontal plane (maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane cant), the dental asymmetries were considered less esthetic than the gingival asymmetries. However, in the vertical plane (asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration) the opposite was recorded. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermally induced chronic developmental stress in coho salmon: Integrating measures of mortality, early growth and fluctuating asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.B.; Emlen, J.M.; Hershberger, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    ambient temperatures than in crosses exposed to fluctuating temperatures during embryogenesis. Observed patterns of early growth revealed no heterosis, but instead reflected maternal effects, with some crosses slowing growth and yolk utilization when exposed to fluctuating temperatures. Analyses of fluctuating asymmetry also showed no effects from heterosis. While analyses of composite asymmetry scores and branchiostegal rays were inconclusive, analyses of individual characters showed significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry in pelvic finray counts and a marginal change in the numbers of fish asymmetric for this character in crosses exposed to chronic thermal stress. In contrast, the fluctuating asymmetry in lower gillraker counts was significantly higher in crosses exposed to ambient temperatures and there were significantly more fish asymmetric for this character. Data on mortalities and fluctuating asymmetry indicate pelvic finray development was thermally stressed, while the heightened fluctuating asymmetry in lower gillraker counts under ambient temperatures was due to a greater frequency of less fit fish that had not been culled by thermal stress. Changes in early growth patterns in response to developmental stress yielded no parallel responses in meristic characters. We conclude that chronic thermal stress produced both selectively lethal and sublethal effects that directly shaped fluctuating asymmetry and fitness profiles in these crosses. Implicit in this conclusion is that developmental instability analyses can detect more than just chronic sublethal stress, thus providing substantial credence for using instability studies as proactive bioassessment methodologies.

  10. Signs of Asymmetry in Exploding Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Supernova explosions enrich the interstellar medium and can even briefly outshine their host galaxies. However, the mechanism behind these massive explosions still isnt fully understood. Could probing the asymmetry of supernova remnants help us better understand what drives these explosions?Hubble image of the remnant of supernova 1987A, one of the first remnants discovered to be asymmetrical. [ESA/Hubble, NASA]Stellar Send-OffsHigh-mass stars end their lives spectacularly. Each supernova explosion churns the interstellar medium and unleashes high-energy radiation and swarms of neutrinos. Supernovae also suffuse the surrounding interstellar medium with heavy elements that are incorporated into later generations of stars and the planets that form around them.The bubbles of expanding gas these explosions leave behind often appear roughly spherical, but mounting evidence suggests that many supernova remnants are asymmetrical. While asymmetry in supernova remnants can arise when the expanding material plows into the non-uniform interstellar medium, it can also be an intrinsic feature of the explosion itself.Simulation results clockwise from top left: Mass density, calcium mass fraction, oxygen mass fraction, nickel-56 mass fraction. Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Wollaeger et al. 2017]Coding ExplosionsThe presence or absence of asymmetry in a supernova remnant can hold clues as to what drove the explosion. But how can we best observe asymmetry in a supernova remnant? Modeling lets us explore different observational approaches.A team of scientists led by Ryan T. Wollaeger (Los Alamos National Laboratory) used radiative transfer and radiative hydrodynamics simulations to model the explosion of a core-collapse supernova. Wollaeger and collaborators introduced asymmetry into the explosion by creating a single-lobed, fast-moving outflow along one axis.Their simulations showed that while some chemical elements lingered near the origin of the explosion or were distributed

  11. Effects of walking speed on asymmetry and bilateral coordination of gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Meir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Zeev, Aviva; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating the bilateral coordination of gait in humans are largely unknown. Our objective was to study how bilateral coordination changes as a result of gait speed modifications during over ground walking. 15 young adults wore force sensitive insoles that measured vertical forces used to determine the timing of the gait cycle events under three walking conditions (i.e., usual-walking, fast and slow). Ground reaction force impact (GRFI) associated with heel-strikes was also quantified, representing the potential contribution of sensory feedback to the regulation of gait. Gait asymmetry (GA) was quantified based on the differences between right and left swing times and the bilateral coordination of gait was assessed using the phase coordination index (PCI), a metric that quantifies the consistency and accuracy of the anti-phase stepping pattern. GA was preserved in the three different gait speeds. PCI was higher (reduced coordination) in the slow gait condition, compared to usual-walking (3.51% vs. 2.47%, respectively, p=0.002), but was not significantly affected in the fast condition. GRFI values were lower in the slow walking as compared to usual-walking and higher in the fast walking condition (pgait related changes in PCI were not associated with the slowed gait related changes in GRFI. The present findings suggest that left-right anti-phase stepping is similar in normal and fast walking, but altered during slowed walking. This behavior might reflect a relative increase in attention resources required to regulate a slow gait speed, consistent with the possibility that cortical function and supraspinal input influences the bilateral coordination of gait. PMID:23680424

  12. Measurement of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry of Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} using a lifetime tag and momentum-weighted track charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The SLD Collaboration

    1995-08-01

    We present a direct measurement of the parity-violating parameter A{sub b} by analyzing the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of b quarks in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} Z{sup o} {yields} b{bar b}. The SLD experiment observes hadronic decays of Z{sup o} bosons produced at resonance in collisions of longitudinally polarized electrons and unpolarized positrons at the SLC. Heavy flavor decays of the Z{sup o} are identified by taking advantage of the long lifetime of B hadrons, the small, stable SLC beam spot, and precise tracking from SLD. The asymmetry A{sub b} is measured with a self-calibrating technique employing momentum-weighted track charge from both hemispheres in the tagged events. From our 1994--1995 sample of 3.6 pb{sup {minus}1} of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation data with a luminosity-weighted average e{sup {minus}} polarization of 77.3%, and our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb{sup {minus}1} with a luminosity-weighted polarization of 63.1%, we obtain A{sub b}(preliminary) = 0.843 {plus_minus} 0.046(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.051(syst.).

  13. Inflation Asymmetry and Menu Costs - New Micro Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Reiff; Peter Karadi

    2009-01-01

    evidence on the asymmetry of inflation response to aggregate shocks. We show that even though a standard menu cost model like that of Golosov and Lucas (2007) underestimates the asymmetry, a sectoral menu cost model with multi-product firms and trend-inflation can quantitatively account for the inflation asymmetry observed in the data, thereby it provides direct evidence to the argument of Ball and Mankiw (1994). The model predicts that the effect of a positive monetary policy shock can have ...

  14. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating "accountability" to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete) contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection) and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard). Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved at no-costs. The presented problems in the design of selective individual contracts

  15. Asymmetry overlay correction for lithography processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jui; Yu, Chun-Chi; Weng, Tang Chun; Chang, C.-H.; Chen, Charlie; Lin, Chia Ching; Lio, En Chuan; Yu, Chia Hsiang

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control for semiconductor devices is getting tighter in recent years. In the past, we may only concern the whether the overlay are in spec or not. However, the spec we concerned was the same for both X and Y directions. To achieve the tighter spec in the future, we may consider the asymmetry specs for X and Y directions separately for some specific layers, such as CONT layer. For example, if the spec of X direction is tighter than Y direction, we can lose the precision of overlay from Y direction to let overlay from X direction more precise. Theoretically, the common overlay models such as HOPC or iHOPC set X and Y directions independently. To reach the goal of loss overly from one direction to preserve the overlay from the other direction, we consider the full map measurement overlay historical data. From these data, we can analyze the data to find which overlay targets are more important to X direction, and we can set these corresponding targets as the new measurement locations. This is one concept of "asymmetry" since the chosen measurement locations can provide more precisely correction for the overlay of specific direction. On the other hand, we use the in spec ratio (ISR) index for all measurement overlay targets on wafer to replace the traditional mean plus 3 sigma (M3S) index, since we have the budgets of both X and Y directions. The in spec ratio is defined as ratio that the residuals of X and Y directions fill the corresponding budgets, simultaneously. Since our goal is to maximize the ISR, the traditional M3S optimization algorithm can be replaced by ISR optimization with different overlay specs. That is the reason we call "asymmetry overlay correction".

  16. Symmetry and Asymmetry in Bouncing Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Cavagna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In running, hopping and trotting gaits, the center of mass of the body oscillates each step below and above an equilibrium position where the vertical force on the ground equals body weight. In trotting and low speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation equals that of the upper part, the duration of the lower part equals that of the upper part and the step frequency equals the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-offground symmetric rebound. In hopping and high speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation exceeds that of the upper part, the duration of the upper part exceeds that of the lower part and the step frequency is lower than the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-off-ground asymmetric rebound. Here we examine the physical and physiological constraints resulting in this on-off-ground symmetry and asymmetry of the rebound. Furthermore, the average force exerted during the brake when the body decelerates downwards and forwards is greater than that exerted during the push when the body is reaccelerated upwards and forwards. This landing-takeoff asymmetry, which would be nil in the elastic rebound of the symmetric spring-mass model for running and hopping, suggests a less efficient elastic energy storage and recovery during the bouncing step. During hopping, running and trotting the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness are smaller in larger animals than in the smaller animals suggesting a more efficient rebound in larger animals.

  17. Comprehending the three-dimensional mandibular morphology of facial asymmetry patients with mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kamata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors that cause facial asymmetry by comparing the characteristics of the mandibular morphology in patients with mandibular prognathism with or without facial asymmetry using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT. Methods We studied 28 mandibular prognathism patients whose menton deviated by ≥ 4 mm from the midline (FA group, n = 14 and those with a < 4-mm deviation (NA group, n = 14. DICOM data from multislice CT images were reconstructed and analysed using 3D image analysing software. Mandibular structures were assessed via linear, angular, or volumetric measurements and analysed statistically. Results The lengths of the ramal and body components and condylar volume in the FA group were significantly greater on the nondeviated side than those on the deviated side. The mandibular body length of the nondeviated side in the FA group was significantly longer than that of the NA group. Other components of the FA group did not significantly differ from those of the NA group. Conclusions Imbalances in the sizes of the ramal and body components as well as the increased body length of the nondeviated side in the FA group compared with that of the NA group may contribute to facial asymmetry in patients with mandibular prognathism.

  18. Strength Asymmetry of the Shoulders in Elite Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. Objective: To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Results: Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. Conclusions: In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male

  19. Strength asymmetry of the shoulders in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk

  20. Music-induced changes in functional cerebral asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Hodgetts, Sophie; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    After decades of research, it remains unclear whether emotion lateralization occurs because one hemisphere is dominant for processing the emotional content of the stimuli, or whether emotional stimuli activate lateralised networks associated with the subjective emotional experience. By using emotion-induction procedures, we investigated the effect of listening to happy and sad music on three well-established lateralization tasks. In a prestudy, Mozart's piano sonata (K. 448) and Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata were rated as the most happy and sad excerpts, respectively. Participants listened to either one emotional excerpt, or sat in silence before completing an emotional chimeric faces task (Experiment 1), visual line bisection task (Experiment 2) and a dichotic listening task (Experiment 3 and 4). Listening to happy music resulted in a reduced right hemispheric bias in facial emotion recognition (Experiment 1) and visuospatial attention (Experiment 2) and increased left hemispheric bias in language lateralization (Experiments 3 and 4). Although Experiments 1-3 revealed an increased positive emotional state after listening to happy music, mediation analyses revealed that the effect on hemispheric asymmetries was not mediated by music-induced emotional changes. The direct effect of music listening on lateralization was investigated in Experiment 4 in which tempo of the happy excerpt was manipulated by controlling for other acoustic features. However, the results of Experiment 4 made it rather unlikely that tempo is the critical cue accounting for the effects. We conclude that listening to music can affect functional cerebral asymmetries in well-established emotional and cognitive laterality tasks, independent of music-induced changes in the emotion state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Top quark asymmetry and dijet resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D.

    2011-01-01

    CDF recently reported an anomaly in the $m_{jj}$ distribution of dijet events produced in association with a $W$ boson. If this anomaly is associated with a new flavor conserving vector resonance, $V$, one might have expected to observe effects in the analogous $m_{jj}$ distribution produced in association with a $\\gamma$. No such excess is observed. A single $u-t-V$ flavor changing coupling, however, can contribute to the $m_{jj}$ anomaly while being consistent with other resonance searches. Furthermore, it gives a potential explanation of the observed forward-backward asymmetry in top quark production.

  2. General Equilibrium Pricing with Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general equilibrium model for asset pricing that incorporates asymmetric information as the key element determining security prices. In our setting, the concepts of completeness, arbitrage, state price and equivalent martingale measure are extended to the case of asymmetric information. Our model shows that in a so-called quasi-complete market, the agents with differential information can reach an agreement on an universal equilibrium price. The corresponding state price and martingale measure are determined. The key intuition is that agents evaluate consumption choices conditioned on their private information and the public information generated by price. As a consequence, information asymmetry can lead to mispricing as well.

  3. Broiler walking ability and toe asymmetry under harsh rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Baracho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological asymmetry has been described as a potential broiler welfare indicator, for interpreting the birds' ability to cope with the challenges that may affect its growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of morphological asymmetry data to estimate broiler walking ability and welfare.dBroilers werefed diets supplemented or not with vitamin D. Toes were measured when birds were 42 and 49 days old using digital caliper.the left and right sides of the following four bilateral traits (tarsometatarsus length, outer toe length, mid toe length, and back toe length were measured twice on intact alive birds by two different researcherh. Data from right and left sides were compared in the two treatments using the Student t-test, and Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the total asymmetry found as a result of the total sum of the differences in the measurements. Asymmetry data were comparedwith the total numberof leg lesions. Mid toe and tarsometatarsus asymmetry resultswere considered as actual fluctuating asymmetry, and presented normal distribution (Test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p >0.05. However, back toe and outer toe measurements were not normally distributed, as determined by the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p <0.05, indicating anti-asymmetry; when comparing right with left limb,results were significantly different fron zero (t-Student, p <0.05 indicating directional fluctuating asymmetry.The welfare of broilers withwalking difficulty due to the presence of severe asymmetry in limbs is poor.

  4. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  5. Experimental investigation of transverse spin asymmetries in muon-p SIDIS processes: Collins asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N.du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-10-31

    The COMPASS Collaboration at CERN has measured the transverse spin azimuthal asymmetry of charged hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a 160 GeV positive muon beam and a transversely polarised NH_3 target. The Collins asymmetry of the proton was extracted in the Bjorken x range 0.003asymmetries for negative and positive hadrons are similar in magnitude and opposite in sign. They are compatible with model calculations in which the u-quark transversity is opposite in sign and somewhat larger than the d-quark transversity distribution function. The asymmetry is extracted as a function of Bjorken $x$, the relative hadron energy $z$ and the hadron transverse momentum p_T^h. The high statistics and quality of the data also allow for more detailed investigations of the dependence on the ki...

