Sample records for left suffering insurers

  1. Use of Post-acute Care Services and Readmissions After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in Privately Insured Patients. (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Haas, Lindsey R; Herrin, Jeph; Schilz, Stephanie R; Stulak, John M; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Shah, Nilay D


    Very little is known about health care resource utilization, including post-acute care use and hospital readmissions, after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Administrative claims from a database of multiple United States health plans were used to identify patients that received an LVAD (ICD-9 code 37.66) and survived to hospital discharge from January 1-2006, through September 30-2013. Post-acute care use was defined as a skilled nursing facility or rehabilitation stay within 90 days after hospital discharge. Patients were censored at heart transplantation or end of coverage through December 31-2013. Of 583 patients (mean age 55 years, 77% male), 223 (38.3%) used post-acute care services, more commonly in patients with diabetes, who required hemodialysis, and who had LVADs implanted at hospitals in more populated areas, with more beds, and in the northeast region (P device complications, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Readmission risk was higher in patients who had diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and longer hospital length of stay, but it did not differ by post-acute care use. Use of post-acute care services varies based on hospital characteristics. We found no association between post-acute care use and readmission risk after LVAD implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. About Insurance. (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to acquaint deaf students with the various types of insurance protection that will be available to them in their future life. Seven units covering the topics of what insurance is, automobile insurance, life insurance, health insurance, social security, homeowner's…

  3. Life insurance


    ČERNÁ, Lenka


    Bachelor's thesis deals with the life insurance market in the Czech Republic. I compared the different insurance products life insurance among themselves. And these products is the formula published in the scientific literature.

  4. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly


    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  5. Headache Sufferers' Diet (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 13 Jan Headache Sufferers' Diet Posted at 21:35h in Headache ... No Comments Post A Comment Cancel Reply NATIONAL HEADACHE FOUNDATION Financials Annual Benefit HeadWise Magazine Subscribe to ...

  6. Spiritual pain and suffering. (United States)

    Brunjes, George B


    Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.

  7. Reduction in left supplementary motor area grey matter in adult female fibromyalgia sufferers with marked fatigue and without affective disorder: a pilot controlled 3-T magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study. (United States)

    Puri, B K; Agour, M; Gunatilake, K Dr; Fernando, K Ac; Gurusinghe, A I; Treasaden, I H


    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that structural grey matter brain changes might occur in the chronic intractable pain disorder fibromyalgia when this is associated with marked fatigue in the absence of a DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) diagnosis of affective disorder. High-resolution 3-T cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 female, right-handed, non-smoking, white Caucasian subjects: five patients with fibromyalgia associated with marked fatigue and five age-matched healthy women. Voxel-wise generalized linear modelling of the processed neuroanatomical data using permutation-based non-parametric testing, forming clusters at t > 2.3 and testing clusters for significance at P fibromyalgia and marked fatigue in the left supplementary motor area. This brain region plays an important role in cognitive or executive control and in the translation of painful cognition; these functions are impaired in fibromyalgia associated with marked fatigue.

  8. Trauma, suffering and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casas Soberón, Elena; Berliner, Peter


    The article discusses the challenge of using a conceptual framework to understand traumatic stress and still be open to listening to the stories of suffering, of lamentation, grief, hope, and values of people being oppressed by organised violence. The complexity of responses to the losses caused ...

  9. Health Insurance (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, ...

  10. Insurance crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.


    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators

  11. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)


    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  12. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.


    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  13. Does God Suffer?


    Sarot, M.


    The author argues that Thomas G. Weinandy in his book Does God Suffer? starts from the axiom of divine apathy, rather than that he argues for it. He criticizes the hermeneutic implicit in Weinandy's interpretation of 1 Samuel 15, and proposes an alternative approach. Moreover, he criticizes Weinandy's appeal to agreement among the church fathers (based on a non-representative selection) and his appeal to the doctrine of the Trinity (based on a most speculative, but insuffciently warranted int...

  14. Social Insurance and Health


    Ziebarth, Nicolas R.


    This chapter reviews the existing empirical evidence on how social insurance affects health. Social insurance encompasses programs primarily designed to insure against health risks, such as health insurance, sick leave insurance, accident insurance, long-term care insurance and disability insurance; and programs that insure against other risks, such as unemployment insurance, pension insurance and country-specific social insurance. These insurance systems exist in almost all developed countri...

  15. [Temporal meaning of suffering]. (United States)

    Porée, J


    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  16. To See the Suffering. (United States)

    Charon, Rita


    The author notes the impressive growth in medical humanities programs, scholarly journals, textbooks, and national and international conferences as well as the convening of two recent national forums or boards addressing the potential of the humanities and the arts to improve medical practice. She also notes that the field of medical humanities seems to have shifted from addressing topics on the margins of medical education to equipping students with the foundational skills required for effective doctoring. This Invited Commentary proposes a number of personal, relational, and interpretive consequences to rigorous training in the humanities or the arts that might lead to improvement in the skills of doctoring. Where else but in hospitals with very ill patients and very young doctors who care for them are such skills needed the most? The author suggests that to see the suffering might be what the humanities in medicine are for, and that those who become capable of seeing the suffering around them in medical practice both experience the cost of countenancing the full burden of illness and death and, simultaneously, comprehend with clarity the worth of this thing, this life.

  17. Probabilistic insurance


    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.


    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  18. Forest insurance (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams


    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican


    Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.

  20. The Moral Economy of Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Sofie


    . In contrast to approaches, which relate to the suffering of individual refugees, this study approaches suffering as a relational and social matter. Among other things this involves examining the quest of Iraqis for recognition of suffering as a social value that enters social exchange. When Iraqi refugges...

  1. Suffering from Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa


    Full Text Available Safa M1, Jebraili2, Momen-nasab M3 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Some of the skin diseases cause severe stress in patients and relieving these stresses greatly helps to treat the underlying disease. Alopecia areata is one of the common causes of alopecia which is an autoimmune disease. Other factors like genetics and psychological factors have important roles in the beginning or exacerbation of the disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression and anxiety disorders in patient suffering from alopecia areata. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with alopecia areata who had referred to dermatologic clinic of Shohaday-e Ashayer hospital in Khorramabad from 1382 to 1383(Hj. were evaluated. After filling the questionnaires, the patients were referred to the Psychiatric Clinic and the cases were diagnosed by interviews using SCL-90 test and DSM-IV-IIIR scale. The analysis of data was done by the SPSS software. Results: 80 patients were selected as the subjects of the study. including 52 men (65% and 28 women (35%. 43 patients (53.8% were less than 25 years old and 54 (67.5% were unmarried. 56 patients (70% had a family history of alopecia areata and 45 (56.25% had no history of drug intake. In most of the patients (63.8% the site of the first lesion was the scalp. Out of 80 patients, 64 (80% had anxiety and 60 (75% had depression. 27 (33.3% had major depressive disorders. These findings were statistically significant. Major depressive disorders were more in women. No correlation was found between education, marital status, family history, and the history of drug intake, and the site of first lesion. Conclusion: The

  2. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.


    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Pension Insurance


    Zvi Bodie


    Around the world today there are striking differences in pension systems. The roles played by families, employers, trade unions, financial intermediaries, community organizations, affiliation groups, and governmental agencies vary tremendously. Yet despite these differences, in almost every country the government is ultimately the pension insurer of last resort, either explicitly or implicitly. If designed well and managed well, a system of government pension insurance can enhance the wellbei...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sabirova


    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  5. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de



    Alston, Julian M.; Quilkey, John J.


    Where the production of milk for sale on the fresh milk market at 'controlled' prices is subject to nontransferable quotas the holders of quota who wish to maximise profits have a motive to maintain production above the quota level to insure against variations in demand for over-quota sales and yield. The concept of 'production of milk as insurance' is used to clarify the way in which such behaviour gives rise to social costs which could be avoided in a competitive market, by a permissive att...

  7. Inflation Insurance


    Zvi Bodie


    A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....

  8. The Paradox of Modern Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    . According to Buddhism, existence is suffering, and each persons desire to reach a state of nothingness (Nirvana) causes them to return over and over through reincarnation, in order to work out their karma. In Christianity suffering is inseparable from man's earthly existence, and it must serve to overcome...

  9. Health Insurance Basics (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  10. Crop-insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der S.


    Crop insurance was fairly new in the Netherlands but there was no legal objection or limitation to particular crops. If a crop were insured, it was important that the whole area of the crop were insured. Speculative insurance seemed preferable to mutual insurance.

    Crop insurance covered all risks

  11. Suffering: toward a contextual praxis. (United States)

    Georges, Jane M


    Janice M. Morse's article in Advances in Nursing Science (24:1) revised and summarized the major findings of a research program exploring the behavioral-experiential nature of suffering. Using a feminist critical theory stance, this article addresses Morse's conceptualization of a praxis of suffering. First, it identifies the strengths and contributions of Morse's body of research to nursing science. Next, it undertakes a critique situated in feminist critical theory in which the limitations of Morse's work are explored using exemplars from the Western literary tradition. Finally, the article proposes a new conceptualization of an alternative contextual praxis of suffering in which nurses' responses to suffering are situated in an emancipatory paradigm of authentic presence.


    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR


    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at:

  13. Export insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions


    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  15. [Bilateral acetabulum fracture after suffering sport trauma]. (United States)

    Trost, P; Kollersbeck, C; Pelitz, M; Walcher, T; Genelin, F


    This case study describes a 37-year-old male who suffered a bilateral transverse acetabulum fracture with a fracture of the posterior wall and a double-sided dorsal hip dislocation in combination with a left-sided femoral head fracture (Pipkin IV) while skiing in a "fun park". The accurate diagnosis and presurgical planning was made by means of a computed tomography (CT) scan and a subsequent 3D reconstruction. After a primarily executed shielded repositioning of the bilateral hip dislocationearly secondary and anatomical reconstruction of the double-sided acetabulum fracture was possible using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach. A consistent physiotherapy as well as rehabilitation finally led to a positive clinical result for the patient.

  16. Benefits of Suffering: Communicator Suffering. Benefiting, and Influence. (United States)


    period of greatest influence. Jesus , for example, had only a handful of followers until after his death. It was subsequent to the crucifixion that the...sacrifice and suffering of religious leaders such as Jesus , Moses or Joseph Smith is, of course, well known, and similar ex- periences among certain...political and/or ideological reasons which the communicator in the current study, and historical leaders such as Jesus , Mao, Hitler, etc., had for

  17. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  18. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi


    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  19. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  20. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers. (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D


    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  1. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.


    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  2. Risk, Ambiguity, and Insurance. (United States)


    ambiguous, insurance firms are reluctant to market coverage. The oae of nulear power provides a graphic example. Neither risk managers of nuclear...Inauiry, 20, 1-9. Alliance of American Insurers, American Insurance Association, National Association of Independent Insurers, Mutual Atomic Energy

  3. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers. (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D


    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  4. Health insurance for the "uninsurable". (United States)

    Schneck, L H


    State-sponsored health insurance plans for people labeled "uninsurable" by commercial carriers provide financial lifelines for those who qualify. In 28 states, individuals suffering from cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, emotional disorders, cystic fibrosis, para- or quadriplegia and other chronic or recurrent health problems receive benefits--for reasonable premiums--from innovative programs that can literally make the difference between life and death, solvency or indigence. Medical practices and other health care facilities can play a pivotal role in informing patients of these coverage options--and by doing so, increase their revenue, as well.

  5. Coping styles of headache sufferers. (United States)

    Siniatchkin, M; Riabus, M; Hasenbring, M


    Psychological factors are important in the chronification and aggravation of headaches. We studied 90 patients suffering from migraine, chronic daily headache (CDH) evolved from migraine, and episodic or chronic tension-type headache (TTH). Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral pain coping were assessed using the Kiel Pain Inventory (KPI), Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. In addition, the clinical course of headache was analyzed using a validated headache diary. The results were as follows. Firstly, the KPI is reliable internally for the assessment of pain-coping strategy employment among headache patients. Secondly, migraine sufferers were characterized by pronounced psychological abnormalities during the headache phase, demonstrating a less adaptive coping behavior. This was in contrast to the TTH patients, who showed more general distress manifesting in elevated anxiety and lower quality of life. The only factor which appeared to be essential for differentiating between migraine and TTH was the intensity of headache. Thirdly, chronic TTH and CDH evolved from migraine demonstrated more pronounced psychological disabilities and more severe clinical courses of headaches than episodic TTH or nontransformed migraine. The predictor variable for transformation of migraine was impairment of well-being/quality of life, and for transformation of TTH, the frequency of headaches and depression. Finally, analgesic misuse seems to be less important for chronification and transformation of headaches than the degree of psychological disability. This study draws attention to the role of psychological factors in the chronification of TTH and transformation of migraine and provides some recommendations for the behavioral treatment of chronic headaches.

  6. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.


    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  7. Suffering in people with rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Dildy, S P


    Knowledge of the nature, meaning, and impact of suffering from the perspective of people with rheumatoid arthritis is needed to determine what nursing interventions are most helpful in reducing suffering. Grounded theory was used to identify the nature of suffering in 14 people with rheumatoid arthritis. Suffering was found to be a process directed toward regaining normalcy and consisted of three phases: disintegration of self; the shattered self; and reconstruction of self. Experiencing suffering resulted in struggling, lose of dreams, restructuring a future orientation, and withdrawing. Finding meaning through positive life changes was an outcome of suffering. The informants' differentiation between pain and suffering also was examined. The provision of comfort measures along with a caring and empathetic attitude were identified as helpful nursing interventions in reducing suffering.

  8. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi


    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  9. Understanding health insurance plans (United States)

    ... Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  10. Disability Income Insurance


    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF


    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  11. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans (United States)

    ... For several years after the drug is developed, laws prevent other drug companies from copying it. When other companies start manufacturing ... understand medical bills to know what your insurance company is paying…Health ... It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding ...

  12. Importância da troponina-I cardíaca nos portadores de obstrução no tronco da artéria coronária esquerda sem evento cardíaco prévio Importance of cardiac troponin-I in the preoperative period of patients without prior cardiac events but suffering from left coronary branch obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M. Braile


    suffering from left coronary branch obstruction but without prior cardiac events. METHOD: The cardiac troponin-I serum levels of 115 patients with obstructive coronary disease were analyzed. The ages of the patients varied between 32 and 81 years old with a mean age and standard deviation of 59.7 ± 10.5 years. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, 41 patients suffering from left coronary branch obstruction with the degree of obstruction varying between 20% to subtotal occlusion (about 60% and Group B, 74 patients without left coronary branch obstruction. All the patients were submitted to catheterism and no evidence of previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI was identified. Chemoluminescence was utilized to measure the cardiac troponin-I level using the Sanofi-Pasteur Access apparatus, with values of less than 0.l nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml considered normal. RESULTS: No association was evidenced between the degree of left coronary branch obstruction and troponin-Ic serum levels (P= 0.4617, however the average serum levels of troponin-I, in Groups A and B were 0.3841 ng/mL and 0.1711 ng/mL respectively (P=0.0324 Mann-Whitney test; OR = 4.44 95% CI 1.60 - 12.31. CONCLUSIONS: The patients of Group A have 3.44 times higher chance of presenting with myocardial injury as identified by increased cardiac troponin-I levels than Group B, independent of the degree of left coronary branch obstruction. The sensitivity of clinical suspicion of myonecrosis was relatively low (31.7%, but the specificity was high (90.5%. However the clinical importance of the documentation of myonecrosis in a determined percentage of patients with branch injury without electrocardiographic evidence is stressed. Thus, patients with left coronary branch obstruction should be quickly submitted to operative procedures, in order to avoid worsening of the myonecrosis.

  13. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.


    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr



    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  15. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves


    surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily...

  16. Nietzsche and the dilemma of suffering. (United States)

    Johnston, J S; Johnston, C


    In this paper, we attempt to view a long-held assumption in nursing as mistaken. That is, that patient suffering is something to be overcome. Utilizing Nietzsche's statements on Amor Fati, we carefully examine the cultural assumptions behind our denigration of suffering, look at specific nursing examples of this situation, and attempt the beginnings of a discourse on what it would take for nurses to overcome their own predetermined views of suffering in order to better help their patients "own" their own suffering.

  17. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss


    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  18. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.


    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  19. An Auto Telematics System For Insurance Premium Rating amp Pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irode Philip Luvuga


    Full Text Available Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes and profile location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

  20. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H


    This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health...

  1. Medical expertise, existential suffering and ending life. (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka


    In this article, I assess the position that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) ought not to be accepted in the cases of persons who suffer existentially but who have no medical condition, because existential questions do not fall within the domain of physicians' professional expertise. I maintain that VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions involves existential issues relevantly similar to those confronted in connection with existential suffering. On that basis I conclude that if VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions is taken to fall within the domain of medical expertise, it is not consistent to use the view that physicians' professional expertise does not extend to existential questions as a reason for denying requests for VE and PAS from persons who suffer existentially but have no medical condition.

  2. Marketing in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir


    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  3. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H


    This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were ana...

  4. Forest insurance number. (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger; H.B. Shepard


    This inquiry, originally conceived as an effort to determine definitely whether the existing lack of adequate and practical forest fire insurance facilities is in truth unavoidable and, if possible, to suggest means whereby the condition might be remedied, finds no apparent reason why successful forest fire insurance should not be possible as far as the loss situation...

  5. Social health insurance

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva


    This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.

  6. War, suffering and modern German history. (United States)

    Hansen, Randall


    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  7. Insurance Discounts: Traffic Safety Tips (United States)


    This fact sheet, NHTSA Facts: Summer 1996, discusses automobile insurance discounts. It relates how to obtain a discount, and details what factors can influence insurance premiums. It notes that discounts for safety features vary from insurance compa...

  8. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton


    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  9. Insurance Coverage and Clinical Trials (United States)

    Most health insurance plans are required to cover routine patient care costs in clinical trials under certain conditions. Learn about the conditions that insurance plans take into account and how to work with your insurance company.

  10. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird


    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  11. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  12. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    CERN Multimedia


    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  13. Nuclear liability - nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, H.


    In the fourth concluding article on this subject (following articles in VW 1981 pp. 483, 552 and 629), the author explains procedures, duties and obligations according to the Para. Para. 5, 6 and 7 of the AHBKA. These obligations are to be observed before or after the occurrence of damages. In addition, legal consequences following violations of duties - loss of right - joint, insurance, transfer ban, period for filing suit, duty to notify, 'The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance and Reinsurance Community', the insurance according to the 'General terms and conditions governing the liability insurance of licensed activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations (AHBStr.)', object, beginning and exclusion of coverage, 'Special conditions governing the transport of nuclear fuels according to Para. 25 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law' are attached to the General Terms and Conditions governing the liability insurance of licenced activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  14. Frédéric Chopin and his suffering. (United States)

    Kongsgaard, Ulf E


    In 2010 we celebrated the bicentennial of Chopin's birth. He left more than 230 fantastic compositions, often described as romantic, emotional and poetic. Chopin composed almost exclusively for piano solo and has been called the pianists' composer. From his teens he suffered from respiratory tract infections, gradually accompanied by haemoptysis, pronounced breathing problems, diarrhoea and loss of weight. He experienced part of his adult life as a period of great suffering. He was 39 years old when he died. The assumed cause of death was tuberculosis, but other possible differential diagnoses have been suggested in recent years. In order to examine the different diagnostic alternatives, a non-systematic search of the literature was carried out in PubMed, Embase, Current Contents, Google and relevant reference books. The official cause of death was tuberculosis, but the autopsy report has never been found. Both cystic fibrosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency are possible differential diagnoses that can explain his symptoms. In spite of a disabling disease, Chopin was musically creative right to the end of his life. His suffering must have influenced his musical expression, which is characterised by intimacy and sentimentality. It is unlikely that we will ever find the true cause of death.

  15. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science


    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart


    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  16. Surprised by joy: a journey through suffering. (United States)

    Afeef, Majeda; Alkhoulli, Laila


    Understanding suffering as possible meaning of cancer for patients and their families is a necessary part of cancer nursing care. Suffering occurs when the intactness or integrity of the individuals is threatened or disrupted (Cassel 1999); the authors believe that exploring cancer patients' suffering is vital to improve patient quality care. This article discusses suffering as a feature for oncology patients at tertiary hospital in Jordan. We are aiming through understanding the three following narratives of cancer patients who experience and witness the suffer during their disease journey to illustrate how the suffering reflect their behavior and day to day life. The first case is a young man of 24 years old who was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma five years ago, treated then relapsed and receiving palliative care up to moment, the narrative focus on his suffering from corrupted relations with his wife due to infected face wound and loss of the financial support. The Second case is a 38 years old female who diagnosed with melanoma 15 years ago, she experience psychological suffering due to changes in her body image. She is taking care of motor handicapped husband in addition to her Kids. The Last case is a 54 years old female who had lung cancer. She is still fighting her disease. Consequently, she is suffering from the disease, cause to affect her job.We found out that their spirituality and beliefs system enables them to endure and fight their disease, alleviate suffering, enhance adaptation and redefine hope. The health care team who provide the care for these cases focus interdisciplinary team approach who affirm that the transcendental is there when disease and mute or expressive suffering are recognized together, they do the work of creating a full meaning for patients and families. Nurses play a crucial role in managing such cases .It is the core of nursing care to presence the mean of listening, touching, acknowledging, honoring patient's wishes

  17. Why do we suffer? Understanding, treatment and processing of suffering in terms of existential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfried Längle


    Full Text Available The paper describes the existential analytical model within which the content of suffering is denoted and structured. The model shows that we suffer from when we suffer. Suffering is diverse in its «how» and «why.» The author highlights the features of various forms of suffering in accordance with their classification in the existential-analytical anthropology and reveals the essence of suffering. Within the framework of existential analysis there is an assumption that experience is perceived as fulfilling with suffering when the fundamental structures of existence are threatened or damaged, and the features of the contents of these structures are considered. Significant attention is paid to the ratio of human suffering and the loss of human sense of life, what is behind the feeling of senselessness of suffering. Suffering and pain fully or partly represent a threat to our very life and throw into question human lust for life. To avoid this, it is necessary to appeal to the vast opportunities of a person, and drawing strength from its sources to meet adequately the destructive factors and the abyss of existence. The paper considers the issue of activity which enables stepwise treatment of suffering. The model of stepwise coping with suffering is proposed. It helps to overcome the stagnation in the condition of suffering and returns to the world and life. Practical steps are suggested. These steps are applicable for all forms of suffering. They lay the basis for gaining inner peace. So we can target our efforts over the suffering and prevent the occurrence of mental illness (e.g., depression, hysteria, addiction, PTSD, etc..

  18. Protecting Wild Animals from Unnecessary Suffering


    Spark, Gareth


    This article compares the protection from unnecessary suffering afforded to wild animals with that afforded to domesticated animals and animals under human control. It considers various species-specific bio-diversity- and conservation-based protection for wild animals, under legislation such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010, as well as the general protection from intentionally inflicted unnecessary suffering afforded to wil...

  19. Development of the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale. (United States)

    Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Tremblay, Isabelle; Dupuis, France; Cara, Chantal; Mercier, Geneviève; Vachon, Marie-France; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe


    While mortality due to pediatric cancer has decreased, suffering has increased due to complex and lengthy treatments. Cancer in adolescence has repercussions on personal and physical development. Although suffering can impede recovery, there is no validated scale in French or English to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. To develop an objective scale to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. A methodological design for instrument development was used. Following a MEDLINE search, semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents 12 to 19 years of age who had undergone four to six weeks of cancer treatment, and with a multidisciplinary cohort of health care professionals. Adolescents with advanced terminal cancer or cognitive impairment were excluded. Enrollment proceeded from the hematology-oncology department⁄clinic in Montreal, Quebec, from December 2011 to March 2012. Content validity was assessed by five health care professionals and four adolescents with cancer. Interviews with 19 adolescents and 16 health care professionals identified six realms of suffering: physical, psychological, spiritual, social, cognitive and global. Through iterative feedback, the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale (ACSS) was developed, comprising 41 questions on a four-point Likert scale and one open-ended question. Content validity was 0.98, and inter-rater agreement among professionals was 88% for relevance and 86% for clarity. Adolescents considered the scale to be representative of their suffering. The ACSS is the first questionnaire to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. In future research, the questionnaire should be validated extensively and interventions developed. Once validated, the ACSS will contribute to promote a holistic approach to health with appropriate intervention or referral.

  20. Collectivism and the meaning of suffering. (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Kay, Aaron C; Rothschild, Zachary K


    People need to understand why an instance of suffering occurred and what purpose it might have. One widespread account of suffering is a repressive suffering construal (RSC): interpreting suffering as occurring because people deviate from social norms and as having the purpose of reinforcing the social order. Based on the theorizing of Emile Durkheim and others, we propose that RSC is associated with social morality-the belief that society dictates morality-and is encouraged by collectivist (as opposed to individualist) sentiments. Study 1 showed that dispositional collectivism predicts both social morality and RSC. Studies 2-4 showed that priming collectivist (vs. individualist) self-construal increases RSC of various types of suffering and that this effect is mediated by increased social morality (Study 4). Study 5 examined behavioral intentions, demonstrating that parents primed with a collectivist self-construal interpreted children's suffering more repressively and showed greater support for corporal punishment of children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Concepts Joy and Suffering in Russian Linguaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Korostova


    Full Text Available In the Russian linguistic consciousness, the concepts of emotions joy and suffering are verbalized at the lexical and phraseological levels, forming the basis for metaphorical combinations. Concepts of emotions, suffering and joy are mutually reinforcing: in the presupposition of the idea of suffering, there is a knowledge that it is not infinite and is always replaced by joy. Russian naive-linguistic consciousness reflects the oldest ideas about the alternation of phenomena and events, desirable and undesirable for man. The concepts of suffering and joy are closely related to the universal category of time. As observations on linguistic projections of concepts show, suffering is realized as a longer process than joy. Emotives of different levels of language represent emotional states of joy and suffering in Russian linguistic culture. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, lexical demonstrators of the concept of joy dominate. Cognitive interpretation of events in the mind of a person can be changed under the influence of the emotional regime carried out by the media.

  2. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno


    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  3. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.


    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  4. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec


    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  5. Caring conversations - psychiatric patients' narratives about suffering. (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Lindström, Unni A


    The aim of this study was to increase and deepen the understanding of how psychiatric patients in conversations with nurses narrate their experience of suffering. Data were obtained in the years 2001-2002 by audio recording of 20 individual caring conversations between eight patients and three psychiatric nurses at a psychiatric outpatient unit in Sweden. Before the data were gathered the study was approved by a local research ethics committee. The methodology is inspired by the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur. The data is given a naïve reading which is followed by two structural analyses which explain the text. Finally, the structural analyses and the pre-understanding are confronted in a critical reflection. In the patients' narratives, suffering was at first concealed under a façade that helps the patient to cope with suffering and with shame. As they moved along to a turning point, something happened that made them able to risk everything, i.e. their very selves, but also gave them the possibility of regaining vital parts of themselves that where lost when the façade was constructed. As they took the suffering upon themselves, they grew to be fully visible as human beings and healing was possible as a re-establishment of the interpersonal bridge. This not only meant that the sufferer became open for relationships with others or an abstract other, but also that an opening in the relationship with themselves occurred. If psychiatric patients are allowed to narrate freely they develop different plot structures, which can either hide or reveal suffering. Patients who could establish an answer to the why-question of suffering could also interpret their suffering in a way that enabled growth and reconciliation. In order to do so, they had to abandon the shelter of the façade and confront suffering and shame. This turning point opened them up to life-sustaining relationships with themselves as well as with abstract and concrete others.

  6. HUD Insured Hospitals (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...

  7. Group life insurance

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  8. M. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom

  9. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  10. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothbart, Daniel; Poder, Poul


    . These instruments may appear innocuous, as when civil-society leaders render “reasonable” decisions, government officials establish “essential” directives, and bureaucrats implement “common sense” policies. But their effect is to promote the collective suffering of marginalized people. In this chapter, we examine...... and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...

  11. To Love is to Suffer: Older Adults' Daily Emotional Contagion to Perceived Spousal Suffering. (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R; Kane, Heidi S


    For older adults coping with a spouse's chronic condition, greater marital satisfaction may not be entirely protective for psychological health. We examined marital satisfaction and gender as moderators of the association between perceived spousal suffering and daily emotional contagion. Based on empathy-altruism and interdependent self-construal theories, we hypothesized that high marital satisfaction and being female would heighten daily emotional contagion, or within-person associations between perceived spouse suffering and distress to spouse suffering. Forty-five older adults who had a spouse with a musculoskeletal condition completed daily interviews. Participants reported their marital satisfaction once in the laboratory and then daily perceptions of their spouse's physical suffering and their own distress to spouse suffering via phone at home for 7 days. Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant within-person effects such that highly satisfied wives experienced heightened emotional contagion on days when they perceived higher than average spouse suffering. Unexpectedly, men who were high in marital satisfaction experienced heightened daily distress irrespective of their perceptions of level of spousal suffering. Marital satisfaction can increase daily emotional contagion to spousal suffering among older couples dealing with chronic conditions. Wives' distress may be more dependent on perceiving high levels of partner suffering compared with husbands' distress.

  12. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.


    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  13. The Correlation Matrix Problem in Insurance and Banking (United States)

    Samuels, Michael


    In insurance, the analyst is often faced with a large number of inter-related variables for which correlations need to be estimated. Clearly, all correlations lie in the interval [-1, 1], but the numbers cannot be assigned independently. Here, the choices left to the analyst are considered from both a geometric and a probabilistic viewpoint. In…

  14. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  15. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Mirjana M.


    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  16. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor


    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  17. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.


    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  18. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine


    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  19. Mental Suffering as a Struggle with Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosfort, René


    Human emotional life is structured and to a certain extent constituted by language, and yet making sense of and communicating how we feel is often a challenge. In this article, I will argue that a person’s struggle to make sense of and articulate her suffering plays a major role in the experience......, allows us to explore the significance of the phenomenological ambiguity of anxiety. Of particular importance in Kierkegaard’s theory is the dialectics of imagination and reality at work in anxiety, and in the concluding section, I will look at how this dialectics can help us understand how both...... the patient and the psychiatrist are challenged with the problem of finding a language for mental suffering....

  20. Lectures on insurance models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, S


    Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.

  1. [Suffering and death from a philosopher's perspective]. (United States)

    Gembillo, G


    Death is a paradox. Without death we would not be. Heraclitus already knew that we exist because all that lives, ''lives of death and dies of life''. Without death the great chain of being would not exist. The Greeks called humans mortals, but Hegel taught us that to suffer means to undergo a gradual development. Pain is fight and competition, and every individual has his own threshold for pain.

  2. Long-Term Care Insurance and Life Insurance Demand


    Volker Meier


    This article investigates the interaction between life insurance and long-term care insurance markets on the demand side. In the model utility depends on both consumption and bequest, and utility from consumption is contingent on the state of health. While the demand for life insurance increases both with decreasing income and with a rising degree of altruism, the influences of these two parameters on the demand for long-term care insurance are ambiguous. If the utility shock arising from dis...



    Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara


    Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...

  4. Clinical trial insurance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žagar Zlatko A.


    Full Text Available Prior the commencement of the clinical trial in Serbia the Sponsor is obliged to provide the insurance policy covering the patient's bodily injury and damaged health caused by the clinical trial. According to provisions of Serbian Insurance law insurance polices have to be issued by the insurance companies established in Serbia. Every insurance policy not issued by the insurance company established in Serbia shall be deemed as null and void. The only expectance, is when the foreign clinical trial liability policy is stipulated that the insurance contract acknowledges the jurisdiction of Serbian domestic courts and other Serbian authorities to decide on damage claims (that never happened in Serbian practice. The Sponsor will fulfill this obligation stipulated in Serbian law when provides the Clinical Trial Liability policy issued by the Serbian insurance company. Nowadays, few of Serbian insurance companies are issuing such polices. Under the clinical trial liability insurance cover the insured's are: Sponsor, Medical Centers in Serbia performing or controlling the clinical trial, Principal Investigators and their assistant staff performing or controlling the clinical trial. The beneficiaries of the insurance cover are patients and/or members of their families - inheritresses. The insurance company will indemnify the beneficiary mentioned in the policy when the insured event occurred i.e. when occurred bodily injury, psychic disease and alienation, psychic damages, illnesses and deaths caused by the clinical trial. The amount of indemnity by the insurance company to the beneficiaries is limited by the amount of sum insured per occurrence and/or by the total amount of the sum insured for the total period of the insurance cover. According to case-law in Serbia the total sum insured between EUR 500.000 and EUR 1.000.000 is considered as sufficient so far to indemnify the patients in case of the insured event. If an insurance event occurs the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk


    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  6. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...

  7. Trends in pension insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shterev


    Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system

  8. Insurance and fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.M.G. da.


    The fuel transport insurance in Brazil is analysed. There are some special and additional clauses that can be included or excluded, according to the contracting parts and because of some rules, conventions and treaties they are obliged to insert certain conditions, in view of the nature of the transported material and the risks resulting from it. (A.L.S.L.) [pt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  10. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  11. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance


    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.


    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  12. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani


    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  13. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph


    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  14. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik


    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  15. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap. (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin


    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Insurance against climate change and flood risk: Insurability and decision processes of insurers (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi


    1. Background Major portions of the Asia-Pacific region is facing escalating exposure and vulnerability to climate change and flood-related extremes. This highlights an arduous challenge for public agencies to improve existing risk management strategies. Conventionally, governmental funding was majorly responsible and accountable for disaster loss compensation in the developing countries in Asia, such as Taiwan. This is often criticized as an ineffective and inefficient measure of dealing with flood risk. Flood insurance is one option within the toolkit of risk-sharing arrangement and adaptation strategy to flood risk. However, there are numerous potential barriers for insurance companies to cover flood damage, which would cause the flood risk is regarded as uninsurable. This study thus aims to examine attitudes within the insurers about the viability of flood insurance, the decision-making processes of pricing flood insurance and their determinants, as well as to examine potential solutions to encourage flood insurance. 2. Methods and data Using expected-utility theory, an insurance agent-based decision-making model was developed to examine the insurers' attitudes towards the insurability of flood risk, and to scrutinize the factors that influence their decisions on flood insurance premium-setting. This model particularly focuses on how insurers price insurance when they face either uncertainty or ambiguity about the probability and loss of a particular flood event occurring. This study considers the factors that are expected to affect insures' decisions on underwriting and pricing insurance are their risk perception, attitudes towards flood insurance, governmental measures (e.g., land-use planning, building codes, risk communication), expected probabilities and losses of devastating flooding events, as well as insurance companies' attributes. To elicit insurers' utilities about premium-setting for insurance coverage, the 'certainty equivalent,' 'probability

  17. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Löf, Anders


    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  18. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.


    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  19. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U


    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  20. Did Mozart suffer from Asperger syndrome? (United States)

    Raja, Michele


    The most reliable biographies of Mozart highlight elements that are compatible with current diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome including qualitative impairment in social interaction and stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. Furthermore, numerous features are documented including difficulty in communicating his emotional state and in inferring the mental state of his interlocutors, motor clumsiness, specific skills and genius, left-handedness, special sense of humour, physical developmental abnormalities, bizarre thinking, overvalued ideas and delusions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  1. The Impact of Health Insurance Reform on Insurance Instability (United States)

    Freund, KM; Isabelle, AP; Hanchate, A; Kalish, RL; Kapoor, A; Bak, S; Mishuris, RG; Shroff, S; Battaglia, TA


    We investigated the impact of the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform on insurance coverage and stability among minority and underserved women. We examined 36 months of insurance claims among 1,946 women who had abnormal cancer screening at six Community Health Centers pre-(2004–2005) and post-(2007–2008) insurance reform. We examined frequency of switches in insurance coverage as measures of longitudinal insurance instability. On the date of their abnormal cancer screening test, 36% of subjects were publicly insured and 31% were uninsured. Post-reform, the percent ever uninsured declined from 39% to 29% (p.001) and those consistently uninsured declined from 23% to 16%. To assess if insurance instability changed between the pre- and post-reform periods, we conducted Poisson regression models, adjusted for patient demographics and length of time in care. These revealed no significant differences from the pre- to post-reform period in annual rates of insurance switches, incident rate ratio 0.98 (95%-CI 0.88–1.09). Our analysis is limited by changes in the populations in the pre and post reform period and inability to capture care outside of the health system network. Insurance reform increased stability as measured by decreasing uninsured rates without increasing insurance switches. PMID:24583490

  2. [Pain and suffering, in the footsteps of Paul Ricoeur]. (United States)

    Svandra, Philippe


    Understanding pain, enduring it, accepting it or detaching oneself from it: numerous philosophers have tackled this task. For suffering is existing. Suffering is part of life. Paul Ricoeur postulates a distinction between pain and suffering which relates pain to the body and suffering to reflexivity, language or the relationship with oneself. Suffering thereby becomes that through which I recognize myself and I recognize the Other.

  3. Progestins in HRT: sufferance or desire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O; Jespersen, Joergen


    's International Study of Long-duration (O)estrogen after Menopause the question can be raised: When dealing with optimal hormonal therapy after the menopause, is the progestin component accepted here on sufferance or is it desired? The answer is partly made up by the fact that the recent epidemiological data may...... the progestins result in a variety of tissue transforming changes as well as metabolic and hemostatic changes. Since no single test or algorithm presently serves as golden standard for all desired hormonal effects the least changes or no changes from the premenopausal physiology may often be advantageous. In our....... With special reference to cardiovascular disease this review therefore makes a plea for differentiating between the array of chemically and functionally distinct progestins used therapeutically after the menopause in combination therapy....

  4. Pity, modernity and the spectacle of suffering. (United States)

    Radley, Alan


    The concept of dignity is often invoked in relation to ideas about a "good" death and, indeed, a "good" life. In this article, I discuss the question of dignity in relation to the rights of the individual in the modern world. This world is one where the relationship of individuals to society is contested in the context of medicine, with all its technologies of treatment and uncertainties of prognosis. For patients who criticize or oppose medicine in order to recover their dignity, it is necessary to articulate or to portray their suffering. In this way, they are able to show not only that they live in spite of illness, but that they also live by virtue of it. From this perspective, dignity is shown to be part of a collective response to a medicalized world in which ideas about illness and health are also being transformed.

  5. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying


    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  6. Practical wisdom: competencies required in alleviating suffering in palliative care. (United States)

    Ohlén, Joakim


    The aim of this article is to reflect upon the competencies required to alleviate suffering in palliative care. The knowledge to prudently and wisely act in a situation involving human relationships can be defined in terms of practical abilities and contextual skills. In the setting of the care of the very ill and dying, practical wisdom such as the carer's ability to meet the suffering person and to act with sensitivity and openness, becomes important. From this, learning to alleviate suffering emerges as receiving insight and wisdom from the suffering person's experience of suffering. This means that the testimony of suffering persons--what they have endured, given up and experienced--becomes as significant as theoretical and practical knowledge of suffering. The professional carer needs to learn how to be open to and interpret what the suffering person, living with suffering and death in the midst of life, can teach.