  6. Single-Transverse-Spin-Asymmetry studies with a fixed-target experiment using the LHC beams (AFTER@LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J.P.; Arnaldi, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Chambert, V.; Da Silva, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Echevarria, M. G; Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Gao, Y.; Genolini, B.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Kikola, D.; Klein, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kusina, A.; Lorcé, C.; Lyonnet, F.; Massacrier, L.; Nass, A.; Pisano, C.; Robbe, P.; Schienbein, I.; Schlegel, M.; Scomparin, E.; Seixas, J.; Shao, H.S.; Signori, A.; Steffens, E.; Topilskaya, N.; Trzeciak, B.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Uras, A.; Ulrich, R.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the potential of AFTER@LHC to measure single-transverse-spin asymmetries in open-charm and bottomonium production. With a HERMES-like hydrogen polarised target, such measurements over a year can reach precisions close to the per cent level. This is particularly remarkable since these analyses can probably not be carried out anywhere else

  7. Measurement of the tau lepton polarization and its forward-backward asymmetry from Z[sup 0] decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G.A.; Becker, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bentkowski, P.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bosch, H.M.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R.M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlesworth, C.; Charlton, D.G.; Chu, S.L.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clayton, J.C.; Clowes, S.G.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Darling, C.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Jong, S. de; Deng, H.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Duchovni, E.; Duboscq, J.E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dunwoody, U.C.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Et; OPAL Collaboration

    1995-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the tau lepton polarization and its forward-backward asymmetry at the Z[sup 0] resonance using the OPAL detector. This measurement is based on analyses of the [tau][yields]e anti [nu][sub e][nu][sub [tau

  8. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and hair whorl patterns in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush

    2008-01-15

    Dermatoglyphic quantitative counts, asymmetry between two hands, and hair whorls were assessed in schizophrenic, bipolar and normal samples. Higher dermatoglyphic directional asymmetry and lower fluctuating asymmetry in bipolar patients support their hypernormal asymmetries. An inverse association between hair whorl location and dermatoglyphic asymmetry in schizophrenia may show a higher probability of lateralization problems.

  9. Multiple reversals of strand asymmetry in molluscs mitochondrial genomes, and consequences for phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Strand asymmetry in nucleotide composition is a remarkable feature of animal mitochondrial genomes. The strand-specific bias in the nucleotide composition of the mtDNA has been known to be highly problematic for phylogenetic analyses. Here, the strand asymmetry was compared across 140 mollusc species and analyzed for a mtDNA fragment including twelve protein-coding genes. The analyses show that almost all species in Gastropoda (except Heterobranchia) and all species in Bivalvia present reversals of strand bias. The skew values on individual genes for all codon positions (P 123 ), third codon positions (P 3 ), and fourfold redundant third codon positions (P 4FD ) indicated that CG skews are the best indicators of strand asymmetry. The differences in the patterns of strand asymmetry significantly influenced the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. These biases are most striking for the amino acids Valine, Cysteine, Asparagine and Threonines, which appear to have evolved asymmetrical exchanges in response to shifts in nucleotide composition. Molluscs with strong variability of genome architectures (ARs) are usually characterized by a reversal of the usual strand bias. Phylogenetic analyses show that reversals of asymmetric mutational constraints have consequences on the phylogenetic inferences, as taxa characterized by reverse strand bias (Heterobranchia and Bivalvia) tend to group together due to long-branch attraction (LBA) artifacts. Neutral Transitions Excluded (NTE) model did not overcome the problem of heterogeneous biases present in molluscs mt genomes, suggested it may not be appropriate for molluscs mt genome data. Further refinement phylogenetic models may help us better understand internal relationships among these diverse organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymmetry parameter for nonmesonic hypernuclear decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, Cesar; Galeao, Alfredo P.; Krmpotic, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We give general expressions for the vector asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons in the nonmesonic weak decay of polarized hypernuclei. From these we derive an explicit expression for the calculation of the asymmetry parameter, a Λ , which is applicable to the specific cases of Λ 5 He and Λ 12 C described within the extreme shell model. In contrast to the approximate formula widely used in the literature, it includes the effects of three-body kinematics in the final states of the decay and correctly treats the contribution of transitions originating from single-proton states beyond the s-shell. This expression is then used for the corresponding numerical computation of a Λ within several one-meson-exchange models. Besides the strictly local approximation usually adopted for the transition potential, we also consider the addition of the first-order nonlocality terms. We find values for a Λ ranging from -0.62 to -0.24, in qualitative agreement with other theoretical estimates but in contradiction with some recent experimental determinations

  11. On Introducing Asymmetry into Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Umbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We give a brief history of the results which led to the introduction of asymmetry into symmetric circular distributions. This is followed by the presentation of another method of introducing asymmetry. Some properties of the induced distributions are studied. Finally, this new distribution is shown to be a reasonable fit to the Jander ant data as presented in Fisher (1993.

  12. LOWER LIMB ASYMMETRIES IN RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutuoso, Anderson Simas; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Freitas, Cintia de la Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Different limb training demands and limb preference may determine anthropometric and muscle force inter-limb asymmetries in Rhythmic Gymnastics (RG) athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of lateral preference of the lower extremity on anthropometric, range of motion, and isokinetic torque measurements of RG athletes. Cross sectional study. Lower limb anthropometric measurements (girth, estimated anatomical cross-sectional area), hip, knee and ankle range of motion, flexor and extensor isokinetic torques (angular velocities = 60, 180, e 240 °·s(-1)) and bilateral asymmetry index were evaluated in 11 international level Rhythmic Gymnastics athletes (17.9 ± 4.0 years of age; 9.1 ± 5,1 years of experience; 26.8 ± 6.0 weekly training hours). The preferred limb showed larger thigh girth and anatomical cross-sectional area, higher ankle dorsiflexor range of motion, higher hip flexor torque at 60 °·s(-1) and higher plantarflexor torque at 180 °·s(-1) compared to the non-preferred limb. The observed differences seem to be strictly related to lateral preference and rhythmic gymnastics training. 3.

  13. Perceptual asymmetries and handedness: A neglected link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eMarzoli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy individuals tend to weigh in more the left than the right side of visual space in a variety of contexts, ranging from pseudoneglect to perceptual asymmetries for faces. Among the common explanations proposed for the attentional and perceptual advantages of the left visual field, a link with the prevalence of right-handedness in humans has never been suggested, although some evidence seems to converge in favor of a bias of spatial attention towards the region most likely coincident with another person’s right hand during a face-to-face interaction. Such a bias might imply an increased efficiency in monitoring both communicative and aggressive acts, the right limb being more used than the left in both types of behaviour. Although attentional and perceptual asymmetries could be linked to right-handedness at the level of phylogeny because of the evolutionarily advantage of directing attention towards the region where others’ dominant hand usually operates, it is also legitimate to question whether, at the ontogenetic level, frequent exposure to right-handed individuals may foster leftward biases. These views are discussed in the light of extant literature, and a number of tests are proposed in order to assess our hypotheses.

  14. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  15. Asymmetries in four powerful radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Morison, I.

    1983-01-01

    The extragalactic radio sources 3C 153, 196, 249.1 and 268.4 have been observed at frequencies of 408 and 1666 MHz with the new MERLIN array operated by Jodrell Bank, giving resolutions of approx. 0.9 and 0.25 arcsec respectively. The sources show marked asymmetries about the central object in spectral index, flux and morphology, which we believe are most naturally accounted for by the effects of a time-dependent asymmetry in the central powerhouse. In the case of 3C 249.1 the observations suggest that energy is being supplied alternately to the two sides of the source. The 1666-MHz observations also show that each of the other three sources contains one extremely compact hotspot. The minimum internal energy densities in these hotspots are such that confinement by ram pressure of motion through the intergalactic medium may not be possible, indicating that such features are transient phenomena in free expansion, or that some other confinement mechanism is operating. (author)

  16. Etik og ansvar, symmetri eller asymmetri ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Når professionelle relationer, hvor fysioterapeuter, pædagoger, lærere, sygeplejersker optræder, omtales, dukker begrebet symmetri og asymmetri op. Oftest omtales den professionelle relation som asymmetrisk, hvor det næsten implicit og uden for diskussion forstås, at det er den professionelle, der...... har den mest magtfulde position. Med filosoffen Emmanuel Lévinas udfordres denne selvfølgelighed, og jeg vil med artiklen gerne bidrage til at udfordre den selvfølgelighed, hvormed overvejelser om symmetri og asymmetri ofte udtales i relation til det borgerrettede professionelle arbejde. Mange...... fordring, som ikke er noget vi kan undslå os eller bestemme os for, men som er noget der overgår os, og dermed vil den andens liv til dels ligge i vores hænder. Buber omtales ofte som mødets filosof, og for ham er det centrale, at vi i mødet ikke gør den anden til et ”det”, og hans mest kendte værk hedder...

  17. Search for Heavy Neutrinos and WR Bosons with Right-Handed Couplings in a Left-Right Symmetric Model in pp Collisions at s=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Shreyber, I.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N[mu], and right-handed W[R] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0 inverse femtobarn sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No evidence is observed for an excess of events over the standard model expectation. For models with exact left-right symmetry, heavy right-handed neutrinos are excluded at 95% confidence level for a range of neutrino masses below the W[R] mass, dependent on the value of M(W[R]). The excluded region in the two-dimensional (M(W[R]), M(N[mu])) mass plane extends to M(W[R]) = 2.5 TeV.

  18. Beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the unpolarised proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    Beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in the hard exclusive leptoproduction of real photons from an unpolarised hydrogen target by a 27.6 GeV lepton beam are extracted from the HERMES data set of 2006-2007 using a missing-mass event selection technique. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted from this data set are more precise than those extracted from the earlier data set of 1996-2005 previously analysed in the same manner by HERMES. The results from the two data sets are compatible with each other. Results from these combined data sets are extracted and constitute the most precise asymmetry amplitude measurements made in the HERMES kinematic region using a missing-mass event selection technique. (orig.)

  19. Sivers asymmetry extracted in SIDIS at the hard scales of the Drell–Yan process at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight proton transverse-spin-dependent azimuthal asymmetries are extracted in four regions of the photon virtuality Q2 from the COMPASS 2010 semi-inclusive hadron measurements in deep inelastic muon–nucleon scattering. These Q2 regions correspond to the four regions of the di-muon mass Q2 used in the ongoing analyses of the COMPASS Drell–Yan measurements, which allows for a future direct comparison of the nucleon transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions extracted from these two alternative measurements. In addition, for the azimuthal asymmetries induced by the Sivers transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function various two-dimensional kinematic dependences are presented. The integrated Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive with an accuracy that appears to be sufficient to test the sign change of the Sivers function predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics.

  20. Characterization of the up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations induced by a lower modular limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Antar, G.; Capes, H.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    1999-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, the effect of plasma facing components on plasma turbulence is a key issue for several reasons. Firstly, the edge turbulence controls the power deposition on plasma facing components. Secondly, the possible influence of the edge parameters on the core fluctuations is a central question, since the core turbulent transport is responsible for the confinement degradation. It is in practice difficult to determine whether the plasma core influences the edge, or the opposite. We show here that spatial edge asymmetries of density fluctuations, and particularly up-down asymmetries, provide a powerful tool to investigate this problem. In TORE SUPRA, previous scaling analyses with various plasma parameters have emphasized that a very clear effect on the asymmetry level appears when the plasma leans on the lower modular limiter located close to the measurement chord. We present here recent measurement results concerning that specific case. They tend to show that the limiter configuration has some effect on the core turbulence. (authors)

  1. Asymmetries Identified in Sit-to-Stand Task Explain Physical Function After Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert A; Houck, Jeff R; Drummond, Micah J; Fritz, Julie M; LaStayo, Paul C; Marcus, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Several known demographic and functional characteristics combine to predict physical function after hip fracture. Long-term weight-bearing asymmetries, evident during functional movements after hip fracture, contribute to limited mobility and large asymmetries in muscle function are linked to a high rate of injurious falls. Although postfracture mobility is commonly measured as whole body movement, a force-plate imbedded chair can identify individual limb contributions to an important task like moving from a sitting to standing position. The modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT) and stair climb test (SCT) are reliable, valid measures of function that predict independence after hip fracture. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent asymmetry during a sit-to-stand task (STST) predicts function (mPPT, 12-step SCT), above and beyond other known predictors. Thirty-one independent community-dwelling older adults, recently discharged from usual care physical therapy (mean [standard deviation], 77.7 [10.5] years, 10 male), within 2 to 8 months postfracture, volunteered for this study.Participants performed an STST on a force-plate-imbedded chair designed to identify individual limb contributions during an STST. Asymmetry magnitude during the STST was determined for each individual. In addition, mPPT and SCT were assessed and regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of asymmetry to the variance in these physical function scores beyond other factors predicting function. Demographic factors (sex, time since fracture, repair type, and body mass index) were not significantly related to function in this sample. Age, gait speed, knee extension strength, balance confidence, and functional self-report were each significantly related to both mPPT (r = 0.43-0.86) and SCT (r = 0.40-0.83), and were retained in the regression model. Included variables accounted for 83.4% of the variance in mPPT score, and asymmetry during the STST did not

  2. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  3. European economic integration and (A)symmetry of macroeconomic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; Economidou, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates output and consumption asymmetries in the Eurozone and enlarged EU over the period 1992-2007, and their consequences for monetary policy. Our results reveal that the introduction of the euro has little impact on output asymmetry so far; however, it has led to

  4. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays ∑

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays. N G DESHPANDE. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203, USA. Email: desh@oregon.uoregon.edu. Abstract. We briefly discuss measurements of angles β and α of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using SU´3µ ...

  5. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  6. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  7. Spatial asymmetry of post-stroke hemiparetic gait: assessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite potential benefits, quantitative analysis of gait asymmetry is still not routinely used in many hospitals and rehabilitation institutions in developing countries due to ... Conclusion: Overall, the study demonstrated asymmetry of step length and foot rotation angle during walking of post-stroke hemiparetic individuals and ...

  8. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  9. A surface-based analysis of language lateralization and cortical asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R; Fischl, Bruce; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl's gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013-2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by differences

  10. A Surface-based Analysis of Language Lateralization and Cortical Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N.; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Fischl, Bruce; Bysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl’s gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013–2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by

  11. Contract Design: The problem of information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel C. Mühlbacher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care systems are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. Little is known about the contractual design and the main challenges of delegating “accountability” to these new kinds of organisations and/or contracts. The research question in this article focuses on how healthcare contracts can look like and which possible problems arise in designing such contracts. In this a special interest is placed on information asymmetries.  Methods: A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the first in a row of three that all contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. Starting with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, part 2 focusses on financial options and risks and part 3 finally concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation.  Results: Healthcare contracting between providers and payers will have a major impact on the overall design of future healthcare systems. If Integrated care systems or any other similar concept of care delivery are to be contracted directly by payers to manage the continuum of care the costs of market utilisation play an essential role. Transaction costs also arise in the course of the negotiation and implementation of contracts. These costs are the reason why it is generally not possible to conclude perfect (complete contracts. Problems with asymmetric distribution of information can relate to the situation before a contract is concluded (adverse selection and after conclusion of a contract (moral hazard.  Discussion and Conclusions: Information asymmetries are seen as a major obstacle to the efficient operation of integrated care programmes. Coordination and motivation problems cannot be solved

  12. Quantitative dermatoglyphic asymmetry: a comparative study between schizophrenic patients and control groups of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, B; Sengupta, M

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Fluctuating (FA) and Directional asymmetry (DA) of dermatoglyphics on digito-palmar complex were analyzed in a group of 111 patients (males: 61, females: 50) with schizophrenia (SZ), and compared to an ethnically matched phenotypically healthy control (males: 60, females: 60) through MANOVA, ANOVA and canonical Discriminant analyses. With few exceptions, asymmetries are higher among patients, and this is more prominent in FA than DA. Statistically significant differences were observed between patient and control groups, especially in males. In both sexes, FA of combined dermatoglyphic traits (e.g. total finger ridge count, total palmar pattern ridge count) are found to be a strong discriminator between the two groups with a correct classification of over 83% probability.