  7. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch


    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings....

  8. Left heart catheterization (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  9. Health Insurance and Tax Policy


    Karsten Jeske; Sagiri Kitao


    The U.S. tax policy on health insurance favors only those offered group insurance through their employers, and is highly regressive since the subsidy takes the form of deductions from the progressive income tax system. The paper investigates alternatives to the current policy. We find that a complete removal of the subsidy results in a significant reduction in the insurance coverage and serious welfare deterioration. There is, however, room for improving welfare and raising the coverage, by e...

  10. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (2007...... a cognitive model based on budgeting. Our findings emphasize the importance of budget constraints, which lead consumers to budget their income across consumption categories. We find also that a simple heuristic accounts for many collision coverage decisions: purchase coverage for cars worth more than some...

  11. The economics of health insurance. (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom


    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance...

  13. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree


    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  14. Health insurance education strategies for increasing the insured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The older population in most developing countries are uninsured and lack access to health services. This study assessed the extent to which a multi-strategy health insurance education intervention would increase the number of insured among the older population in rural Kenya. Methods: The ...

  15. [Rare diseases from a life insurance perspective]. (United States)

    Senn, A; Filzmaier, K


    A rare disease is defined as a disease that affects a maximum of 5 in 10,000 people. As of today there are roughly 7000 different rare diseases known. On account of this one can say that "rare diseases are rare, but people affected by them are common". For Germany this amounts to: 4 million people that are affected by a rare disease. Diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis have substantially improved for some of the rare diseases. Besides the general medical advances--especially in the area of genetics--this is also due to networking and sharing information by so-called Centres of Competence on a national and international scale. This results in a better medical care for the corresponding group of patients. Against this backdrop, the number of people applying for life assurance who are suffering from a complex or rare disease has risen steadily in the last years. Due to the scarce availability of data regarding long-term prognosis of many rare diseases, a biomathematical, medical and actuarial expertise on the part of the insurer is necessary in order to adequately assess the risk of mortality and morbidity. Furthermore there is quite a focus on the issue of rare diseases from not only politics but society as well. Therefore evidence based medical assessment by insurers is especially important in this group of applicants--thinking of legal compliance and reputational risk.

  16. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract. (United States)


    ... age of the insured under a life insurance contract. (a) In general. This section provides guidance on determining the attained age of an insured under a contract that is a life insurance contract under the... second of the two insureds dies. (ii) Section 1.7702-2(c)(1) provides that if a life insurance contract...

  17. 76 FR 71624 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance..., Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-357. OMB Control Number: 2900-0016. Type of Review: Extension of a... disability insurance on National Service Life Insurance and United States Government Life Insurance policies...

  18. 78 FR 13454 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions (United States)


    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations...

  19. 78 FR 55171 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions (United States)


    ...-0001] RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance... changes to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance...

  20. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C


    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the



    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.


    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 13 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...

  3. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma]. (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J


    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  4. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  5. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  6. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA


    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  8. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak


    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  9. Сryptocurrency as an object of economic analysis in insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to topical issues of economic nature of cryptocurrency and development of the theoretical approaches for its analysis in insurance companies. The attention has been focused to risks and opportunities of cryptocurrency in modern economy, its place in evolution of money. The author studied the international experience of cryptocurrency operation in insurance companies order to identify trends of development of the industry and to determine their potential impact on the domestic insurance sector. The legal status of bitcion, main popular cryptocurrency, in different countries of the world has not been left without attention. The author has defined that bitcion is prohibited in states with low level of insurance density and penetration (like Bangladesh, Russia, Indonesia and is legalized in development countries, such USA, Japan, Germany and others. Major indicators of analysis of cryptocurrency in insurance companies which can be used for management decisions have been suggested.

  10. [Abortion using health insurance]. (United States)

    Gritschneder, O


    The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.

  11. Imperfect Tests and Natural Insurance Monopolies


    Emons, Winand


    This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...

  12. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez


    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  13. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study


    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich


    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  14. How Have Health Insurers Performed Financially Under the ACA' Market Rules? (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A


    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed the market for individual health insurance, so it is not surprising that insurers' transition was not entirely smooth. Insurers, with no previous experience under these market conditions, were uncertain how to price their products. As a result, they incurred significant losses. Based on this experience, some insurers have decided to leave the ACA’s subsidized market, although others appear to be thriving. Examine the financial performance of health insurers selling through the ACA's marketplace exchanges in 2015--the market’s most difficult year to date. Analysis of financial data for 2015 reported by insurers from 48 states and D.C. to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Although health insurers were profitable across all lines of business, they suffered a 10 percent loss in 2015 on their health plans sold through the ACA's exchanges. The top quarter of the ACA exchange market was comfortably profitable, while the bottom quarter did much worse than the ACA market average. This indicates that some insurers were able to adapt to the ACA's new market rules much better than others, suggesting the ACA's new market structure is sustainable, if supported properly by administrative policy.

  15. [Work place health promotion programmes of the statutory German Pension Insurance]. (United States)

    Meffert, C; Mittag, O; Jäckel, W H


    In 2009, the amendment of § 31 Abs. 1 Nr. 2 SGB VI gave the German Pension Insurance the opportunity to provide outpatient medical treatments for insured people who have an occupation with particularly high risk of health. Ever since, the German Pension Insurance has developed various work place prevention programmes, which have been implemented as pilot projects. This article aims at systematically recording and comparatively analyzing these programmes in a synopsis which meets the current state of knowledge. We developed an 8 page questionnaire focusing on work place prevention programmes by the German Pension Insurance. This questionnaire was sent to people in charge of all programmes known to us. All programmes have been drafted -across indications. They are aiming at insured people who already suffer from first health disorders but who are not in imminent need of rehabilitation. However, the concrete target groups at which the specific programmes are aimed differ (shift workers, nurses, elderly employees). Another difference between the various programmes is the setting (in- or outpatients) as well as the duration. All programmes are using existing structures offered by the German Pension Insurance. They provide measures in pension insurance owned rehabilitation centers. It would be desirable to link these performances with internal work place health promotion and offers of other social insurances. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi


    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  17. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.


    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  18. Disparities in Private Health Insurance Coverage of Skilled Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Tovino


    Full Text Available This article compares and contrasts public and private health insurance coverage of skilled medical rehabilitation, including cognitive rehabilitation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, and skilled nursing services (collectively, skilled care. As background, prior scholars writing in this area have focused on Medicare coverage of skilled care and have challenged coverage determinations limiting Medicare coverage to beneficiaries who are able to demonstrate improvement in their conditions within a specific period of time (the Improvement Standard. By and large, these scholars have applauded the settlement agreement approved on 24 January 2013, by the U.S. District Court for the District of Vermont in Jimmo v. Sebelius (Jimmo, as well as related motions, rulings, orders, government fact sheets, and Medicare program manual statements clarifying that Medicare covers skilled care that is necessary to prevent or slow a beneficiary’s deterioration or to maintain a beneficiary at his or her maximum practicable level of function even though no further improvement in the beneficiary’s condition is expected. Scholars who have focused on beneficiaries who have suffered severe brain injuries, in particular, have framed public insurance coverage of skilled brain rehabilitation as an important civil, disability, and educational right. Given that approximately two-thirds of Americans with health insurance are covered by private health insurance and that many private health plans continue to require their insureds to demonstrate improvement within a short period of time to obtain coverage of skilled care, scholarship assessing private health insurance coverage of skilled care is important but noticeably absent from the literature. This article responds to this gap by highlighting state benchmark plans’ and other private health plans’ continued use of the Improvement Standard in skilled care coverage decisions and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răducu Marian PETRESCU


    Full Text Available This work aims to identify and develop best practices in the insurance field. We must mention from the beginning that best practices are not compulsory or mandatory rules of law, they cannot and do not want to be placed above the legal provisions in force, they only complement the law. Moreover, we intend to look into the implementation of the Solvency II Directive from the point of view of best practices in insurance. In this research, the main method of study was the theoretical qualitative research (especially document analysis, with the purpose to identify and theoretically develop the information on best practices in the insurance field. The main results of the research consist in the identification of general best practices in performing the activity (such as communication/consultation with the interested parties, the consistency as regards contractual/non-contractual relations, the effectiveness and efficiency, transparency and honesty, fair treatment of customers etc. which have been presented in short and which could be implemented by any company that seeks to achieve superior performances, including the insurance companies. The work also includes some important best practices, described in detail, in a sensitive area such as the insurance field (best practices in relation to the management of personal information, the management and settlement of disputes by insurance companies or intermediaries in the field of insurance etc..

  20. The insurance of climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauthier, Alice


    The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies



    N. Tkachenko; O. Kryvytska


    The article investigates the practical aspects of the activity of insurance intermediaries in Ukraine. The structure and dynamics of insurance payments for life insurance in Ukraine as a whole, as well as in the context of residents and non-residents, are analyzed. The share of insurance intermediaries in the realization of life insurance services in Ukraine is revealed. The indexes of insurance intermediaries in the organization of life insurance in Ukraine for 2012-2016 are systematized. In...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  3. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron


    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  4. Insurance billing and coding. (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H


    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  5. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.


    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  6. United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Market (United States)


    The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...

  7. HUD Insured Multifamily Properties (NGDA) (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  8. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.


    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  9. Environmental insurance: research information support


    Rykova Valentina V.


    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  10. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  11. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tiller


    Full Text Available Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  12. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance? (United States)

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul


    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  13. 48 CFR 3052.228-70 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 3052.228-70... of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-70 Insurance. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.310-70 and 3028... insurance. Insurance (DEC 2003) In accordance with the clause entitled “Insurance—Work on a Government...

  14. 12 CFR 741.212 - Share insurance. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Share insurance. 741.212 Section 741.212 Banks... INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.212 Share insurance. (a) Member...

  15. 24 CFR 203.443 - Insurance premium. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Rehabilitation Loans § 203.443 Insurance...

  16. 24 CFR 206.15 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 206.15 Section 206.15... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement § 206.15 Insurance. Mortgages originated under this...

  17. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value or...

  18. 24 CFR 201.31 - Insurance charge. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance charge. 201.31 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Insurance of Loans § 201.31 Insurance charge. (a...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4222 - Hazard insurance. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4222... General Provisions § 36.4222 Hazard insurance. (a) The holder shall require insurance policies to be... it may be subjected to the extent customary in the locality. The costs of such required insurance...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4329 - Hazard insurance. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard insurance. 36.4329... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4329 Hazard insurance. The holder shall require insurance policies to be procured and maintained in an amount sufficient to...

  1. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  2. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation due to left atrial appendage herniation and review of the literature. (United States)

    Misthos, Panagiotis; Neofotistos, Kostas; Drosos, Polivios; Kokotsakis, John; Lioulias, Achilleas


    The incidence of the isolated form of partial absence of the pericardium is a rare finding. The authors present a case of an isolated left sided pericardial defect with intrathoracic protrusion of the left atrial appendage found during a left upper lobectomy for lung cancer, unrecognized after serial echocardiographs and computed tomography scan of the thorax. The patient suffered from episodes of atrial fibrillation which disappeared after pericardial defect repair without antiarrhythmic medication.

  3. Social insurance for health service. (United States)

    Roemer, M I


    Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.

  4. VA Dental Insurance Program. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations to establish rules and procedures for the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Under the pilot program, VA will contract with a private insurer, through the Federal contracting process, to offer dental insurance to eligible individuals. The private insurer will be responsible for the administration of the dental insurance plan. VA will form the contract and verify the eligibility of individuals who apply for the private dental insurance.

  5. 78 FR 58264 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access (United States)


    ... Insurance Information Access AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The...-AO42 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access... operation, also has the right to full access to records held by the insurer or on behalf of the insurer from...

  6. 76 FR 77455 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life...' Group Life Insurance (``SGLI'') and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (``VGLI'') to prohibit payment of insurance proceeds payable because of the death of a person whose life was insured under SGLI or VGLI...

  7. 77 FR 3400 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions (United States)


    ... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-11-0011] RIN 0563-AC34 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available The article investigates the practical aspects of the activity of insurance intermediaries in Ukraine. The structure and dynamics of insurance payments for life insurance in Ukraine as a whole, as well as in the context of residents and non-residents, are analyzed. The share of insurance intermediaries in the realization of life insurance services in Ukraine is revealed. The indexes of insurance intermediaries in the organization of life insurance in Ukraine for 2012-2016 are systematized. In the article mention that insurance intermediaries stay in not active phase in their activity in life insurance sphere. The definition of the insurance intermediary is defined in broad and narrow terms. The purpose of the activity of insurance intermediaries is determined. Schematically shows the common and excellent in the activities of the key representatives of insurance mediation - insurance agents and insurance brokers. It is argued that insurance intermediaries have the opportunity to become key players in life insurance, since they are the ones who can reach potential insurers in the shortest possible time. It is also noted that the further development of life insurance will largely depend on the professionalism of the insurance intermediary. Noted the appropriate identification of a life insurance intermediary with a financial advisor.

  9. 75 FR 52218 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions (United States)


    ... their apple production to the public as fresh apples, without undergoing any change in its basic form... Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Crop Insurance Regulations, Apple Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to...

  10. A virtual sleepcoach for people suffering from insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.


    People suffering from insomnia have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Insomnia impairs people’s daily life and their quality of life decreases. Approximately 10% of the population suffers from insomnia. The common treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I),

  11. 'You are not alone\\': the discursive construction of the 'suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... system (Martin & Rose, 2003) to analyse how the attitudinal language of the talk show constructs an identifiable victim whose narrative centres on overcoming suffering. The analysis reveals that expressions of Affect, Judgement and Appreciation are powerful mechanisms for legitimising the identity of the suffering victim.

  12. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages ...

  13. Legal and economic aspects of contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko P.


    Full Text Available The contract of insurance of crops and yields against drought is based on the risk of decrease of precipitation in comparison with an earlier relevant period. The authors analysed the specificities of the case of draught risk, but also other regulations characteristic of this contractual relationship, both from the economic and the legal point of view. The paper also treats the position of contractual parties in this contractual relationship, partly arising from the monopolising position of the insuring organisation. That part also analyses the contract freedom that is endangered due to unequal positions of contractual parties. Special attention is paid to legal sources, especially the general and special conditions of insurance organisations, seeing as they are the main source of law, as there is a lack of legal regulation of this field. The number of Serbian insurance organisations that offer this type of insurance is extremely low, as well as the percentage of insurance against this risk. The authors analyse the reasons for which this type of insurance is underdeveloped in Serbia, as well as the consequences of such a state to a safe agricultural production. The paper also covers the topic of the role of legislators and the state in general, in terms of regulation of certain elements of this contractual relation, but also in terms of state incentives that would contribute to a higher percentage of insured agricultural areas. This would reduce the uncertainty and the damage suffered by agricultural producers due to increasing weather fluctuations. Taking into account the inadequate legal and economic tradition, education in this field would represent a significant contribution to the development of this kind of insurance. The authors analyse the difference between the contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought and the weather derivative contracts, which can be traded on the stock market.

  14. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana. (United States)

    Lattof, Samantha R


    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  15. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen


    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  16. Social suffering and the culture of compassion in a morally divided China. (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Kleinman, Arthur; Harrison, Emily


    This collection of essays opens a critical examination of compassionate acts responding to social suffering in the intensely complex moral context of a rapidly changing and globalizing China. Jeanne Shea describes self-compassion among older women in China as a post-revolutionary response to changing opportunities and resistance to consumerism. Khun Eng Kuah-Pearce's essay frames the Buddhist organizations as NGOs and shows compassion being mobilized and its acts being spiritual-philanthropic, not political. The next three papers illuminate the complexity of mobility in a moral sea of changing values. Even as modernity facilitates movement of people away from suffering, the grinding of entangled moral experiences within the mobile group can be the cause of suffering. Shu-Min Huang critiques 'cultural petrification' as the diasporic Yunnan Chinese community in Thailand attempt to preserve the cultural forms and procedures of the world they left behind. Likewise, Richard Madsen shows that the idea of a universalized cultural heritage fails in the face of the 'micro-ecologies'. And yet the modern impulse to universalize beyond China has important implications for transnational compassion and cooperation. The work of the humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières in China, discussed by Kuah-Pearce and Guiheux, challenges the universality of global humanitarian actions. Following the series of essays threaded across intersections of compassion, suffering, and a morally-divided China, the collection closes by looking at the West. Iain Wilkinson discusses the origins of social suffering as a focus of the social sciences, as well as the difficulties of making engaged compassion its task in a morally-divided world.

  17. Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion. (United States)

    Whitman, Sarah M


    Religion and spiritual practices are among the resources used by patients to cope with chronic pain. The major concepts of Hinduism that are related to pain and suffering are presented. Ways that Hindu traditions deal with pain and suffering are reviewed, including the concept of acceptance, which has been studied in the pain medicine literature. By becoming more familiar with Hindu views of pain and suffering, pain medicine practitioners can offer potentially helpful concepts to all patients and support Hindus' spirituality as it relates to pain and suffering. Religion or spirituality is often important to patients. This article will inform the pain medicine practitioner how pain and suffering are viewed in Hinduism, the third largest religion in the world. It is hoped that these concepts will prove helpful when treating not only followers of Hinduism but all patients.

  18. Suffering and distress at the end-of-life. (United States)

    Krikorian, Alicia; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maté, Jorge


    Suffering frequently occurs in the context of chronic and progressive medical illnesses and emerges with great intensity at end-of-life. A review of the literature on suffering and distress-related factors was conducted to illustrate the integrative nature of suffering in this context. We hope it will result in a comprehensive approach, centered in the patient-family unit, which will alleviate or eliminate unnecessary suffering and provide well-being, when possible. An extensive search of the literature on suffering and distress in end-of-life patients was conducted. While the present review is not a systematic one, an in-depth search using the terms 'Suffering', 'Distress', End-of-Life', 'Palliative Care', and 'Terminal illness' was conducted using search engines such as PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EBSCO-Host, OVID, and SciELO. Taking into account the comprehensive and integrative nature of suffering, factors related to the physical, psychological, spiritual, and social human dimensions are described. As well, some treatment considerations in the palliative care context are briefly discussed. Suffering is individual, unique, and inherent to each person. Assessment processes require keeping in mind the complexity, multi-dimensionality, and subjectivity of symptoms and experiences. Optimal palliative care is based on continuous and multidimensional evaluation and treatment of symptoms and syndromes. It should take place in a clinical context where the psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural needs of the patient-family unit are taken care of simultaneously. A deep knowledge of the nature of suffering and its associated factors is central to alleviate unnecessary suffering. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea


    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  20. Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek TAHA


    Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.

  1. Incarcerated vermiform appendix in a left-sided inguinal hernia. (United States)

    Breitenstein, S; Eisenbach, C; Wille, G; Decurtins, M


    We report here of a patient with an incarcerated vermiform appendix occurring in a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia. Occasionally, appendices are found in a hernial sac; however, the finding of an incarcerated vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia on the left side is very unusual and has only been previously described once. The patient suffering this rare entity underwent appendectomy and repair of the hernia and experienced an uneventful postoperative recovery. The possibility of the presence of a situs inversus, or malrotation, as an underlying cause for the observed pathology was excluded by x-ray examination.

  2. Brain 1H MRS study in children suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhen; Zhang Lei; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng; Wang Yufeng


    Objective: To determine whether the children suffering from Attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had neurochemical abnormalities in basis ganglia and if the state could be affected by methylphenidate. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed on bilateral globus pallidum of 12 ADHD body before and after one dose of methylphenidate 10 mg. Spectral peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate plus glutamine (α-Glx) and creatine (Cr) were measured and their ratios were compared with 12 age-, handedness-, and IQ-matched healthy boys. Results: In children having ADHD, NAA/Cr ratio decrease significantly in bilateral globus pallidum (left side t = 7.01, P 0.05; right side t = -1.04, P > 0.05). The post-drug NAA/Cr ratios in ADHD children remained significantly different from those in healthy children (left side t = 3.68, P 0.05). Conclusion: In children suffering from ADHD, neuronal loss-dysfunction exists in bilateral striatum. One does of methylphenidate could not affect the state significantly. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the cholinergic system is involved in ADHD

  3. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...... measurement and the actual losses of the insured. It is not easy to predict the direction in which basis risk is going to affect insurance demand, in contrast to the clear and strong predictions for standard indemnity insurance products. Index insurance can be theoretically conceptualized as a situation...... affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while...

  4. The phenomenology of suffering in medicine and bioethics. (United States)

    Svenaeus, Fredrik


    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances.

  5. Left atrio-vertebral ratio: A new computed-tomography measurement to identify left atrial dilation. (United States)

    Baque-Juston, Marie; Volondat, Manuelle; Fontas, Eric; Roger, Coralie; Brunner, Philippe; Padovani, Bernard; Chevallier, Patrick


    Left cardiac chambers dilation, interstitial lung changes and pleural effusions are the characteristics of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema on computed tomography (CT) of the chest but mensuration of the left atrial size is not routinely performed. Cardiac chambers normal dimensions are known to be proportional to the patient's build and anthropomorphic data but adjustment of chambers dimensions to available elements seen on the axial CT images has never been evaluated before. Our objective was to use data easily available on axial images to directly scale the left atrium. We chose to divide the left atrial diameter by the thoracic vertebral diameter, using the latter as a body-mass indicator. As a preliminary study, we aimed to evaluate the range of values of this left atrio-vertebral ratio (LAVR) by comparing patients suffering from cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with patients free of cardiac disease. We hypothesized that if the difference of values in these two populations of patients was significant enough, this ratio would be relevant and could be used as a quick criterion in different clinical situations. Two radiologists reviewed CT scans of 32 of patients free of cardiac disease and 40 patients in acute cardiac failure. The maximum diameter of the left atrium at the level of the right inferior pulmonary vein was divided by the vertebral transverse diameter to generate a left atrio-vertebral ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves identified the threshold associated with pulmonary oedema. The mean LAVR was 1.85 ± 0.27 in asymptomatic patients and 2.48 ± 0.35 in patients with pulmonary oedema. A LAVR of 2.1 yielded 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. LAVR is a simple new measure directly scaling the left atrial diameter to the anthropomorphic characteristics of the patient. In our series, a ratio above 2.1 is strongly associated with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema indirectly suggesting left atrial dilation

  6. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy


    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Cristina DUȚESCU


    Full Text Available Increasingly, complaints about medical malpractice ocure extreme situations such as the death of the person or the occurrence of irreparable injuries. Professional misconduct in the exercise of the medical or medical-pharmaceutical act generating harm to the patient implies the civil liability of medical personnel and the provider of medical, sanitary and pharmaceutical products and services. Law no. 95/2006 on the health reform stipulates the obligation of the medical staff to conclude a malpractice insurance for the cases of professional civil liability for the damages created by the medical act, the indemnities being the responsibility of the insurer, within the limits of the liability established by the insurance policy.

  8. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna


    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  9. Soy Allergy in Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis (United States)

    Jarmila, Čelakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač


    Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results: The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Conclusion: Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:23919016

  10. (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    educational material (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia in the South African context. Method: A qualitative research approach was used. Fifteen Setswana speaking participants, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia ...

  11. Control of oncologic pain in relief of suffering. Our experience. (United States)

    González Barón, M; Lacasta Reverte, M A; Ordóñez Gallego, A; Belda-Iniesta, C


    Pain and suffering are not synonymous terms. The concept of suffering is wider than just physical pain. People can suffer for multiple causes, pain among them, but it is not the only reason since . If our main objective is the achievement of the well-being and the relief of pain, it will be necessary, according to Lazarus, Folkman, Chapman, Gravin, Bayés and Labrador, to reduce or eliminate the physical (cancer, pain and so on) and psychosocial harm (loneliness, culpability, etc.) perceived like a threat and to increase the perception of control about this situation. The main objectives of our work were: First: to evaluate the efficacy of a tool that allows the identification of the symptoms perceived by the patient as a threat in order to reduce or suppress them and empower their resources at the same time; and secondly to evaluate the incidence of pain in the suffering. Our tool includes the following groups of variables: subjective perception of the time course, emotional aspects, concerns and confrontation strategies, perception of adaptation and sense of life, perceived support and pain. This tool has been tested in 73 oncologic patients, 31 men and 42 women, mean aged 55, 41 (SD = 14, 54) visited at the Medical Oncology Service of La Paz Hospital. Mainly, people who refers great suffering are those with more pain (p < 0.05); while patients with less suffering and higher well-being are those that use strategies to face their situation (p < 0.05). Our tool reduces perceived threats and that reflects the need for a good control of pain and at the same time to empower the resources to relieve the suffering as much as possible. The referred tool seems to be effective in order to easy the intervention to relieve the suffering.

  12. A virtual sleepcoach for people suffering from insomnia


    Horsch, C.H.G.


    People suffering from insomnia have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Insomnia impairs people’s daily life and their quality of life decreases. Approximately 10% of the population suffers from insomnia. The common treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), mostly delivered by a therapist that people see once a week. A disadvantage of the current practice of insomnia treatment is the limited accessibility of insomnia treatment. Moreover, adherence to...

  13. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro


    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  14. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian


    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  15. [Left-handedness and health]. (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka


    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  16. Exploring health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of insurers. (United States)

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud


    It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social

  17. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric


    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  18. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  19. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  20. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  1. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  2. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  3. Insurance Finder Tool (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...

  4. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  5. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  6. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.


    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  7. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán


    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  8. Hypothetical Insurance and Higher Education (United States)

    Colburn, Ben; Lazenby, Hugh


    What level of government subsidy of higher education is justified, in what form, and for what reasons? We answer these questions by applying the hypothetical insurance approach, originally developed by Ronald Dworkin in his work on distributive justice. On this approach, when asking how to fund and deliver public services in a particular domain,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investment. Construction work by nature is hazardous, and accidents are. JournalofEAEA, VoL 17,2000 frequent and often severe. The annual toll of deaths, ..... advisable to establish specialist insurance consulting . firms, who could handle all types of construction demands: such as structural and architectural designs,.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.

  11. Insurance and the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.P.R. da.


    The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt

  12. How consumers choose health insurance. (United States)

    Chakraborty, G; Ettenson, R; Gaeth, G


    The authors used choice-based conjoint analysis to model consumers' decision processes when evaluating and selecting health insurance in a multiplan environment. Results indicate that consumer choice is affected by as many as 19 attributes, some of which have received little attention in previous studies. Moreover, the importance of the attributes varies across different demographic segments, giving marketers several targeting opportunities.

  13. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph


    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  14. Risk aversion influence on insurance market


    Raduna, Daniela Viviana; Roman, Mihai Daniel


    Human behavior, rational or irrational one, influences one of the most complex markets worldwide: the insurance market. In most situations, insurance markets are not competitive and risk neutral insurers negotiate under asymmetric information with actors who exhibit risk aversion. In this paper we develop a game theory model that analyzes the negotiation of an insurance contract under risk aversion conditions (in static and dynamic approach). Risk aversion influence was introduced in the mode...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik


    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  16. Professional indemnity insurance and the practice of medicine during bullfights in France. (United States)

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Gavarri, Laurent; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel


    Bullfighting can provoke strong reactions, for fans and laymen alike. Risks to the health of participants are inseparable from the spectacle. Organisers call on a medical team whose main task is to treat the bullfighter's injuries. Despite the special features of this medical practice doctors are not exempt from the possibility of the question of their liability being raised in the event of medical malpractice and large financial damages for the bullfighter if he is harmed. The doctor's public liability and professional indemnity insurance contract is therefore all the more important, in fact, this insurance covers damages for harm caused by the policy holder from the moment he is declared liable. In the statute of 4th March 2002, the French legislature brought in compulsory insurance for health professionals with the aim of achieving the best possible compensation for harm. While public liability and professional indemnity insurance is compulsory for doctors, the purpose of making this insurance compulsory is to cover compensation for harm suffered by the victim. In the case of bullfights, faced with insufficient legal regulation and the fact that more often than not the medicine practised in this field is on a voluntary basis, it might be interesting to offer some thoughts on the special features of the insurance contract that ought to be adapted to these extreme working conditions.

  17. 76 FR 70510 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance... (United States)


    ... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance... Management (OPM) is announcing changes in premiums for certain Federal ] Employees' Group Life Insurance... coincided with the implementation of the Federal Employees' Life Insurance Improvement Act, Public Law 105...

  18. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction (United States)


    ... / Tuesday, April 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...

  19. 77 FR 60304 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion (United States)


    ... adoption, or marriage. (3) The Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance or Veterans' Group Life Insurance... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs...

  20. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b) No...

  1. 25 CFR 117.11 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 117.11 Section 117.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.11 Insurance. The superintendent may obtain policies of insurance covering the restricted property, real or personal, of minor...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2803 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 970.2803 Section 970.2803 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Bonds and Insurance 970.2803 Insurance. ...

  3. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  4. 30 CFR 778.18 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance. 778.18 Section 778.18 Mineral... APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LEGAL, FINANCIAL, COMPLIANCE, AND RELATED INFORMATION § 778.18 Insurance. An application shall contain either a certificate of liability insurance or evidence of self...

  5. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  6. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...

  7. 17 CFR 256.924 - Property insurance. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property insurance. 256.924... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.924 Property insurance. (a) This account shall include the cost of insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased property...

  8. 48 CFR 35.013 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. 35.013 Section... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.013 Insurance. Nonprofit, educational, or State institutions performing cost-reimbursement contracts often do not carry insurance. They may claim immunity from...

  9. 7 CFR 2201.24 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 2201.24 Section 2201.24 Agriculture... TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.24 Insurance. The Borrower of a Loan guaranteed under the Program shall obtain, at its expense, insurance sufficient to protect the...

  10. Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G.


    Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…

  11. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  12. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... carriers and (2) does not buy insurance coverage for its property in the possession of commercial carriers...

  13. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of agency...

  14. 28 CFR 36.212 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance. 36.212 Section 36.212 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.212 Insurance. (a) This part shall not be construed to... benefit plan that is not subject to State laws that regulate insurance. (b) Paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.61 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 3550.61 Section 3550.61 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.61 Insurance. (a) Borrower... furnish and continually maintain hazard insurance on the security property, with companies, in amounts...

  16. 20 CFR 627.415 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 627.415 Section 627.415 Employees... UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.415 Insurance. (a) General. Each recipient and subrecipient shall follow its normal insurance procedures except as otherwise indicated in...

  17. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 12 CFR 741.216 - Flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any credit...

  19. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries. (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William


    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  20. Productivity Measurement for a Health Insurer


    Carol A. Sakosky; S. Travis Pritchett


    The nature of productivity measurement and problems specific to measuring insurance productivity are discussed. A specific measure--based on microeconomic principles, a multiproduct output concept, and readily available firm-level data--is developed. The measure should be applicable to the operations of any health insurer and is designed for use by health insurers interested in productivity measurement.

  1. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  3. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  4. 7 CFR 400.652 - Insurance availability. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance availability. 400.652 Section 400.652 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... Implementation § 400.652 Insurance availability. (a) If sufficient actuarial data are available, FCIC will offer...

  5. On a Stochastic Model in Insurance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. Life insurance/pension insurance models are gen- erally described in terms of continuous time Markov processes with state space having only a finite number of elements; at least one state is absorbing, and cer- tain transitions may be disallowed. For example, in the simplest life insurance model there are only two states,.

  6. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance. (United States)


    ... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to... investigation or review. (b) Time of receipt of benefit. In the case of export insurance, the Secretary normally...

  7. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelici, C.


    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr

  8. general practitioners and national health insurance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    establishment of some form of national health insurance ( !HI) or social health insurance (SHl) system has .... analysis was done using relative risk (prevalence ratios), with confidence intervals and chi-squared tests. ..... health insurance systems. Some of these are likely to change with the passage of the Medical Schemes.

  9. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.


    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  10. The Normative Foundations of (Social) Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions)....

  11. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents. (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang


    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On a Stochastic Model in Insurance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available Founded in 1974, American Share Insurance (ASI is an insurer for deposits in credit unions and it is the sole surviving private primary deposit insurer in the US. We assess reasons why ASI survived when numerous other deposit insurance systems did not. These reasons include ASI’s policy of insuring only credit unions, its geographic diversification, its efforts to shed the quasi-governmental nature of other nonfederal deposit insurers, its covering only stronger depositories, its ability to draw funding from stronger insured institutions as needed, and its use of incentives for improved performance among its insured institutions. While the severity of the effects of the housing, financial, and economic crises on depositories and their insurers is yet to become fully clear, ASI’s performance up to the Summer of 2009 points to a set of practices that could help buttress other government and private deposit insurers in the US and abroad.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass, OlufemiAdebowale


    Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.

  15. Canadian bishops' letter presents theology of healing, suffering. (United States)

    Daigeler, H W


    With board input from theologians, health personnel, patients, and others interested in health care, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops released its pastoral letter on sickness and healing in September 1983. Acknowledging that suffering and healing are mysteries beyond complete understanding, the letter illuminates the connection between caring for one's own health, helping the sick, and following Christ. The letter's first major section reviews suffering and healing as presented in the Bible, and asserts that the act of healing should help to restore not only the body but also the sufferer's relationship with God and with the community. The letter's second section surveys the history of the healing tradition within the Church and notes that, because the great healers often suffered themselves, their example can help people to integrate suffering into their own quest for wholeness and spiritual growth. In the pastoral's third section the bishops suggest attitudes and practices for those who wish to be healers today. They apply theological teaching to five practical levels of pastoral concern: individual actions, parish communities, Catholic and other health care institutions, and the social, economic, and political community. Each level, the bishops stress, must play an important role in healing and salvation.

  16. Functional lymphatic alterations in patients suffering from lipedema. (United States)

    Bilancini, S; Lucchi, M; Tucci, S; Eleuteri, P


    Lipedema is a chronic vascular disease almost exclusively of female sex, characterized by the deposit of fat on the legs, with an "Egyptian column" shape, orthostatic edema, hypothermia of the skin, alteration of the plantar support, and negativity of Stemmer's sign. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease are still the object of study, and therapy is very difficult. Various authors have described morphologic and functional alterations of prelymphatic structures and of lymphatic vessels. The big veins remain untouched in the phlebograms and an alteration of the skin elasticity is demonstrated. The present authors have studied by dynamic lymphoscintigraphy 12 women patients suffering from lipedema, and compared the results with those of 5 normal subjects and 5 patients suffering from idiopathic lymphedema who were sex and age matched with the patients suffering from lipedema. The patients suffering from lipedema showed an abnormal lymphoscintigraphic pattern with a slowing of the lymphatic flow that presented some analogies to the alterations found in the patients suffering from lymphedema. A frequent asymmetry was also noticed in the lymphoscintigraphic findings that is in contrast to the symmetry of the clinical profile.

  17. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford


    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ramazanova


    Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of financial stability and solvency of the insurance company, which plays an important role in the selection of the insurer potential insurers, which guarantee payment of insurance compensation when the insured event. The author's approach to assessing the financial stability of the insurance company. Investigated the order analysis of financial stability of the insurance company. Based on the proposed method calculated the indicators of financial stability of the insurance company Rosgosstrakh Ltd.

  19. [Hypoxic brain injuries notified to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during 1992-2004. Secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.; Christoffersen, J.K.; Hedegaard, M.


    We investigated the files of the Danish Patient Insurance Association for newborns suffering from hypoxic brain injuries. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 127 approved claims concerning peripartum hypoxic injury were registered. Thirty-eight newborns died and the majority of the 89 surviving children...... suffered major handicaps, primarily cerebral palsy. In 69 of the cases, misinterpretation of or late action in response to an abnormal cardiotocography caused the hypoxic brain injuries. All injuries could potentially have been avoided using established obstetric practice Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1...

  20. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance. (United States)

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide


    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.

  1. Simulation Of Premi Calculation Claims Insurance Base On Web; Case Study PT. Sinarmas Insurance Padang


    Rohendi, Keukeu; Putra, Ilham Eka


    Sinarmas currently has several insurance services featured. To perform its function as a good insurance company is need for reform in terms of services in the process of calculating insurance premiums of insurance carried by marketing to use a calculator which interferes with the activities of marketing activities, slow printing insurance policies, automobile claims process that requires the customer to come to the office ASM, slow printing of Work Order (SPK) and the difficulty recap custome...

  2. Factoring affecting the Demand for Health Insurance in a Micro Insurance Scheme


    Jain Nishant; Bhat Ramesh


    Health insurance schemes are increasingly recognised as preferable mechanisms to finance health care provision. In this direction micro health insurance schemes and community based health insurance schemes are assuming significant importance in reaching large number of people. However, at the community level despite low premiums the penetration of health insurance is small. The objective of this paper is to analyse factors determining the demand for private health insurance in a micro insuran...

  3. Recent developments in health insurance, life insurance, and disability insurance case law. (United States)

    Hasman, Joseph J; Chittenden, William A; Doolin, Elizabeth G; Wall, Julie F


    This survey reviews significant state and federal court decisions from 2006 and 2007 involving health, life, and disability insurance. Also reviewed is a June 2008 Supreme Court decision in the disability insurance realm, affirming that a conflict of interest exists when an ERISA plan sponsor or insurer fulfills the dual role of determining plan benefits and paying those benefits but noting that the conflict is merely one factor in considering the legality of benefit denials. In addition, this years' survey includes compelling decisions in the life and health arena, including cases addressing statutory penalties and mandated benefits, as well as some ERISA decisions of note. This year, the Texas Supreme Court held that Texas's most recent version of the prompt payment statute abolished the common law interpleader exception and allowed the prevailing adverse claimant in an interpleader action filed beyond the sixty-day statutory period to recover statutory interest and attorney fees from the insurer. Meanwhile, the Court of Appeals of New York upheld the constitutionality of a statute mandating coverage for contraceptives in those employer-sponsored health plans that offer prescription drug coverage, including those plans sponsored by faith-based social service organizations. In the ERISA context, litigants continue to fight over the standard of review with varying results. In a unique assault on the arbitrary and capricious standard of review, the Fourth Circuit found that an ERISA plan abused its discretion when it failed to apply the doctrine of contra proferentem to construe ambiguous plan terms against itself. In more hopeful news for plan insurers, the Tenth Circuit held that claimants are not entitled to review and rebut medical opinions generated during the administrative appeal of a claim denial before a final decision is reached unless such reports contain new factual information.

  4. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers. (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…

  5. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.


    Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  6. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.


    Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  7. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak


    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  8. Validation of the diagnosis canine epilepsy in a Swedish animal insurance database against practice records. (United States)

    Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Egenvall, Agneta; Nødtvedt, Ane


    dogs were coded correctly in the database as they really had suffered seizures with or without convulsions, and the quality of the data-transfer was therefore excellent. In total, 167 dogs (71%) were classified as cases of canine epilepsy according to pre-defined criteria, and the positive predictive value was therefore considered relatively high. Based on these results, it was concluded that the data regarding canine epilepsy in the insurance database can be used for further population studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.


    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  10. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Zlotnik


    Full Text Available Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term "delayed alcohol-induced headache" is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS. Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 nd Edition (ICHD-II. The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038 and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002 but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1. Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options.

  11. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana


    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes. (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H


    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  13. The Left-Handed Writer. (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  14. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  15. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher


    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  16. The Future of Music Therapy with Persons Suffering from Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This chapter presents important research concerning music therapy with persons suffering from schizophrenia. It further presents the most Applied theories and models concerning clinical practice individual and in Groups with this population. It offers ideas as to why music therapy Works...... with persons suffering from schizophrenia. These ideas are divided into 1) possible positions of the music therapist, 2) the function of the music. Finally a discussion on the questions:´ Should music therapy focus on symptoms, resources - or both?´, is unfodled....

  17. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth


    Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during rehabilita...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence...

  18. Abundance in Capital: Global Risk Sharing and Insurance in a Changing Financial Environment (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Schaper, Christopher


    Insurance has played a viable role in the hedging of homeowners and commercial risks around the world. Countries that have significant penetration in insurance have in addition performed better after large regional or over-regional catastrophic losses. Insurance has hence increased the resilience of western societies. This is opposed to emerging or developing markets with low insurance penetration which have suffered significant drawbacks in their development after large catastrophic events. Examples include the recent Typhoon(s) in the Philippines and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This presentation will provide insights into the opportunities, views and risk management features a global reinsurance company must assume in order to hedge and mitigate risk across the world. During the past year, an unprecedented amount of new capital has been entering the insurance market, looking for profitable investments outside the much wider capital market. Catastrophe insurance is seen as a valuable alternative to investing in assets that that have shown low returns and high correlation in the recent financial meltdown. The new capital is mostly deployed - or competing with already deployed capital - in the US where insurance penetration is already high. This is opposed to more than half of the world including all developing and most emerging countries which have low insurance penetration and often lack infrastructure hindering new capital to be deployed effectively. What is needed to overcome this obvious deficiency in capital supply and demand? One reason why it is difficult to deploy capital in developing countries is the lack of available exposure information and catastrophe models. This presentation sheds light on the potential science needs of our market and gives an overview of what is being done at Montpelier, a global reinsurance company, to understand catastrophe risk around the globe.

  19. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi


    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  20. Climate change and insurance: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, Richard S.J.


    Several issues relating to insurance and the damage costs of climate change are discussed. It is argued that the option of insuring climate change is severely limited because the associated damages are hardly quantifiable and little diversifiable; in addition, binding contracts are a problem on long time scales and in an international context. Hedging, consumption smoothing over time, precautionary investments and liability are not to be presented under the heading of insurance, not only because this unnecessarily and confusingly expands the traditional definition of insurance, but also because this could create a false sense of security. The impact of climate change on the profitability of the commercial insurance sector is not likely to be severe, as the insurance companies are capable of shifting changed risks to the insured, provided that they are properly and timely informed on the consequences of climate change. (author)

  1. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja


    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  2. Left ventricular wall stress compendium. (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S


    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  3. Explicit Versus Implicit Income Insurance


    Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Z‎iliak


    October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...

  4. Portfolio insurance using traded options


    Machado-Santos, Carlos


    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  5. Car insurance information management system


    Sun, Yu


    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  6. Pensions as Retirement Income Insurance.


    Bodie, Zvi


    This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...

  7. Life insurance theory actuarial perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F Etienne


    This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl, ~, ... , C at moments Tl, T , ..• , T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I,X). The whole life annuity ä is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I,'X), where 'X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + ~ v , + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and ä 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = ~ and ä = 1 + v + v + ... + v'X resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and äx 00 is x 2 A = E(~) and ä = E(I + v + v + ... + v'X...

  8. [Cardiological state of offsprings of the mothers suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus]. (United States)

    Gołba, E; Rokicki, W; Krzystolik-Ladzińska, J; Zdabłasz, M; Gołba, K


    %), significantly more often than in the control. There were found abnormalities of atrio-ventricular and intraventricular conduction in 15 subjects (40%). The premature beats of ventricular origin were noticed in 3 cases (8%). These disturbances were significantly different from the control group. In addition, correlation between the presence of antinuclear antibodies and the cardiac abnormalities was taken into consideration. So, significant correlation between antinuclear antibodies and heart rhythm disorders was proved. During echocardiographic examination structural and functional abnormalities were found. They were: ventricular septal defect (muscular part) (1), pericarditis effusion (1), prolapse of the mitral valve anterior leaflet (2), mitral valve regurgitation of the second degree (2) and increased diameter of left atrium (8). One girl from the studied group, suffering from atrio-ventricular block of III* was operated on because of persistent ductus arteriosus still in the newborn's period. At the same time the permanent pace-maker was implanted. After 1 year of age this girl was operated on because of atrial septal defect (ASD II). In studied group of children echocardiographic global indices of left ventricular systolic function were normal. The subclinical impairment of diastolic left ventricle function was found in 8 children with increased left atrium-aorta index. Both the theoretical knowledge and the results of the studies suggest that the offsprings of mothers suffering from SLE need a careful cardiological observation.

  9. Stenting of the Superior Vena Cava and Left Brachiocephalic Vein with Preserving the Central Venous Catheter in Situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H.


    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  10. Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...

  11. 153 Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    effects of domestic violence. Key Words: Socio-economic determinants of women voilence, women, domestic violence. .... communities of the nation, this study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by .... study area fall under emotional/psychological violence. This agrees with the findings.

  12. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo S. Tilvis


    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  13. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M Leighton

    Full Text Available The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  14. The Joy of Suffering: Nietzsche, theodicy and women's | Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explore how, through a process of creative deception, this suffering comes to be experienced as pleasure. That is, the women reconstruct their bodies using two dominant stories to which they have access: Christianity and glamorous. Brazilian soap operas. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 26 (1) 2007: pp. 31-43 ...

  15. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered. (United States)

    Radford, M


    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  16. Leprosy Sufferers' Perception Of Social Stigma As A Determinant Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at relating leprosy sufferers perception of social stigma to their lifestyles. Eighty leprosy affected persons comprising males and females drawn from Delta State Government Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Center participated in this study. A focus group discussion schedule containing information about ...

  17. Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are conflicting reports on the role of plasma lipids in depressive illness. Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects consisting of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3 yrs) and forty (40) apparently healthy controls ...

  18. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  19. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss. (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita


    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  20. Might Avatar-Mediated Interactions Rehabilitate People Suffering from Aphasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla


    Many people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain injury have difficulties coming to terms with their new self as disabled persons. Being unable to deal with these problems verbally exacerbates the condition. As a result they often isolate socially and develop low self-esteem...

  1. Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.


    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

  2. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D


    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market. (United States)

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T


    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The moral aesthetics of simulated suffering in standardized patient performances. (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S


    Standardized patient (SP) performances are staged clinical encounters between health-professional students and people who specialize in role-playing the part of patients. Such performances have in recent years become increasingly central to the teaching and assessment of clinical skills in U.S. medical schools. SP performances are valued for being both "real" (in that they involve interaction with a real person, unlike written examinations) and "not real" (in that the SP does not actually suffer from the condition portrayed, unlike an actual patient). This article considers how people involved in creating SP performances reconcile a moral commitment to avoid suffering (to keep it "not real"), with an aesthetic commitment to realistically portray it (to keep it "real"). The term "moral aesthetic" is proposed, to indicate a sensibility that combines ideas about what is morally right with ideas about what is aesthetically compelling. Drawing on ethnographic research among SPs and SP program staff and medical faculty who work closely with them, this article argues that their work of creating "realism" in simulated clinical encounters encompasses multiple different (and sometimes conflicting) understandings and practices of realism, informed by three different moral aesthetics: (1) a moral aesthetic of induction, in which an accurate portrayal with a well-documented provenance serves to introduce experientially distant forms of suffering; (2) a moral aesthetic of inoculation, in which the authenticity and emotional impact of a performance are meant to inoculate students against the impact of future encounters with suffering; (3) a moral aesthetic of presence, generating forms of voice and care that are born out of the embodied presence of suffering individuals in a clinical space. All are premised on the assumption that risk and suffering can be banished from SP performances. This article suggests, however, that SP performances necessarily raise the same difficult

  5. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty (United States)

    Woo, G.


    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  6. Treatment of holistic suffering in cancer: A systematic literature review. (United States)

    Best, Megan; Aldridge, Lynley; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Price, Melanie A; Webster, Fleur


    Holistic suffering is a debilitating problem for cancer patients. Although many treatments have been suggested for its alleviation, they have not been compared for effectiveness. This literature review seeks to identify what interventions are effective in treatment of holistic suffering of cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate studies of interventions for holistic suffering in adult cancer patients. Search terms were generated iteratively from the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1992-2015. Included studies were peer-reviewed, English language reports of either a controlled trial or a randomised controlled trial focusing on therapies aimed at relieving suffering in adult cancer patients. Articles were excluded if focused predominantly on spiritual or existential issues or concerns not leading to suffering. Studies were graded for quality using the QualSyst quantitative checklist. Levels of evidence were ascertained by completing the National Health and Medical Research Council criteria. Results are reported according to AMSTAR guidelines. The studies represented seven intervention types. Meaning-centred, hope-centred and stress-reduction interventions were found to be effective. Results of both psycho-educational and spiritual interventions in improving spiritual well-being were mixed. Supportive-expressive interventions - with the exception of forgiveness therapy - were not efficacious. There was little or no evidence for the efficacy of creative and healing arts and other assessed interventions such as animal therapy and haptotherapy. This systematic review found that spiritual well-being, meaning, hope and benefit finding can be positively impacted by a variety of treatment modalities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [Violence and mental suffering among men in primary health care]. (United States)

    Albuquerque, Fernando Pessoa de; Barros, Claudia Renata dos Santos; Schraiber, Lilia Blima


    To analyze the association between male mental health problems and violence experienced. Cross sectional study with 477 males aged between 18 and 60, users of two primary healthcare centers in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The selection for the sample was based on a sequentiality criterion, according to the order of arrival of the users. Sociodemographic and health characteristics and reports of having experienced violence at any time and/or having witnessed violence in childhood were collected. Information was also collected on the use of mental health services and/or psychological complaints/diagnoses during consultation at medical clinics by reading medical records, to categorize the dependent variable "mental suffering". The variables were described as absolute and relative frequencies. The association was tested using a confirmatory Poisson model with robust variance adjusted for age, marital status, education, violence witnessed in childhood and psychoactive substance use. The prevalence of mental suffering was 29.4%. Mental suffering was associated with experiencing repeated physical and/or sexual violence (RP 1.75, 95%CI 1.13;2.72). The association with a single episode of violence lost significance after the inclusion of psychoactive substance use in the model. Analysis of the fraction attributable to repetitive physical and/or sexual violence for the mental suffering of the men, verified it as 30.4%. The relationship between violence and mental suffering, already highlighted in studies with women, is also relevant to men's health, drawing attention to the similar need of identification, in the health services, of situations of violence experienced by the male population. For men, this relationship was shown to be influenced by the presence of psychoactive substance use; a situation which must be dealt with, more and in a better way, by the health care service.

  8. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine. (United States)

    Calain, Philippe


    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  9. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain--a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Kaercher, Carolina W; Genro, Vanessa K; Souza, Carlos A; Alfonsin, Mariane; Berton, Greice; Filho, João S Cunha


    Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group) and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out--control group). Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients.

  10. Baropodometry on women suffering from chronic pelvic pain - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaercher Carolina W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have associated chronic pelvic pain with a stereotyped pattern of movement and posture, lack of normal body sensations, a characteristic pain distribution. We aimed at evaluating if these postural changes are detectable in baropodometry results in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods We performed a prospective study in a university hospital. We selected 32 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain (study group and 30 women without this pathology (regular gynecological work out - control group. Pain scores and baropodometric analysis were performed. Results As expected, study group presented higher pain scores than control group. Study and control groups presented similar averages for the maximum pressures to the left and right soles as well as soles supports in the forefeet and hind feet. Women suffering from chronic pelvic pain did not present differences in baropodometric analysis when compared to healthy controls. Conclusions This data demonstrates that postural abnormalities resulting from CPP could not be demonstrated by baropodometric evaluation. Other postural measures should be addressed to evaluate pelvic pain patients.

  11. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance. (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu


    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  12. Nuclear liability insurance in the United States: an insurer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, J.


    By the mid-1950's the United States recognised that it was in the interest to promote commercial development of nuclear energy. But the uncertainties of the technology and the potential for severe accidents were clear obstacles to commercial development. Exposure to potentially serious uninsured liability inhibited the private sector. These impediments led Congress to enact the Price-Anderson Act in 1957. The Act had several purposes: the first was to encourage private development of nuclear power; the second was to establish a legal framework for handling potential liability claims; and the third was to provide a ready source of funds to compensate injured victims of a nuclear accident. Insurers chose the pooling technique by creating in the US the American Nuclear Insurers. ANI acts as a managing agent for its members insurance companies. The accident of three Miles Island occurred on 28 March 1979 and with came the claims experience in US. The 1988 amendments to the Price-Anderson Act directed the President to establish a Commission for the purpose of developing a means to assure full compensation of victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the limitation on aggregate public liability, or currently just over US$ 9.7 billion. The Presidential Commission issued its report in August 1990, in which it reached a number of conclusions and offered a number of recommendations.The US Congress has not acted on the Commission's report, but may revisit its recommendations as debate begins this year (1999) or next on the renewal of the Price-Anderson Act. (N.C.)

  13. Association of Insurance Status with Health Outcomes Following Traumatic Injury: Statewide Multicenter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikani, Vatsal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognizing disparities in definitive care for traumatic injuries created by insurance status may help reduce the higher risk of trauma-related mortality in this population. Our objective was to understand the relationship between patients’ insurance status and trauma outcomes. Methods: We collected data on all patients involved in traumatic injury from eight Level I and 15 Level IV trauma centers, and four non-designated hospitals through Arizona State Trauma Registry between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011. Of 109,497 records queried, we excluded 29,062 (26.5% due to missing data on primary payer, sex, race, zip code of residence, injury severity score (ISS, and alcohol or drug use. Of the 80,435 cases analyzed, 13.3% were self-pay, 38.8% were Medicaid, 13% were Medicare, and 35% were private insurance. We evaluated the association between survival and insurance status (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, and self-pay using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for race/ethnicity (White, Black/African American, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native, age, gender, income, ISS and injury type (penetrating or blunt. Results: The self-pay group was more likely to suffer from penetrating trauma (18.2% than the privately insured group (6.0%, p<0.0001. There were more non-White (53% self-pay patients compared to the private insurance group (28.3%, p<0.0001. Additionally, the self-pay group had significantly higher mortality (4.3% as compared to private insurance (1.9%, p<0.0001. A simple logistic regression revealed higher mortality for self-pay patients (crude OR= 2.32, 95% CI [2.07-2.67] as well as Medicare patients (crude OR= 2.35, 95% CI [2.54-3.24] as compared to private insurance. After adjusting for confounding, a multiple logistic regression revealed that mortality was highest for self-pay patients as compared to private insurance (adjusted OR= 2.76, 95% CI [2.30-3.32]. Conclusion: These results

  14. The recurrent aphthous stomatitis' healing duration differences in female students between the sufferer and non sufferer of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidora Karsini Soewondo


    Full Text Available Chicken pox (CP is a generalized primary infection that occurs the first time an individual contacts the virus. The etiology of CP is a VZV virus, and the replication of virus allowing recovery in two to three weeks. During the process, the VZV may progress along sensory nerves to the sensory ganglia, where it can reside in a latent, undetectable form; and can be reactivated at any time. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a recurrent ulcer in the mouth, painful, disturbing the mouth's function and esthetic when occurs in the lips. One of the etiology of RAS is the reactivation of the latent virus in the mouth. The aim of this study was to know the contribution of the latent virus in the ganglia, intervered with the differences of the healing duration of RAS in female students, between the CP sufferer and non CP sufferer. By cross-sectionally, clinical examination, after filling the questioner that included informed consent, 307 students of The St. Yusup Senior High School, Karangpilang Surabaya, were examined. In the 3rd class, there were only 6 female students that suffered RAS had CP history, while 11, student did not. Levene's test for equality of variances was done, and p: 0.698, while 2-tail sign: 0.512. According to this statistical analysis, there was no significant difference between the two groups examined. It was suggested that the female students of RAS' sufferer should maintain their balanced food intake, so the ulcer of RAS would heal quickly.

  15. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention. (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J


    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter


    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  17. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar


    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  18. Apraxia in left-handers. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg


    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  19. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.


    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  20. Micro-insurance as the Basis for Development of Voluntary Medical Insurance in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahnenko Olena M.


    Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state of development of medical insurance in Ukraine and also studies advantages and shortcomings of the use of micro-insurance for popularisation of programmes of voluntary medical insurance and satisfaction of needs in high quality medical services for all layers of the population. It identifies that as of today the Ukrainian healthcare system is at the stage of reformation, mandatory medical insurance is not yet introduced and main consumers of the programmes of voluntary medical insurance are corporate clients. The article considers main constraints of development of medical insurance in Ukraine, including: low level of income of the population; absence of high quality providers of medical services in regions; and insufficient degree of trust of the population to the insurance sphere. The article shows that introduction of micro-insurance would positively influence the development of insurance medicine in the country, would facilitate provision of medical services even for poor citizens and would allow reduction of state budget expenditures on healthcare. The conducted study of restrictions and shortcomings of introduction of micro-insurance allowed identification of the fact that main of them are information asymmetry (unfavourable selection of risks, moral risk and insurance fraud, significant limitation of insurance coverage and difficulties in identifying optimal insurance tariffs.

  1. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami


    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  2. Right colon cancer: Left behind. (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C


    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.


    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  4. Preference heterogeneity and selection in private health insurance: the case of Australia. (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Fiebig, Denzil G; Jones, Glenn; Savage, Elizabeth


    A basic prediction of theoretical models of insurance is that if consumers have private information about their risk of suffering a loss there will be a positive correlation between risk and the level of insurance coverage. We test this prediction in the context of the market for private health insurance in Australia. Despite a universal public system that provides comprehensive coverage for inpatient and outpatient care, roughly half of the adult population also carries private health insurance, the main benefit of which is more timely access to elective hospital treatment. Like several studies on different types of insurance in other countries, we find no support for the positive correlation hypothesis. Because strict underwriting regulations create strong information asymmetries, this result suggests the importance of multi-dimensional private information. Additional analyses suggest that the advantageous selection observed in this market is driven by the effect of risk aversion, the ability to make complex financial decisions and income. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand. (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Min


    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  6. [Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care]. (United States)

    Maissiat, Greisse da Silveira; Lautert, Liana; Pai, Daiane Dal; Tavares, Juliana Petri


    To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT) and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST). Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Organization (91.3%) and work conditions (64%) received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%), freedom of expression (62.4%) and recognition (59.9%). However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (psatisfaction.