  13. A Point-Wise Quantification of Asymmetry Using Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Lanche, Stephanie; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2007-01-01

    of the resulting displacement vectors on the left and right side of the symmetry plane, gives a point-wise measure of asymmetry. The asymmetry measure was applied to the study of Crouzon syndrome using Micro CT scans of genetically modified mice. Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial...... sutures, which gives rise to a highly asymmetric growth. Quantification and localisation of this asymmetry is of high value with respect to surgery planning and treatment evaluation. Using the proposed method, asymmetry was calculated in each point of the surface of Crouzon mice and wild-type mice...... (controls). Asymmetry appeared in similar regions for the two groups but the Crouzon mice were found significantly more asymmetric. The localisation ability of the method was in good agreement with ratings from a clinical expert. Validating the quantification ability is a less trivial task due to the lack...

  14. A Combinatorial Approach to Time Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tamm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simple models for the multiverse are analyzed. Each universe is viewed as a path in a graph, and by considering very general statistical assumptions, essentially originating from Boltzmann, we can make the set of all such paths into a finite probability space. We can then also attempt to compute the probabilities for different kinds of behavior and in particular under certain conditions argue that an asymmetric behavior of the entropy should be much more probable than a symmetric one. This offers an explanation for the asymmetry of time as a broken symmetry in the multiverse. The focus here is on simple models which can be analyzed using methods from combinatorics. Although the computational difficulties rapidly become enormous when the size of the model grows, this still gives hints about how a full-scale model should behave.

  15. Intraday market asymmetries — A Nordic example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund; Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    , particularly important for VRE producers, but it also means that the price formation at intraday market can change optimal bidding strategy in the day-ahead market. Through econometric modelling of intraday price premiums, this paper investigates intraday price asymmetries, which potentially can lead...... to strategic bidding. The intraday market is per definition symmetric, as prices for power sales always correspond to prices for power purchases, however, we find that this symmetry is not reflected in the price structure in regards to the total load adjustment needs.......While the majority of electricity in the Nordic and Baltic countries is traded at the day-ahead market, producers and consumers can use the intraday market to adjust their production commitments according to updated forecasts closer to the time of delivery. This reduces the need for balancing...

  16. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...... of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality...

  17. Subsurface Nonlinear Dynamical Heating and ENSO Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michiya; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    This study presents evidence of interannual to interdecadal variabilities residing in the subsurface nonlinear dynamical heating (NDH) along the equatorial Pacific thermocline based on ocean reanalysis products. In association with a flattened thermocline and drastic halt of the Equatorial Undercurrent, the NDH increases sharply right after a peak of the strong El Niño, reducing the linear anomalous advective subsurface cooling by 30%. As the result, subsurface cold signals in the west are significantly weakened as it reaches the easternmost Pacific, causing less surface cooling in the east and thus weakening the subsequent La Niña. Therefore, the subsurface NDH contributes to asymmetry in both the magnitude and structure between El Niño and La Niña. The acute positive subsurface NDH associated with strong El Niño events leads to substantial variations in its decadal means and serves as a potential source for tropical Pacific decadal to interdecadal variabilities.

  18. Symmetry and asymmetry in mandelate racemase catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.P.; Hegeman, G.D.; Cleland, W.W.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetic properties of mandelate racemase catalysis (Vmax, Km, deuterium isotope effects, and pH profiles) were all measured in both directions by the circular dichroic assay of Sharp. These results, along with those of studying interactions of mandelate racemase with resolved, enantiomeric competitive inhibitors [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycerates], indicate a high degree of symmetry in both binding and catalysis. Racemization of either enantiomer of mandelate in D 2 O did not show an overshoot region of molecular ellipticity in circular dichroic measurements upon approach to equilibrium. Both the absence of such an overshoot region and the high degree of kinetic symmetry are consistent with a one-base acceptor mechanism for mandelate racemase. On the other hand, results of irreversible inhibition with partially resolved, enantiomeric affinity labels [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycidates] reveal a ''functional asymmetry'' at the active site. Mechanistic proposals, consistent with these results, are presented

  19. Time-reversal asymmetry in financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. F.; Chen, T. T.; Zheng, B.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the large-fluctuation dynamics in financial markets, based on the minute-to-minute and daily data of the Chinese Indices and the German DAX. The dynamic relaxation both before and after the large fluctuations is characterized by a power law, and the exponents p± usually vary with the strength of the large fluctuations. The large-fluctuation dynamics is time-reversal symmetric at the time scale in minutes, while asymmetric at the daily time scale. Careful analysis reveals that the time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by external forces. It is also the external forces which drive the financial system to a non-stationary state. Different characteristics of the Chinese and German stock markets are uncovered.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ASYMMETRY ORIGIN OF GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS. I. OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Coziol, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first of two analyses about the influence of environment on the formation and evolution of galaxies observed in the nearby universe. For our study, we used three different samples representing different density environments: galaxies in Compact Groups (HCGs), Isolated Pairs of Galaxies (KPGs), and Isolated Galaxies (KIGs), which were taken as references. Usingboth characteristic isophotal parameters and evidence of asymmetries in the optical and the near-infrared, we are able to establish differences in the characteristics of galaxies with different morphologies in different environments, allowing us to better understand their different formation histories. In this first paper, we present the isophotal and asymmetry analyses of a sample of 214 galaxies in different environments observed in the optical (V and I images). For each galaxy, we have determined different characteristic isophotal parameters and V - I color profiles, as a function of semi-major axis, and performed a full asymmetry analysis in residual images using the V filter. Evidence of asymmetry in the optical is almost missing in the KIG sample and significantly more common in the KPG than in the HCG samples. Our isophotal analysis suggests that the stellar populations in the HCG galaxies are older and more dynamically relaxed than in the KPG. The HCG galaxies seem to be at a more advanced stage of interaction than the KPGs. One possible explanation is that these structures formed at different epochs: compact groups of galaxies would have formed before close pairs of galaxies, which only began interacting recently. However, similarities in the formation process of galaxies with same morphology suggest CGs and close pairs of galaxies share similar conditions; they are new structures forming relatively late in low-density environments.

  1. Measurement of the Forward-Backward Asymmetry in $Z \\to b\\overline{b}$ and $Z \\to c\\overline{c}$ Decays with Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Boix, G; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Sguazzoni, G; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Ward, J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G

    2002-01-01

    The sample of hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP in the years 1991-1995 is analysed in order to measure the forward-backward asymmetry in $Z \\to b\\bar{b}$ and $Z \\to c\\bar{c}$ events and the $B^0-\\bar{B^0}$ average mixing parameter $\\bar{\\chi}$. Quark charges are tagged by the charges of electrons and muons produced in b and c semileptonic decays. Multivariate analyses are used to separate the event flavours and $b \\to \\ell$/$b \\to c \\to ell$ processes. The b and c quark asymmetries are measured simultaneously; the average mixing parameter and the pole asymmetries are determined to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\bar{\\chi} &=& 0.1196 \\pm 0.0049 (stat) {}^{+0.0043}_{-0.0050} (syst) \\\\ \\A^{0,b}_{FB} &=& 0.0998 \\pm 0.0040 (stat) \\pm 0.0017 (syst),\\\\ \\A^{0.c}_{FB} &=& 0.0732 \\pm 0.0053 (stat) \\pm 0.0037 (syst).\\\\ \\end{eqnarray*} These asymmetries, combined with the ALEPH measurements of the b asymmetry using inclusive b hadron decays and of the c asymmetry using reconstructed D...

  2. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  3. Bilateral asymmetry of the humerus during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    The development of handedness throughout growth can be investigated by using bilateral asymmetry of the humerus as a proxy for this trait. A large skeletal sample of nonadults from English archaeological sites was examined using standard metric techniques to assess when right-sided asymmetry first appears in the human skeleton. Results of this work indicate a change in directional asymmetry during growth and development, with infants and young children exhibiting no significant asymmetry and older children and adolescents demonstrating right-sidedness. This trend is consistent with what has been observed in previous studies of upper limb asymmetry in skeletal material and behaviorally in living children, adding further strength to the premise that biomechanical forces strongly influence bilateral asymmetry in the upper limb bones. Variability in the magnitude of asymmetry between different features of the humerus was also noted. This characteristic can be explained by differing degrees of genetic canalization, with length and articular dimensions being more strongly canalized than diaphyseal properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Measurement of ttbar forward-backward asymmetry at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Early measurements of the forward-backward ttbar production asymmetry at CDF and D0 suggested significant asymmetries that have been interpreted as evidence for exotic gluon partners or new t-channel interactions. We present new measurements performed with 5 fb-1 of Tevatron ppbar collisions at Ecm = 1.96 TeV, recorded and analyzed at CDF. Significant inclusive asymmetries are observed in both the lepton+jets and the dilepton decay modes of the ttbar pair. In the dilepton mode, the asymmetry is observed in the reconstructed top rapidity, and in the lepton rapidity difference, which is independent of any top reconstruction. In the lepton plus jets sample, the full reconstruction of the top kinematics is used to measure the dependence of the asymmetry on the tt bar rapidity difference Delta(y) and the invariant mass M_(ttbar ) of the ttbar system. The asymmetry is found to be most significant at large Delta(y) and M_(ttbar) . For M_(ttbar) > 450 GeV/c2, the parton-level asymmetry in the t-tbar rest frame is...

  5. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, Maksym; Shtanov, Yuri; Tomalak, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending on a single combined variable. In this case, the late-time asymptotics of the conformal chiral chemical potential reproduces the universal scaling law previously found in the literature for the system under consideration. This regime is terminated at lower temperatures because of scattering of electrons with chirality change, which exponentially washes out chiral asymmetry. We derive an expression for the termination temperature as a function of the chiral asymmetry and energy density of helical magnetic field.

  6. Hα LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES AND THE CHROMOSPHERIC FLARE VELOCITY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Graham, D. [INAF-Ossevatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-11-10

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  7. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  8. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Temperature dependence of trophic interactions are driven by asymmetry of species responses and foraging strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Anthony I; Pawar, Samraat; Savage, Van M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperature has systematic effects on rates of species interactions, primarily through its influence on organismal physiology. We present a mechanistic model for the thermal response of consumer-resource interactions. We focus on how temperature affects species interactions via key traits - body velocity, detection distance, search rate and handling time - that underlie per capita consumption rate. The model is general because it applies to all foraging strategies: active-capture (both consumer and resource body velocity are important), sit-and-wait (resource velocity dominates) and grazing (consumer velocity dominates). The model predicts that temperature influences consumer-resource interactions primarily through its effects on body velocity (either of the consumer, resource or both), which determines how often consumers and resources encounter each other, and that asymmetries in the thermal responses of interacting species can introduce qualitative, not just quantitative, changes in consumer-resource dynamics. We illustrate this by showing how asymmetries in thermal responses determine equilibrium population densities in interacting consumer-resource pairs. We test for the existence of asymmetries in consumer-resource thermal responses by analysing an extensive database on thermal response curves of ecological traits for 309 species spanning 15 orders of magnitude in body size from terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats. We find that asymmetries in consumer-resource thermal responses are likely to be a common occurrence. Overall, our study reveals the importance of asymmetric thermal responses in consumer-resource dynamics. In particular, we identify three general types of asymmetries: (i) different levels of performance of the response, (ii) different rates of response (e.g. activation energies) and (iii) different peak or optimal temperatures. Such asymmetries should occur more frequently as the climate changes and species' geographical

  10. Age and Practice Effects on Inter-manual Performance Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual dexterity declines with increasing age however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right handed participants, 5 males and 5 females in each of three age groups, young (Y20, young-old (O70, and old-old (O80, practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the asymmetry index (AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the five days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6 and this did not change with practice.

  11. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

  12. Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.

  13. Baryogenesis and dark matter through a Higgs asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Tulin, Sean

    2013-10-11

    In addition to explaining the masses of elementary particles, the Higgs boson may have far-reaching implications for the generation of the matter content in the Universe. For instance, the Higgs boson plays a key role in two main theories of baryogenesis, namely, electroweak baryogenesis and leptogenesis. In this Letter, we propose a new cosmological scenario where the Higgs chemical potential mediates asymmetries between visible and dark matter sectors, either generating a baryon asymmetry from a dark matter asymmetry or vice versa. We illustrate this mechanism with a simple model with two new fermions coupled to the Higgs boson and discuss the associated signatures.

  14. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  15. Body Posture Asymmetry in Prematurely Born Children at Six Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walicka-Cupryś

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of the study was to assess body posture asymmetries in the standing and sitting position in prematurely born children at six years of age. Study Design and Subjects. We measured trunk symmetry in coronal plane. The study was carried out in a group of 101 children, aged 6-7 years, mean age of 6.63, including 50 preterm children born at gestational age <32 weeks (preterm group and 51 full-term children (control group. Outcome Measures. Trunk symmetry in coronal plane was measured using photogrammetric technique with Mora 4G CQ Elektronik. The subjects were examined in standing and sitting position. Statistical analyses were carried out using Shapiro-Wilk W-test, Student’s t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Pearson’s chi-squared test. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the asymmetries identified in the relevant anthropometric points, relative to the position assumed during the examination or to the subjects’ sex. Conclusions. There are no significant differences in body posture in the coronal plane, between preterm children and full-term children. Premature birth does not have adverse effects related to body posture asymmetry in preterm children at the age of six.

  16. Cross-Sections and Leptonic Forward-Backward Asymmetries from the $Z^0$ Running of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nová, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    2000-01-01

    During 1993 and 1995 LEP was run at 3 energies near the Z$^0$ peak in order to give improved measurements of the mass and width of the resonance. During 1994, LEP operated only at the Z$^0$peak. In total DELPHI accumulated data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 116~pb$^{-1}$. Analyses ofthe hadronic cross-sections and of the cross-sections and forward-backward asymmetries in the leptonic channels used the most precise evaluations of the LEP energies. In the dimuon channel, events with a photon radiated from the initialstate have been used to probe the cross-sections and asymmetries down to PETRA energies.Model independent fits to all DELPHI lineshape and asymmetry data from 1990 to 1995have been carried out giving values ofthe resonance parameters:\\MZ & = & 91.1863\\pm0.0028~\\GeV \\\\\\GZ & = & ~2.4876\\pm0.0041~\\GeV \\\\ \\sigma_{0} & = & 41.578\\pm0.069~\

  17. The link between weight shift asymmetry and gait disturbances in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Szopa,1 Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa,2 Anetta Lasek-Bal,3 Amadeusz Żak3 1Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, 3Department of Neurology, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients.Participants and methods: Twenty-two ambulatory patients with chronic stroke aged between 50 and 75 years were included in this study. Fourteen patients had hemiparesis on the nondominant side and 8 on the dominant side. The mean time PS was 2 years and 6 months. The reference group consisted of 22 students from the University of the Third Age presenting no neurological disorders. The examination consisted of posturographic weight-bearing (WB distribution and 3-dimensional gait analyses.Results: A significant positive relationship between WBA and GGI was revealed. Moreover, we observed a significant negative association between WBA and paretic step length and walking speed. With regard to kinematic data, the range of motion of knee flexion and peak dorsiflexion in the swing phase of the paretic leg were significantly negatively associated with WBA.Conclusion: Although further research is needed to determine a causal link between postural control asymmetry and gait disturbance in hemiplegics, our findings support the inclusion of WB measurements between paretic and

  18. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supersymmetry protects the primordial baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E; Ibanez, Luis E.; Quevedo, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    It has been argued that any primordial B+L asymmetry existing at very high temperatures can be subsequently erased by anomalous electroweak effects. We argue that this is not necessarily the case in the supersymmetric standard model because, apart from B and/or L, there are, above a certain temperature $T_{SS}$, two other anomalous U(1) currents. As a consequence, anomalous electroweak effects are only able to partially transform a B+L excess into a generation of primordial sparticle (e.g. gaugino) density. This relaxes recent bounds on B,L-violating non-renormalizable couplings by several orders of magnitude. In particular, dimension-5 couplings inducing neutrino masses may be 4 orders of magnitude larger than in the non-supersymmetric case, allowing for neutrino masses of the order of 10 eV. These values are consistent with a MSW+see-saw explanation of the solar-neutrino data and also with possible neutrino oscillations measurable at accelerators. Cosmological bounds on other rare processes, such as neutron...