  7. Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering. (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J


    Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

  8. Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greisse da Silveira Maissiat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST. Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Organization (91.3% and work conditions (64% received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%, freedom of expression (62.4% and recognition (59.9%. However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The workers evaluated their work context as inappropriate and complained of exhaustion, although they claimed their work affords some satisfaction.

  9. Using Gambling to Teach Insurance Principles


    Mark Pingle


    A basic understanding of insurance principles is useful for making personal finance decisions and for considering public policy issues. Yet, insurance concepts tend to be less intuitive, more difficult for students to grasp, than other concepts. This paper shows how fundamental insurance principles can be taught by relating them to the principles underlying gambling, the game of roulette in particular. This approach has been used successfully with college freshmen taking macroeconomics at the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina UNGUR


    Full Text Available Any human activity implies the existence of certain dangers for life, health or property. The need to protect them has led to insurance. In this article we present the chronological evolution of the phenomenon of insurance from its origin in antiquity to the contemporary period. We also show the interdependence of development of human civilization and the diversification and development of insurance services in various historical eras.

  11. Application of Actuarial Modelling in Insurance Industry


    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe


    In insurance industry, the financial stability of insurance companies represents an issue of vital importance. In order to maintain the financial stability and meet minimum regulatory requirements, actuaries apply actuarial modeling. Modeling has been at the center of actuarial science and of all the sciences from the beginning of their journey. In insurance industry, actuarial modeling creates a framework that allows actuaries to identify, understand, quantify and manage a wide range of risk...



    Mitchell, Paul D.; Hurley, Terrance M.; Hellmich, Richard L.


    The EPA has imposed mandatory refuge requirements for Bt crops to prolong the efficacy of Bt. Growers have no economic incentive to plant the required refuge because refuge crops are on average less productive and more risky. This paper evaluates refuge insurance--insurance that pays indemnities for yield losses on refuge due to insect damage--as a tool to increase grower compliance incentives. We determine actuarially fair insurance premiums, then evaluate the feasibility of private provisio...

  13. Insurance loss coverage under restricted risk classification


    Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust


    Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...

  14. Communications Centre Model in Insurance Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Bara


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a communications centre model in an insurance company that essentially has two objectives. The first objective is focused on providing quality support with the sales process thereby creating a strategic advantage over the competition while the second objective is focused on improving the link between internal organizational units whose behaviour can often render decision-making at all levels difficult. The function of sales is fundamental for an insurance company. Whether an insurance company will fulfil its basic function, which is transfer of risk from the insured party to the insurer who agrees tonreimburse incidental damages to the damaged party and distribute them among all members of the risk group on the principles of reciprocity and solidarity, depends on successful sales and billing (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999. For an insurance company to operate successfully in a demanding market, it is necessary to meet the needs of potential clients who then must be at the centre of all the activities of the insurer. A satisfied policy holder, who is respected by the insurer as a partner, is a guarantee that the sales of insurance services will be successful and that the insured party will come back to the same insurance company. In the era of globalization and all-pervading new technologies and modes of communication, policy holders need to be able to communicate with insurance company employees. Quality communication is a good foundation for a sales conversation. A fast flow of all types of information within an organisation using a single communication module makes decision-making at all levels quicker and easier.

  15. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.


    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  16. Risk management in insurance business


    Buškevičiūtė, Eugenija; Leškevičiūtė, Audronė


    Šiame darbe nagrinėjami rizikos valdymo modeliai, taikant atvejų studijų tyrimo metodą, įvertintas galimų rizikos reikalavimų (Mokumas II) poveikis Lietuvos draudimo rinkos dalyvių veiklai ir šio tyrimo pagrindu parengtas Mokumas II hipotetinių poveikių modelis. Applying case study research method this paper analyzes risk management models, evaluates the possible effects of risk requirements (Solvency II) on the activity of Lithuanian insurance market participants and based on the research...

  17. Swedish ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Larsson, Ricard; Engström, Åsa


    Effective pre-hospital treatment of a person suffering cardiac arrest is a challenging task for the ambulance nurses. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2011 in Sweden with seven ambulance nurses with experience of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrests. The interview texts were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis, which resulted in the formulation of one theme with six categories. Mutual preparation, regular training and education were important factors in the nursing of patients suffering cardiac arrest. Ambulance nurses are placed in ethically demanding situations regarding if and for how long they should continue cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to accord with pre-hospital cardiac guidelines and patients' wishes. When a cardiac arrest patient is nursed their relatives also need the attention of ambulance nurses. Reflection is one way for ambulance nurses to learn from, and talk about, their experiences. This study provides knowledge of ambulance nurses' experiences in the care of people with cardiac arrest. Better feedback about the care given by the ambulance nurses, and about the diagnosis and nursing care the patients received after they were admitted to the hospital are suggested as improvements that would allow ambulance nurses to learn more from their experience. Further development and research concerning the technical equipment might improve the situation for both the ambulance nurses and the patients. Ambulance nurses need regularly training and education to be prepared for saving people's lives and also to be able to make the right decisions. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Did Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy? (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R; Novikov, Vladimir P I; Regard, Marianne; Siegel, Adrian M


    Many scientific authors--among them famous names such as Henri Gastaut or Sigmund Freud--dealt with the question from what kind of epilepsy Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevsky (1821-1881) might had suffered. Because of the tight interplay between Dostoevsky's literary work and his own disease we throw light on the author's epilepsy against the background of his epileptic fictional characters. Moreover, we attempt to classify Dostoevsky's epilepsy on the basis of his bibliography, language, and literary work.

  19. Suffering transaction: a process of reflecting and understanding


    Wong, Shyh-Heng


    This study examines the transaction of the lived experience of ‘suffering’ in the process of psychotherapy. ‘Suffering’ is conceptualised as having its weight and value transacted between a psychotherapist and his or her client. As a psychotherapist from a family with a disabled member, my fieldwork in a hospital with the parents of disabled children was conducted in Taiwan. The development of our therapeutic relationship was discovered as the process of ‘suffering transaction’...

  20. Drug Abuse In Women suffering from Eating Disorder


    Krankusová, Barbora


    This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...

  1. FraudBuster: Reducing Fraud in an Auto Insurance Market. (United States)

    Nagrecha, Saurabh; Johnson, Reid A; Chawla, Nitesh V


    Nonstandard insurers suffer from a peculiar variant of fraud wherein an overwhelming majority of claims have the semblance of fraud. We show that state-of-the-art fraud detection performs poorly when deployed at underwriting. Our proposed framework "FraudBuster" represents a new paradigm in predicting segments of fraud at underwriting in an interpretable and regulation compliant manner. We show that the most actionable and generalizable profile of fraud is represented by market segments with high confidence of fraud and high loss ratio. We show how these segments can be reported in terms of their constituent policy traits, expected loss ratios, support, and confidence of fraud. Overall, our predictive models successfully identify fraud with an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.63 and an f-1 score of 0.769.

  2. Hospitalized patients experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer. (United States)

    Rydahl-Hansen, Susan


    The concept 'suffering' has been central within nursing since Florence Nightingale. But few researchers have made empirical studies about the lived phenomenon. Several researchers within nursing agree that more research concerning individual groups of patients has to be initiated. Within research about patients with incurable cancer focus has been on death, the terminal period and patients experience of being dying. This qualitative study was initiated to describe the characteristics of a group of Danish hospitalized patients' experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were arranged with 12 patients ones a week within a period of 4 weeks. In week 2 and 4, the interviews were supplemented by questions developed on the basis of the potential signs of suffering which appeared during the participant observations that took place the day before each interview. C. S. Peirce's semiotic and phenomenological grounded theory of signs was used in order to identify the potential signs. A phenomenological methodology developed by A. Giorgi was used to develop and describe the general structure of the phenomenon. The phenomenon is described as: 'The experience of living in an increasingly unpredictable existents at the mercy of the body, the consciousness, the illness, the death, the treatment, the professionals, one's articulateness, the past, the present and the future, influenced by increasing powerlessness, loneliness and isolation, and the experience of existing in an persistent, and with time, unconquerable struggle to maintain and regain control'.

  3. Mental suffering and the DSM-5: a critical review. (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn; Devisch, Ignaas


    The definition of mental disorder included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), indicates that mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress. However, the handbook is vague with respect to whether distress is crucial to the diagnosis of mental disorders, and a conceptual framework on the precise nature of distress is lacking. As a result, it remains vague how the term 'distress' is to be taken into account in actual diagnostic situations: the DSM-5 provides no operational framework for diagnosing distress. The authors argue that the work of Georges Canguilhem, who focuses on the topic of abnormality and pathology, and Paul Ricoeur's philosophical reflections on the theme of mental suffering may provide a structure for conceptualizing and evaluating distress. Ricoeur's phenomenological model of mental suffering is discussed. Here, mental suffering can be thought of in terms of the relationship between self and other, and also in terms of the continuum made up by, what he terms, languishing and acting. Ricoeur suggests that distress is not a quantity that can be measured, but a characteristic that should be studied qualitatively in interpersonal and narrative contexts. Consequently, diagnosticians should describe and document how individuals experience subjective distress. On a practical level, this means that clinicians' ideas about patients' distress should be embedded in case formulations. A detailed evaluation of an individual's pathos-experience should be made before conclusions are drawn with regard to diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 44199 - Area Risk Protection Insurance Regulations and Area Risk Protection Insurance Crop Provisions (United States)


    ... associated with the proposed rule cannot be quantified. The qualitative assessment indicates that the... corn as insurable under ARPI. Insuring crops that are not basic ARPI crops by coding them with their...

  5. 75 FR 31682 - Disclosures for Non-Federally Insured Depository Institutions Under the Federal Deposit Insurance... (United States)


    ... Depository Institutions Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA) AGENCY... Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA) directs the Commission to prescribe the manner and content of... Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA), Congress directed the Commission to prescribe certain...

  6. The dentition of Abraham's people. Why Abraham left Mesopotamia. (United States)

    Neiburger, E J; Cohen, M; Lieberman, J; Lieberman, M


    Ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq) in 2000 B.C. was the home of the biblical figure Abraham and his people. An analysis of skeletal material from cemeteries in the ancient cities of Ur (birthplace of Abraham) and Kish shows a homogeneous, short-lived population that suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent of inhabitants), periodontal disease (42 percent) and caries (two percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates the population suffered from extensive disease and nutritional deficiency. Of special note was a possible case of endodontic treatment. The people of Abraham had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. It is probable that Abraham, if in truth he existed, left Mesopotamia because of the threat of famine, as evidenced by biblical record, geologic strata and dental analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.

  8. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.


    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  9. Effectiveness of insurance risk management under crisis conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Goncharenko


    Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.

  10. Apical left ventricular hypertrophy and mid-ventricular obstruction in fabry disease. (United States)

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Saccheri, María C; Fernández, Segundo P; Fernández, Cinthia C; Rozenfeld, Paula A; Kisinovsky, Isaac


    We report the case of a rare cardiac presentation of Fabry disease. Although concentric left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cardiac finding in Fabry disease, there is no case report of dynamic obstruction at mid-left ventricular level. We describe a 59-year-old-woman suffering from a severe form of Fabry disease, mimicking an apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction. Differentiation of Fabry disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is crucial given the therapeutic and prognostic differences. Fabry disease should always be suspected in an adult, independently of the pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Verbal Memory Compensation: Application to Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epileptic Patients (United States)

    Bresson, Christel; Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard; N'Kaoua, Bernard


    This study investigates the compensatory impact of cognitive aids on left and right temporal lobe epileptic patients suffering from verbal memory disorders, who were candidates for surgery. Cognitive aids are defined in the levels-of-processing framework and deal with the depth of encoding, the elaboration of information, and the use of retrieval…

  12. Insurance payment process for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.


    The Pensions and Savings group handles three types of payment into and out of Fluor Daniel Hanford related to insurance benefits: Premium payment to insurance company; Application of employee insurance withholding against insurance costs; Remittance of insurance claims, and administrative fees. General approach in making and recording the remittance is by forwarding payment information to Accounts Payable Master.

  13. 46 CFR 308.300 - Insured amount-application. (United States)


    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.300 Insured amount—application. An applicant for Second Seamen's war risk insurance shall not state the amount of insurance desired, which shall be as provided in...

  14. 5 CFR 870.301 - Eligibility for life insurance. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for life insurance. 870.301... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 870.301 Eligibility for life insurance. (a) Each nonexcluded employee is automatically insured for Basic insurance unless he...

  15. 5 CFR 870.701 - Eligibility for life insurance. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for life insurance. 870.701... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.701 Eligibility for life insurance. (a) When an insured employee retires, Basic life insurance (but...

  16. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life insurance reserves. 1.801-4 Section 1.801-4...) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-4 Life insurance reserves. (a) Life insurance reserves defined. For purposes of part I, subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, the term life insurance reserves (as...

  17. 14 CFR 198.9 - Applicant for insurance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant for insurance. 198.9 Section 198...) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.9 Applicant for insurance. (a) Application for premium or non-premium insurance must be made in accordance with the applicable form supplied by the FAA. (b...

  18. 48 CFR 28.308 - Self-insurance. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-insurance. 28.308... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.308 Self-insurance. (a) When it is anticipated that 50 percent or more of the self-insurance costs to be incurred at a segment of a contractor's business will be...

  19. 44 CFR 71.3 - Denial of flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of flood insurance. 71... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF COASTAL BARRIER LEGISLATION § 71.3 Denial of flood insurance. (a) No new flood insurance coverage...

  20. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4945 - Forced placement of flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 614.4945... OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4945 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a System... not covered by flood insurance or are covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...

  2. 7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. 457.108... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.108 Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. The sunflower seed crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding...

  3. 12 CFR 362.4 - Subsidiaries of insured State banks. (United States)


    ... practices, and/or to ensure that the activity is consistent with the purposes of Federal deposit insurance and other applicable law. (2) Grandfathered insurance underwriting subsidiaries. A subsidiary of an insured State bank may: (i) Engage in grandfathered insurance underwriting if the insured State bank or...

  4. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and...

  5. 7 CFR 457.151 - Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. 457.151... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.151 Forage seeding crop insurance provisions. The Forage Seeding Crop Insurance Provisions for 2003 and succeeding crop...

  6. Insuring Well-Being? : Buyer's Remorse and Peace of Mind Effects from Insurance


    Tafere, Kibrom; Barrett, Christopher B.; Lentz, Erin; Ayana, Birhanu T.


    This paper estimates the causal effects of index insurance coverage on subjective well-being among livestock herders in southern Ethiopia. The randomization of incentives to purchase index-based livestock insurance and three rounds of panel data are exploited to separately identify ex ante welfare gains from insurance that reduces risk exposure and ex post buyer's remorse effects that may ...

  7. 5 CFR 870.505 - Optional insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. 870.505 Section 870.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage...

  8. 5 CFR 870.502 - Basic insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance: Waiver/cancellation of insurance. 870.502 Section 870.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 870.502 Basic...

  9. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the... (United States)


    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the Program... extension approval by the Office of Management and Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office... [email protected] or by mail (if hard copy, preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk...

  10. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company (United States)


    ... insolvency of an insurance company.'' \\10\\ The identical definition is found in Section 380.1 of Title 12 of... definition to mutual insurance holding companies because, under applicable state laws, a mutual insurance... holding company arguably does not fit squarely within a literal reading of the statutory definition of...

  11. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra


    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  12. Competing for consumers. Coming coordinated-care squeeze prompts providers to push into insurance market. (United States)

    Evans, Melanie


    Squeezed by coordinated-care initiatives, a number of hospital systems are looking to help fill beds and reap more revenue by offering insurance plans on the state exchanges set to launch this fall. Some will use narrow networks, a strategy that allows systems to create a captive customer base. "I think it's going to be a huge growth area in the exchanges," says Jonathan Gruber, left, a professor of economics at MIT.

  13. Traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, J.; Belman, A.B.; Kass, E.J.


    Four children between 5 and 10 years old suffered traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole following flank trauma. All patients were evaluated with excretory urography and isotope renography. The renal scan clearly demonstrated failure of perfusion of the lower renal pole and urinary extravasation, and was believed to be more valuable than the standard excretory urogram as a diagnostic tool. All children were managed similarly: delayed (72 to 96 hours) exploration, simple removal of the amputated segment and insertion of a Penrose drain. They all have done well. The patients were normotensive at followup and had excellent function of the remaining portion of the kidney.

  14. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong


    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kudriavska


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the

  16. 38 CFR 8.7 - Reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section 1925... (United States)


    ... Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section 1925 of title 38 U.S.C. 8.7 Section 8.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Reinstatement § 8.7 Reinstatement of National Service Life Insurance except insurance issued pursuant to section...

  17. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (United States)


    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  18. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers. (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A


    COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study's focus. Search terms included "COPD exacerbation", "air pollution", "air quality guidelines", "air quality standards", "COPD morbidity and mortality", "chronic bronchitis", and "air pollution control" separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries' socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden.

  19. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.; Saleem, B.; Ahsin, S.; Farooqi, A.Z.; Farooqi, A.Z.


    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  20. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A


    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  1. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.


    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  2. Insuring Life : Value, Security and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis


    This book is a contribution to the scholarly engagement with the wider problem of governing through risk and the politics of uncertainty. It takes life insurance as an empirical site from which to ask: what is the kind of governance created through insurance an instance of, and how does it

  3. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules (United States)

    ... Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, ... MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversUnderstanding Your Medical BillsResources for ...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.166 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The...

  5. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42 U.S.C...

  6. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)


    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  7. Catastrophic risk : Social influences on insurance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Michal; Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    We study behavioral patterns of insurance demand for low-probability large-loss events (catastrophic losses). Individual patterns of belief formation and risk attitude that were suggested in the behavioral decisions literature emerge robustly in the current set of insurance choices. However, social

  8. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.


    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  9. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan


    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  10. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  11. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.113 - Insurance requirements. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section A. Grants § 4280.113 Insurance requirements. Agency approved... 1806, subpart B, of this title, if applicable. (b) Business interruption insurance is required except...

  13. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification. (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine


    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium 'Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group.




  15. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine


    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium ‘Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group. PMID:24129434

  16. Health insurance and hospital technology adoption. (United States)

    Freedman, Seth


    This chapter discusses the relationship between health insurance and hospitals' decisions to adopt medical technologies. I focus on both how the extent of insurance coverage can increase incentives to adopt new treatments, and how the parameters of the insurance contract can impact the types of treatments adopted. I provide a review of the previous theoretical and empirical literature and highlight evidence on this relationship from previous expansions of Medicaid eligibility to low-income pregnant women. While health insurance has important effects on individual-level choices of health care consumption, increases in the fraction of the population covered by insurance has also been found to have broader supply side effects as hospitals respond to changes in demand by changing the type of care offered. Furthermore, hospitals respond to the design of insurance contracts and adopt more or less cost-effective technologies depending on the incentive system. Understanding how insurance changes supply side incentives is important as we consider future changes in the insurance landscape. ORIGINALITY/VALUE OF PAPER: With these previous findings in mind, I conclude with a discussion of how the Affordable Care Act may alter hospital technology adoption incentives by both expanding coverage and changing payment schemes.

  17. 76 FR 30250 - Share Insurance and Appendix (United States)


    ... should update its website regarding the share insurance coverage for noninterest-bearing transaction... share insurance coverage and the conditions under which it is available. NCUA will update its website in... APPENDIX 0 1. The authority citation for Part 745 continues to read as follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1752(5...