  20. Asymmetry in serial femtosecond crystallography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Johansson, Linda; Dunevall, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Neutze, Richard; Katona, Gergely

    2017-03-01

    Serial crystallography is an increasingly important approach to protein crystallography that exploits both X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation. Serial crystallography recovers complete X-ray diffraction data by processing and merging diffraction images from thousands of randomly oriented non-uniform microcrystals, of which all observations are partial Bragg reflections. Random fluctuations in the XFEL pulse energy spectrum, variations in the size and shape of microcrystals, integrating over millions of weak partial observations and instabilities in the XFEL beam position lead to new types of experimental errors. The quality of Bragg intensity estimates deriving from serial crystallography is therefore contingent upon assumptions made while modeling these data. Here it is observed that serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) Bragg reflections do not follow a unimodal Gaussian distribution and it is recommended that an idealized assumption of single Gaussian peak profiles be relaxed to incorporate apparent asymmetries when processing SFX data. The phenomenon is illustrated by re-analyzing data collected from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center and comparing these intensity observations with conventional synchrotron data. The results show that skewness in the SFX observations captures the essence of the Wilson plot and an empirical treatment is suggested that can help to separate the diffraction Bragg intensity from the background.

  1. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  2. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  3. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  4. Cerebral blood flow asymmetries in headache-free migraineurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.R.; Welch, K.M.; Ewing, J.R.; Joseph, R.; D'Andrea, G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) asymmetries were studied in controls and patients with common and classic/complicated migraine using 133 Xe inhalation with 8 homologously situated external collimators over each cerebral hemisphere. Migraine patients as a group more frequently had posterior rCBF asymmetries than controls (p less than 0.03). Although there were no differences in the number of anterior rCBF asymmetries, migraine patients had 2 or more asymmetric probe pairs more often than controls (p less than 0.02). The posterior rCBF asymmetries, consistent with the site of activation of many migraine attacks, may be related to more labile control of the cerebral circulation

  5. Axial asymmetry, finite particle number and the IBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry. This arises from zero point motion in a γ-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms γ. Three aspects of this feature will be discussed: (1) The relation between IBA-1 calculations and the corresponding γ. This point is developed in the context of the Consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA. (2) The dependence of this asymmetry on boson number, N, and the exploitation of this dependence to set limits on both the relative and absolute values of N for deformed nuclei. (3) The relation between this asymmetry and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian. Various observables will be inspected in order both to determine their sensitivity to these two structural features and to explore empirical ways of distinguishing which origin of asymmetry applies in any given nucleus. 16 references

  6. Analysis of Resonance Asymmetry Phenomenon in Resonant Fiber Optic Gyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoyan Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment demonstrated the resonance asymmetry phenomenon in the resonant fiber optic gyro. The asymmetry of resonant curve affects the system open-loop bias and its stability, which directly affects the accuracy of angular velocity measurement. In this paper, a new mathematic model is established. The influence of the coupler normal mode loss difference (the phase difference between the coupler cross port output optical field and direct port is less than the ideal π/2 on the symmetry of resonant curve, the resonant signal modulated by the triangular wave, and the demodulation curve are analyzed. Moreover, the asymmetry of the resonant curve leads to the asymmetry of the resonant signal, as modulated by the triangular wave and the demodulation curve from the theoretical simulation and the experiment.

  7. Analysis of Resonance Asymmetry Phenomenon in Resonant Fiber Optic Gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuoyan; He, Nie; Sun, Xuqiang; Jin, Chao; Liu, Chengxiang; Wu, Xu

    2018-02-26

    This experiment demonstrated the resonance asymmetry phenomenon in the resonant fiber optic gyro. The asymmetry of resonant curve affects the system open-loop bias and its stability, which directly affects the accuracy of angular velocity measurement. In this paper, a new mathematic model is established. The influence of the coupler normal mode loss difference (the phase difference between the coupler cross port output optical field and direct port is less than the ideal π/2) on the symmetry of resonant curve, the resonant signal modulated by the triangular wave, and the demodulation curve are analyzed. Moreover, the asymmetry of the resonant curve leads to the asymmetry of the resonant signal, as modulated by the triangular wave and the demodulation curve from the theoretical simulation and the experiment.

  8. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry in the influence of language on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanliang; Cai, Yongchun; Lu, Shena

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have shown that language can affect visual perception; however, our understanding of the neural basis of linguistic influence is inadequate. This can be investigated by examining the hemispheric asymmetry of linguistic influence. The left and right hemispheres are dominant in close and distant semantic processing, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to hemispheric asymmetry for concept priming on the detection of objects degraded by continuous flash suppression. We combined a priming paradigm with the divided visual field paradigm and used continuous flash suppression, which renders objects invisible. The results indicated that the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to a right lateralization in the influence of more abstract concepts on visual perception. The lateralization of brain connectomes may be the underlying neural basis of this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of asymmetry of vortex flow over slender delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbaz, Ghasem

    Vortex flow, a major area of interest in fluid mechanics, is widespread in nature and in many man-made fluid mechanical devices. It can create havoc as cyclones or tornadoes or have significant implications in the performance of turbo-fluid machines or supersonic vehicles and so forth. Asymmetric vortices can cause a loss of lift and increase in rolling moment which can significantly affect wing stability and control. Up until the early nineties, it was generally believed that vortex asymmetry was the result of vortex interactions due to the close proximity of vortices over slender delta wings. However, some recent studies have thrown considerable doubt on the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a series of nine delta wing planforms with sharp and round leading edges to examine the occurrence of vortex asymmetry at different angles of attack and sideslip. The study included surface oil and laser light sheet flow visualization in addition to surface pressure and hot-wire velocity measurements under static conditions. The effects of incidence, sideslip and sweep angles as well as Reynolds number variations were investigated. In this study, it was found that the effect of apex and leading edge shape played an important role in vortex asymmetry generation at high angle of attack. Vortex asymmetry was not observed over slender sharp leading edge delta wings due to the separation point being fixed at the sharp leading edge. Experimental results for these wings showed that the vortices do not impinge on one another because they do not get any closer beyond a certain value of angle of attack. Thus vortex asymmetry was not generated. However, significant vortex asymmetry was observed for round leading-edged delta wings. Asymmetric separation positions over the round leading edge was the result of laminar/turbulent transition which caused vortex asymmetry on these delta wing configurations. Sideslip angle and vortex

  11. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  12. The 'Goldilocks Zone': getting the measure of manual asymmetries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Raw

    Full Text Available Some studies have shown that manual asymmetries decrease in older age. These results have often been explained with reference to models of reduced hemispheric specialisation. An alternative explanation, however, is that hand differences are subtle, and capturing them requires tasks that yield optimal performance with both hands. Whereas the hemispheric specialisation account implies that reduced manual asymmetries should be reliably observed in older adults, the 'measurement difficulty' account suggests that manual asymmetries will be hard to detect unless a task has just the right level of difficulty--i.e. within the 'Goldilocks Zone', where it is not too easy or too hard, but just right. Experiment One tested this hypothesis and found that manual asymmetries were only detected when participants performed in this zone; specifically, performance on a tracing task was only superior in the preferred hand when task constraints were high (i.e. fast speed tracing. Experiment Two used three different tasks to examine age differences in manual asymmetries; one task produced no asymmetries, whilst two tasks revealed asymmetries in both younger and older groups (with poorer overall performance in the old group across all tasks. Experiment Three revealed task-dependent asymmetries in both age groups, but highlighted further detection difficulties linked with the metric of performance and compensatory strategies used by participants. Results are discussed with reference to structural learning theory, whereby we suggest that the processes of inter-manual transfer lead to relatively small performance differences between the hands (despite a strong phenomenological sense of performance disparities.

  13. Polarization asymmetries and gauge theory interactions at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk, we give the arguments as to why spin asymmetries test fundamental properties of the underlying gauge theories of elementary particles, concentrating mainly on electro-weak and QCD interactions, but also looking at the future and possible signatures for supersymmetric strong interactions. We also mention briefly the role helicity asymmetry measurements can play as regards higher order corrections, including higher twist, in QCD. (orig./HSI)

  14. Kinetic Asymmetry during Running at Preferred and Nonpreferred Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Egginton, Natalie L

    2018-01-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering preferred running speed by ±20% on kinetic asymmetry. Three-dimensional motion analysis and force data were acquired from 15 healthy males (age: 27 ± 4.6 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m, mass: 80.4 ± 12.4 kg) during their preferred running speed, and at ±20% of this speed. 3T magnetic resonance images were used to measure Achilles tendon cross-sectional area and moment arm, for use in calculation of tendon stress. Kinetic and tendon stress asymmetry were subsequently calculated in each condition using the symmetry index. Across all joints and conditions, average asymmetry of peak moments was between ±6% but higher individual values were observed; there was no effect of speed on magnitude of asymmetry. Ground contact times, vertical ground reaction forces and support and ankle moments (maximum absolute asymmetry: 9%) were more symmetrical than hip and knee moments (up to 18%). Individual joint contribution to support moment and positive work were similar in both limbs, and ankle and hip compensatory interactions were observed with alterations in running speed. Achilles tendon stress increased with increased running speed, with higher stress in the preferred limb; asymmetry in tendon stress was not related to asymmetry in vertical ground reaction forces. Results show small effects of altering running speed on kinetic asymmetry, but responses are individual-specific with interactions occurring between joints to maintain overall movement symmetry. Further research is needed to understand the mechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms underpinning these compensations.

  15. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  16. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Role of quasiprojectile isospin asymmetry in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Bonasera, A.; Wuenschel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fragment yield data, selected with different values of the isospin asymmetry of the quasiprojectile from 78, 86 Kr + 58, 64 Ni reactions at E lab = 35 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed within the framework of Landau free energy approach. Fits to the free energy data indicated the system to be in the regime of a first-order phase transition. The plot of free energy versus isospin asymmetry of the fragments showed a systematic change with increasing isospin asymmetry of the fragmenting source. This observation demonstrated the role of quasiprojectile isospin asymmetry as an external field which governed the minima positions in the free energy plot. The position of the central minimum was found to be in close agreement with the average isospin asymmetry of the fragments calculated excluding neutrons and protons. Significant deviations from the free energy plot were observed for N = Z fragments, particularly for the lighter ones, which could be corrected after inclusion of odd–even effects in the analysis. Analysis of yield data of N = Z nuclei gave a reasonable estimate of temperature. Analysis of free energy data gated with excitation energy of the fragmenting source showed a dependence of fit parameters of Landau free energy equation on the excitation energy as well as isospin asymmetry of the source. (author)

  18. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  19. Backward asymmetry measurements in the elastic pion-proton scattering at resonance energies

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseev, I. G.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Beloglazov, Yu. A.; Budkovsky, P. E.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Filimonov, E. A.; Kanavets, V. P.; Kovalev, A. I.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Nesterov, V. M.; Novinsky, D. V.; Ryltsov, V. V.; Shchedrov, V. A.; Sulimov, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetry parameter P was measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering in the very backward angular region of theta_cm ~ 150-170^o at several pion beam energies in the invariant mass range containing most of the pion-proton resonances. The general goal of the experimental program was to provide new data for partial wave analyses in order to resolve their uncertainties in the baryon resonance region to allow the unambiguous baryon spectrum reconstructions. Until recently the parameter P...

  20. A basic study on asymmetry of seismic response using the rigid-plastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues

    2005-01-01

    There have been numerous proposals for predicting maximum deformations of SDOF systems without doing non-linear time history analyses. Among them is Capacity Spectrum Method, where the system is assumed to deflect symmetrically. But this is not reality. This paper describes the causes of asymmetr...... response using the rigid-plastic model. One of the causes is the asymmetry of ground acceleration. The other is the hysteretic property of the models. A comparison with the elasto-plastic and Takeda models is also presented....

  1. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  2. Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Antonino; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Babcock, Laura; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Arbula, Sandra; Tarantino, Vincenza; Semenza, Carlo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2017-09-29

    Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated using FreeSurfer. Participants' hemispheres were registered to a symmetric template and Laterality Indices (LI) for the surface thickness and for the area at each vertex in each participant were computed. The correlation of these surface LI measures with the verbal and spatial Stroop effects (incongruent-congruent difference in trial performance) was assessed at each vertex by means of general linear models at the whole-brain level. We found a significant correlation between performance and surface area LI in an inferior posterior temporal cluster (overlapping with the so-called visual word form area, VWFA), with a more left-lateralized area in this region associated with a smaller Stroop effect only in the verbal task. These results point to an involvement of the VWFA for higher-level processes based on word reading, including the suppression of this process when required by the task, and could be interpreted in the context of cross-hemispheric rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Late-twentieth-century emergence of the El Niño propagation asymmetry and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; McGregor, Shayne; Jin, Fei-Fei; Cai, Wenju; England, Matthew H; An, Soon-Il; McPhaden, Michael J; Guilyardi, Eric

    2013-12-05

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the Earth's most prominent source of interannual climate variability, exerting profound worldwide effects. Despite decades of research, its behaviour continues to challenge scientists. In the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, the anomalously cool sea surface temperatures (SSTs) found during La Niña events and the warm waters of modest El Niño events both propagate westwards, as in the seasonal cycle. In contrast, SST anomalies propagate eastwards during extreme El Niño events, prominently in the post-1976 period, spurring unusual weather events worldwide with costly consequences. The cause of this propagation asymmetry is currently unknown. Here we trace the cause of the asymmetry to the variations in upper ocean currents in the equatorial Pacific, whereby the westward-flowing currents are enhanced during La Niña events but reversed during extreme El Niño events. Our results highlight that propagation asymmetry is favoured when the westward mean equatorial currents weaken, as is projected to be the case under global warming. By analysing past and future climate simulations of an ensemble of models with more realistic propagation, we find a doubling in the occurrences of El Niño events that feature prominent eastward propagation characteristics in a warmer world. Our analysis thus suggests that more frequent emergence of propagation asymmetry will be an indication of the Earth's warming climate.

  4. The loss of asymmetry and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in adolescents with autism: a study using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Chiang, Wen-Yang; Kuo, Li-Wei; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2011-04-30

    Evidence from neuroimaging and neurobiological studies suggests that abnormalities in cortical-cortical connectivity involving both local and long-distance scales may be related to autism. The present study analyzed the microstructural integrity of the long-range connectivity related to social cognition and language processing with diffusion tractography among adolescents with autism compared with neurotypical adolescents. Tract-specific analyses were used to study the long-range connectivity responsible for integrating social cognition and language processing. Specifically, three pairs of association fibers and three portions of callosal fiber tracts were analyzed. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were measured along individual targeted fiber tracts to investigate alterations in microstructure integrity. The asymmetry patterns were also assessed in three pairs of association fibers. In neurotypical participants, we found a consistent leftward asymmetry in three pairs of association fibers. However, adolescents with autism did not demonstrate such asymmetry. Moreover, adolescents with autism had significantly lower mean GFA in three callosal fiber tracts than neurotypical participants. The loss of leftward asymmetry and reduction of interhemispheric connection in adolescents with autism suggest alterations of the long-range connectivity involved in social cognition and language processing. Our results warrant further investigation by combining developmental and neurocognitive data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Markedly impaired bilateral coordination of gait in post-stroke patients: Is this deficit distinct from asymmetry? A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lummel Rob C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple aspects of gait are typically impaired post-stroke. Asymmetric gait is common as a consequence of unilateral brain lesions. The relationship between the resulting asymmetric gait and impairments in the ability to properly coordinate the reciprocal stepping activation of the legs is not clear. The objective of this exploratory study is to quantify the effects of hemiparesis on two putatively independent aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait to gain insight into mechanisms and their relationship and to assess their potential as clinical markers. Methods Twelve ambulatory stroke patients and age-matched healthy adults wore a tri-axial piezo-resistive accelerometer and walked back and forth along a straight path in a hall at a comfortable walking speed during 2 minutes. Gait speed, gait asymmetry (GA, and aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait (BCG were determined. Bilateral coordination measures included the left-right stepping phase for each stride φi, consistency in the phase generation φ_CV, accuracy in the phase generation φ_ABS, and Phase Coordination Index (PCI, a combination of accuracy and consistency of the phase generation. Results Group differences (p Conclusions In ambulatory post-stroke patients, two gait coordination properties, GA and PCI, are markedly impaired. Although these features are not related to each other in healthy controls, they are strongly related in stroke patients, which is a novel finding. A measurement approach based on body-fixed sensors apparently may provide sensitive markers that can be used for clinical assessment and for enhancing rehabilitation targeting in post-stroke patients.

  6. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  8. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pushpendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 % has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027 in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern’s systematics.

  9. [Perception of asymmetry smile: Attempt to evaluation through Photoshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, C; Diep, D; Labbe, D

    2016-04-01

    In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, it can persist asymmetry smile. Evaluate the impact of an augmentation or reduction of the commissural course on the perception of a smile anomaly, and determine from which asymmetry threshold, the smile is estimated unsightly. We took a picture of two people with a smile not forced; including one with a "cuspid smile", and the another one with a "Mona Lisa" smile. The pictures obtained were modified by the Photoshop software, to simulate an asymmetry labial smile. The changes were related to the move of the left labial commissure, the left nasolabial furrow, and the left cheek using under-correction and overcorrection, every 4 mm. Three pictures with under-correction and four pictures with over-correction were obtained. These smiles were shown to three groups of five people, which included doctors in smile specialties, doctors in other specialties, and non-doctors. Participants were then asked to indicate on which of the pictures, the smile seemed abnormal. Between -8 mm under-correction, and +8 mm over-correction, the asymmetry of the commissural course does not hinder the perception of smile. In the labial palliative surgery of facial paralysis, in the case of persistent asymmetry, there is a tolerance in the perception of "normality" of smile concerning the amplitude of the commissural course going up to 8 mm of asymmetric with under-correction or over-correction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  11. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  12. Frequency of dentofacial asymmetries: a cross-sectional study on orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Nita Kumari; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    Correction of orthodontic asymmetries is crucial to achieve functional occlusion, aesthetics and stability of post orthodontic treatment results. To date valid frequency data of dentofacial asymmetries in Pakistani orthodontic patients do not exist to document orthodontic treatment need. The objectives of this study were to determine frequency of dento-facial asymmetries, severity of dental asymmetries and to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. The sample of this cross-sectional study comprised of 280 patients (177 females and 103 males) with no history of previous orthodontic treatment having no craniofacial anomalies. Dento-facial asymmetries were assessed from pre-treatment records of patients. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency of dentofacial asymmetries and severity of dental asymmetries. Chi-square test was used to determine difference in frequency of dentofacial asymmetries in mixed and permanent dentition. Seventy eight percent (219) of patients had noncoincident midlines, 67.5% (189) had mandibular midline asymmetry, 43.2% (122) had molar asymmetry, 15.7% (44) had mandibular arch asymmetry, 14.3% (40) had maxillary midline asymmetry, 13.6% (38) had maxillary arch asymmetry, 6.1% (17) had nose deviation, and 12.1% (34) had facial asymmetry and chin deviation. In most patients dental midlines were deviated from one another and from facial midline by ¼ lower incisor widths, while molar asymmetry was found in most patients by ¼ cusp width. Mandibular arch asymmetry was more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition (p = 0.054). Non-coincident dental midline is most commonly seen. Nose deviation is least commonly observed. Mandibular arch asymmetry is more frequent in permanent than mixed dentition.

  13. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  14. Hedge Accounting in the Brazilian Stock Market: Effects on the Quality of Accounting Information, Disclosure, and Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Adolfo Potin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper investigates, in the Brazilian stock market, the effect of hedge accounting on the quality of financial information, on the disclosure of derivative financial instruments, and on the information asymmetry. To measure the quality of accounting information, relevance metrics of accounting information and book earnings informativeness were used. For executing this research, a general sample was obtained through Brazilian companies, non-financial, listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA, comprising the 150 companies with highest market value on 01/01/2014. Through the general sample, samples were compiled for applying the econometric models of value relevance, informativeness, disclosure, and information asymmetry. The sample for relevance had 758 companies-years observations within the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for informativeness had 701 companies-years observations with the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for disclosure had 100 companies-years observations, within the period from 2011 to 2012; the sample for information asymmetry had 100 companies-years observations, also related to the period from 2011 to 2012. In addition to the econometric models, the propensity score matching method was applied to the analyses of the hedge accounting effect on disclosure and information asymmetry. The evidence found for the influence of hedge accounting indicates a relation: (i positive and significant concerning accounting information relevance and disclosure of derivatives; (ii negative and significant for book earnings informativeness. Regarding information asymmetry, although the coefficients showed up as expected, they were not statistically significant.

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry in evaluating the developmental instability of Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822 from Lake Mainit, Surigao del Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.D.Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the status of Lake Mainit by using fluctuating asymmetry in the populations of Glossogobius giuris. A total of 200 G. giuris was collected with 100 per sex. All the samples were placed in a flat styrofoam for the pinning of its fins to make it wider and to clearly see the samples point of origin for the land-marking process. 10% Formalin was applied in all the fins of the fish samples to make it hardened using a small brush. Twenty (20 landmarks were used to analyze the body shape of the fish. Several studies proved that FA can be used to directly assess water quality and the overall status of the ecosystem. Using thin-plate spline (TPS series, landmark analyses were obtained and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE software. Results in Procrustes ANOVA showed that individual symmetry showed a highly significant difference (P = 0.00 as well as Sides (Directional Asymmetry and Interaction (Fluctuating Asymmetry in the study area. All the samples showed FA in both sexes. The results of Principal Component Scores displayed a higher percentage in female (69.2797% than male (63.9214% from Lake Mainit. Variations are almost found in all the body part of the goby in female and male gobies except for anterior insertion of second dorsal fin and superior margin of the preoperculum. Females have a higher fluctuating asymmetry than in males. Females spawn and males protect the eggs from any predators. In this case, females are more susceptible to stress because they have to forage in order to compensate the energy used up during spawning. Males are less susceptible because they usually stay on the nesting ground, and don't have to cover far distances in finding food. This study validates the use of FA in determining the status of the fishes caught connecting to what the status of the environment is based on the result.

  16. Take your seats: Leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lynn Harms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an overall body symmetry, human behaviour is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias.

  17. PERANAN KONSERVATISME PADA INFORMATION ASYMMETRY: SUATU TINJAUAN TEORETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G.A.N. BUDIASIH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservatism is one of mechanisms of corporate governance that could reduce managers’ capability to manipulate and overstate financial report, especially financial performance, so cash flow and company’s value could be increased. Conservatism is also important in decreasing agency cost and increasing the quality of financial information to increase company’s value and the share price. Financial statement employing principle of conservatism could reduce management chance to manipulate financial report and decrease deadweight loss as an agency cost emerged due to information asymmetry. Thus it can be said that conservative financial statement could reduce information asymmetry. Information asymmetry can be handled by forcing management to fully disclose the company’s condition on the financial statement. Another way is to monitor management conduct by employing independent auditor.

  18. Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Inzlicht, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nostalgia is often triggered by feelings-such as sadness, loneliness, or meaninglessness-that are typically associated with withdrawal motivation. Here, we examined whether a trait tendency to experience withdrawal motivation is associated with nostalgia proneness. Past work indicates that baseline right-frontal cortical asymmetry is a neural correlate of withdrawal-related motivation. We therefore hypothesized that higher baseline levels of right-frontal asymmetry would predict increased proneness to nostalgia. We assessed participants' baseline levels of frontal cortical activity using EEG. Results supported the hypothesis and demonstrated that the association between relative right-frontal asymmetry and increased nostalgia remained significant when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these findings indicate that individuals with a stronger dispositional tendency to experience withdrawal-related motivation are more prone to nostalgia. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Azimuthal asymmetries in the unpolarized SIDIS cross section at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrizzai, G

    2011-01-01

    The study of the spin structure of the nucleon and of the effects rising from the quarks transverse momentum are part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The azimuthal asymmetries which appear in the cross-section of SIDIS off unpolarized targets can give insights on the intrinsic momentum structure of the nucleon and on the possible correlation between transverse spin and transverse momentum of the quarks. Here we present the new results for these asymmetries obtained from the COMPASS data collected with a 160 GeV/c positive muon beam impinging on a $^6LiD$ target. The asymmetries are measured for both positive and negative hadrons, and their dependence on several kinematical variable has been studied

  20. Investors’ risk attitudes and stock price fluctuation asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Honggang

    2011-05-01

    Price rise/fall asymmetry, which indicates enduring but modest rises and sudden short-term falls, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in stock markets throughout the world. Instead of the widely used time series method, we adopt inverse statistics from turbulence to analyze this asymmetry. To explore its underlying mechanism, we build a multi-agent model with two kinds of investors, which are specifically referred to as fundamentalists and chartists. Inspired by Kahneman and Tversky’s claim regarding peoples’ asymmetric psychological responses to the equivalent levels of gains and losses, we assume that investors take different risk attitudes to gains and losses and adopt different trading strategies. The simulation results of the model developed herein are consistent with empirical work, which may support our conjecture that investors’ asymmetric risk attitudes might be one origin of rise/fall asymmetry.

  1. MANDIBULAR ASYMMETRY CHARACTERIZATION USING GENERALIZED TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Alhadidi, Abeer; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-12-31

    Quantitative assessment of facial asymmetry is crucial for successful planning of corrective surgery. We propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework to locate and quantify asymmetry using 3D CBCT images. To this end, we compute a rigid transformation between the mandible segmentation and its mirror image, which yields global rotation and translation with respect to the cranial base to guide the surgery's first stage. Next, we nonrigidly register the rigidly aligned images and use TBM methods to locally analyze the deformation field. This yields data on the location, amount and direction of "growth" (or "shrinkage") between the left and right sides. We visualize this data in a volumetric manner and via scalar and vector maps on the mandibular surface to provide the surgeon with optimal understanding of the patient's anatomy. We illustrate the feasibility and strength of our technique on 3 representative patients with a wide range of facial asymmetries.

  2. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  3. Transverse target spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Büchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Miyachi, Y; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmïden, H; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive production of $\\rho^0$ mesons was studied at the COMPASS experiment by scattering 160 GeV/$c$ muons off transversely polarised protons. Five single-spin and three double-spin azimuthal asymmetries were measured as a function of $Q^2$, $x_{Bj}$, or $p_{T}^{2}$. The $\\sin \\phi_S$ asymmetry is found to be $-0.019 \\pm 0.008(stat.) \\pm 0.003(syst.)$. All other asymmetries are also found to be of small magnitude and consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties. Very recent calculations using a GPD-based model agree well with the present results. The data is interpreted as evidence for the existence of chiral-odd, transverse generalized parton distributions.

  4. Characteristics of toroidal energy deposition asymmetries in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Neuhauser, J.; Leuterer, F.; Mueller, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Large toroidal and poloidal asymmetries with characteristics which are sensitively dependent on q a , the vertical position of the plasma, and the type of additional heating are observed in the energy flow to the ASDEX divertor target plates. The largest asymmetries and total energy depositions are observed during lower hybrid wave injection experiments with approximately 50% of the input energy going to the combined divertor targets and shields. A maximum localized energy density loading of 10 MJ/m 2 is typical under these conditions. Measurements of the asymmetries are consistent with a model in which magnetic islands and ergodicity due to intrinsic magnetic perturbations dominate the energy transpot across the primary magnetic separatrix. The results emphasize the essential role of resonant magnetic perturbations in determining the performance of tokamaks and demonstrate that non-axisymmetric effects caused by small perturbations become increasingly important in determining the transport properties as the injected power is increased. (orig.)

  5. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, D.; Gamberg, L.; Musch, B.U.; Prokudin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  6. Proton GE/GM from beam-target asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Aram Aghalaryan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Razmik Asaturyan; Frederic Bloch; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Cedric Carasco; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Jian-Ping Chen; Michael Christy; Leon Cole; Luminita Coman; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Emil Frlez; David Gaskell; Liping Gan; Javier Gomez; Bitao Hu; Juerg Jourdan; Christopher Keith; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Andreas Klein; Laird Kramer; Yongguang Liang; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; David Mack; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Kristoff Normand; Blaine Norum; Dinko Pocanic; Yelena Prok; Brian Raue; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Daniela Rohe; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Nikolai Savvinov; Bradley Sawatzky; Mikell Seely; Ingo Sick; Karl Slifer; C. Smith; Gregory Smith; S. Stepanyan; Liguang Tang; Shigeyuki Tajima; Giuseppe Testa; William Vulcan; Kebin Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Lulin Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor, G E /G M , can be extracted in elastic electron-proton scattering by measuring either cross sections, beam-target asymmetry or recoil polarization. Separate determinations of G E /G M by cross sections and recoil polarization observables disagree for Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . Measurement by a third technique might uncover an unknown systematic error in either of the previous measurements. The beam-target asymmetry has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 1.51 (GeV/c) 2 for target spin orientation aligned perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This is the largest Q 2 at which G E /G M has been determined by a beam-target asymmetry experiment. The result, μG E /G M = 0.884 +/- 0.027 +/- 0.029, is compared to previous world data

  7. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  8. Precision Measurement of the Longitudinal Double-Spin Asymmetry for Inclusive Jet Production in Polarized Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=200  GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cudd, A B; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-08-28

    We report a new measurement of the midrapidity inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A_{LL}, in polarized pp collisions at center-of-mass energy sqrt[s]=200  GeV. The STAR data place stringent constraints on polarized parton distribution functions extracted at next-to-leading order from global analyses of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), semi-inclusive DIS, and RHIC pp data. The measured asymmetries provide evidence at the 3σ level for positive gluon polarization in the Bjorken-x region x>0.05.