  18. Determinants of health insurance and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yamada


    Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN


    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  20. [Cultural structures that determine suffering among various populations]. (United States)

    Pagés Larraya, F


    The cross-cultural consideration of our Psychiatric Epidemiology Program outlined the profile of the madman and his discourse as both mirror and enigma of his cultural community. This enigma occurs as a result of the suffering, the violence and the slyness inherent to creativity, in the sense that his own accomplishments are inexorably questionable because of the ubiquitous presence of the tragic and das Unheimliche. The madman "malgré soi" becomes a perfect interpreter of the cultural crisis and is a real key to his deepest structural interpretation. Therefore, we uphold a "tragic erasmism" and from then on discuss the hermeneutics of Nietzsche, Freud and Heidegger.

  1. [Difficulties at work and work motivation of ulcerative colitis suffers]. (United States)

    Nasu, Ayami; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu


    Because ulcerative colitis (UC) repeats remission and relapse, it is necessary to keep the condition at the relapse time in mind when considering support to provide UC suffers with at the workplace. The aim of this survey was to clarify the difficulties at work and work motivation that UC suffers feel at present and experience at the worsening time, and the factors for maintaining work motivation. We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey of patients with present or past work experience. The difficulties at work (17 items) and work motivation (4 items) in the past week and at the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work were investigated using a newly designed questionnaire. We regarded the time in the past week as the present, and the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work as the worsening time. There were 70 respondents (response rate 32.0%). Their mean age was 43.8 years, and their mean age at onset was 33.8 years. All subjects, except 2 subjects after surgery, took medicine. Fifty-three (75.7%) of the subjects were in remission at the present, and most of them (91.4%) managed their physical condition well. Difficulties at work that many subjects worried about at the present were relevant to work conditions, such as "Others at workplace do not understand having an intractable and relapsing disease" (41.4%) or "Feel delayed or lack of chance of promotion or career advancement due to the disease" (38.6%). At the worsening time, the management of physical condition went wrong, and the frequency of hospital visits was increased, but few subjects consulted with superiors or colleagues at workplace. Difficulties at work that many subjects underwent at the worsening time were relevant to symptoms, such as "Feel physically tired" (80.0%) or "Decline foods or alcoholic beverages offered at business parties" (72.9%). Those who maintained work motivation even at the worsening time received no work-related consideration and had an

  2. Correlates of perceptions of elder’s suffering from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane


    Full Text Available The study investigated social work students’ perceptions of elders as depressed and suffering (N= 156. Four predictor variables were identified from a standard regression analysis that account for 32% of the model’s adjusted variance: (a perceptions of elders as vulnerable, (b perceptions about elders as oppressed. Overall, respondents perceived elders as being depressed, vulnerable, members of an oppressed group, abusive of substances, and only moderately resilient in response to mental health services. Implications are discussed for social work education.

  3. Impact of culture on the expression of pain and suffering. (United States)

    Wein, Simon


    A primary human challenge is how to alleviate suffering and loss. One way is through culture. The core characteristics of culture are symbols, sharing and groups. These three factors enable society to help the individual cope with loss. In the modern age traditional culture is disintegrating and is being replaced. Often it is outstanding individuals who provide the impetus and tools with which to change the culture and to adapt to new challenges. One lesson to be drawn from the discussion is the idea of using our culture more pro-actively to routinely contemplate loss, ageing and death.

  4. Features of insurance evolution in the Internet expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Polchanov


    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of the development of insurance in the Internet expansion. Increasing the number of mobile subscribers, Internet users and social networking, as well as owners of smartphones changes the decision-making process on insurance, marketing of insurance services, the mechanism of interaction between participants of insurance relations. As a result, insurance companies and intermediaries should adjust strategies and innovate to maintain their competitive advantage. The research examined the functioning of the foreign experience of P2P insurance (for example «Friendsurance», microinsurance using mobile payment instruments (for example «Kilimo Salama», cyber-risks insurance (for example «AIG», and the possibility of using digital currencies in insurance in particular Bitcoin. According to the results of investigation the question asked to clarify a number of basic insurance terms, including money payment, the order of payment of insurance premiums, the insurance event and risk, the insurance intermediary.

  5. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions (United States)


    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite...

  6. 20 CFR 404.357 - Who is the insured's stepchild? (United States)


    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Old-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits; Period of Disability Child's Benefits § 404.357 Who is the insured's stepchild? You may be eligible for benefits as the...

  7. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage. (United States)

    Davis, J B


    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  8. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company: (United States)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  9. Defining the key-parameters of insurance product in Islamic insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galim Zaribzyanovich Vakhitov


    Full Text Available Objective to define the range of actuarial calculations in Islamic insurance to study the main differences of the traditional and Islamic insurance to define what changes in calculations entail the above differences. Methods mathematical modeling probabilistic analysis of insurance risks adaptation of methods of actuarial mathematics to the principles of Islamic insurance. Results the mathematical form of the takafulfund models is presented the distribution is analyzed of a random variable of the resulting insurance fund or the insurance company balance in a particular fixed insurance portfolio. Scientific novelty calculation are presented of the optimal tariff rate in takaful. Islamic insurance is an innovative area of insurance industry. Actuarial calculations that meet the Sharia rules are still being developed. The authors set the new tasks of actuarial calculations including the specified changes in the calculation of the optimal tariff rate imposed by the Islamic insurance principles. Practical value the results obtained can be used in the actuarial calculations of the Islamic insurance companies. nbsp


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Ostojić


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of ensuring in sport is to provide financial protection to policyholder individuals (athletes, coaches, referees and legal entities (sports organizations, federations, clubs of the negative result of sports injuries and loss of income that athletes or their clubs realize when it comes to clubs’ competition, which occur when the risk is realized or the insured event occurs. Injuries are common in sports, we could feel free to call it an integral part of doing a sports activity. Loss of earnings due to sports injuries is extremely high for any professional athlete. In order to be able to return to sports as soon as possible, athletes are forced to set aside large sums of money for rehabilitation, orthopedic supplies and equipment.

  11. Sales Force Turnover: An Exploratory Study of the Indian Insurance Sector = Prihodek od prodaje: raziskovalna študija o indijskem zavarovalniškem sektorju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Pathak


    Full Text Available The insurance sector in India is rising rapidly to bring in growthand employment opportunities. Insurance companies are basicallyhuman intensive, and human resources act as an undoubteddifferentiator. Quality manpower and its retention would act as alitmus test. Turnover of sales force has been high because of lowentry and exit barriers. The paper addresses issues of recruitment,retention and turnover of sales force in insurance companies.An attempt is made to integrate them to Maslow’s NeedHierarchy. A survey was conducted among 350 employees whoworked in or had left insurance companies to analyze factors thatinfluenced their decisions and job satisfaction. The data were treatedwith factor analysis. Factors such as Safety & Security, Social &Esteem and Personal Work Style emerged as the influencers tojoin insurance companies. Primary Needs and Social & Self EsteemNeeds were the factors associated with job satisfaction; Stress,Career Advancement and Work Environment emerged as factorsfor leaving the companies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance


    CERN Document Server


    Reimbursements of medical fees that have been submitted to UNIQA Assurances S.A. during January 2004 have been subject to longer delays than usual. The main reasons for this are an increase in bills from Swiss doctors who closed their accounting on 31.12.2003 to transfer to the TARMED medical billing system on 01.01.2004. The postal service also suffered perturbations at the beginning of January. These circumstances combined have had repercussions on the handling of your files and we would like to apologise for the inconvenience caused. The situation is progressively returning to normal and we would like to thank you for your understanding in this matter.

  14. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope


    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  15. 14 CFR 198.3 - Basis of insurance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of insurance. 198.3 Section 198.3... INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.3 Basis of insurance. (a) Premium insurance may be issued by the FAA is the requirements of § 198.1 (a), (b)(1) and (c) are met. (b) Subject to § 198.9(c), standby insurance...



    D. Nesterova; N. Kudriavska


    The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined...

  17. The consequence of financial crises in Albanian insurance market


    Edmira Cakrani; Filloreta Madani


    The Albanian insurance market is not influenced considerably from current financial crisis. Early yet phase of development with the very low penetration level explains steadiness of insurance market to exposure influence of global financial crisis. Another factor contributed to stability of insurance market is focusing insurance businesses more on the compulsory insurance segment which is not fully liberalized. Conservative investment policies of Albanian insurers also contributed to avoiding...

  18. Narrating Trauma and Suffering: Towards Understanding Intersubjectively Constituted Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K. Coetzee


    Full Text Available Remembering is a complex and notoriously fallible process. This is partly because memory is not an exclusively individual act. Not only what we remember, but the way we remember is influenced by social circumstances and co-constructed worldviews, as well as by our personal needs and perspectives. In the context of the research interview, the researcher-participant relationship also mediates how experience is re-membered and narrated. All these factors need to be taken into account when, as social researchers, we attempt to unpack the meanings and motives that underlie what research participants say. This paper aims to show how interviewees who have endured traumatic experiences for prolonged periods of time remember, reflect on and articulate their suffering. To illustrate how personal memories of lived, real experiences intertwine with socially and contextually embedded values and relationships we draw on the narratives of former political prisoners in South Africa and in erstwhile Czechoslovakia. We also present narratives of South African street children, and women living with HIV/AIDS. When interpreting the in-depth data that show how participants remember their experience of suffering, we find that the very nature of memory poses a hermeneutical challenge. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902144

  19. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers (United States)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.


    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  20. Cyberhugs: creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology. (United States)

    Becker, Karin L


    Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined.

  1. Perception of suffering and compassion experience: brain gender disparities. (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Díaz, José Luis; Pasaye, Erick H; Barrios, Fernando A


    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27±2.5 y.o.) were acquired in a 3T magnetic resonance scanner while subjects viewed pictures of human suffering previously verified to elicit compassion and indicated their compassionate experience by finger movements. Functional analysis revealed that while women manifested activation in areas involved in basic emotional, empathic, and moral processes, such as basal regions and cingulate and frontal cortices, activation in men was restricted mainly to the occipital cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. These findings suggest that compassion and its moral elements constitute gender-relative subjective phenomena emerging from differently evolved neural mechanisms and socially learned features possibly related to nurturing skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of illegal aggressive behavior of women suffering from schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z I Kekelidze


    Full Text Available Aim. To establish comparative clinical and psychopathological and social factors leading to realization of intrafamilial and extrafamilial aggressive actions of females suffering from schizophrenia when comparing the mechanisms of illegal actions. Methods. The article presents the results of the study of 91 female patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, (F20.0 of continuous and episodic with progressive deficit type of course, who committed aggressive socially dangerous acts and are admitted for involuntary treatment to Kazan psychiatric hospital of specialized type with intensive supervision. Two groups were identified: group 1 included 57 patients committed aggressive criminal acts in the family, and group 2 included 34 patients committed criminal acts against persons outside the family. A comparison was performed between two basic scientific concepts regarding the reasons and conditions of illegal acts committed by mentally ill persons. Statistical significance of the differences between the compared data was determined (using Fisher's angular transformation criterion and Mann-Whitney test. Results. Comparative study of the analysis concepts of illegal behavior in females suffering from schizophrenia demonstrated that the results turned out to be more detailed when using the concept of psychopathological mechanisms. So, in the productive psychotic mechanism imperative hallucinations and automatisms were noted predominantly in women from group 1 - in 59.5% (p1


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq


    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  4. Impairment of language is related to left parieto-temporal glucose metabolism in aphasic stroke patients. (United States)

    Karbe, H; Szelies, B; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D


    Twenty-six aphasic patients who had an ischaemic infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were investigated. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed various lesion sites: infarcts restricted to cortical structures in 12 patients, combined cortical and subcortical infarcts in 7 and isolated subcortical infarcts sparing the left cortex in another 7 cases. 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed remote hypometabolism of the left convexity cortex and of the left basal ganglia, which was extended further than the morphological infarct zone in all cases. Types and degrees of aphasia were classified using the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT): 10 patients had global aphasia, 2 Broca's, 5 Wernicke's, and 5 amnesic aphasia. Four patients suffered from minimal or residual aphasic symptoms. The AAT results were compared with the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose of the left hemisphere. Irrespective of the infarct location all five AAT subtests (Token test, repetition, written language, confrontation naming, auditory and reading comprehension) were closely correlated among each other and with left parieto-temporal metabolic rates, whereas left frontal and left basal ganglia metabolism showed no significant correlation. The close relation between left temporo-parietal functional activity and all five AAT subtests suggests that the different aspects of aphasia tested by AAT can be related to a common disorder of language processing in those areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Campanella


    Full Text Available Roger Keith “Syd” Barrett (Cambridge, January 6, 1946 - Cambridge, July 7, 2006 was a British singer, guitarist, composer and painter, founder and leader of Pink Floyd from 1965 to 1968, when he left the group. Before retiring to private life, he recorded two solo albums, “The Madcap Laughs” and “Barrett”, published in 1970. His experience and skills strongly influenced the subsequent production of the group, especially albums like “Dark Side of the Moon”, “Wish You Were Here” and “The Wall”. The innovative guitar style of Barrett and his propensity to exploration of new experimental techniques, like the use of dissonance, distortion and feedback, had an enormous impact on several musicians, from David Bowie to Brian Eno to Jimmy Page. After his retirement, Barrett led a secluded life painting and devoted to gardening, completely ignoring all the popularity and by losing his own tracks fueling even more his legend. A series of biographies were written about him since the eighties. In any case, the Pink Floyd composed and recorded several musical tributes dedicated to him after his departure from the band. The use of synthetic drugs of any kind and social withdrawal fostered the clinical impression that Barrett was suffering from schizophrenia. Recent studies, however, would suggest the hypothesis that he was suffering from a low-functioning Asperger’s syndrome. The aim of this paper is to review Barrett’s data that would indicate that this was actually his diagnosis.

  6. A Left Atrial Myxoma Case with a History of Stroke on whom a Coronary Bypass Surgery was Performed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Kaymaz


    Full Text Available Cardiac myxomas are the most frequently encountered benign cardiac tumors in adult groups. Patients with myxoma may suffer from variety of clinical features. A patient who had suffered from stroke a yearago came to our hospital with a chest pain complaint. In the echocardiography of the patient suffering from acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular disfunction and left atrial mass was determined. In the coronary angiography, LAD and Cx critical stenosis, and an abnormal feeding artery which roots from Cxperformed was observed. LIMA-AD, Ao-RCA bypass and mass exision withleft atriotomy was made. Cardiac tumor embolism which makes up a rare cause of cerebral embolies should be considered especiallyin patients with sinus rhythm. In the coronary angiography the feeding artery of the myxoma was shown. A patient who has underwent coronary bypass operation and left atrial myxoma exision has beenpresented as a case.

  7. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo


    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  8. Tobacco use and health insurance literacy among vulnerable populations: implications for health reform. (United States)

    Braun, Robert T; Hanoch, Yaniv; Barnes, Andrew J


    Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), millions of Americans have been enrolling in the health insurance marketplaces. Nearly 20% of them are tobacco users. As part of the ACA, tobacco users may face up to 50% higher premiums that are not eligible for tax credits. Tobacco users, along with the uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities targeted by ACA coverage expansions, are among those most likely to suffer from low health literacy - a key ingredient in the ability to understand, compare, choose, and use coverage, referred to as health insurance literacy. Whether tobacco users choose enough coverage in the marketplaces given their expected health care needs and are able to access health care services effectively is fundamentally related to understanding health insurance. However, no studies to date have examined this important relationship. Data were collected from 631 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Health insurance literacy was assessed by asking four factual questions about the coverage options presented to them. Adjusted associations between tobacco use and health insurance literacy were tested using multivariate linear regression, controlling for numeracy, risk-taking, discount rates, health status, experiences with the health care system, and demographics. Nearly one third (31%) of participants were current tobacco users, 80% were African American and 27% were uninsured. Average health insurance literacy across all participants was 2.0 (SD 1.1) out of a total possible score of 4. Current tobacco users had significantly lower HIL compared to non-users (-0.22, p financial burdens on them and potentially limiting access to tobacco cessation and treatment programs and other needed health services.

  9. [Apotemnophilia as a contemporary frame for psychological suffering]. (United States)

    Baubet, T; Gal, B; Dendoncker-Viry, S; Masquelet, A C; Gatt, M-T; Moro, M R


    The word was created in 1977. It was first used to describe an extreme paraphilia concerning both the search for amputees as sexual partners, and the fantasies and wishes to be amputated linked to a sexual arousal. More recently, the number of self-demand amputations appears to have raised. Some amputations of healthy legs have even been performed in hospital settings, raising important ethical issues. A new category of trouble has been described: the Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID). Criterias for its diagnosis have been developed and submitted to DSM V task force. According to clinicians who support the existence of BIID, this disorder is not a paraphilia, don't overlap with other psychiatric disorders and could be in some ways compared to transexualism. The patient's health would therefore require the amputation of healthy limbs in order to themselves and to help them to become bodied> according to their . Still according to those clinicians, psychiatric symptoms would be either a consequence of the shame resulting from this condition, or a consequence of the doctor's refusal to perform these amputations. An ever growing litterature on the web support this opinion, but the scientific litterature is still very scarce. In this paper, we analyse available scientific datas. This review does not support the existence of BIID as a discrete nor a specific condition. In a second part of this paper, we describe the case of a young woman who started asking for above-the-knee leg amputation after a minor knee trauma, while complaining for pain and leg rigidity. Her medical state worsened, probably because of repeated self-inflicted lesions and food restriction, leading to a severe undernutrition and life-threatening hypokaliemia. After some time, her medical state required amputation. This surgery did not resolve her psychological suffering. She never talked about amputation as a way to achieve herself. She did not meet the criterias for BIID. We consider her

  10. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation. (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L


    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir


    Full Text Available Insurance and reinsurance industry is famous for its traditionalism, that is uninventiveness and neglecting of marketing as business concept and function and by doing so, neglecting opportunities for optimal combination of different distribution channels. However, having in mind Drucker's thesis that only marketing and innovations produce results and that everything else are costs, that applies to all businesses including insurance and reinsurance companies, it is clear that they need to change their way of managing business. Keeping current and attracting new customers, by using optimal combination of marketing mix elements and within its scope by creating optimal mix of distribution channels, as business requirement and objective of insurance and reinsurance companies with strong marketing orientation that leads them to fulfillment of primary objective of their existence - making profit, is becoming specially emphasized with opening of domestic insurance and reinsurance market to foreign competitors with long history of gaining high level of customers' loyalty. Besides that, issues of successful distribution channels' management of insurance and reinsurance services are not treated holistically in domestic literature. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services, as this study shows, are of critical importance for business success of insurance and reinsurance companies.

  12. Nuclear liability act and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roy G.; Goyette, R.; Mathers, C.W.; Germani, T.R.


    The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)

  13. Professional liability insurance and medical error disclosure. (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Shaw, David; Leu, Agnes; Elger, Bernice


    To examine medicolegal stakeholders' views about the impact of professional liability insurance in Switzerland on medical error disclosure. Purposive sample of 23 key medicolegal stakeholders in Switzerland from a range of fields between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected via individual, face-to-face interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Participants, particularly those with a legal or quality background, reported that concerns relating to professional liability insurance often inhibited communication with patients after a medical error. Healthcare providers were reported to be particularly concerned about losing their liability insurance cover for apologising to harmed patients. It was reported that the attempt to limit the exchange of information and communication could lead to a conflict with patient rights law. Participants reported that hospitals could, and in some case are, moving towards self-insurance approaches, which could increase flexibility regarding error communication The reported current practice of at least some liability insurance companies in Switzerland of inhibiting communication with harmed patients after an error is concerning and requires further investigation. With a new ethic of transparency regarding medical errors now prevailing internationally, this approach is increasingly being perceived to be misguided. A move away from hospitals relying solely on liability insurance may allow greater transparency after errors. Legalisation preventing the loss of liability insurance coverage for apologising to harmed patients should also be considered.