  9. Precision Measurement of the Longitudinal Double-Spin Asymmetry for Inclusive Jet Production in Polarized Proton Collisions at √{s }=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cudd, A. B.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report a new measurement of the midrapidity inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, AL L, in polarized p p collisions at center-of-mass energy √{s }=200 GeV . The STAR data place stringent constraints on polarized parton distribution functions extracted at next-to-leading order from global analyses of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), semi-inclusive DIS, and RHIC p p data. The measured asymmetries provide evidence at the 3 σ level for positive gluon polarization in the Bjorken-x region x >0.05 .

  10. Man Versus Machine Part 2: Comparison of Radiologists' Interpretations and NeuroQuant Measures of Brain Asymmetry and Progressive Atrophy in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; DeSmit, Megan E; Seabaugh, Jan M; Havranek, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    This study is an expanded version of an earlier study, which compared NeuroQuant measures of MRI brain volume with the radiologist's traditional approach in outpatients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. NeuroQuant volumetric analyses were compared with the radiologists' interpretations. NeuroQuant found significantly higher rates of atrophy (50.0%), abnormal asymmetry (83.3%), and progressive atrophy (70.0%) than the radiologists (12.5%, 0% and 0%, respectively). Overall, NeuroQuant was more sensitive for detecting at least one sign of atrophy, abnormal asymmetry, or progressive atrophy (95.8%) than the traditional radiologist's approach (12.5%).

  11. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Morgana Alves de Britto; Pedro Silvelo Franco; Evangelos Pappas; Felipe P Carpes

    2015-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a) three-dimensional peak forces, (b) time to peak vertical force, and (c) initi...

  12. Top polarization, forward-backward asymmetry and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rindani, Saurabh D; Saha, Pratishruti

    2011-01-01

    We consider how the measurement of top polarization at the Tevatron can be used to characterise and discriminate among different new physics models that have been suggested to explain the anomalous top forward-backward asymmetry reported at the Tevatron. This has the advantage of catching the essence of the parity violating effect characteristic to the different suggested new physics models. Other observables constructed from these asymmetries are shown to be useful in discriminating between the models, even after taking into account the statistical errors. Finally, we discuss some signals at the 7 TeV LHC.

  13. Beam-charge azimuthal asymmetry and deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Funel, A.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C. R.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first observation of an azimuthal cross section asymmetry with respect to the charge of the incoming lepton beam is reported from a study of hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The data have been accumulated by the HERMES experiment at DESY, in which the HERA 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam scattered off an unpolarized hydrogen gas target. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler process and the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process. The interference term is sensitive to DVCS amplitudes, which provide the most direct access to generalized parton distributions.

  14. Urban and Domestic Workers: The Federal Constitution and its Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ragone de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Constitution established a lower level of protection rights to domestic servants, if compared with the rights given to regular workers. This asymmetry can be explained by particularities of this kind of job and the need to keep costs down, specially considering that domestic servants are not part of a capitalistic enterprise. However there are a series of nonrecognized rights to the domestic servants that can not be explained by its incompatibility or cost. Perhaps this group is the focus of the next step of constitutional change, reducing the asymmetry between the rights of the domestic workers and the regular ones.

  15. Investigation of Inclusive CP Asymmetries in B$^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Petersen, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Heister, A; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    A search for CP violating effects in the mixing of neutral B mesons is performed using a sample of 4.1 million hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector from 1991 to 1995. By studying time-dependent asymmetries in flavour-tagged samples of semileptonic and fully inclusive b-hadron decays, two measurements of the semileptonic asymmetry a_cp are extracted. No evidence for CP violation is observed, and the combined value a_cp = -0.013 +- 0.026 is obtained.

  16. Asymmetry and basic pathways in sleep-stage transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical aspects of sleep micro-architecture. We find that sleep dynamics exhibits a high degree of asymmetry, and that the entire class of sleep-stage transition pathways underlying the complexity of sleep dynamics throughout the night can be characterized by two independent asymmetric transition paths. These basic pathways remain stable under sleep disorders, even though the degree of asymmetry is significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate an intriguing temporal organization in sleep micro-architecture at short time scales that is typical for physical systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC), and indicates nonequilibrium critical dynamics in brain activity during sleep.

  17. Think over nuclear safety. ''Information asymmetry'' and ''comminicative action''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear safety should be fully understood not only technically but also socially. In order to think over nuclear safety socially, four different concepts were recommended to refer, which were ''procedural rationality'', information asymmetry'', ''certainty effect'' and ''communicative action'' proposed by three economists and a philosopher respectively. Risk-based communication approach for nuclear safety could be effective within the higher frequency area than safety goal, but not good for the lower frequency area than safety goal. The latter could be highly subjective and more qualitative. For this area, ''safety communication'' would be highly maintained with taking account of existence of ''information asymmetry'' and need of ''communicative action''. (T.Tanaka)

  18. Backward asymmetry measurements in the elastic pion-proton scattering at resonance energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.G.; Budkovsky, P.E.; Kanavets, V.P.; Koroleva, L.I.; Morozov, B.V.; Nesterov, V.M.; Ryltsov, V.V.; Sulimov, A.D.; Svirida, D.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bazhanov, N.A.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Zolin, L.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Beloglazov, Yu.A.; Filimonov, E.A.; Kovalev, A.I.; Novinsky, D.V.; Shchedrov, V.A.; Sumachev, V.V.; Trautman, V.Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15

    The asymmetry parameter P was measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering in the very backward angular region of {theta}{sub CM}{approx}150-170 at several pion beam energies in the invariant-mass range containing most of the pion-proton resonances. The general goal of the experimental program was to provide new data for partial wave analyses in order to resolve their uncertainties in the baryon resonance region to allow the unambiguous baryon spectrum reconstructions. Until recently the parameter P was not measured in the examined domain that might be explained by the extremely low cross-section. At the same time the predictions of various partial wave analyses are far from agreement in some kinematic areas and specifically those areas were chosen for the measurements where the disagreement is most pronouncing. The experiment was performed at the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron, Moscow, by the ITEP-PNPI Collaboration in the latest 5 years. (orig.)

  19. Backward asymmetry measurements in the elastic pion-proton scattering at resonance energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I. G.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Beloglazov, Yu. A.; Budkovsky, P. E.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Filimonov, E. A.; Kanavets, V. P.; Kovalev, A. I.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Nesterov, V. M.; Novinsky, D. V.; Ryltsov, V. V.; Shchedrov, V. A.; Sulimov, A. D.; Sumachev, V. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Zolin, L. S.

    2009-02-01

    The asymmetry parameter P was measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering in the very backward angular region of θ_{CM}^{} ≈ 150 - 170° at several pion beam energies in the invariant-mass range containing most of the pion-proton resonances. The general goal of the experimental program was to provide new data for partial wave analyses in order to resolve their uncertainties in the baryon resonance region to allow the unambiguous baryon spectrum reconstructions. Until recently the parameter P was not measured in the examined domain that might be explained by the extremely low cross-section. At the same time the predictions of various partial wave analyses are far from agreement in some kinematic areas and specifically those areas were chosen for the measurements where the disagreement is most pronouncing. The experiment was performed at the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron, Moscow, by the ITEP-PNPI Collaboration in the latest 5 years.

  20. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chaumillon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE. Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  1. Body symmetry and asymmetry in early Greek anatomical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2008-05-01

    This historical note focuses on some of the earliest reports of human anatomy found in Greek medical literature. These passages testify the initial steps taken by Greek scientists in building a theoretical model of the human body. In these excerpts, one finds erroneous anatomical descriptions, which shed light on the epistemological approach used by these intellectual pioneers. Because of the lack of systematic dissection, it appears that early Greek anatomists developed a somewhat stylized idea of the human body that used a certain degree of symmetry. Overcoming the concept of a strict left-right bilateral parallelism in human body architecture was a challenging intellectual task that required prolonged observation of dissected corpses. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation in the subtle differences between the right and left sides of bilateral characters or fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been considered as an indicator of an organism's ability to cope with genetic and environmental stresses during development. However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the ...

  3. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive rho(0) muoproduction at COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Barth, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A. M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kravchuk, N.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, M.; Nähle, O.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Rapatsky, V.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 255-265 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : double spin asymmetry * polarized deuterons * scattering * COMPASS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2007

  4. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  5. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  6. Effect of track asymmetry and curvature on shingle writing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Shaoping; Bai, Daniel; Mendez, Hector; Pan, Tao; Han, Dehua; Mao, Sining

    2011-04-01

    Written transition curvature in perpendicular magnetic recording is generally understood to result in increased transition jitter noise and degraded signal to noise ratio or byte error rate (BER) performance. For the shingle writing scheme, asymmetry or curvature in written tracks is considered inherent due to the erasure and track edge writing characteristics. It is proposed that such a track asymmetry is more prominent at high track density/smaller track pitch recording conditions. In this report we present spin stand experimental results to study the effect of the possible track asymmetry or curvature by shingle writing and reading back in different skews. By comparing shingle writing BER bathtub profiles in different writing skew conditions 0°, +/-2°, +/-4°, +/-6°, the effect of varying shingle track asymmetry and curvature is analyzed via subsequent skewed reading process. The shingle writing BER bathtub profiles as well as the read back amplitude cross track profile are generally symmetric upon one sided erasure at different track pitches. We found that the 0° skew writing and reading process provides both the maximum BER and amplitude.

  7. Critical asymmetry in renormalization group theory for fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wu, Liang; Wang, Long; Li, Liyan; Cai, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The renormalization-group (RG) approaches for fluids are employed to investigate critical asymmetry of vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of fluids. Three different approaches based on RG theory for fluids are reviewed and compared. RG approaches are applied to various fluid systems: hard-core square-well fluids of variable ranges, hard-core Yukawa fluids, and square-well dimer fluids and modelling VLE of n-alkane molecules. Phase diagrams of simple model fluids and alkanes described by RG approaches are analyzed to assess the capability of describing the VLE critical asymmetry which is suggested in complete scaling theory. Results of thermodynamic properties obtained by RG theory for fluids agree with the simulation and experimental data. Coexistence diameters, which are smaller than the critical densities, are found in the RG descriptions of critical asymmetries of several fluids. Our calculation and analysis show that the approach coupling local free energy with White's RG iteration which aims to incorporate density fluctuations into free energy is not adequate for VLE critical asymmetry due to the inadequate order parameter and the local free energy functional used in the partition function.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  9. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  10. Measurement of CP asymmetry in D-0 -> K- K+ decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the time-integrated CP asymmetry in the Cabibbo-suppressed decay D-0 -> K- K+ is performed using pp collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb(-1), collected with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The flavour of the charm meson at

  11. Asymmetry in the Perception of Friendship in Students Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancieri, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies point out the link between sociability and academic results. In this paper, we highlight a phenomenon of asymmetry in the perception of friendship. This occurs when a student think he has more or less friends than he really has. We present an experimental method that allows us to analyze this question in relation with the academic…

  12. Reduction of asymmetry by rank-one matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Gower has shown how to partition the sum of squares of an asymmetric matrix into independent parts associated with the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of the matrix; and has pointed out that asymmetry can be removed by subtracting certain unit-rank matrices, which improve the symmetry in

  13. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, Ernest; /York U., Canada; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2010-05-01

    We measure the charge asymmetry A of like-sign dimuon events in 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions recorded with the DO detector at a center of mass energy sqrt s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider.

  14. Asymmetries in import-retail cost pass-through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    monthly average prices, the Johansen and consistent threshold cointegration models are estimated. The results indicate the presence of price transmission relationship and equilibrium adjustment asymmetries, such that agents only react to shocks when the deviation from equilibrium is above or below...

  15. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  16. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  17. Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuating asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Graham, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear, complex nature of biosynthesis magnifies the impacts of small, random perturbations on organism growth, leading to distortions in adaptive allometries and, in particular, to fluctuating asymmetry. These distortions can be partly checked by cell-cell and inter-body part feedback during growth and development, though the latter mechanism also may lead to complex patterns in right-left asymmetry. Stress can be expected to increase the degree to which random growth perturbations are magnified and may also result in disruption of the check mechanisms, thus exaggerating fluctuating asymmetry.The processes described not only provide one explanation for the existence of fluctuating asymmetry and its augmentation under stress, but suggest additional effects of stress as well. Specifically, stress is predicted to lead to decreased fractal dimension of bone sutures and branching structures in animals, and in increased dimension of growth trace patterns such as those found in mollusc shells and fish otoliths and scales.A basic yet broad primer on fractals and chaos is provided as background for the theoretical development in this manuscript.

  18. Hints of Greater Matter - Antimatter Asymmetry Challenge Theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    "The universe is chock-full of matter and devoid of antimatter, and physicists can't say why. They think that matter piled up after the big bang thanks to a slight asymmetry, called charge-parity (CP) violation, in the way matter and antimatter behave, but the effects seen so far are too small to do the job" (1 page)

  19. Baryon - antibaryon asymmetry in central rapidity region at LHC ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Study of asymmetry in number of baryons and antibaryons in central rapidity region is important for clarification of baryon number carriers character. Effect we are interested in is small, can be hidden by systematical processes of particle track reconstruction and identification. To make corrections on these effects is the aim of this thesis. (author)

  20. Neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important effects and hence can be constrained by Big Bang nucleosynthesis and power spectrum of cosmic microwave background, it becomes an important issue by itself to study new mechanisms which can generate neutrino asymmetry specially in the present epoch. When Dirac neutrinos propagate in gravitational ...

  1. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  2. The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I will give here an overview of the present observational and theoretical situation regarding the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and the related question of the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale. I will also give a simple discussion of the role of CP (charge conjugation parity) violation in this subject.

  3. Preschoolers' Mental Rotation: Sex Differences in Hemispheric Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nicola; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition accompanied by sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry. Although sex differences in mental rotation performance can be reliably demonstrated as early as age 5 years old, that is, long before puberty, no data exist as to whether…

  4. Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin

    2017-01-01

    We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov

  5. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  6. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  7. Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.

  8. Effect of directional selection for body size on fluctuating asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    Over the past three decades, fluctuating asymmetry (FA, small random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry,. Van Valen [1962]) has received special attention in ecological and evolutionary studies. This is due to the resurgence of interest in FA as an indicator of genetic or environmental stress (Parsons 1990, 1992), ...

  9. Spatial tidal asymmetry of Cochin estuary, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Shivaprasad, A.; Manoj, N.T.; Revichandran, C.; Naveenkumar, K.R.; Jineesh, V.K.

    inside the estuary were found to either augment or transform the asymmetry imposed by the principal tides The study showed that friction causes flood dominance at the northern inlet (Munambam) and in the shallow regions of the upstream during dry season...

  10. An optimal method of moments to measure the charge asymmetry at the Z0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, N.C.

    1994-02-01

    Parity violation at LEP or SLC can be measured through the charge asymmetry. An optimal method of moments is developed here to measure this asymmetry, as well as similar asymmetries. This method is equivalent to the likelihood fit. It is simpler in use, as it gives analytical formulas for both the asymmetry and its statistical error. These formulas give the dependence of the accuracy on the experimental angular acceptance explicitly. (orig.)