  14. Nuclear property insurance: status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report addresses the problem of the unavailability of adequate levels of property insurance for commercial power reactors to pay for decontamination and cleanup costs arising from accidents. The report is designed to answer six questions, as follows: (1) What has been the development of each principal source of nuclear property insurance used as of early 1982 by nuclear utilities in the United States; (2) What are some of the distinguishing features of nuclear property insurance as offered by the principal sources; (3) How much nuclear property insurance was offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1982; (4) Assuming that present plans came to fruition, how much nuclear property insurance is likely to be offered by each of these sources as of January 1, 1983; (5) What, if any, principal sources of nuclear property insurance are likely to emerge in the private sector by January 1, 1983; (6) What problems serious enough to warrant action of the NRC exist with respect to nuclear property insurance and what action should NRC take in response to each problem

  15. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D


    health insurance coverage, and that limited cross-group subsidy and regional inequality is possible. Unless effective measures are taken, vulnerable groups such as women, low income groups, employees based on short-term contracts and rural-urban migrant workers may well be left out of sharing the social and economic development.

  16. Resources for hyperhidrosis sufferers, patients, and health care providers. (United States)

    Pieretti, Lisa J


    The excessive sweating of hyperhidrosis creates profound psychosocial, professional, and financial burdens on the individual sufferer; it contributes to impaired self-worth and self-efficacy, decreased satisfaction in all relationships, avoidance of specific careers, and increased expenditures on everything from clothing to medical treatment. Despite morbidity equal to other well-known dermatologic conditions, hyperhidrosis has historically been underacknowledged and undertreated because of the lack of accessible, scientifically accurate information and dispersal of that information within patient and medical communities. Thankfully, the development of the Internet and the work of the not-for-profit International Hyperhidrosis Society (IHHS) have increased awareness of hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bearded ladies: females suffer fitness consequences when bearing male traits. (United States)

    Swierk, Lindsey; Langkilde, Tracy


    A central assumption in evolutionary biology is that females of sexually dimorphic species suffer costs when bearing male secondary sexual traits, such as ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is common in nature to observe females bearing rudimentary versions of male ornaments (e.g. 'bearded ladies'), as ornaments can be under similar genetic control in both sexes. Here, we provide evidence that masculinized females incur both social and reproductive costs in nature. Male fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) discriminated against ornamented females during mate choice. Ornamented females had lower reproductive output, and produced eggs that were laid and hatched later than those of non-ornamented females. These findings support established theories of the evolution of sexual dimorphism and intralocus sexual conflict, and raise questions regarding the persistence of masculinizing ornamentation in females.

  18. The suffering witness: a missiological reading of Lamentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Wielenga


    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities of a missiological reading of the book of Lamentations. Based upon a historical understanding of Lamentations, Christological conclusions are drawn from it with a view on formulating some missiologically relevant guidelines for missionary praxis. This article contends that Lamentations was composed to be used pastorally in an unprecedented crisis in Jerusalem in 586 BCE. In a situation of utter powerlessness and otherlessness the lamenting population was shown a way to rebuild their shattered universe by, paradoxically, reaching out to their God who was not there for them anymore. The suffering witness of Lamentations 3 is used as a Christological model, which is applied to missionary praxis. In the fields of worship and liturgy, aid and assistance and prophetic analysis the church has to continue the witnessing ministry of her Lord, empowered by his Spirit.

  19. Nursing in family environment: caring for person in mental suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Martins


    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the experience of nursing care to person in mental suffering (PMS in the family context. Developed by nursing academic during home attendance, in the 2008.2 semester. The results showed that: is undeniable the family function of the PMS care, becoming the main partner of the heath teams, the care in the perspective of psychosocial rehabilitation influences the attitudes, patterns of response and participation in treatment, resulting in the empowerment of PMS and family. It’s concluded that home attendance contributes to the process of psychosocial rehabilitation of the PMS and assessment of mental health services, subsidizing the formulation of public policies for the sector, especially, in regard to care in perspective of the whole human life.

  20. Doll therapy for dementia sufferers: A systematic review. (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Koh, Shawn Shao Hong; Tan, Wei Chuan; Chan, Hwei Wuen


    Dementia affects more than 47.5 million people worldwide, and the number is expected to continue to increase as the population ages. Doll therapy is an emerging nonpharmacologic management strategy for patients with advanced dementia, especially in patients with challenging behaviours. A total of 12 published studies (mainly cohort and observational studies) were identified and discussed in this systematic review. In most instances, cognitive, behavioural and emotional symptoms were alleviated and overall wellbeing was improved with doll therapy, and dementia sufferers were found to be able to better relate with their external environment. Despite the relative paucity of empirical data and ethical concerns, we are of the opinion that doll therapy is effective for dementia care, is well-aligned with the ethos of person-centred care and should be applied in the management of dementia patients. Future research should include more robust randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nutritional management of patients suffering of chronic renal failure]. (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Opizzi, A; Bonisio, A; Lingua, S; Cena, H; Giacosa, A; Roggi, C


    Nutritional support constitutes a fundamental approach to favour the management of chronic renal failure and to postpone the need of kidney dialysis. The specific goals of the nutrition intervention are: control of protein intake, control of phosphate and of calcium intake, control of potassium intake, control of energy intake, control of lipid intake with clear identification of the polyunsaturated vs monounsaturated vs saturated fatty acid rate, control of vitamin intake, prevention of malnutrition and intervention with oral supplements or artificial nutrition (even if for short time) if malnutrition occurs. The proper management of the nutritional problems of patients with chronic renal failure slows the disease progression, prevents or controls symptoms associated with uremia and postpones the beginning of substitutive treatment that is of hemodialysis or of peritoneal dialysis, thus allowing a better quality of life either in the short or long term for patients suffering of chronic renal failure.

  2. Cornual pregnancy in a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onilda Labrada Silva


    Full Text Available Nowadays, ectopic pregnancy is a pathological entity of great incidence, which is increased, among other things, by each time earlier sexual relations. Cornual pregnancy is as a result of the implantation of the blastocyte within the segment of the fallopian tube that goes into the uterus wall or between the tubal ostium and the proximal portion of the isthmus. This is a case of a cornual pregnancy in which the use of ultrasonography played an essential role for its diagnosis, since it is about a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia, where it was not possible to clinically eliminate the possibility of an occlusive vessel crisis as the cause of abdominal pain. Subtotal hysterectomy of the right tube was performed. The patient’s evolution is satisfactory.

  3. Kumbhakarna : Did he suffer from the disorder of the hypothalamus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om J Lakhani


    Full Text Available Kumbhakarna was brother of the evil Raavana in the mythological tale of Ramayana. According the legend, Kumbhakarna had an insatiable appetite and thirst and used to sleep for great lengths of time. He also had an uncontrollable temper, which was feared by many. It is our assessment that Kumbhakarna possibly suffered from hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity can be defined as significant polyphagia and weight gain that occurs because of structural or function involvement of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus bilaterally. The characteristic features are obesity associated with polyphagia. Somnolence is present in 40% of cases. Sham rage is a characteristic behavioral abnormality seen in these patients. All these symptoms are described in the mythological text while describing Kumbhakarna. The episodic nature of Kumbhakarna′s symptoms can also be explained by another hypothalamic syndrome called Klein-Levine syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by with periodic episodes of somnolence, hyperphagia and hypersexuality along with other behavioral and cognitive difficulties.


    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić


    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  5. Is there anything left for the next generation of leaders? (United States)

    Volpe, Anthony


    Dean Arthur A. Dugoni is celebrated as the "dean of deans" or American dental schools. His service as a practitioner, rich network of relationships, recognition of emerging opportunities, respectful treatment of all, and ability to make people care and promote loyalty are identified. Significant issues remain for future leadership to address: dental caries is on the rebound, insurance is inadequate to provide needed coverage, prevention must be strengthened, education struggles with too few teachers and high tuition, the mobility of dentists is unrealistically restricted, and the pool of retired dentists who want to donate their services is hobbled by regulations. The ADA can take the leadership in some of these areas, but there is much left to be done by the next generation of individual leaders in the mold of Dean Dugoni.

  6. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  7. Facilitating Consumer Learning in Insurance Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph


    We model a monopoly insurance market where consumers can learn their accident risks at a cost c. We then ask: What are the welfare effects of a policy that reduces c? If c is sufficiently small (c insurer...... and consumer benefit from a policy that reduces c further. For c > c*, marginally reducing c hurts the insurer and weakly benefits the consumer. Finally, a reduction in c that is “successful,” meaning that the consumer gathers information after the reduction but not before it, can hurt both parties....

  8. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....... and ambiguity attitudes interact in nontrivial ways to determine the change of coinsurance demand. I derive sufficient conditions to guarantee that the optimal coinsurance demand is decreasing in wealth. When a non-traded asset is introduced, my model predicts behavior that is inconsistent with the classical...

  9. Understanding Reporting Delay in General Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Verrall


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand and to model claims arrival and reporting delay in general insurance. We calibrate two real individual claims data sets to the statistical model of Jewell and Norberg. One data set considers property insurance and the other one casualty insurance. For our analysis we slightly relax the model assumptions of Jewell allowing for non-stationarity so that the model is able to cope with trends and with seasonal patterns. The performance of our individual claims data prediction is compared to the prediction based on aggregate data using the Poisson chain-ladder method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa


    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  11. Insuring system performance to limit financial risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRienzo, P.P.


    The days when feasibility studies had implicit confidence in construction schedules, plant availability, and capacity factors are gone. Risk has emerged as a predominant consideration in the planning of new facilities. Third party financing has increased awareness of the problem. The third party assumes the risk of his investment, but the operator must assume many other risks. The operating entity must therefore assess its own risk from plant outage. An insurance company submits a quotation to the operator indicating its willingness to insure the risk. The quotation is contingent upon the feasibility study. A brief and preliminary description (by outline) is given of the terms and conditions of a system performance insurance policy.

  12. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nesterova


    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined. The shares of premiums of insurance intermediaries in the volume of insurance premiums and in the GDP of the insurance markets of European countries are defined. The number of employees who are involved in insurance intermediary in the European countries is investigated. The European experience of insurance agents and insurance brokers in non-life insurance and life insurance is considered. It's analyzed the activity of insurance brokers in the Ukraine. The main trends and problems of the development of insurance intermediaries in the insurance market of Ukraine are defined.

  14. Property flood resilience database: an innovative response for the insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvin Stephen


    Full Text Available The property flood resilience database (PFR-d has been created through a research feasibility study undertaken by the Building Research Establishment, AXA Insurance and Lexis Nexis Risk Solutions in the UK. The project was funded by Innovate-UK and was undertaken over the period of May 2014 to August 2015. There has been a growing realisation that flood management has to move from a position where flood defence (e.g. major river barriers and drainage infrastructure is the only solution to flood risk to one of flood resilience. This shift requires an increase in responsibility for a variety of stakeholders, including property owners. The PFR-d was conceived as a product that code fit within the existing insurance frameworks and systems. The PFR-d is a ‘missing piece of data’ for insurers that could assist in providing more appropriate insurance pricing in high flood risk areas, or where properties have suffered repeat flooding events.

  15. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.


    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Prikazyuk


    Full Text Available The article highlights how the cooperation of insurance companies and banks affects the insurance system. Defined the concept of bancassurance, provided a brief description of the main bancassurance models in the context of their impact on the insurance system. Defined the main benefits and risks that accompany cooperation of insurance companies and banks within different models of association. It is noted that despite the generally accepted benefits of cooperation between insurers and banks, financial intermediaries’ unions often carry significant risks. Benefits from the cooperation of insurance companies and banks are disclosed with operational, marketing and financial aspects. The purpose of the article is to study the forms of cooperation between financial intermediaries and their impact on the insurance system. Methodology. The study is based on theoretical methods to study this problem. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study is works of scientists on the models of cooperation between insurers and banks. The dialectical method of cognition as well as such methods as logical generalization, structural and systematic analysis are used to study the methodological foundations of banks’ impact on the insurance companies and insurance system. Results. Banking activity has a significant impact on the insurance system. This impact is noticeable at the micro-level: insurers and banks can be clients of each other as well as they can sign cooperation agreements. A significant positive impact of the bancassurance on the activities of both financial institutions within the synergy that appears during their cooperation is highlighted in the article. Respectively, the insurance company and the bank are experiencing the benefits of cooperation along with savings on fixed, variable costs and obtaining additional profits; simplifying and optimization of the process of collecting and processing information; savings on advertising and

  17. The Relationship of Health Insurance and Mortality: Is Lack of Insurance Deadly? (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U


    About 28 million Americans are currently uninsured, and millions more could lose coverage under policy reforms proposed in Congress. At the same time, a growing number of policy leaders have called for going beyond the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to a single-payer national health insurance system that would cover every American. These policy debates lend particular salience to studies evaluating the health effects of insurance coverage. In 2002, an Institute of Medicine review concluded that lack of insurance increases mortality, but several relevant studies have appeared since that time. This article summarizes current evidence concerning the relationship of insurance and mortality. The evidence strengthens confidence in the Institute of Medicine's conclusion that health insurance saves lives: The odds of dying among the insured relative to the uninsured is 0.71 to 0.97.

  18. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas


    schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... hazard incentives for risk-taking in banking. Using both the occurrence of banking crises and non-performing loans in the banking sector as proxies for excessive risk-taking the results strongly support this hypothesis in industrial and emerging market economies. Policy recommendations on the country...

  19. ANI [American Nuclear Insurers] support and research facility nuclear liability insurance inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, B.


    American Nuclear Insurers (ANI), a voluntary association of insurance companies, provides property and nuclear liability insurance protection to the nuclear industry. It generally offers insurance coverage to nuclear facilities, suppliers, and transporters for the following: (1) their liability for damages because of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by the nuclear energy hazard, and (2) all-risk damage to nuclear facilities. Among the range of facilities and suppliers insured by ANI are (a) operators of nuclear power plants that supply electricity for the general public, (b) operators of nuclear testing and research reactors, (c) fuel fabricators that manufacture fuel for use in reactors, (d) operators of facilities that dispose of nuclear waste that cannot be salvaged, (e) facilities that maintain and repair equipment used at nuclear facilities, (f) nuclear laundries, and (g) low-level-waste processors. The fundamental goal of the ANI nuclear engineering inspection program is to provide protection to pool members' assets by reducing insurance risk

  20. Perceived Relationships among Components of Insurance Service for Users of Complementary Health Insurance Service


    Urban Sebjan


    This article explores the relationship between the components of the services provided by complementary voluntary health insurance (CVHI), to which users ascribe different levels of importance. Research model that consists of four constructs (importance of quality service, additional coverage, price discounts of CVHI and insurance company reputation) and an indicator of the importance of insurance premium of CVHI was tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) on the sample of 300 Sloveni...

  1. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives. (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter


    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  2. Commercial Life Insurance Sales Procedures in DOD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The Executive Director, Morale, Welfare, and Recreation and Resale Activities requested that we evaluate DoD accreditation practices for companies that sell commercial life insurance on military installations overseas...

  3. Insure Kids Now (IKN) (Dental Care Providers) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator provides profile information for oral health providers participating in Medicaid and Children's...

  4. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  5. Coverage matters: insurance and health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Health Care Services Staff; Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences


    ...: Insurance and Health Care , explores the myths and realities of who is uninsured, identifies social, economic, and policy factors that contribute to the situation, and describes the likelihood faced...

  6. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    and employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show...

  7. Old age insurance as a socioethical responsibility


    Aginah, Cyprian I.


    Old age insurance as a socioethical responsibility : Nigeria in transition. - Frankfurt am Main u.a. : Lang, 1997. - 395 S. - (Europäische Hochschulschriften : 23, Theologie ; 593). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 1996

  8. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage. (United States)


    ... with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  9. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements (United States)


    ... submit accident claim information about physical damage, repair costs, and personal injury but that... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 544 Insurer Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final...


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  11. ANNOTATION: Implementation of the National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of universal implementation will depend on several factors amongst which are continued political will, adequate funding, human resource development and public sensitization and mobilization to ensure widespread participation. KEYWORDS: National Health Insurance Scheme, Programmes, Political will. Sahel Med.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  13. 33 CFR 136.111 - Insurance. (United States)


    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES... which compensation is claimed: (1) The name and address of each insurer. (2) The kind and amount of...

  14. Health Insurance: Understanding What It Covers (United States)

    ... I do? Your doctor will try to be familiar with your insurance coverage so he or she ... higher risk for chronic disease Domestic and interpersonal violence screening and counseling All ages Dyslipidemia screening Those ...

  15. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P


    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  16. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.


    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk


    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  18. Consumer preferences for takaful and conventional insurance


    Alsalih, Aysha; Napier, Christopher


    In recent years, Islamic finance has become one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global financial system. The Islamic banking industry today has assets worth over $900 billion, and Islamic finance has spread to 75 countries from East to West, extending from Muslim to non-Muslim countries. The introduction of an Islamic model of insurance has boosted the Islamic world economy, according to many reports. Insurance has become the biggest industry in Saudi Arabia's economy having overt...

  19. Islamic perspectives on risk and insurance marketing


    Wilson, Jonathan A. J.; Abdul Rahman, Zuriah


    This chapter sets out to achieve two key aims: to present the philosophical and critical perspectives underpinning the marketing of Islamic insurance products and services and to provide the foundation and basis for recommending appropriate stepwise marketing practices. A final point of reference is that it is assumed within this chapter that the insurance products in question have been created already and so discussions focus on branding, marketing communications, consumer behaviour and serv...

  20. Medications prescribing pattern toward insured patients. (United States)

    Al-Mohamadi, Ameen; Al-Harbi, Atika Mohammed; Manshi, Areej Mansour; Rakkah, Mona Majdi


    The rising costs of health care continue to make health insurance important for many countries. Health insurance may cover different aspects of health care in Saudi Arabia including the prescribed drugs. Physicians usually have different personal attitudes toward insured and uninsured patients. This study is to investigate the prescribing behavior of physicians to those groups of patients in the private setting. A prospective study was conducted during the period between October 2011 and January 2012, in three Saudi private hospitals. Prescriptions for insured and uninsured patients were randomly selected and analyzed. Data regarding diagnosis, age, gender, co-morbidity, number of items and the total cost of the medication in Saudi Riyals (SR) were collected through a chart review form. Three thousand sixty six patients' prescriptions were included in this study, 34.7% of them were females. 273 patients (75.2%) were insured while 90 were not. 24.8% were patients who paid cash. Majority (57.6%) of the patients were with diabetes plus hypertension and other co-morbidity. 20.7% of patients were taking three medications or less, while 67.8% were taking 4-10 and 11.6% were taking more than 10 medications. Analysis of differences showed that, patients who were insured have a higher number of prescribed medications (p ⩽ 0.001), and a higher total price of prescription than those who were paying cash only (p ⩽ 0.001). In a more confirmatory step, all uninsured patients (n = 90) were closely matched in the age, gender, diagnosis and hospital with similar 90 insured patients. Results of this matching process confirmed the above findings. Physicians in private setting are more likely to prescribe more drugs and/or brand drugs to insured patients than for uninsured patients. Further studies to view the reasons behind this behavior and strategies to prevent such actions are needed.