  11. Collins and Sivers asymmetries for pions and kaons in muon-deuteron DIS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 673, č. 2 (2009), s. 127-135 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : deuteron * transverse single-spin asymmetry * identified hadrons * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.083, year: 2009

  12. Communication Apprehension and Resting Alpha Range Asymmetry in the Anterior Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Heisel, Alan D.; Lewis, Robert J.; Pence, Michelle E.; Reinhart, Amber; Tian, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between trait-like communication apprehension (CA) and resting alpha range asymmetry in the anterior cortex (AC). Although theory and research in cognitive neuroscience suggest that asymmetry in the AC constitutes a relatively stable, inborn, substrate of emotion, some studies indicate that asymmetry can…

  13. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2007-01-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly is a term describing cranial asymmetry and deformation commonly seen in infants. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for assessment and modelling of head asymmetry. The clinical population consisted of 38 infants for whom 3-dimensional surface scans...... quantitative description of the asymmetry present in the dataset....

  14. Observation of strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast particles from high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Loehner, H.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Warwick, A.; Wieman, H.

    1984-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast fragments in nuclear collisions in the energy interval of 0.4 to 1 GeV per nucleon. The asymmetry gets stronger when incident energy and impact parameter decrease. The results on the A dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry are also presented. (orig.)

  15. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: effects of asymmetry and wall thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluk Satish C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a prevalent disease which is of significant concern because of the morbidity associated with the continuing expansion of the abdominal aorta and its ultimate rupture. The transient interaction between blood flow and the wall contributes to wall stress which, if it exceeds the failure strength of the dilated arterial wall, will lead to aneurysm rupture. Utilizing a computational approach, the biomechanical environment of virtual AAAs can be evaluated to study the affects of asymmetry and wall thickness on this stress, two parameters that contribute to increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Methods Ten virtual aneurysm models were created with five different asymmetry parameters ranging from β = 0.2 to 1.0 and either a uniform or variable wall thickness to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI analyses. The AAA wall was designed to have a (i uniform 1.5 mm thickness or (ii variable thickness ranging from 0.5 – 1.5 mm extruded normally from the boundary surface of the lumen. These models were meshed with linear hexahedral elements, imported into a commercial finite element code and analyzed under transient flow conditions. The method proposed was then compared with traditional computational solid stress techniques on the basis of peak wall stress predictions and cost of computational effort. Results The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of aneurysm asymmetry and wall thickness heterogeneity on the estimation of peak wall stress. These parameters affect the magnitude and distribution of Von Mises stresses; varying wall thickness increases the maximum Von Mises stress by 4 times its uniform thickness counterpart. A pre-peak systole retrograde flow was observed in the AAA sac for all models, which is due to the elastic energy stored in the compliant arterial wall and the expansion

  16. The influence of crossbite in early development of mandibular bone asymmetries in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nova-García, M. Joaquín; Mourelle-Martínez, Mª Rosa; González-Aranda, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Background All authors agree that posterior crossbite is a malocclusion that affects mandibular growth and may lead to skeletal asymmetry but there are few data on which age these modifications are easily quantifiable. Material and Methods For this study, the researchers used x-ray records of 217 children between 6 and 9 years of age, in the mixed dentition stage and with unilateral posterior crossbite. All the horizontal variables were traced and evaluated by the principal researcher, using the tpsDig version 2 computer program. Subsequently, a descriptive and statistical analysis was carried out, using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows program. Results and Discussion After analysing the vertical mandibular traces on the x-rays, the researchers found, in all cases, quantifiable differences between the crossbite side and the non-crossbite side. The differences between horizontal variables were statistically significant (p<0.005) for the entire sample (H3-H4), in the group of boys (H3-H4) and in the 7-year old age group (H1-H2 and H3-H4). Differences were observed in the size of the horizontal measures between the crossbite side and the non-crossbite side. Some of these differences were significant as a function of the sex and age of the study sample. Key words:Crossbite, Mandibular asymmetry, Panoramic. PMID:29075414

  17. Atypical Structural Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale is Related to Family History of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Altarelli, Irene; Vandermosten, Maaike; De Vos, Astrid; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2018-01-01

    Research on the neural correlates of developmental dyslexia indicates atypical anatomical lateralization of the planum temporale, a higher-order cortical auditory region. Yet whether this atypical lateralization precedes reading acquisition and is related to a familial risk for dyslexia is not currently known. In this study, we address these questions in 2 separate cohorts of young children and adolescents with and without a familial risk for dyslexia. Planum temporale surface area was manually labeled bilaterally, on the T1-weighted MR brain images of 54 pre-readers (mean age: 6.2 years, SD: 3.2 months; 33 males) and 28 adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years, SD: 3.3 months; 11 males). Half of the pre-readers and adolescents had a familial risk for dyslexia. In both pre-readers and adolescents, group comparisons of left and right planum temporale surface area showed a significant interaction between hemisphere and family history of dyslexia, with participants who had no family risk for dyslexia showing greater leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale. This effect was confirmed when analyses were restricted to normal reading participants. Altered planum temporale asymmetry thus seems to be related to family history of dyslexia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow in thermal non-equilibrium porous media with thermal asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Yi Shen; Ting, Tiew Wei; Hung, Yew Mun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of thermal asymmetrical boundaries on entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow of forced convection in thermal non-equilibrium porous media is analytically studied. The two-dimensional temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analysed comprehensively to provide insights into the underlying physical significance of the effect on entropy generation. By incorporating the effects of viscous dissipation and thermal non-equilibrium, the first-law and second-law characteristics of porous-medium flow are investigated via various pertinent parameters, i.e. heat flux ratio, effective thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number, Biot number and averaged fluid velocity. For the case of symmetrical wall heat flux, an optimum condition with a high Nusselt number and a low entropy generation is identified at a Darcy number of 10 −4 , providing an ideal operating condition from the second-law aspect. This type of heat and fluid transport in porous media covers a wide range of engineering applications, involving porous insulation, packed-bed catalytic process in nuclear reactors, filtration transpiration cooling, and modelling of transport phenomena of microchannel heat sinks. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal asymmetries on convection in porous-medium are studied. • Exergetic effectiveness of porous media with thermal asymmetries is investigated. • 2-D temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analyzed. • Significance of viscous dissipation in entropy generation is scrutinized. • Significance of thermal non-equilibrium in entropy generation is studied

  19. Determination of midsagittal plane for evaluation of facial asymmetry using three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Choi, Soon Chul; Baik, Jee Seon; Park, Joo Young; Chae, Hwa Sung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the disagreement of cephalometric analysis depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane on three-dimensional computed tomography. A total of 102 young women with class III dentofacial deformity were evaluated using three-dimensional computed tomography. The cranial and facial midsagittal planes were defined and the amounts of jaw deviation were calculated. The amounts of jaw deviation were compared with paired t-test (2-tailed) and Bland-Altman plot was drawn. The landmark tracing were reproducible (r≥.978). The jaws relative to the cranial midsagittal plane were 10-17 times more significantly deviated than to the facial midsagittal plane (P<.001). Bland-Altman plot demonstrated that the differences between the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes were not normally distributed versus the average of the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes. The cephalometric analyses of facial asymmetry were significantly inconsistent depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane. The reference for midsagittal plane should be carefully determined in three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of facial asymmetry of patients with class III dentofacial deformity.

  20. CP violation, single lepton polarization asymmetry, and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l+l- decay in the four-generation standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiry, V.; Shirkhanghah, N.; Zeynali, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l + l - decay within the four-generation standard model. Taking |V t ' s *V t ' b |=0.01, 0.02, 0.03 with phase {60 deg. -120 deg.}, which is consistent with the b→sl + l - rate and the Bs mixing parameter Δm Bs , we find that CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. This can serve as an indirect method to search for new physics effects, in particular, to search for the fourth-generation quarks(t ' ,b ' ) via their indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  1. Degree, but not direction of grip strength asymmetries, is related to depression and anxiety in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Rawtaer, Iris; Mahendran, Rathi; Kua, Ee-Heok; Feng, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Despite the abundance of studies on asymmetries in manual laterality, a marker for atypical brain lateralization in depression and anxiety, findings in this area are mixed. Traditionally, research have looked at individual differences in depression and anxiety as a function of the direction of asymmetry. However, recent research has emphasized on studying the degree of asymmetry in addition to its direction. To these ends, the present study aims to unravel the associations between the degree and direction of manual lateralization, and depression/anxiety. Cognitively healthy elderlies (N = 326, 91 males, M age  = 68) were administered grip strength assessments on both hands and self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Partial correlation analyses controlling for age, education and sex revealed significant positive associations between degree of lateralization and anxiety in the overall sample and among right-dominant participants, as well as a significant positive relationship between degree of lateralization and depression among right-dominant participants. None of the correlations involving the direction of lateralization yielded significance, neither was there significant differences between left- and right-dominant participants on depression and anxiety scores. These findings suggest that the degree of manual lateralization, but not direction, is related to depression and anxiety at least among right-dominant individuals.

  2. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  3. Morphological asymmetry and habitat quality: using fleas and their rodent hosts as a novel experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kiefer, Daniel; Krasnov, Boris R

    2017-04-01

    Morphological asymmetry is widely used to measure developmental instability and higher levels of asymmetry often correlate with decreased mating success, increased inbreeding, increased stress and decreased habitat quality. We studied asymmetry and relationships between asymmetry and host identity in two flea species, host generalist Xenopsylla ramesis and host specialist Parapulex chephrenis , and asked: (1) what the level of asymmetry was in their femurs and tibiae; (2) which type of asymmetry predominates; and (3) whether fleas that fed on host species distantly related to their principal host species produced offspring that exhibited greater asymmetry compared with offspring of fleas that fed on their principal host species. We found fluctuating asymmetry in femurs and tibiae of X. ramesis and in the tibiae of P. chephrenis as well as significantly left-handed directional asymmetry in the femurs of P. chephrenis Host species identity significantly impacted asymmetry in leg segments of P. chephrenis but not in those of X. ramesis Offspring asymmetry increased when mother fleas fed on a host that was distantly related to the principal host. Fleas parasitizing multiple host species might compensate for developmental instability when utilizing a novel host species; therefore, host-switching events in host-specific parasites could be constrained by the relatedness between a novel and a principal host species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Polarization, motion, and fragmentation. Exploring the role of quarks in the nucleon through semi-inclusive longitudinal spin asymmetries at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Joshua George

    2009-11-01

    The motivation for this work was to improve upon prior analyses that extracted the quark helicity distributions, Δ(x), of the proton. Chapter 4 contains several new double-spin asymmetries which are results in their own right. The ph? dependence is plotted for the first time with HERMES data which is uniquely hadron separated. The hadron charge difference asymmetry is presented which, in combination with the quark helicity densities can put limits on fragmentation symmetry breaking in semi-inclusive DIS. Additionally, a novel method of unfolding yields (reducing smearing effects from detector resolution limitations and QED radiation) was developed and presented here for the first time which potentially allows new kinds of asymmetries to be constructed which were unavailable before. Also, this chapter describes the method by which the first ever three dimensionally binned SIDIS double-spin asymmetries were produced. These asymmetries, which will be used as the data inputs for the Δ(x) extraction, are valuable inputs to world fits being performed by theorists. Chapter 5 further explores this idea of fragmentation symmetry breaking with Monte Carlo studies of fragmentation functions. These studies test assumptions which are frequently made in the interpretation of asymmetries like the hadron charge difference of the prior chapter and suggest that these assumptions should be approached with some caution. Also, a technique for tuning and more importantly propagating systematic uncertainty through non-analytic Monte Carlo models, like the Lund-String model which provides an essential input to the Δ(x) extraction, is developed (orig.)

  5. Polarization, motion, and fragmentation. Exploring the role of quarks in the nucleon through semi-inclusive longitudinal spin asymmetries at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Joshua George

    2009-11-15

    The motivation for this work was to improve upon prior analyses that extracted the quark helicity distributions, {delta}(x), of the proton. Chapter 4 contains several new double-spin asymmetries which are results in their own right. The ph? dependence is plotted for the first time with HERMES data which is uniquely hadron separated. The hadron charge difference asymmetry is presented which, in combination with the quark helicity densities can put limits on fragmentation symmetry breaking in semi-inclusive DIS. Additionally, a novel method of unfolding yields (reducing smearing effects from detector resolution limitations and QED radiation) was developed and presented here for the first time which potentially allows new kinds of asymmetries to be constructed which were unavailable before. Also, this chapter describes the method by which the first ever three dimensionally binned SIDIS double-spin asymmetries were produced. These asymmetries, which will be used as the data inputs for the {delta}(x) extraction, are valuable inputs to world fits being performed by theorists. Chapter 5 further explores this idea of fragmentation symmetry breaking with Monte Carlo studies of fragmentation functions. These studies test assumptions which are frequently made in the interpretation of asymmetries like the hadron charge difference of the prior chapter and suggest that these assumptions should be approached with some caution. Also, a technique for tuning and more importantly propagating systematic uncertainty through non-analytic Monte Carlo models, like the Lund-String model which provides an essential input to the {delta}(x) extraction, is developed (orig.)

  6. Hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as a psycho-physiological basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shportun O.N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the psycho-physiological peculiarities of hemispheric asymmetry of the brain as the basis of individual and typological features of the formation of a sense of humour. The analysis of the impact of the functional brain hemispheric asymmetry on emotional, intellectual and physiological features of development of sense of humour in ontogeny is conducted. Analysis of studies of inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the brain makes it possible to ascertain the impact of the functioning of each hemisphere on the formation of the perception of humour. Studies show that in the process of developing of sense of humour, two functional hemispheres of the brain are involved. As the emotion of humour – is an intellectual emotion, and in the development of intelligence a lot of mental processes are involved, in the formation of humour two hemispheres of the brain are functioned. The right hemisphere is responsible for the emotional nature of humour (intonation, sound level of language, speed of response to a joke ..., the left hemisphere – for processing verbal information (content of the joke, category, purpose, content analysis .... After analysing the research of hemispheric functional asymmetry of the human brain, its psycho-physiological and neurochemical characteristics, it can be assumed that people with more developed left hemisphere in perceiving humour are more prone to displays of gelotophilia and “right hemisphere” people – show signs of gelotophobia and katagelasticism. Examining gender differences of hemisphere asymmetry of the brain, it can be argued that diagnosing sense of humour is important to take into account gender-specific functioning of hemispheres, because men have more clearly functioning the left hemisphere, and women – the right one. This fact of sexual peculiarities of functioning of inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the brain allows diagnosing objectively sense of humour, as well as different variations

  7. Aging effects on cerebral asymmetry: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on gray and white matter asymmetry. Two hundred twenty-six right-handed normal volunteers aged 21-71 years were included in this study. The effects of aging on gray matter volume asymmetry and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The voxel-based morphometry showed no significant correlation between age and gray matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant correlation between age and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry. Our results showed no significant effects of aging on either gray matter volume asymmetry or white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

  8. Perceptual asymmetry for chimeric faces across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S C; Levy, J

    1986-07-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for processing chimeric faces were investigated in dextral subjects, ranging in age from 5 years to elderly adults. The task involved deciding which member of a pair of face chimeras presented in free vision looks happier, the one with the smile to the left or its mirror image with the smile to the right (Levy, Heller, Banich, & Burton, 1983a, Brain and Cognition, 2, 404-419). A leftward bias was found for all age groups. However, kindergarteners' mean asymmetry score was lower than that of all other groups combined, most likely due to noise in their data. The direction in which subjects drew circles with their left and right hands was also observed as an index of interhemispheric communication. All groups showed a bias toward drawing the circles in concordant directions except the kindergarteners. The relation between subjects' performance on the circle drawing and facebook tasks is discussed.

  9. Cold fission description with constant and varying mass asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Rodriguez, O.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Goncalves, M.; Garcia, F.; Guzman, F.

    1998-01-01

    Different description for varying the mass asymmetry in the fragmentation process are used to calculate the cold fission barrier penetrability. The relevance of the appropriate choice for both the description of the pre-scission phase and inertia coefficient to unify alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and spontaneous cold fission processes in the same theoretical framework is explicitly shown. We calculate the half-life of all possible partition modes of nuclei of A > 200 following the most recent Mass Table by Audi and Wapstra. It is shown that if one uses the description in which the mass asymmetry is maintained constant during the fragmentation process, the experimental half-life-values and mass yield of 234 U cold fission are satisfactorily reproduced. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  11. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  12. Matter-antimatter asymmetry induced by a running vacuum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Singleton, D. [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-12-15

    We show that a CP-violating interaction induced by a derivative coupling between the running vacuum and a non-conserving baryon current may dynamically break CPT and trigger baryogenesis through an effective chemical potential. By assuming a non-singular class of running vacuum cosmologies which provides a complete cosmic history (from an early inflationary de Sitter stage to the present day quasi-de Sitter acceleration), it is found that an acceptable baryon asymmetry is generated for many different choices of the model parameters. It is interesting that the same ingredient (running vacuum energy density) addresses several open cosmological questions/problems: avoids the initial singularity, provides a smooth exit for primordial inflation, alleviates both the coincidence and the cosmological constant problems, and, finally, is also capable of explaining the generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the very early Universe. (orig.)

  13. Tau lepton charge asymmetry and new physics at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sudhir Kumar; Valencia, German

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility of studying new physics that singles out the tau lepton at the LHC. We concentrate on the tau lepton charge asymmetry in τ + τ - pair production as a tool to probe this physics beyond the standard model. We consider two generic scenarios for the new physics. We first study a nonuniversal Z' boson as an example of a new resonance that can single out tau leptons. We then consider vector lepto-quarks coupling the first-generation quarks with the third-generation leptons as an example of nonresonant new physics. We find that in both cases the charge asymmetry can be sufficiently sensitive to the new physics to provide useful constraints at the LHC.

  14. Time symmetry and asymmetry in quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell-Mann, M.; Hartle, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disparity between the time symmetry of the fundamental laws of physics and the time asymmetries of the observed universe has been a subject of fascination for physicists since the late 19th century. It was also for Sakharov, if the authors judge correctly from his writings the following general time asymmetries are observed in this universe: The thermodynamic arrow of time --- the fact that approximately isolated systems are now almost all evolving towards equilibrium in the same direction of time. The psychological arrow of time --- we remember the past, we predict the future. The arrow of time of retarded electromagnetic radiation. The arrow of time supplied by the CP non-invariance of the weak interactions and the CPT invariance of field theory. The arrow of time of the approximately uniform expansion of the universe. The arrow of time supplied by the growth of inhomogeneity in the expanding universe

  15. Asymmetry effects of supersymmetric QCD in dilepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contogouris, A.P.; Tanaka, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Callan-Gross-type relation between the structure functions determining dilepton production, which is satisfied by the basic O(1) and O(α/sub s/) subprocesses of conventional QCD, is investigated in supersymmetric QCD (SQCD). It is found that SQCD subprocesses, mainly due to the presence of scalar quarks, strongly violate this relation, thus leading to sizable asymmetry effects in the angular distribution of dileptons. As an illustration, calculations are carried for p-barp→l + l - +X at CERN collider and Fermilab Tevatron energies (√s = 540 and 1600 GeV, respectively) and for pp→l + l - +X at Tevatron energy; with scalar quarks of mass 20 GeV and light gluinos, asymmetries in the range of 20%--5% are found. The significance of the effects as a test of the short-distance structure of SQCD (valence part of the scalar-quark distribution) is discussed

  16. Handling power-asymmetry in interactions with infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    socio-cultural communities deal with power asymmetry in interactions with 3-months old infants. The study consists of a microanalysis of videotaped free play mother-infant interactions from 20 middle class families in Muenster, Germany and 20 traditional farming Nso families in Kikaikelaki, Cameroon......Interaction between adults and infants by nature constitutes a strong power-asymmetry relationship. Based on the assumption that communicative practices with infants are inseparably intertwined with broader cultural ideologies of good child care, this paper will contrast how parents in two distinct....... Analysis followed a discursive psychology approach. The focus of analysis is on how mothers handle and negotiate power-distance in these interactions and what discursive strategies they draw on. Mothers in both groups used various forms of directives and control strategies. The Muenster mothers, however...

  17. ASYMMETRY OF THE BRAIN AT ADAPTATION TO HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Portnichenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Association between cerebral blood flow and higher nervous activity in people at different stages of adaptation to the midlands was studied. Investigation were performed before, during and after a three-week stay in the mountains at an altitude of 2100 m, as well as during short-term ups without the physical load on the height of 3900 m. In the initial period of adaptation to hypoxia desynchronization between the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex and brain blood flow was observed. There was an inversion and an increase in the asymmetry of cerebral blood flow in the direction of the dominance of the left hemisphere of the brain. After the three-week stay in the mountains asymmetry of cerebral blood flow was disappeared, blood flow to the brain was reduced, hemispheric symmetry was formed, and blood flow synchronized with the nerve processes in the cerebral cortex again was restored.

  18. Asymmetries: a fuzzy topic in the process of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Rendón Acevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available FTAs have gained prominence in the trade policy of Latin American countries to the detriment of other forms of economic integration. In this trend there is a predominance of south-north schemes, where all kinds of asymmetries are evident. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the reduction of asymmetries should be a primary goal of the FTAs. The methodology is a review of literature on Latin American FTAs with the United States, particularly those signed by Mexico, Chile and Colombia. As a result, we see that an appropriate treatment of the differences between involved economies is not only desirable for the development of Latin American countries but also it is possible through monetary and industrial policy adjusted to the reality of these countries.

  19. Transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: SIDIS Multi-D analysis & Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment operating on the M2 beam line at the SPS at CERN. Using high energy muon and hadron beams the experiment covers broad range of physics aspects in the field of the hadron structure and spectroscopy. One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes and starting from 2014 also with Drell-Yan (DY) reactions. Experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data trigger constant theoretical interest and are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and global data fits. In particular, recent unique x-$...

  20. High mass asymmetry in spontaneous and induced desintegration of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical results related to a new rupture mode of heavy ions (A>230) in mass fragments more different than ordinary ission products, are presented and disussed. Experiences of long exposure time by nuclear emulsion technique, show that, the U 238 is also a spontaneous emitter of ions with mass number between 20 and 70. The results are interpreted as a high mass asymmetry in fission process or as a nucleon cluster emission mechanism by potential barrier penetration. Preliminary estimation show good agreement with experimental results for U 238 . Glass laminas with uranium thin films prepared 16 years ago, are also analysed aiming to confirm these results. Several experiences with nuclear emulsions and mica sandwich, and radiochemical data show to be possible heavy ion emission from U 238 induced by photons of low energy as well as neutrons of reactor (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Poloidal asymmetries of flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Garbet, X.; Honoré, C.; Clairet, F.; Giacalone, J. C.; Morel, P.; Storelli, A.; Tore Supra Team

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of binormal velocity of density fluctuations using two separate Doppler backscattering systems at the low field side and at the top of the plasma show significant poloidal asymmetry. The measurements are performed in the core region between the radii 0.7 Supra tokamak. A possible generation mechanism by the ballooned structure of the underlying turbulence, in the form of convective cells, is proposed for explaining the observation of these poloidally asymmetric mean flows.

  2. Asymmetry of Anticipatory Postural Adjustment During Gait Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...

  3. Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2010), 032001/1-032001/30 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : D0 * dimuon * asymmetry * mesons Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.964, year: 2010 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.82.032001

  4. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2011), "112005-1"-"112005-13" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON Coll * DZERO * angular distribution * asymmetry * pair production * gluon radiation higher-order Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2011 http://prd.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v84/i11/e112005

  5. LEP asymmetries and fits of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lepton and quark asymmetries measured at LEP are presented. The results of the Standard Model fits to the electroweak data presented at this conference are given. The top mass obtained from the fit to the LEP data is 172 -14-20 +13+18 GeV; it is 177 -11-19 +11+18 when also the collider, ν and A LR data are included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Asymmetry features for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    The computer system for an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Br-aster devices uses image processing and machine learning algorithms. The huge set of attributes analyzed by this software includes the asymmetry measurements between corresponding images, and these features are analyzed in presented paper. The system was tested on real data and achieves accuracy comparable to other popular techniques used for breast tumour detection.

  7. Modification of Otolith Reflex Asymmetries Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H.; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that changes in otolith-mediated reflexes adapted for microgravity contribute to perceptual, gaze and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. Our goal was to determine pre- versus post-fight differences in unilateral otolith reflexes that reflect these adaptive changes. This study represents the first comprehensive examination of unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times pre-flight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation (UC, +/- 3.5cm at 400deg/s), utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and by video-oculographic measurement of the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll (OOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP). Although data from a few subjects were not obtained early post-flight, a general increase in asymmetry of otolith responses was observed on landing day relative to pre-flight baseline, with a subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in the asymmetry measures appeared strongest for SVV, in a consistent direction for OOR, and in an opposite direction for cVEMP. These results are consistent with our hypothesis that space flight results in adaptive changes in central nervous system processing of otolith input. Adaptation to microgravity may reveal asymmetries in otolith function upon to return to Earth that were not detected prior to the flight due to compensatory mechanisms.

  8. Measurements of the B0 bar B0 CP asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1993-01-01

    A figure of merit for a measurement of CP violation is the error on the intrinsic asymmetry A CP . The observed asymmetry A obs will always be smaller than A CP due to a number of effects that dilute the measurement. If one defines A obs =DA CP , where D represents the product of all dilution factors, then the error on A CP , δA CP is related to the number of produced B 0 or bar B 0 , N prod , needed to obtain a given error on δA CP by N prod =1/((δA CP ) 2 D 2 εBr). To determine the figure of merit for a particular decay mode one must determine the number of reconstructed events N obs and calculate the corresponding dilution factor D. N obs depends on the luminosity and production cross section, on the branching ratio of the B 0 or bar B 0 into the specific final state under study, Br, and on ε, the reconstruction efficiency for both the combination of the signal CP state and any tagging signal. The production rate N prod , the dilution factor D, and the efficiency ε, differ substantially in magnitude as a function of energy and detector layout. The detection efficiency and dilution factor can both be written as a product of several factors that can be estimated for a particular experiment. These factors depend critically on the decay mode under study, the tagging method, the detector configuration, and more generally on the production process, backgrounds, and detector performance. Furthermore, the present knowledge of these quantities varies largely, as well as ones ability to ultimately measure the dilution factor which relates the experimentally observed asymmetry to the true CP asymmetry

  9. Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al–Ti nanolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Gerboth, Matthew; Yao, Bo; Henager, Charles H.; Devaraj, Arun; Vemuri, Venkata R.S.R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed with empirical potentials to study the effects of multilayer interfaces and interface spacing in Al–Ti nanolayers. Several model interfaces derived from stacking of close-packed layers or face-centered cubic {1 0 0} layers were investigated. The simulations reveal significant and important asymmetries in defect production with ∼60% of vacancies created in Al layers compared to Ti layers within the Al–Ti multilayer system. The asymmetry in the creation of interstitials is even more pronounced. The asymmetries cause an imbalance in the ratio of vacancies and interstitials in films of dissimilar materials leading to >90% of the surviving interstitials located in the Al layers. While in the close-packed nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the atomic layers adjacent to the interface of the Al layers, in the {1 0 0} nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the center of the Al layers and away from the interfaces. The degree of asymmetry and defect ratio imbalance increases as the layer spacing decreases in the multilayer films. Underlying physical processes are discussed including the interfacial strain fields and the individual elemental layer stopping power in nanolayered systems. In addition, experimental work was performed on low-dose (10 16 atoms/cm 2 ) helium (He) irradiation on Al/Ti nanolayers (5 nm per film), resulting in He bubble formation ∼1 nm in diameter in the Ti film near the interface. The correlation between the preferential flux of displaced atoms from Ti films to Al films during the defect production that is revealed in the simulations and the morphology and location of He bubbles from the experiments is discussed

  10. Top quark asymmetry from a non-Abelian horizontal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghoon; Wells, James D

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the persistence of a large measured top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron, we examine a model of non-Abelian flavor gauge symmetry. The exchange of the gauge bosons in the $t$-channel can give a large $\\Afb$ due to the forward Rutherford scattering peak. We address generic constraints on non-Abelian $t$-channel physics models including flavor diagonal resonances and potentially dangerous contributions to inclusive top pair cross sections. We caution on the general difficulty of comparing theoretical predictions for top quark signals to the existing experimental results due to potentially important acceptance effects. The first signature at the Large Hadron Collider can be a large inclusive top pair cross section, or like-sign dilepton events, although the latter signal is much smaller than in Abelian models. Deviations of the invariant mass distributions at the LHC will also be promising signatures. A more direct consistency check of the Tevatron asymmetry through the LHC asymmetry...

  11. Functional asymmetry of emotions in primates: new findings in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carriba, Samuel; Loeches, Angela; Morcillo, Ana; Hopkins, William D

    In the past 15 years, there have been a number of studies conducted on asymmetries in the perception and production of facial expressions in human and non-human primates as a means of inferring hemispheric specialization for emotions. We review these studies to assess continuity and discontinuity between species in these emotional processes. We further present new data on asymmetries in the production of facial expressions in a sample of captive chimpanzees. Objective measures (hemimouth length and area) and subjective measures (human judgement's of chimeric stimuli) indicate that chimpanzees' facial expressions are asymmetric, with a greater involvement of the left side of the face (right hemisphere) in the production of emotional responses. Left hemimouth was bigger than the right in the facial expressions of pant-hooting, play, and silent bared-teeth (p bared-teeth, and scream face (p bared-teeth categories (p < 0.01). Thus, chimpanzees, like humans and some other non-human primates, show a right hemisphere specialization for facial expression of emotions, which suggests that this functional asymmetry is homologous in all these species.

  12. Baryon asymmetry of the Universe in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    We study the interactions of quarks and antiquarks with the changing Higgs field during the electroweak phase transition, including quantum mechanical and some thermal effects, with the only source of CP violation being the known CKM phase. We show that the GIM cancellation, which has been commonly thought to imply a prediction which is at least 10 orders of magnitude too small, can be evaded in certain kinematic regimes, for instance, when the strange quark is totally reflected but the down quark is not. We report on a quantitative calculation of the asymmetry in a one-dimensional approximation based on the present understanding of the physics of the high-temperature environment, but with some aspects of the problem oversimplified. The resulting prediction for the magnitude and sign of the present baryonic asymmetry of the Universe agrees with the observed value, with moderately optimistic assumptions about the dynamics of the phase transition. Both magnitude and sign of the asymmetry have an intricate dependence on quark masses and mixings, so that quantitative agreement between prediction and observation would be highly nontrivial. At present uncertainties related to the dynamics of the EW phase transition and the oversimplifications of our treatment are too great to decide whether or not this is the correct explanation for the presence of remnant matter in our Universe; however, the present work makes it clear that the minimal standard model cannot be discounted as a contender for explaining this phenomenon

  13. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  14. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lin

    Full Text Available Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS inside, and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm" vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  15. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma me