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Sample records for left hippocampal volume

  1. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  2. Interaction between BDNF rs6265 Met allele and low family cohesion is associated with smaller left hippocampal volume in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Mwangi, Benson; Cao, Bo; Hasan, Khader M; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the onset and evolution of pediatric bipolar disorder, and may be associated to structural brain abnormalities. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of the interaction between the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism and family functioning on hippocampal volumes of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, and typically-developing controls. We evaluated the family functioning cohesion subscale using the Family Environment Scale-Revised, genotyped the BDNF rs6265 polymorphism, and performed structural brain imaging in 29 children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy controls. We did not find significant differences between patients with BD or controls in left or right hippocampus volume (p=0.44, and p=0.71, respectively). However, we detected a significant interaction between low scores on the cohesion subscale and the presence of the Met allele at BNDF on left hippocampal volume of patients with bipolar disorder (F=3.4, p=0.043). None of the factors independently (BDNF Val66Met, cohesion scores) was significantly associated with hippocampal volume differences. small sample size, cross-sectional study. These results may lead to a better understanding of the impact of the interaction between genes and environment factors on brain structures associated to bipolar disorder and its manifestations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lateralized hippocampal volume increase following high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Motoaki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Izuno, Takuji; Saeki, Takashi; Iwanari, Hideo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied as a treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression in recent years, and a large body of evidence has demonstrated its therapeutic efficacy through stimulating neuronal plasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate structural alterations in the hippocampus (HIPP) and amygdala (AM) following conventional rTMS in patients with depression. Twenty-eight patients with depression underwent 10 daily 20-Hz left prefrontal rTMS over 2 weeks. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was identified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation prior to stimulation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at baseline and after the completion of rTMS sessions. The therapeutic effects of rTMS were evaluated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17 ), and the volumes of the HIPP and AM were measured by a manual tracing method. Statistical analyses revealed a significant volume increase in the left HIPP (+3.4%) after rTMS but no significant volume change in the AM. No correlation was found between the left HIPP volume increase and clinical improvement, as measured by the HAM-D 17 . The present study demonstrated that conventional left prefrontal rTMS increases the HIPP volume in the stimulated side, indicating a remote neuroplastic effect through the cingulum bundle. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Hippocampal volume and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Frances; Murphy, Fay; Connor, Steve E J; Rich, Phil; Murphy, Tara; Bara-Carill, Nuria; Landau, Sabine; Krljes, Sanya; Ng, Virginia; Williams, Steve; Morris, Robin G; Campbell, Iain C; Treasure, Janet

    2006-03-31

    We hypothesised that hippocampal volume would be reduced in underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated with impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. Hippocampal and whole brain volumes were measured in 16 women with AN and 16 matched healthy women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a manual tracing method. Participants also completed the Doors and People Test of hippocampus-dependent memory and an IQ test. After adjustment for total cerebral volume, there was significant bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume in the AN group (8.2% right; 7.5% left). There was no evidence of impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function and no evidence of a relationship between hippocampal volume and clinical features of AN. The reduced hippocampal volume in anorexia nervosa is not associated with changes in cognitive function. To understand the cause and consequence of hippocampal size and function, it will be important to integrate endocrine, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies.

  5. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic (Lucija); S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker (James); D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn (René); Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic

  6. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Grond, Jeroen; van der Lee, Sven J.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Jager, Philip L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Decarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of

  7. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal ...

  8. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  9. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  10. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  11. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  12. More vulnerability of left than right hippocampal damage in right-handed patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xi-Ji; Xue, Li; Liu, Wei; Chen, Fu-Yin; Zhu, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhong-Cun; Zhao, Hu

    2013-06-30

    Previous studies have shown hippocampal abnormalities in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings of diminished volume in shortages in the hippocampus have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigated changes in hippocampal volume and neuronal metabolites in right-handed PTSD patients to determine their possible relationship(s) with PTSD severity. We performed a case-control study of 11 right-handed PTSD patients and 11 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Hippocampal volume and metabolite ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) (NAA/Cr) and choline compounds (Cho) to Cr (Cho/Cr) were calculated. The severity of PTSD was evaluated by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Significantly decreased left and total normalized hippocampal volumes were found in PTSD patients compared with controls (6.6% for the left hippocampus, 5.5% for total hippocampus). Also, the bilateral hippocampal NAA/Cr ratio of PTSD patients was significantly reduced compared with controls. The volume of the left hippocampus was negatively correlated to the CAPS total and CPAS-C scores. The left hippocampal NAA/Cr ratio was negatively correlated to the CAPS-total, CAPS-B, CAPS-C, and CAPS-D scores. The CAPS total and the CAPS-B scores were positively correlated to the Cho/Cr ratio of the right hippocampus. Our results indicate that hippocampal dysfunction is asymmetric in right-handed PTSD patients, with the left side affected more than the right. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal changes in hippocampal volumes and cognition in remitted geriatric depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhenghua; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Zhijun; Bai, Feng; Hou, Gang; You, Jiayong

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidences suggest that the abnormality of hippocampal volume may occur in the process of depression. In this longitudinal study, we calculated the hippocampal volume of 14 remitted geriatric depressed (RGD) patients and 19 healthy participants at baseline and follow-up. We found significant improvement of performance in Trail Making Test-A (P=0.038) and Test-B (P=0.032), and the right hippocampal volume increased mildly in RGD. However, in RGD patients, positive correlations were seen between the changes in right hippocampal volumes and Symbol Digit Modality Test scores (r=0.675, P=0.008), and changes in left hippocampal volumes and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (r=0.743, P=0.002). Our findings suggest that hippocampus related cognitive impairment and previously addressed decreased hippocampal volume might represent a state rather than a permanent trait of the depressive disorder. The results suggest that hippocampal volume may be a useful risk marker for conversion to Alzheimer's disease in RGD patients. Additionally, our study indicates that effective antidepressants treatment might postpone and even revise the deterioration of hippocampus to some degree. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-10-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether hippocampal volume normalizes with successful treatment of PTSD, or whether a smaller hippocampus is a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and clinical interviews were collected from 47 war veterans with PTSD, 25 healthy war veterans (combat controls) and 25 healthy non-military controls. All veterans were scanned a second time with a 6- to 8-month interval, during which PTSD patients received trauma-focused therapy. Based on post-treatment PTSD symptoms, patients were divided into a PTSD group who was in remission (n = 22) and a group in whom PTSD symptoms persisted (n = 22). MRI data were analysed with Freesurfer. Smaller left hippocampal volume was observed in PTSD patients compared with both control groups. Hippocampal volume of the combat controls did not differ from healthy controls. Second, pre- and post-treatment analyses of the PTSD patients and combat controls revealed reduced (left) hippocampal volume only in the persistent patients at both time points. Importantly, hippocampal volume did not change with treatment. Our findings suggest that a smaller (left) hippocampus is not the result of stress/trauma exposure. Furthermore, hippocampal volume does not increase with successful treatment. Instead, we demonstrate for the first time that a smaller (left) hippocampus constitutes a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD.

  15. Hippocampal volume in older adults at risk of cognitive decline: the role of sleep, vascular risk, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcombe, Emma L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Duffy, Shantel L; Lewis, Simon J G; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    Decreased hippocampal volume in older adults is associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Several modifiable risk factors have been associated with the size of this structure, however the relative contribution of these factors to hippocampal atrophy is unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between modifiable risk factors and hippocampal volume in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. Two hundred and eighteen participants (mean age = 67.3 years, MMSE = 28.6) with mood and/or memory complaints underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of depression, global cognitive functioning, exercise, vascular health, cognitive reserve, sleep, and memory were collected. Hippocampal volumes were derived using image segmentation as implemented by FMRIB Software Library. Smaller hippocampal volumes were strongly associated with poorer verbal learning and memory as well as diagnoses of either multiple or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Based on univariate correlations, multivariable regressions were performed (controlling for age and total intracranial volume) to determine which modifiable risk factors were associated with hippocampal volume. For the left hippocampus, poor sleep efficiency and greater than five years untreated depressive illness remained significant predictors. For the right hippocampus, diabetes and low diastolic blood pressure significant predictors. Although their contribution is small, lower sleep efficiency, low blood pressure, diabetes, and untreated depression are associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Studies exploring the impact of early intervention for these risk factors on hippocampal integrity are warranted.

  16. The association of visual memory with hippocampal volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Zammit

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the role of hippocampal volume (HV in visual memory.Participants were a subsample of older adults (> = 70 years from the Einstein Aging Study. Visual performance was measured using the Complex Figure (CF copy and delayed recall tasks from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Linear regressions were fitted to study associations between HV and visual tasks.Participants' (n = 113, mean age = 78.9 years average scores on the CF copy and delayed recall were 17.4 and 11.6, respectively. CF delayed recall was associated with total (β = .031, p = 0.001 and left (β = 0.031, p = 0.001 and right HVs (β = 0.24, p = 0.012. CF delayed recall remained significantly associated with left HV even after we also included right HV (β = 0.27, p = 0.025 and the CF copy task (β = 0.30, p = 0.009 in the model. CF copy did not show any significant associations with HV.Our results suggest that left HV contributes in retrieval of visual memory in older adults.

  17. Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. Method The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Results Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects. PMID:16585437

  18. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J; Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects.

  19. Early childhood trauma and hippocampal volumes in patients with epileptic and psychogenic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Benjamin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Yuan, Cheng Yi; Ang, Anthony; Steward, Chris; Desmond, Patricia; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to early life childhood trauma has been implicated as resulting in a vulnerability to epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), hippocampal atrophy, and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood trauma, epilepsy, PNES, and hippocampal volume in patients admitted to a video-electroencephalogram monitoring (VEM) unit. One hundred thirty-one patients were recruited from the Royal Melbourne Hospital VEM unit. The diagnostic breakdown of this group was: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (32), other epilepsy syndromes (35), PNES (47), other nonepileptic syndromes (5), both epilepsy and PNES (6), and uncertain diagnosis (6). All patients completed a questionnaire assessing exposure to childhood trauma, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), as well as questionnaires assessing psychiatric symptomatology (SCL-90-R), Anxiety and Depression (HADS), quality of life (QOLIE-98) and cognition (NUCOG). Volumetric coronal T1 MRI scans were available for 84 patients. Hippocampal volumes were manually traced by a blinded operator. The prevalence of childhood trauma in patients with PNES was higher than in patients with other diagnoses (p=0.005), and the group with PNES overall scored significantly higher on the CTQ (p=0.002). No association was found between CTQ scores and hippocampal volumes; however, patients with a history of sexual abuse were found to have smaller left hippocampal volumes than patients who had not (p=0.043). Patients reporting having experienced childhood trauma scored lower on measures of quality of life and higher on measures of psychiatric symptomatology. Patients with PNES report having experienced significantly more childhood trauma than those with epileptic seizures, and in both groups there was a relationship between a history of having experienced sexual abuse and reduced left hippocampal volume. Patients with PNES and those with epilepsy who have a history of childhood trauma have overall

  20. Reduced interference in working memory following mindfulness training is associated with increases in hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Romero, Victoria L; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Bezdek, Matthew A; Schumacher, Eric H; Lazar, Sara W

    2018-03-17

    Proactive interference occurs when previously relevant information interferes with retaining newer material. Overcoming proactive interference has been linked to the hippocampus and deemed critical for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about whether and how this ability can be improved or about the neural correlates of such improvement. Mindfulness training emphasizes focusing on the present moment and minimizing distraction from competing thoughts and memories. It improves working memory and increases hippocampal density. The current study examined whether mindfulness training reduces proactive interference in working memory and whether such improvements are associated with changes in hippocampal volume. 79 participants were randomized to a 4-week web-based mindfulness training program or a similarly structured creative writing active control program. The mindfulness group exhibited lower proactive interference error rates compared to the active control group following training. No group differences were found in hippocampal volume, yet proactive interference improvements following mindfulness training were significantly associated with volume increases in the left hippocampus. These results provide the first evidence to suggest that (1) mindfulness training can protect against proactive interference, and (2) that these benefits are related to hippocampal volumetric increases. Clinical implications regarding the application of mindfulness training in conditions characterized by impairments to working memory and reduced hippocampal volume such as aging, depression, PTSD, and childhood adversity are discussed.

  1. Childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Katrina; Barrett, Suzanne; Shannon, Ciaran; Campbell, Clodagh; Watson, David; Rushe, Teresa; Shevlin, Mark; Bai, Feng; Cooper, Stephen; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2012-11-01

    A history of childhood trauma is common in individuals who later develop psychosis. Similar neuroanatomical abnormalities are observed in people who have been exposed to childhood trauma and people with psychosis. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and such abnormalities in psychosis has not been investigated. This study aimed to explore the association between the experience of childhood trauma and hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in a first-episode psychosis (FEP) population. The study employed an observational retrospective design. Twenty-one individuals, who had previously undergone magnetic resonance imaging procedures as part of the longitudinal Northern Ireland First-Episode Psychosis Study, completed measures assessing traumatic experiences and were included in the analysis. Data were subject to correlation analyses (r and r (pb)). Potential confounding variables (age at FEP and delay to scan from recruitment) were selected a priori for inclusion in multiple regression analyses. There was a high prevalence of lifetime (95%) and childhood (76%) trauma in the sample. The experience of childhood trauma was a significant predictor of left hippocampal volume, although age at FEP also significantly contributed to this model. There was no significant association between predictor variables and right hippocampal volume. The experience of childhood trauma was a significant predictor of right and total amygdalar volumes and the hippocampal/amygdalar complex volume as a whole. The findings indicate that childhood trauma is associated with neuroanatomical measures in FEP. Future research controlling for childhood traumatic experiences may contribute to explaining brain morphology in people with psychosis.

  2. Beyond dizziness: virtual navigation, spatial anxiety and hippocampal volume in bilateral vestibulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP is defined as the impairment or loss of function of either the labyrinths or the eighth nerves. Patients with total BVP due to bilateral vestibular nerve section exhibit difficulties in spatial memory and navigation and show a loss of hippocampal volume. In clinical practice, most patients do not have a complete loss of function but rather an asymmetrical residual functioning of the vestibular system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate navigational ability and hippocampal atrophy in BVP patients with residual vestibular function. Fifteen patients with BVP and a group of age- and gender- matched healthy controls were examined. Self-reported questionnaires on spatial anxiety and wayfinding were used to assess the applied strategy of wayfinding and quality of life. Spatial memory and navigation were tested directly using a virtual Morris Water Maze Task. The hippocampal volume of these two groups was evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. In the patients, the questionnaire showed a higher spatial anxiety and the Morris Water Maze Task a delayed spatial learning performance. MRI revealed a significant decrease in the gray matter mid-hippocampal volume (Left: p = 0.006, Z = 4.58, Right: p < 0.001, Z = 3.63 and posterior parahippocampal volume (Right: p = 0.005, Z = 4.65, Left: p < 0.001, Z = 3.87 compared to those of healthy controls. In addition, a decrease in hippocampal formation volume correlated with a more dominant route-finding strategy. Our current findings demonstrate that even partial bilateral vestibular loss leads to anatomical and functional

  3. 3T MRI quantification of hippocampal volume and signal in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy improves detection of hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, A C; Kubota, B; Bergo, F P G; Campos, B M; Cendes, F

    2014-01-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MR imaging quantification of hippocampal volume and T2 signal can improve the sensitivity for detecting hippocampal sclerosis. However, the current contributions of these analyses for the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI are not clear. Our aim was to compare visual analysis, volumetry, and signal quantification of the hippocampus for detecting hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI. Two hundred three patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy defined by clinical and electroencephalogram criteria had 3T MRI visually analyzed by imaging epilepsy experts. As a second step, we performed automatic quantification of hippocampal volumes with FreeSurfer and T2 relaxometry with an in-house software. MRI of 79 healthy controls was used for comparison. Visual analysis classified 125 patients (62%) as having signs of hippocampal sclerosis and 78 (38%) as having normal MRI findings. Automatic volumetry detected atrophy in 119 (95%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 10 (13%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Relaxometry analysis detected hyperintense T2 signal in 103 (82%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 15 (19%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Considered together, volumetry plus relaxometry detected signs of hippocampal sclerosis in all except 1 (99%) patient with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 22 (28%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. In 3T MRI visually inspected by experts, quantification of hippocampal volume and signal can increase the detection of hippocampal sclerosis in 28% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  4. Depressive Symptom Dimensions and Their Association with Hippocampal and Entorhinal Cortex Volumes in Community Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre M. O’Shea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research has shown that depression is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and subsequent cognitive decline. This is compounded by evidence showing an association between depression and reduced hippocampal volumes; a primary structure implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Less is known about the relationship between depression and other AD vulnerable regions such as the entorhinal cortex. Given the heterogeneity of depressive symptom presentation, we examined whether symptom dimensions were associated with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes in community dwelling older adults.Methods: Eighty-one community dwelling adults completed the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition and underwent structural neuroimaging. Measures of hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer software. Linear regression models included regions of interest as dependent variables, with depressive symptom dimensions, as independent variables, controlling for total intracranial volumes, age, education, and gender.Results: Somatic symptoms were negatively associated with total, right, and left hippocampal volumes. Affective symptoms were negatively associated with total entorhinal cortex volumes, with a marginal main effect on left entorhinal cortex volumes.Conclusion: Our findings provide support for examining depressive symptoms and their association with AD vulnerable regions along subdimensions of affective, cognitive, and somatic symptoms to better understand profiles of symptoms most associated with these regions. Conceptualizing depressive symptoms in this way may also better inform treatment approaches in terms of targeting types of symptoms that may be more closely linked to poorer brain and cognitive health outcomes.

  5. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Megan A; Leckie, Regina L; Donofry, Shannon D; Gianaros, Peter J; Erickson, Kirk I; Manuck, Stephen B; Roecklein, Kathryn A

    2015-04-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants aged 30-54 (M=43; SD=7.32) from the University of Pittsburgh Adult Health and Behavior II project (n=404; 53% female) were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. Hippocampal volumes were determined using an automated segmentation algorithm using FreeSurfer. A mediation model tested whether hippocampal volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and mood. Secondary analyses included seasonally fluctuating variables (i.e., sleep and physical activity) which have been shown to influence hippocampal volume. Shorter photoperiods were significantly associated with higher BDI scores (R(2)=0.01, β=-0.12, P=0.02) and smaller hippocampal volumes (R(2)=0.40, β=0.08, P=0.04). However, due to the lack of an association between hippocampal volume and Beck Depression Inventory scores in the current sample, the mediation hypothesis was not supported. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between season and hippocampal volume. These data offer preliminary evidence that human hippocampal plasticity could be associated with photoperiod and indicates a need for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Face-name association task reveals memory networks in patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis

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    Silke Klamer

    2017-01-01

    The face-name association task can be employed to examine functional alterations of hippocampal activation during encoding of both verbal and non-verbal material in one fMRI paradigm. Further, the left SFG seems to be a convergence region for encoding of verbal and non-verbal material.

  7. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

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    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  8. Hippocampal volumes among older Indian adults: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

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    Vikas Dhikav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale (score = 0.5, respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner three-dimensional (3D sequences. Results: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32 years. Mean mini–mental status examination (MMSE score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm3 on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm3 on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm3 and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm3. Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm3 and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm3. Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01, and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01 subjects. There was a correlation between

  9. Dissociable roles for hippocampal and amygdalar volume in human fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Fear conditioning is a basic learning process which involves the association of a formerly neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with a biologically relevant aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Previous studies conducted in brain-lesioned patients have shown that while the acquisition of autonomic fear responses requires an intact amygdala, a spared hippocampus is necessary for the development of the CS-US contingency awareness. Although these data have been supported by studies using functional neuroimaging techniques in healthy people, attempts to extend these findings to the morphological aspects of amygdala and hippocampus are missing. Here we tested the hypothesis that amygdalar and hippocampal volumes play dissociable roles in determining autonomic responses and contingency awareness during fear conditioning. Fifty-two healthy individuals (mean age 21.83) underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used a differential delay fear conditioning paradigm while assessing skin conductance responses (SCRs), subjective ratings of CS-US contingency, as well as emotional valence and perceived arousal. Left amygdalar volume significantly predicted the magnitude of differential SCRs during fear acquisition, but had no impact on contingency learning. Conversely, bilateral hippocampal volumes were significantly related to contingency ratings, but not to SCRs. Moreover, left amygdalar volume predicted SCRs to the reinforced CS alone, but not those elicited by the US. Our findings bridge the gap between previous lesion and functional imaging studies, by showing that amygdalar and hippocampal volumes differentially modulate the acquisition of conditioned fear. Further, our results reveal that the morphology of these limbic structures moderate learning and memory already in healthy persons.

  10. The MRI study of hippocampal volume and shape in the youth and older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuefeng; Jiang Ping; Tong Xinkang; Wang Dongqing; Peng Weibin; Wei Chuanshe; Yin Ruigen; Zhao Liang; Sun Weibin; Wang Zhengchao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the base of the landmarks of the hippocampus identified with neighborhood structures, to measure volumes and shape of normal older age group and youth group's hippocampus and hippocampal head, body, tail. Methods: Thirty younger people (age 20-29 years, youth group) and thirty older people (above 60 years, older age group) were scanned by MR, anatomic landmarks were found, which were constancy and easy to be recognized for segmentation hippocampus. The hippocampal volumes, average areas and number of the hippocampal layer were measured, the interclass data of two groups, different gender and sides were compared with statistics methods of t test and the hippocampal model were made with the three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: All landmarks of 60 subjects could be distinguished clearly, such as uncal recess, triangle of the lateral ventricle, uncal apex et al. The discrepancies of two groups volumes of gender had not statistical significance. The youth groups volumes of left hippocampus, head, body and tail were (1250±174), (653±115), (372±116), (2277±109) mm 3 , and the right were (1255±147), (657±129), (386±105), (2298±213) mm 3 . There was no statistical significance between left and right (t=0.08,0.10,0.33,0.35, P>0.05). The older age groups volumes of left hippocampus, head, body and tail were (660 + 109), (472 -+92), (181 -+73), (1313 + 163) mm 3 ,and the right were (717±116), (474±95), (240±75), (1432±171) mm 3 . Older hippocampal volumes were obviously bigger in right tail than in left (t=2.21, P 0.05). There were manifest statistical significance between two groups left volumes of hippocampus and each parts(t=15.78,6.71,7.70,20.83, P 2 and the right were (73±22), (58±19) mm 2 . Both two groups had manifest statistical significance (t=3.33,2.81, P<0.01). The number of layers of youth and older groups were (11.1± 3.2), (7.9±3.9) layers, and the right were (11.5±3.7), (8.2±3.1) layers. Both two groups had manifest

  11. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and hippocampal volumes in the Lothian birth cohort 1936.

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    Donald M Lyall

    Full Text Available The APOE ε and TOMM40 rs10524523 ('523' variable length poly-T repeat gene loci have been significantly and independently associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD related phenotypes such as age of clinical onset. Hippocampal atrophy has been significantly associated with memory impairment, a characteristic of AD. The current study aimed to test for independent effects of APOE ε and TOMM40 '523' genotypes on hippocampal volumes as assessed by brain structural MRI in a relatively large sample of community-dwelling older adults. As part of a longitudinal study of cognitive ageing, participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent genotyping for APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 status and TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat length, and detailed structural brain MRI at a mean age of 72.7 years (standard deviation = 0.7, N range = 624 to 636. No significant effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotype were found on hippocampal volumes when analysed raw, or when adjusted for either intracranial or total brain tissue volumes. In summary, in a large community-dwelling sample of older adults, we found no effects of APOE ε or TOMM40 523 genotypes on hippocampal volumes. This is discrepant with some previous reports of significant association between APOE and left/right hippocampal volumes, and instead echoes other reports that found no association. Previous significant findings may partly reflect type 1 error. Future studies should carefully consider: 1 their specific techniques in adjusting for brain size; 2 assessing more detailed sub-divisions of the hippocampal formation; and 3 testing whether significant APOE-hippocampal associations are independent of generalised brain atrophy.

  12. Spatial navigation impairment is proportional to right hippocampal volume

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedelská, Z.; Andel, R.; Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Hořínek, D.; Lisý, J.; Sheardová, K.; Bureš, Jan; Hort, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 7 (2012), s. 2590-2594 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS10331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s Disease * hippocampal volume Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  13. Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

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    Sunil Vasu Kalmady

    Full Text Available Various lines of evidence including epidemiological, genetic and foetal pathogenetic models suggest a compelling role for Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. IL-6 mediated inflammatory response triggered by maternal infection or stress induces disruption of prenatal hippocampal development which might contribute towards psychopathology during adulthood. There is a substantial lack of knowledge on how genetic predisposition to elevated IL-6 expression effects hippocampal structure in schizophrenia patients. In this first-time study, we evaluated the relationship between functional polymorphism rs1800795 of IL-6 and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls.We examined antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients [N = 28] in comparison with healthy controls [N = 37] group matched on age, sex and handedness. Using 3 Tesla - MRI, bilateral hippocampi were manually segmented by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using a valid method. Additionally, Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM analysis was performed using hippocampal mask. The IL-6 level was measured in blood plasma using ELISA technique. SNP rs1800795 was genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms.Schizophrenia patients had significantly deficient left and right hippocampal volumes after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and total brain volume. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. There was a significant diagnosis by rs1800795 genotype interaction involving both right and left hippocampal volumes. Interestingly, this effect was significant only in men but not in women.Our first time observations suggest a significant relationship between IL-6 rs1800795 and reduced hippocampal volume in antipsychotic

  14. The role of hippocampal iron concentration and hippocampal volume in age-related differences in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between 2 age-sensitive indices of brain integrity--volume and iron concentration--and the associated age differences in memory performance. In 113 healthy adults (age 19-83 years), we measured the volume and estimated iron concentration in the hippocampus (HC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and primary visual cortex (VC) in vivo with T2* relaxation times, and assessed memory performance with multiple tests. We applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the contribution of individual differences in 2 indices of integrity, volume and T2*, to age-related memory variance. The results show that in healthy adults, age differences in memory can be explained in part by individual differences in HC volume that in turn are associated with differences in HC iron concentration. Lower memory scores were linked to smaller HC and higher HC iron concentration. No such associations were noted for Cd and VC. We conclude that the association between age-related declines in memory and reduced hippocampal volume may reflect the impact of oxidative stress related to increase in free iron concentration. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to test whether altered iron homeostasis in the HC is an early marker for age-related cognitive decline.

  15. Hippocampal volume predicts fluid intelligence in musically trained people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Descloux, Céline; Croquelois, Alexandre; Chanal, Julien; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; James, Clara E

    2013-07-01

    Recently, age-related hippocampal (HP) volume loss could be associated with a decrease in general fluid intelligence (gF). In the present study we investigated whether and how extensive musical training modulates human HP volume and gF performance. Previously, some studies demonstrated positive effects of musical training on higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory, associated with neural adaptations beyond the auditory domain. In order to detect possible associations between musical training and gF, we bilaterally segmented the HP formation and assessed the individual gF performance of people with different levels of musical expertise. Multiple regression analyses revealed that HP volume predicts gF in musicians but not in nonmusicians; in particular, bilaterally enhanced HP volume is associated with increased gF exclusively in musically trained people (amateurs and experts). This result suggests that musical training facilitates the recruitment of cognitive resources, which are essential for gF and linked to HP functioning. Musical training, even at a moderate level of intensity, can thus be considered as a potential strategy to decelerate age-related effects of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effects of bilateral vestibular loss on hippocampal volume, neuronal number and cell proliferation in rats

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    Yiwen eZheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in humans have shown that bilateral loss of vestibular function is associated with a significant bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus, which correlated with the patients’ spatial memory deficits. More recently, patients who had recovered from unilateral vestibular neuritis have been reported to exhibit a significant atrophy of the left posterior hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD would result in a decrease in neuronal number or volume in the rat hippocampus, using stereological methods. At 16 months post-BVD, we found no significant differences in hippocampal neuronal number or volume compared to sham controls, despite the fact that these animals exhibited severe spatial memory deficits. By contrast, using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU as a marker of cell proliferation, we found that the number of BrdU-labelled cells significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus between 48 h and 1 week following BVD. Although a substantial proportion of these cells survived for up to 1 month, the survival rate was significantly lower in BVD animals when compared with that in sham animals. These results suggest a dissociation between the effects of BVD on spatial memory and hippocampal structure in rats and humans, which cannot be explained by an injury-induced increase in cell proliferation.

  17. Prediction of Treatment Response to Donepezil using Automated Hippocampal Subfields Volumes Segmentation in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Yoo Hyun; Kim, Tae-Won; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Seo, Ho-Jun; Han, Jin-Hee; Hong, Seung-Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies reported some relationships between donepezil treatment and hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, due to methodological limitations, their close relationships remain unclear. The aim of this study is to predict treatment response to donepezil by utilizing the automated segmentation of hippocampal subfields volumes (ASHS) in AD. Sixty four AD patients were prescribed with donepezil and were followed up for 24 weeks. Cognitive function was measured to assess whether there was a response from the donepezil treatment. ASHS was implemented on non-responder (NR) and responder (TR) groups, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of hippocampal subfields in predicting response to donepezil. The left total hippocampus and the CA1 area of the NR were significantly smaller than those of the TR group. The ROC curve analysis showed the left CA1 volumes showed highest area under curve (AUC) of 0.85 with a sensitivity of 88.0%, a specificity of 74.0% in predicting treatment response to donepezil treatment. We expect that hippocampal subfields volume measurements that predict treatment responses to current AD drugs will enable more evidence-based, individualized prescription of medications that will lead to more favorable treatment outcomes.

  18. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

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    R.R. Uchida

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t21 = 2.37, P = 0.028. In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10 to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t21 = 1.99, P = 0.06, right amygdala (8%, t21 = 1.83, P = 0.08, left amygdala (5%, t21 = 1.78, P = 0.09 and left hippocampus (9%, t21 = 1.93, P = 0.07 in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025, with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures.

  19. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

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    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Psicologia Medica]. E-mail: fgraeff@keynet.com.br; Santos, A.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Guimaraes, F.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2003-07-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t{sub 21} = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t{sub 21} = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t{sub 21} = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t{sub 21} = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t{sub 21} = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  20. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G.; Santos, A.C.; Guimaraes, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t 21 = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t 21 = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t 21 = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t 21 = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t 21 = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  1. Effect of Exercise Training on Hippocampal Volume in Humans: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Jordan, Kathryn C.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is the primary site of memory and learning in the brain. Both normal aging and various disease pathologies (e.g., alcoholism, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder) are associated with lower hippocampal volumes in humans and hippocampal atrophy predicts progression of Alzheimers disease. In animals, there is convincing…

  2. The effect of exercise on hippocampal volume and neurotrophines in patients with major depression--a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Rostrup, Egill; Thomsen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hippocampal volume is reduced in patients with major depression. Exercise leads to an increased hippocampal volume in schizophrenia and in healthy old adults. The effect of exercise on hippocampal volume is potentially mediated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular...... endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The aim of this trial was to assess the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on hippocampal volume and serum BDNF, VEGF, and IGF-1 in patients with major depression. METHODS: Patients were randomized to an aerobic exercise.......2) in the control group (p=0.03). The hippocampal volume, BDNF, VEGF, or IGF-1 did not differ between the two groups. Post-hoc we found a positive association between change in hippocampal volume and verbal memory (Rho=0.27; p=0.05) and change in hippocampal volume and depressive symptoms (Rho=0.30; p=0...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse—A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Vermetten, Eric; Staib, Lawrence; Bronen, Richard A.; Mazure, Carolyn; Capelli, Sandi; McCarthy, Gregory; Innis, Robert B.; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported smaller hippocampal volume and deficits in short-term memory in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relative to comparison subjects. The purpose of this study was to compare hippocampal volume in adult survivors of childhood abuse to matched controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure volume of the hippocampus in adult survivors of childhood abuse (n = 17) and healthy subjects (n = 17) matched on a case-by-case basis for age, sex, race, handedness, years of education, body size, and years of alcohol abuse. All patients met criteria for PTSD secondary to childhood abuse. PTSD patients had a 12% smaller left hippocampal volume relative to the matched controls (p < .05), without smaller volumes of comparison regions (amygdala, caudate, and temporal lobe). The findings were significant after controlling for alcohol, age, and education, with multiple linear regression. These findings suggest that a decrease in left hippocampal volume is associated with abuse-related PTSD. PMID:8988792

  4. Reading, writing, and reserve: Literacy activities are linked to hippocampal volume and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Riccitelli, Gianna; Meani, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Engagement in cognitive leisure activities during early adulthood has been linked to preserved memory and larger hippocampal volume in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate which specific types of cognitive leisure activities contribute to hippocampal volume and memory. We investigated links between three types of cognitive activities (Reading-Writing, Art-Music, Games-Hobbies) and (a) hippocampal volume within independent samples of Italian (n=187) and American (n=55) MS patients and (b) memory in subsamples of Italian (n=97) and American (n=53) patients. Reading-Writing was the only predictor of hippocampal volume (rp=.204, p=.002), and the best predictor of memory (rp=.288, p=.001). Findings inform the development of targeted evidence-based enrichment programs aiming to bolster reserve against memory decline. © The Author(s), 2016.

  5. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly ( n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P > 0.05). In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.54; P < 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method ( P < 0.05). Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of hippocampus was higher compared to visual rating scores for MTL in patients

  6. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhikav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. Materials and Methods: We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. Results: There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly (n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P> 0.05. In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = −0.54;P< 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of

  7. Hippocampal volume reduction in elderly patients at risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-hua; Liao, Yan; Rong, Peng-fei; Hu, Rong; Lin, Guo-xin; Ouyang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a formidable public health issue, which would not only affect the quality of life among elderly patients but also lead to pulmonary infection and increased mortality. While, there is a lack of an effective indicator in predicting POCD. As one pivotal part of the limbic system in brain, hippocampus is associated with cognitive function. Hippocampal atrophy could indicate the degree of changes in cognitive function. Forty-one ASA II or III patients (23 male, 18 female) aged ≥65 years undergoing open gastrointestinal tract surgery were enrolled in this study. MRI was performed to measure the volume of hippocampal formation before surgery and the results were standardized according to individual intracranial volume. All patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests including sensitive tests on the Wechsler adult memory scale and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, trail making test and the grooved pegboard test. We used the Z score to identify POCD as recommended by ISPOCD. All patients were then divided into POCD group and non-POCD group according to the results of the neuropsychological tests. The results of the tests were correlated with the volume of hippocampal formation measured by MRI. The value of MRI measurement of hippocampal volume in predicting POCD was analyzed. Multivariate linear correlation analyses of compositive Z score using potential contributing factors such as age, duration of anesthesia, education and hippocampal volume was carried out. Thirty-six patients completed the whole battery of neuropsychological tests after surgery. Thirteen of the 36 patients were found to have POCD (36 %) on the postoperative 4th day. The hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in POCD group (4.75 ± 0.23) than in non-POCD group (5.06 ± 0.31). Hippocampal volume had great influence on Z score, and had negative correlation with Z score. The MRI measurement of hippocampal volume is suggested to be valuable

  8. Hippocampal volume in relation to clinical and cognitive outcome after electroconvulsive therapy in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, P; Larsson, M R; Larsson, E-M; Johanson, A

    2014-04-01

    In a previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we found a significant increase in hippocampal volume immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal volume up to 1 year after ECT and investigate its possible relation to clinical and cognitive outcome. Clinical and cognitive outcome in 12 in-patients with depression receiving antidepressive pharmacological treatment referred for ECT were investigated with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and a broad neuropsychological test battery within 1 week before and after ECT. The assessments were repeated 6 and 12 months after baseline in 10 and seven of these patients, respectively. Hippocampal volumes were measured on all four occasions with 3 Tesla MRI. Hippocampal volume returned to baseline during the follow-up period of 6 months. Neither the significant antidepressant effect nor the significant transient decrease in executive and verbal episodic memory tests after ECT could be related to changes in hippocampal volume. No persistent cognitive side effects were observed 1 year after ECT. The immediate increase in hippocampal volume after ECT is reversible and is not related to clinical or cognitive outcome. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lauxen Peruzzolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder. We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.

  10. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...... healthy controls by use of a 3-T scanner. We warped the brain images to each other by use of a high-dimensional intersubject registration algorithm. We performed voxel-wise group comparisons with permutation tests. We performed small volume correction for the hippocampus, caudate and ventricles by use...... that hippocampal and caudate volumes were decreased in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. We found no ventricular enlargement, differences in global volume or significant associations between tissue volume and duration of untreated illness or psychopathology. The hippocampal volume reductions appeared...

  11. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory: New Insights from Hippocampal Left-Right Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gaby, Mohamady; Shipton, Olivia A; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-10-01

    All synapses are not the same. They differ in their morphology, molecular constituents, and malleability. A striking left-right asymmetry in the distribution of different types of synapse was recently uncovered at the CA3-CA1 projection in the mouse hippocampus, whereby afferents from the CA3 in the left hemisphere innervate small, highly plastic synapses on the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas those originating from the right CA3 target larger, more stable synapses. Activity-dependent modification of these synapses is thought to participate in circuit formation and remodeling during development, and further plastic changes may support memory encoding in adulthood. Therefore, exploiting the CA3-CA1 asymmetry provides a promising opportunity to investigate the roles that different types of synapse play in these fundamental properties of the CNS. Here we describe the discovery of these segregated synaptic populations in the mouse hippocampus, and discuss what we have already learnt about synaptic plasticity from this asymmetric arrangement. We then propose models for how the asymmetry could be generated during development, and how the adult hippocampus might use these distinct populations of synapses differentially during learning and memory. Finally, we outline the potential implications of this left-right asymmetry for human hippocampal function, as well as dysfunction in memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Hippocampal volume changes in healthy subjects at risk of unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaré, William F C; Vinberg, Maj; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    of major psychiatric disorder. High-risk twins had smaller hippocampal volumes than low-risk twins (pglobal brain tissue volumes or regional tissue volumes assessed in exploratory voxel-wise whole cerebrum analyses. In conclusion......, hippocampal volume reduction may index a predisposition to develop depression and thus may be predictive of future onset of the disorder. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of (shared) environmental and genetic factors.......Unipolar depression is moderately heritable. It is unclear whether structural brain changes associated with unipolar depression are present in healthy persons at risk of the disorder. Here we investigated whether a genetic predisposition to unipolar depression is associated with structural brain...

  13. Amount of lifetime video gaming is positively associated with entorhinal, hippocampal and occipital volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2014-07-01

    Playing video games is a popular leisure activity among children and adults, and may therefore potentially influence brain structure. We have previously shown a positive association between probability of gray matter (GM) volume in the ventral striatum and frequent video gaming in adolescence. Here we set out to investigate structural correlates of video gaming in adulthood, as the effects observed in adolescents may reflect only a fraction of the potential neural long-term effects seen in adults. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 62 male adults, we computed voxel-based morphometry to explore the correlation of GM with the lifetime amount of video gaming (termed joystick years). We found a significant positive association between GM in bilateral parahippocamal region (entorhinal cortex) and left occipital cortex/inferior parietal lobe and joystick years (Pvideo game genres played, such as logic/puzzle games and platform games contributing positively, and action-based role-playing games contributing negatively. Furthermore, joystick years were positively correlated with hippocampus volume. The association of lifetime amount of video game playing with bilateral entorhinal cortex, hippocampal and occipital GM volume could reflect adaptive neural plasticity related to navigation and visual attention.

  14. Reduced right posterior hippocampal volume in women with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifosì, Francesco; Toffanin, Tommaso; Follador, Halima; Zonta, Filippo; Padovan, Giordano; Pigato, Giorgio; Carollo, Carla; Ermani, Mario; Amistà, Pietro; Perini, Giulia Ida

    2010-10-30

    Volumetric changes in mood-relevant distributed limbic/paralimbic structures have been reported in the recent literature on the course of mood disorders. Patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders have been found to have smaller hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes. We examined hippocampal, amygdalar and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes in female patients with recurrent familial pure depressive disorder (rFPDD). We used semi-automated software for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, ACC and subgenual prefrontal cortex (SGPFC) in 15 female patients with familial recurrent major depression (MD) and 15 healthy female subjects. Analysis of covariance, with whole brain volume as covariate, was used to compare volumetric measurements in the two groups. Volumes of the right hippocampal body and tail were significantly smaller in female patients with familial depressive disorder than in healthy subjects. Our data provide evidence of structural lateralized hippocampal body and tail abnormalities in women with familial history and recurrent episodes of depression. Although global reduction of hippocampal volume has been widely reported, data on lateralized regional reductions in familial recurrent depression had not been previously reported. Reduced volume of the right posterior hippocampus could be a structural endophenotype for recurrent depressive disorders in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  16. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Martin; Grimm, Jimm; McIntyre, Riley; Anderson-Keightly, Heather; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Hales, Russell K; Moore, Joseph; Vannorsdall, Tracy; Redmond, Kristin J

    2017-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose-volume histograms were generated and dose-response data were fitted to a nonlinear model. Of 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose-response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline. This prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Tom; Harlow, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N = 30). Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter, and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  19. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  20. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Huanmin; Chen Jun; Zha Yunfei; Zhang Yu; Liu Changsheng; Pan Ewu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1 H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1 H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1 H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1 H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P 1 H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  1. Depression may be associated with hippocampal volume changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    pression whereas there was no relationship between cumulative time treated with antidepressants during depression.31. The HPA Axis in Depression. The HPA axis and its vulnerability to stress may be the common fac- tor in the hippocampal atrophy and associated memory deficits seen in depression and other disorders ...

  2. Hippocampal volume differences in Gulf War veterans with current versus lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Brigitte A; Ross, Jessica; Hlavin, Jennifer; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Metzler, Thomas J; Marmar, Charles R; Weiner, Michael W; Schuff, Norbert; Neylan, Thomas C

    2011-03-15

    Decreased hippocampal volume is described in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, it is not known whether it is a risk factor for the development of PTSD or a consequence of PTSD. We sought to determine the effects of PTSD and depressive symptoms on hippocampal volume. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data were collected in a cross sectional study of 244 Gulf War veterans. Measures included lifetime and current Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale, Life Stressor Checklist, and Lifetime Drinking History. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired with a 1.5-T scanner and analyzed with automated and semiautomated image processing techniques. Eighty-two veterans had lifetime PTSD, 44 had current PTSD, and 38 had current depression. In the linear regression analysis, current PTSD symptoms (standardized coefficient β = -.25, p = .03) but neither lifetime PTSD symptoms nor current depression were associated with smaller hippocampal volume. Gender, age, history of early life trauma, education, lifetime and current alcohol use, current marijuana use, and treatment with antidepressants did not have independent effects. Participants with chronic PTSD had, on average, a smaller hippocampus compared with those with remitted PTSD. The finding that current but not lifetime PTSD symptom severity explains hippocampal size raises two possibilities: either a small hippocampus is a risk factor for lack of recovery from PTSD (trait) or PTSD effects on hippocampal volume are reversible once PTSD symptoms remit and the patient recovers (state). Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-brain hippocampal sparing radiation therapy: Volume-modulated arc therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katrina, E-mail: Trinabena23@gmail.com; Lenards, Nishele; Holson, Janice

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus is responsible for memory and cognitive function. An ongoing phase II clinical trial suggests that sparing dose to the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy can help preserve a patient's neurocognitive function. Progressive research and advancements in treatment techniques have made treatment planning more sophisticated but beneficial for patients undergoing treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare hippocampal sparing whole-brain (HS-WB) radiation therapy treatment planning techniques using volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We randomly selected 3 patients to compare different treatment techniques that could be used for reducing dose to the hippocampal region. We created 2 treatment plans, a VMAT and an IMRT, from each patient's data set and planned on the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system (TPS). A total of 6 plans (3 IMRT and 3 VMAT) were created and evaluated for this case study. The physician contoured the hippocampus as per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol atlas. The organs at risk (OR) were contoured and evaluated for the plan comparison, which included the spinal cord, optic chiasm, the right and left eyes, lenses, and optic nerves. Both treatment plans produced adequate coverage on the planning target volume (PTV) while significantly reducing dose to the hippocampal region. The VMAT treatment plans produced a more homogenous dose distribution throughout the PTV while decreasing the maximum point dose to the target. However, both treatment techniques demonstrated hippocampal sparing when irradiating the whole brain.

  4. Hippocampal volume and CDR-SB can predict conversion to dementia in MCI patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Fiorani Borgio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combination of two factors: clinical dementia rating sum of boxes scores (CDR-SB and hippocampal volume (HV as predictors of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to dementia. METHODS: Twenty-eight individuals (9 normal and 19 with MCI were classified according to their CDR sum of boxes scores into 3 groups. RESULTS: The hippocampal volume was significantly lower in the high-risk group and in those who developed dementia after two years. The rate of conversion was crescent among the three groups. CONCLUSION: We were proposed an additional measurement of the hippocampal volume which may be helpful in the prognosis. However, we noted that the CDR-SB is a method as efficient as neuroimaging to predict dementia with the advantage of being a procedure for low cost and easy implementation, more consistent with public policy.

  5. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. METHODS: Experimental meningitis in rats was induced by intracisternal injection of live......-pneumococcal antibodies (n = 14). T2 and diffusion weighted MR images were used to analyze changes in hippocampus volume and water diffusion (ADC). The results were correlated to ADC of the cortex, to ventricular volume, and to the extent of hippocampal apoptosis. RESULTS: Both ADC and the volume of hippocampus were...... and the volume and size of brain ventricles were positively correlated (Spearman Rank, p  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In experimental meningitis increase in volume and water diffusion of the hippocampus are significantly...

  6. Not only cardiovascular, but also coordinative exercise increases hippocampal volume in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eNiemann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular activity has been shown to be positively associated with grey and white matter volume of, amongst others, frontal and temporal brain regions in older adults. This is particularly true for the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in learning and memory, and whose decline has been related to the development of Alzheimer´s disease. In the current study, we were interested in whether not only cardiovascular activity but also other types of physical activity, i.e., coordination training, were also positively associated with the volume of the hippocampus in older adults. For this purpose we first collected cross-sectional data on metabolic fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength and motor fitness (e.g, balance, movement speed, fine coordination. Second, we performed a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Results revealed that motor fitness but not metabolic fitness was associated with hippocampal volume. After the 12-month intervention period, both, cardiovascular and coordination training led to increases in hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest that a high motor fitness level as well as different types of physical activity were beneficial to diminish age-related hippocampal volume shrinkage or even increase hippocampal volume.

  7. MRI-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Patients With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Scott, Tammy M.; Bronen, Richard A.; Seibyl, John P.; Southwick, Steven M.; Delaney, Richard C.; McCarthy, Gregory; Charney, Dennis S.; Innis, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Studies in nonhuman primates suggest that high levels of cortisol associated with stress have neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in memory. The authors previously showed that patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had deficits in short-term memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the hippocampal volume of patients with PTSD to that of subjects without psychiatric disorder. Method Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the volume of the hippocampus in 26 Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD and 22 comparison subjects selected to be similar to the patients in age, sex, race, years of education, socioeconomic status, body size, and years of alcohol abuse. Results The PTSD patients had a statistically significant 8% smaller right hippocampal volume relative to that of the comparison subjects, but there was no difference in the volume of other brain regions (caudate and temporal lobe). Deficits in short-term verbal memory as measured with the Wechsler Memory Scale were associated with smaller right hippocampal volume in the PTSD patients only. Conclusions These findings are consistent with a smaller right hippocampal volume in PTSD that is associated with functional deficits in verbal memory. PMID:7793467

  8. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Egocentric and allocentric visuospatial working memory in premotor Huntington's disease: A double dissociation with caudate and hippocampal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Kim, Hosung; Geschwind, Michael D; Moskowitz, Tacie; Johnson, Erica T; Sha, Sharon J; Apple, Alexandra; Xu, Duan; Miller, Bruce L; Finkbeiner, Steven; Hess, Christopher P; Kramer, Joel H

    2017-07-01

    Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays. The only difference between these otherwise identical tests was that locations could only be coded in self-based or landmark-based coordinates. We applied a multiatlas-based segmentation algorithm and computed point-wise Jacobian determinants to measure regional variations in caudate and hippocampal volumes from 3T MRI. As predicted, the pmHD patients were significantly more impaired on egocentric working memory. Only egocentric accuracy correlated with caudate volumes, specifically the dorsolateral caudate head, right more than left, a region that receives dense efferents from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, only allocentric accuracy correlated with hippocampal volumes, specifically intermediate and posterior regions that connect strongly with parahippocampal and posterior parietal cortices. These results indicate that the distinction between egocentric and allocentric navigation applies to working memory. The dorsolateral caudate is important for egocentric working memory, which can explain the disproportionate impairment in pmHD. Allocentric working memory, in contrast, relies on the hippocampus and is relatively spared in pmHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormalities of hippocampal-cortical connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Wang, Chunheng; Li, Meng; Lv, Bin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common damage seen in the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, the hippocampal-cortical connectivity was defined as the correlation between the hippocampal volume and cortical thickness at each vertex throughout the whole brain. We aimed to investigate the differences of ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity between the unilateral TLE-HS patients and the normal controls. In our study, the bilateral hippocampal volumes were first measured in each subject, and we found that the ipsilateral hippocampal volume significantly decreased in the left TLE-HS patients. Then, group analysis showed significant thinner average cortical thickness of the whole brain in the left TLE-HS patients compared with the normal controls. We found significantly increased ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the left parahippocampal gyrus of the left TLE-HS patients, which indicated structural vulnerability related to the hippocampus atrophy in the patient group. However, for the right TLE-HS patients, no significant differences were found between the patients and the normal controls, regardless of the ipsilateral hippocampal volume, the average cortical thickness or the patterns of hippocampal-cortical connectivity, which might be related to less atrophies observed in the MRI scans. Our study provided more evidence for the structural abnormalities in the unilateral TLE-HS patients.

  11. Hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Magalhães, Nara Gyzely; Guerreiro Diniz, Cristovam; Guerreiro Diniz, Daniel; Pereira Henrique, Ediely; Corrêa Pereira, Patrick Douglas; Matos Moraes, Isis Ananda; Damasceno de Melo, Mauro André; Sherry, David Francis; Wanderley Picanço Diniz, Cristovam

    2017-01-01

    Long distance migratory birds find their way by sensing and integrating information from a large number of cues in their environment. These cues are essential to navigate over thousands of kilometers and reach the same breeding, stopover, and wintering sites every year. The semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) is a long-distance migrant that breeds in the arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the northeast coast of South America. Its fall migration includes a 5,300-kilometer nonstop flight over the Atlantic Ocean. The avian hippocampus has been proposed to play a central role in the integration of multisensory spatial information for navigation. Hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampal function and a variety of factors including cognitive activity, exercise, enrichment, diet and stress influence neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We quantified hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in adult migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers using stereological counts of doublecortin (DCX) immunolabeled immature neurons. We found that birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil during the wintering period had more DCX positive neurons and larger volume in the hippocampus than individuals captured in the Bay of Fundy, Canada during fall migration. We also estimate the number of NeuN immunolabeled cells in migrating and wintering birds and found no significant differences between them. These findings suggest that, at this time window, neurogenesis just replaced neurons that might be lost during the transatlantic flight. Our findings also show that in active fall migrating birds, a lower level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with a smaller hippocampal formation. High levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and a larger hippocampal formation found in wintering birds may be late occurring effects of long distance migratory flight or the result of conditions the birds experienced while wintering.

  12. Hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Gyzely de Morais Magalhães

    Full Text Available Long distance migratory birds find their way by sensing and integrating information from a large number of cues in their environment. These cues are essential to navigate over thousands of kilometers and reach the same breeding, stopover, and wintering sites every year. The semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla is a long-distance migrant that breeds in the arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the northeast coast of South America. Its fall migration includes a 5,300-kilometer nonstop flight over the Atlantic Ocean. The avian hippocampus has been proposed to play a central role in the integration of multisensory spatial information for navigation. Hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampal function and a variety of factors including cognitive activity, exercise, enrichment, diet and stress influence neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We quantified hippocampal neurogenesis and volume in adult migrating and wintering semipalmated sandpipers using stereological counts of doublecortin (DCX immunolabeled immature neurons. We found that birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil during the wintering period had more DCX positive neurons and larger volume in the hippocampus than individuals captured in the Bay of Fundy, Canada during fall migration. We also estimate the number of NeuN immunolabeled cells in migrating and wintering birds and found no significant differences between them. These findings suggest that, at this time window, neurogenesis just replaced neurons that might be lost during the transatlantic flight. Our findings also show that in active fall migrating birds, a lower level of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with a smaller hippocampal formation. High levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and a larger hippocampal formation found in wintering birds may be late occurring effects of long distance migratory flight or the result of conditions the birds experienced while wintering.

  13. Common variants at 12q14 and 12q24 are associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bis, Joshua C.; Decarli, Charles; Smith, Albert Vernon; van der Lijn, Fedde; Crivello, Fabrice; Fornage, Myriam; Debette, Stephanie; Shulman, Joshua M.; Schmidt, Helena; Srikanth, Velandai; Schuur, Maaike; Yu, Lei; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Jack, Clifford R.; Struchalin, Maksim; Stankovich, Jim; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Fleischman, Debra; Zijdenbos, Alex; den Heijer, Tom; Mazoyer, Bernard; Coker, Laura H.; Enzinger, Christian; Danoy, Patrick; Amin, Najaf; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; van Buchem, Mark A.; de Bruijn, Renée F. A. G.; Beiser, Alexa; Dufouil, Carole; Huang, Juebin; Cavalieri, Margherita; Thomson, Russell; Niessen, Wiro J.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Gislason, Gauti K.; Hofman, Albert; Pikula, Aleksandra; Amouyel, Philippe; Freeman, Kevin B.; Phan, Thanh G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hibar, Derrek P.; Wright, Margaret J.; Franke, Barbara; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Nalls, Michael A.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Au, Rhoda; Elbaz, Alexis; Beare, Richard J.; van Swieten, John C.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Chouraki, Vincent; Breteler, Monique M. B.; de Jager, Philip L.; Becker, James T.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Knopman, David; Fazekas, Franz; Wolf, Philip A.; van der Lugt, Aad; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Longstreth, W. T.; Brown, Matthew A.; Bennett, David A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tzourio, Christophe; Launer, Lenore J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Senstad, Rudy E.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Toro, Roberto; Appel, Katja; Bartecek, Richard; Bergmann, Ørjan; Bernard, Manon; Brown, Andrew A.; Cannon, Dara M.; Chakravarty, Mallar; Christoforou, Andrea; Domin, Martin; Grimm, Oliver; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Langan, Camilla; Lopez, Lorna M.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Kim, Sungeun; Laje, Gonzalo; Lee, Phil H.; Liu, Xinmin; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Mattingsdal, Morten; Mohnke, Sebastian; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; O'Brien, Carol; Papmeyer, Martina; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Rose, Emma J.; Ryten, Mina; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Strengman, Eric; Teumer, Alexander; Trabzuni, Daniah; Turner, Jessica; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolf, Christiane; Woudstra, Saskia; Aleman, Andre; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Brohawn, David G.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Corvin, Aiden; Czisch, Michael; Curran, Joanne E.; Davies, Gail; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fagerness, Jesen; Fox, Peter T.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gill, Michael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Hagler, Donald J.; Hoehn, David; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogman, Martine; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Lancaster, Jack L.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liewald, David C.; Mandl, René; Matarin, Mar; Mattheisen, Manuel; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Moses, Eric K.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nauck, Matthias; Nöthen, Markus M.; Olvera, Rene L.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pike, G. Bruce; Puls, Ralf; Reinvang, Ivar; Rentería, Miguel E.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Savitz, Jonathan; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schnell, Knut; Seiferth, Nina; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Joris A.; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Agartz, Ingrid; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hagoort, Peter; Hall, Jeremy; Heinz, Andreas; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Macciardi, Fabio; Montgomery, Grant W.; Poline, Jean Baptiste; Porteous, David J.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Starr, John M.; Sussmann, Jessika; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Bastin, Mark E.; Blangero, John; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Cichon, Sven; Coppola, Giovanni; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jenkinson, Mark; Kahn, René S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Morris, Derek W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W.; Potkin, Steven G.; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume that are accelerated by Alzheimer's disease and vascular risk factors. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dementia-free persons (n = 9,232) identified 46 SNPs at four loci with P values of <4.0 × 10(-7). In two additional samples (n

  14. Amygdala to hippocampal volume ratio is associated with negative memory bias in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Negative memory bias is thought to be one of the main cognitive risk and maintenance factors for depression, but its neural substrates are largely unknown. Here, we studied whether memory bias is related to amygdala and hippocampal volume, two structures that are critical for emotional

  15. What causes the hippocampal volume decrease in depression? : Are neurogenesis, glial changes and apoptosis implicated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Even though in vivo imaging studies document significant reductions of hippocampal volume in depressed patients, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Since stressful life events are associated with an increased risk of developing depression, preclinical studies in which animals are

  16. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...

  17. HLA-A2 Alleles Mediate Alzheimer's Disease by Altering Hippocampal Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Xuan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Lin; Sun, Fu-Rong; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Chen-Chen; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-05-01

    HLA-A is a locus of the major histocompatibility complex situated on chromosome 6p21.3. HLA-A has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we firstly investigated the association of gene variants in HLA-A and brain structures on MRI in a large sample from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to explore the effects of HLA-A on AD pathogenesis. We selected the hippocampus, parahippocampus, posterior cingulate, precuneus, middle temporal, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala as regions of interest (ROIs). In hybrid population analysis, our results showed a marginally significant association between rs9260168 and the atrophy of the left parahippocampus (P = 0.007, Pc = 0.054), rs3823342 and the atrophy of the left parahippocampus (P = 0.014, Pc = 0.054), rs76475517, which only exists in Caucasians with HLA-A23 or HLA-A24 alleles, and the atrophy of the right amygdala (P = 0.010, Pc = 0.085) at baseline. In particular, the haplotype (TGACAAGG), as a surrogate marker of HLA-A2, was founded to be positively associated with the atrophy of the right hippocampus (P = 0.047) at baseline. Furthermore, we detected the above four associations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subpopulation analysis. Our study provided preliminary evidences supporting HLA-A2 in Caucasians contribute to the risk of AD by modulating the alteration of hippocampal volume and HLA-A gene variants appear to play a role in altering AD-related brain structures on MRI.

  18. Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, Lena; Axelsson, Rimma [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: lena.cavallin@karolinska.se; Bronge, Lena [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Aleris Diagnostics, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Yi [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Oeksengaard, Anne-Rita [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ulleval Univ. Hospital and Asker and Baerum Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Wahlund, Lars-Olof [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish Brain Power, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fratiglioni, Laura [ARC Karolinska Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Background: It is important to have a replicable easy method for monitoring atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric methods for calculating hippocampal volume are time-consuming and commonly used in research. Visual assessments of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) is a rapid method for clinical use. This method has not been tested in a large non-demented population in comparison with volumetry measurements. Since hippocampal volume decreases with time even in normal aging there is also a need to study the normal age differences of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Purpose: To compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) with hippocampal volume in a healthy, non-demented elderly population. To describe normal ageing using vaMTA. Material and Methods: Non-demented individuals aged 60, 66, 72, 78, 81, 84, and {>=}87 years old were recruited from the Swedish National study on Ageing and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Sweden. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, vaMTA, and calculations of hippocampal volumes were performed in 544 subjects. Results: Significant correlation (rs = -0.32, P < 0.001, sin; and rs = -0.26, P < 0.001, dx) was found between hippocampal volume measurements and vaMTA. In normal ageing, almost 95% of {<=}66-year-olds had a medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score {<=}1, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 4. Subjects aged 72, 78, and 81 years scored {<=}2, while the two oldest age groups had scores {<=}3. Conclusion: There was a highly significant correlation between volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and MTA scoring. In normal ageing, there is increasing MTA score. For non-demented elderly individuals {<=}70 years, an MTA score of 0-1 may be considered normal, compared with MTA {<=}2 for 70-80-years and MTA 3 for >80-year-old individuals.

  19. Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine Increases Verbal Declarative Memory and Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Southwick, Steven M.; Charney, Dennis S.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that stress is associated with damage to the hippocampus, inhibition of neurogenesis, and deficits in hippocampal-based memory dysfunction. Studies in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found deficits in hippocampal-based declarative verbal memory and smaller hippocampal volume, as measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent preclinical evidence has shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors promote neurogenesis and reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal atrophy. This study assessed the effects of long-term treatment with paroxetine on hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in PTSD. Methods Declarative memory was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised and Selective Reminding Test before and after 9–12 months of treatment with paroxetine in PTSD. Hippocampal volume was measured with MRI. Of the 28 patients who started the protocol, 23 completed the full course of treatment and neuropsychological testing. Twenty patients were able to complete MRI imaging. Results Patients with PTSD showed a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms with treatment. Treatment resulted in significant improvements in verbal declarative memory and a 4.6% increase in mean hippocampal volume. Conclusions These findings suggest that long-term treatment with paroxetine is associated with improvement of verbal declarative memory deficits and an increase in hippocampal volume in PTSD. PMID:14512209

  20. Volume of hippocampal subfields and episodic memory in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joshua K; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-07-01

    Episodic memory critically depends on the hippocampus to bind the features of an experience into memory. Episodic memory develops in childhood and adolescence, and hippocampal changes during this period may contribute to this development. Little is known, however, about how the hippocampus contributes to episodic memory development. The hippocampus is comprised of several cytoarchitectural subfields with functional significance for episodic memory. However, hippocampal subfields have not been assessed in vivo during child development, nor has their relation with episodic memory been assessed during this period. In the present study, high-resolution T2-weighted images of the hippocampus were acquired in 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 14 years (M=11.30, SD=2.38), and hippocampal subfields were segmented using a protocol previously validated in adult populations. We first validated the method in children and adolescents and examined age-related differences in hippocampal subfields and correlations between subfield volumes and episodic memory. Significant age-related increases in the subfield volume were observed into early adolescence in the right CA3/DG and CA1. The right CA3/DG subfield volumes were positively correlated with accurate episodic memory for item-color relations, and the right CA3/DG and subiculum were negatively correlated with item false alarm rates. Subfield development appears to follow a protracted developmental trajectory, and likely plays a pivotal role in episodic memory development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hippocampal subregion volume changes associated with antipsychotic treatment in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhindress, K; Robinson, D G; Gallego, J A; Wellington, R; Malhotra, A K; Szeszko, P R

    2017-07-01

    Hippocampal dysfunction is considered central to many neurobiological models of schizophrenia, yet there are few longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging studies that have investigated the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and morphologic changes within specific hippocampal subregions among patients with psychosis. A total of 29 patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis with little or no prior antipsychotic exposure received structural neuroimaging examinations at illness onset and then following 12 weeks of treatment with either risperidone or aripiprazole in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. In addition, 29 healthy volunteers received structural neuroimaging examinations at baseline and 12-week time points. We manually delineated six hippocampal subregions [i.e. anterior cornu ammonis (CA) 1-3, posterior CA1-3, subiculum, dentate gyrus/CA4, entorhinal cortex, and fimbria] from 3T magnetic resonance images using an established method with high inter- and intra-rater reliability. Following antipsychotic treatment patients demonstrated significant reductions in dentate gyrus/CA4 volume and increases in subiculum volume. Healthy volunteers demonstrated non-significant volumetric changes in these subregions across the two time points. We observed a significant quadratic (i.e. inverted U) association between changes in dentate gyrus/CA4 volume and cumulative antipsychotic dosage between the scans. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge regarding longitudinal in vivo volumetric changes within specific hippocampal subregions in patients with psychosis following antipsychotic treatment. The finding of a non-linear relationship between changes in dentate gyrus/CA4 subregion volume and antipsychotic exposure may provide new avenues into understanding dosing strategies for therapeutic interventions relevant to neurobiological models of hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis.

  2. Adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal volume in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Yuan, Mingxia; Bowden, Donald W; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Register, Thomas C; Carr, J Jeffrey; Williamson, Jeff D; Sink, Kaycee M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Freedman, Barry I

    To assess associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and computed tomography-determined volumes of pericardial, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging-(MRI) based cerebral structure and cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study was performed in 348 African Americans (AAs) and 256 European Americans (EAs) with T2D. Associations between adiposity measures with cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions, hippocampal GMV, and hippocampal WMV, cognitive performance and depression were examined using marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension, statins, cardiovascular disease, MRI scanner (MRI outcomes only), and time between scans; some neuroimaging measures were additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Participants were 59.9% female with mean (SD) age 57.7(9.3)years, diabetes duration 9.6(6.8)years, and HbA1c 7.8(1.9)%. In AAs, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal GMV and both BMI (β [95% CI]-0.18 [-0.30, -0.07], P=0.0018) and WC (-0.23 [-0.35, -0.12], P=0.0001). In the full bi-ethnic sample, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal WMV and WC (P≤0.0001). Positive relationships were observed between BMI (P=0.0007) and WC (P<0.0001) with depression in EAs. In patients with T2D, adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal gray and white matter volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative measurement of left ventricular volume by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, T.T.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Hawman, E.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of measuring left ventricular (LV) volume using SPECT images, an adjustable boundary detection algorithm was performed to optimize the estimated volume. The algorithm was based on combined first-and second-difference edge-enhancement operators weighted by a hybrid parameter α(0 < α < 1). A ventricular phantom placed inside an elliptical phantom containing two balsa wood ''lungs'' was used in the experimental measurements. Two LV volume determination methods were evaluated. In the pixel summing method, no optimal value was found. In the count summing method, the optimal value was 0.4, where the error is less than 10%. In patient studies, the estimated LV volumes determined by the count summing method with α = 0.4 agree with that determined by the cath. method

  4. Influence of parental care on offspring hippocampal volume in young adults varies as a function of overprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinan; Song, Yiying; Li, Xueting; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Parental care results in increased hippocampal volumes through adaptive stress responses in developing animals. However, human studies have not yet provided consistent findings analogous to the animal literature, possibly because parental care in humans is likely intermingled with parental overprotection, as suggested by the optimal parenting theory. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of parental care on offspring hippocampal volume varies as a function of parental overprotection ...

  5. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hippocampal volume and serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahdidan, Jamila; Foldager, Leslie; Rosenberg, Raben

    2013-01-01

    volume and tensor-based morphometry was used to elucidate structural brain differences. A triallelic genetic marker resulting from two SLC6A4 promoter region polymorphisms, 5-HTTLPR and rs25531, was analysed for association with MDD and quantitative traits. Results: Healthy controls had a smaller...

  7. Influence of parental care on offspring hippocampal volume in young adults varies as a function of overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Song, Yiying; Li, Xueting; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Jia

    2017-04-12

    Parental care results in increased hippocampal volumes through adaptive stress responses in developing animals. However, human studies have not yet provided consistent findings analogous to the animal literature, possibly because parental care in humans is likely intermingled with parental overprotection, as suggested by the optimal parenting theory. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of parental care on offspring hippocampal volume varies as a function of parental overprotection with a large cohort of young adult participants (N = 257). Consistent with some previous human studies, we found that parental care in childhood alone had little association with the hippocampal volume in adulthood. However, when parental overprotection was low, parental care was positively correlated with offspring hippocampal volume, whereas there was no association between parental care and offspring hippocampal volume when parental overprotection was high. Thus, an interaction exists between parental care and overprotection in human's hippocampal development, which contributes to the elucidation of the complex relationship between brain structure and environmental factors.

  8. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-06-01

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  10. Insomnia severity is associated with a decreased volume of the CA3/Dentate Gyrus Hippocampal Subfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylan, Thomas C.; Mueller, Susanne G.; Wang, Zhen; Metzler, Thomas J.; Lenoci, Maryann; Truran, Diana; Marmar, Charles R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Prolonged disruption of sleep in animal studies is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Our objective was to determine if insomnia severity in a sample of PTSD and controls was associated with decreased volume in the CA3/dentate hippocampal subfield. Methods Volumes of hippocampal subfields in seventeen veteran males positive for PTSD (41 ±12 years) and nineteen age-matched male veterans negative for PTSD were measured using 4 Tesla MRI. Subjective sleep quality was measured by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results Higher scores on the ISI, indicating worse insomnia, were associated with smaller volumes of the CA3/dentate subfields (r= −.48, p < 0.01) in the combined sample. Adding the ISI score as a predictor for CA3/dentate volume to a hierarchical linear regression model after first controlling for age and PTSD symptoms accounted for a 13 % increase in incremental variance (t= −2.47, p= 0.02). Conclusions The findings indicate for the first time in humans that insomnia severity is associated with volume loss of the CA3/dentate subfields. This is consistent with animal studies showing that chronic sleep disruption is associated with decreased neurogenesis and dendritic branching in these structures. PMID:20598672

  11. Less Daily Computer Use is Related to Smaller Hippocampal Volumes in Cognitively Intact Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Lisa C; Dodge, Hiroko H; Lahna, David; Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Austin, Daniel; Mattek, Nora; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Computer use is becoming a common activity in the daily life of older individuals and declines over time in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between daily computer use (DCU) and imaging markers of neurodegeneration is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between average DCU and volumetric markers of neurodegeneration on brain MRI. Cognitively intact volunteers enrolled in the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Change study underwent MRI. Total in-home computer use per day was calculated using mouse movement detection and averaged over a one-month period surrounding the MRI. Spearman's rank order correlation (univariate analysis) and linear regression models (multivariate analysis) examined hippocampal, gray matter (GM), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (vCSF) volumes in relation to DCU. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified relationships between regional GM density and DCU. Twenty-seven cognitively intact participants used their computer for 51.3 minutes per day on average. Less DCU was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), but not total GM, WMH, or vCSF volumes. After adjusting for age, education, and gender, less DCU remained associated with smaller hippocampal volume (p = 0.01). Voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that less daily computer use was associated with decreased GM density in the bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes. Less daily computer use is associated with smaller brain volume in regions that are integral to memory function and known to be involved early with Alzheimer's pathology and conversion to dementia. Continuous monitoring of daily computer use may detect signs of preclinical neurodegeneration in older individuals at risk for dementia.

  12. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericksen Mielle Borba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]. Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results: MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion: The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  13. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  14. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, M?rcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric me...

  16. Correlation of neuropsychological and metabolic changes after epilepsy surgery in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Canan; Dupont, Patrick; Van den Stock, Jan; Seynaeve, Laura; Porke, Kathleen; Dries, Eva; Van Bouwel, Karen; van Loon, Johannes; Theys, Tom; Goffin, Karolien E; Van Paesschen, Wim

    2018-04-12

    Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. Thirteen patients were included. All had neuropsychological testing and an interictal FDG-PET scan of the brain pre- and postoperative. Correlations between changes in neuropsychological test scores and metabolism were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). There were no significant changes in the neuropsychological test scores pre- and postoperatively at the group level. Decreased metabolism was observed in the left mesial temporal regions and occipital lobe. Increased metabolism was observed in the bi-frontal and right parietal lobes, temporal lobes, occipital lobes, thalamus, cerebellum, and vermis. In these regions, we did not find a correlation between changes in metabolism and neuropsychological test scores. A significant negative correlation, however, was found between metabolic changes in the precuneus and Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores. There are significant metabolic decreases in the left mesial temporal regions and increases in the bi-frontal lobes; right parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes; right thalamus; cerebellum; and vermis in patients with left MTLE-HS who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. We could not confirm that these changes translate into significant cognitive changes. A significant negative correlation was found between changes in confrontation naming and changes in metabolism in the precuneus. We speculate that the precuneus may play a compensatory role in patients with postoperative naming difficulties after left TLE surgery. Understanding of these neural mechanisms may aid in

  17. Cognitive reserve moderates the association between hippocampal volume and episodic memory in middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fiecas, Mark Joseph A; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Grant, Michael D; Jak, Amy J; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Xian, Hong; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive reserve is hypothesized to help people withstand greater brain pathology without manifesting clinical symptoms, and may be regarded as a preventive factor of dementia. It is unclear whether the effect of cognitive reserve is evident only among the older adults or after conversion to dementia, or if it can also be seen earlier in life before the prominent effects of cognitive aging become apparent. While finding a main effect of cognitive reserve on cognitive outcome may be consistent with the reserve hypothesis, in our view, it is unnecessary to invoke the idea of reserve if only a main effect is present. Rather, it is the interaction between a measure of reserve and a brain measure on cognitive outcome that is key for confirming that the effects of brain pathology affect people differently according to their cognitive reserve. We studied whether general cognitive ability at an average age of 20 years, as a direct measure of cognitive reserve, moderates the association between hippocampal volume and episodic memory performance in 494 middle-aged men ages 51 to 60. Whereas there was no statistically significant direct relationship between hippocampal volume and episodic memory performance in middle age, we found a statistically significant interaction such that there was a positive association between hippocampal volume and episodic memory only among people with lower general cognitive ability at age 20, i.e., lower levels of cognitive reserve. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between brain structure and cognition in middle age, well before the onset of dementia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hippocampal volume change measurement: quantitative assessment of the reproducibility of expert manual outlining and the automated methods FreeSurfer and FIRST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Emma R; de Jong, Remko A; Knol, Dirk L; van Schijndel, Ronald A; Cover, Keith S; Visser, Pieter J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-05-15

    To measure hippocampal volume change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), expert manual delineation is often used because of its supposed accuracy. It has been suggested that expert outlining yields poorer reproducibility as compared to automated methods, but this has not been investigated. To determine the reproducibilities of expert manual outlining and two common automated methods for measuring hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy aging, MCI and AD. From the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), 80 subjects were selected: 20 patients with AD, 40 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). Left and right hippocampal volume change between baseline and month-12 visit was assessed by using expert manual delineation, and by the automated software packages FreeSurfer (longitudinal processing stream) and FIRST. To assess reproducibility of the measured hippocampal volume change, both back-to-back (BTB) MPRAGE scans available for each visit were analyzed. Hippocampal volume change was expressed in μL, and as a percentage of baseline volume. Reproducibility of the 1-year hippocampal volume change was estimated from the BTB measurements by using linear mixed model to calculate the limits of agreement (LoA) of each method, reflecting its measurement uncertainty. Using the delta method, approximate p-values were calculated for the pairwise comparisons between methods. Statistical analyses were performed both with inclusion and exclusion of visibly incorrect segmentations. Visibly incorrect automated segmentation in either one or both scans of a longitudinal scan pair occurred in 7.5% of the hippocampi for FreeSurfer and in 6.9% of the hippocampi for FIRST. After excluding these failed cases, reproducibility analysis for 1-year percentage volume change yielded LoA of ±7.2% for FreeSurfer, ±9.7% for expert manual delineation, and ±10.0% for FIRST. Methods ranked the same for reproducibility of 1

  19. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés; Bastin, Mark E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol → brain → cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r = −.28 to −.36, p cognition associations (cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure. PMID:26298692

  20. Differential Left Hippocampal Activation during Retrieval with Different Types of Reminders: An fMRI Study of the Reconsolidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pino, Gabriela; Fernández, Rodrigo Sebastián; Villarreal, Mirta Fabiana; Pedreira, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Consolidated memories return to a labile state after the presentation of cues (reminders) associated with acquisition, followed by a period of stabilization (reconsolidation). However not all cues are equally effective in initiating the process, unpredictable cues triggered it, predictable cues do not. We hypothesize that the different effects observed by the different reminder types on memory labilization-reconsolidation depend on a differential neural involvement during reminder presentation. To test it, we developed a declarative task and compared the efficacy of three reminder types in triggering the process in humans (Experiment 1). Finally, we compared the brain activation patterns between the different conditions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). We confirmed that the unpredictable reminder is the most effective in initiating the labilization-reconsolidation process. Furthermore, only under this condition there was differential left hippocampal activation during its presentation. We suggest that the left hippocampus is detecting the incongruence between actual and past events and allows the memory to be updated. PMID:26991776

  1. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erik; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Göran; Wysocka, Anna; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge

    2012-11-29

    An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients' lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31-65) treated for head and neck cancer 4-10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 - 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients' lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume.

  2. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Methods Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31–65) treated for head and neck cancer 4–10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 – 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. Conclusion The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients’ lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume. PMID:23193977

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptom Severities Are Differentially Associated With Hippocampal Subfield Volume Loss in Combat Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Christopher L; Satodiya, Ritvij M; Scott, J Cobb; Wrocklage, Kristen M; Schweinsburg, Brian; Averill, Lynnette A; Akiki, Teddy J; Amoroso, Timothy; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Abdallah, Chadi G

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of human neuroimaging research have associated volume reductions in the hippocampus with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the distribution of volume loss across hippocampal subfields. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made it possible to accurately delineate 10 gray matter hippocampal subfields. Here, we apply a volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields to data from a group of combat-exposed Veterans. Veterans (total, n = 68, posttraumatic stress disorder, n = 36; combat control, n = 32) completed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Based on previously validated methods, hippocampal subfield volume measurements were conducted using FreeSurfer 6.0. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale assessed posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity; Beck Depression Inventory assessed depressive symptom severity. Controlling for age and intracranial volume, partial correlation analysis examined the relationship between hippocampal subfields and symptom severity. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using false discovery rate. Gender, intelligence, combat severity, comorbid anxiety, alcohol/substance use disorder, and medication status were investigated as potential confounds. In the whole sample, total hippocampal volume negatively correlated with Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and Beck Depression Inventory scores. Of the 10 hippocampal subfields, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity negatively correlated with the hippocampus-amygdala transition area (HATA). Beck Depression Inventory scores negatively correlated with dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 4 (CA4), HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA1. Follow-up analysis limited to the posttraumatic stress disorder group showed a negative correlation between Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity and each of HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA4. This study provides the first evidence relating posttraumatic stress

  4. The influence of negative life events on hippocampal and amygdala volumes in old age: a life-course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; Kalpouzos, G.; Westman, E.; Simmons, A.; Wahlund, L.O.; Backman, L.; Fratiglioni, L.; Wang, H.X.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Psychosocial stress has been related to changes in the nervous system, with both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of negative events experienced throughout the entire lifespan and hippocampal and amygdala volumes in older

  5. Effects of Erythropoietin on Hippocampal Volume and Memory in Mood Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Vinberg, Maj; Macoveanu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    study assessed the neuroanatomical basis for these effects. METHODS: Patients with TRD who were moderately depressed or BD in partial remission were randomized to 8 weekly EPO (40,000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, memory...... assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and mood ratings with the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale at baseline and week 14. Hippocampus segmentation and analysis of hippocampal volume, shape, and gray matter density were conducted...... with FMRIB Software Library tools. Memory change was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of covariance adjusted for depression symptoms, diagnosis, age, and gender. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients were randomized; 1 patient withdrew and data collection was incomplete for 14 patients; data were thus...

  6. Amygdalar and hippocampal volume: A comparison between manual segmentation, Freesurfer and VBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Oliver; Pohlack, Sebastian; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Winkelmann, Tobias; Plichta, Michael M; Demirakca, Traute; Flor, Herta

    2015-09-30

    Automated segmentation of the amygdala and the hippocampus is of interest for research looking at large datasets where manual segmentation of T1-weighted magnetic resonance tomography images is less feasible for morphometric analysis. Manual segmentation still remains the gold standard for subcortical structures like the hippocampus and the amygdala. A direct comparison of VBM8 and Freesurfer is rarely done, because VBM8 results are most often used for voxel-based analysis. We used the same region-of-interest (ROI) for Freesurfer and VBM8 to relate automated and manually derived volumes of the amygdala and the hippocampus. We processed a large manually segmented dataset of n=92 independent samples with an automated segmentation strategy (VBM8 vs. Freesurfer Version 5.0). For statistical analysis, we only calculated Pearsons's correlation coefficients, but used methods developed for comparison such as Lin's concordance coefficient. The correlation between automatic and manual segmentation was high for the hippocampus [0.58-0.76] and lower for the amygdala [0.45-0.59]. However, concordance coefficients point to higher concordance for the amygdala [0.46-0.62] instead of the hippocampus [0.06-0.12]. VBM8 and Freesurfer segmentation performed on a comparable level in comparison to manual segmentation. We conclude (1) that correlation alone does not capture systematic differences (e.g. of hippocampal volumes), (2) calculation of ROI volumes with VBM8 gives measurements comparable to Freesurfer V5.0 when using the same ROI and (3) systematic and proportional differences are caused mainly by different definitions of anatomic boundaries and only to a lesser part by different segmentation strategies. This work underscores the importance of using method comparison techniques and demonstrates that even with high correlation coefficients, there can be still large differences in absolute volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired spatial pattern separation performance in temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with visuospatial memory deficits and hippocampal volume loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Anny; Holden, Heather M; Chang, Yu-Hsuan A; Uttarwar, Vedang S; Sheppard, David P; DeFord, Nicole E; DeJesus, Shannon Yandall; Kansal, Leena; Gilbert, Paul E; McDonald, Carrie R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) experience episodic memory deficits that may be progressive in nature. These memory decrements have been shown to increase with the extent of hippocampal damage, a hallmark feature of TLE. Pattern separation, a neural computational mechanism thought to play a role in episodic memory formation, has been shown to be negatively affected by aging and in individuals with known hippocampal dysfunction. Despite the link between poor pattern separation performance and episodic memory deficits, behavioral pattern separation has not been examined in patients with TLE. We examined pattern separation performance in a group of 22 patients with medically-refractory TLE and 20 healthy adults, using a task hypothesized to measure spatial pattern separation with graded levels of spatial interference. We found that individuals with TLE showed less efficient spatial pattern separation performance relative to healthy adults. Poorer spatial pattern separation performance in TLE was associated with poorer visuospatial memory, but only under high interference conditions. In addition, left hippocampal atrophy was associated with poor performance in the high interference condition in TLE. These data suggest that episodic memory impairments in patients with chronic, refractory TLE may be partially due to less efficient pattern separation, which likely reflects their underlying hippocampal dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  9. Blood pressure levels, left ventricular mass and function are correlated with left atrial volume in mild to moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A; Caserta, M A; Dematteis, A; Naso, D; Pertusio, A; Magnino, C; Puglisi, E; Rabbia, F; Pandian, N G; Mulatero, P; Veglio, F

    2009-11-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and leads to a pronounced increase in morbidity and mortality. Left atrial volume (LAV) is an important prognostic marker in the older populations. The aim of our study was to identify the clinical and echocardiographic determinants of LAV in middle-aged (R(2)=0.19, P<0.001) and LAV were increased in essential hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and patients with enlarged LAV showed lower systolic and diastolic function and an increased LVMI. The LAVi is dependent on blood pressure levels and anthropometric variables (age and BMI). Further structural (LVMI) and functional (systolic and diastolic) variables are related to the LAVi; LVMI is the most important variable associated with LAV in mild to moderate essential hypertensive adult patients. These findings highlight the importance of left atrium evaluation in adult, relatively young, essential hypertensive patients.

  10. The influence of right ventricular apical pacing on left atrial volume in patients with normal left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Moaref1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right ventricular apical (RVA pacing has been reported to induce several deleterious effects particularly in the presence of structural heart disease but can also involve patients with normal left ventricular (LV function. Left atrial (LA enlargement is one of these effects, but the majority of studies have measured LA dimension rather than volume.Objective: The present prospective study was designed to assess the effect of RVA pacing on LA volume in patients with normal LV function.Patients and Methods: The study comprised 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fraction ≥ 45% and LV end diastolic dimension ≤ 56 mm who underwent single-or dual- chamber pacemaker implantation in RVA and followed for LA volume measurement and pacemaker analysis at least during the ensuing 4.2 months. Results: In all, 21 patients were excluded from the study due to five spontaneous wide QRS complex (≥120msec, one recent acute coronary syndrome,one significant valvular heart disease, three pacing frequency <90%, eight death or losing follow up in three cases. In remaining 20 patients, LA volume ragned from 21 to 54 mm3 with mean of 37.3±9.7 mm3 prior to pacemaker implantation that increased to 31 to 103 mm3 (54.3±17.0 during follow-up (P<0.001.Conclusion: RVA pacing might lead to an increase in LA volume even in patients with normal LV function.

  11. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined...... determinations by radionuclide angiocardiography and indicator dilution (r = 0.74; P less than 0.001). Stroke volume determination by radionuclide was 83 +/- 20 ml (mean +/- SD) and by indicator dilution 84 +/- 20 ml with a difference of -1 +/- 15 ml (NS). Cardiac output determination by radionuclide was 5...

  12. Superior Temporal Gyrus Volume Abnormalities and Thought Disorder in Left-Handed Schizophrenic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinger, Dorothy P.; Shenton, Martha E.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Donnino, Robert; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of schizophrenia have not clearly defined handedness as a differentiating variable. Moreover, the relationship between thought disorder and anatomical anomalies has not been studied extensively in left-handed schizophrenic men. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus of the temporal lobe (left and right hemispheres) in left-handed schizophrenic men and left-handed comparison men, in order to determine whether thought disorder in the left-handed schizophrenic men correlated with tissue volume abnormalities. Method Left-handed male patients (N=8) with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia were compared with left-handed comparison men (N=10) matched for age, socioeconomic status, and IQ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 1.5-T magnet was used to obtain scans, which consisted of contiguous 1.5-mm slices of the whole brain. MRI analyses (as previously defined by the authors) included the anterior, posterior, and total superior temporal gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres. Results There were three significant findings regarding the left-handed schizophrenic men: 1) bilaterally smaller gray matter volumes in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (16% smaller on the right, 15% smaller on the left); 2) a smaller volume on the right side of the total superior temporal gyrus; and 3) a positive correlation between thought disorder and tissue volume in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of brain pathology differs between left-handed and right-handed schizophrenic men and that the pathology is related to cognitive disturbance. PMID:10553736

  13. Hippocampal volume and auditory attention on a verbal memory task with adult survivors of pediatric brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Reema; King, Tricia Z; Morris, Robin; Na, Sabrina

    2015-03-01

    We examined the nature of verbal memory deficits and the possible hippocampal underpinnings in long-term adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. 35 survivors (M = 24.10 ± 4.93 years at testing; 54% female), on average 15 years post-diagnosis, and 59 typically developing adults (M = 22.40 ± 4.35 years, 54% female) participated. Automated FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools were used to measure hippocampal, putamen, and whole brain volumes. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) was used to assess verbal memory. Hippocampal, F(1, 91) = 4.06, ηp² = .04; putamen, F(1, 91) = 11.18, ηp² = .11; and whole brain, F(1, 92) = 18.51, ηp² = .17, volumes were significantly lower for survivors than controls (p memory indices of auditory attention list span (Trial 1: F(1, 92) = 12.70, η² = .12) and final list learning (Trial 5: F(1, 92) = 6.01, η² = .06) were significantly lower for survivors (p auditory attention, but none of the other CVLT-II indices. Secondary analyses for the effect of treatment factors are presented. Volumetric differences between survivors and controls exist for the whole brain and for subcortical structures on average 15 years post-diagnosis. Treatment factors seem to have a unique effect on subcortical structures. Memory differences between survivors and controls are largely contingent upon auditory attention list span. Only hippocampal volume is associated with the auditory attention list span component of verbal memory. These findings are particularly robust for survivors treated with radiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Association among clinical response, hippocampal volume, and FKBP5 gene expression in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder receiving cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a reduced expression of FKBP5, a key modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. Smaller hippocampal volume has also been documented in PTSD. We explored possible changes in FKBP5 gene expression and brain structure in patients with PTSD after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We measured peripheral FKBP5 RNA and volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial orbitofrontal cortex in 39 patients with PTSD before and after CBT. The control subjects were 31 trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD who were also assessed twice. Gene expression changes were screened with a microarray toolkit, which was followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for FKBP5 RNA. Brain volumes were measured using FreeSurfer. At baseline, patients with PTSD showed lower FKBP5 gene expression and smaller hippocampal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, but not amygdala, volumes relative to control subjects. At follow-up, we found significantly increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume in patients with PTSD. At follow-up, patients did not differ from control subjects in hippocampal volume. Improvement in PTSD symptoms was predicted by increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume, but the primary predictor was FKBP5 expression. The most significantly altered gene expression in patients with PTSD relative to control subjects was found for ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which did not change after CBT and did not correlate with hippocampal volume. Clinical improvement in individuals with PTSD was associated with increased expression of FKBP5 and increased hippocampal volume, which were positively correlated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  15. Maternal vitamin C deficiency does not reduce hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin III intensity in prenatal Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi

    2016-01-01

    Marginal vitamin C (vitC) deficiency affects 5% to 10% of adults including subpopulations such as pregnant women and newborns. Animal studies link vitC deficiency to deleterious effects on the developing brain, but exactly how the brain adapts to vitC deficiency and the mechanisms behind...... the observed deficits remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that vitC deficiency in utero may lead to a decreased neuronal maturation and increased cellular death giving rise to alterations of the hippocampal morphology in a guinea pig model. Brains from prenatal guinea pig pups (n = 9-10 in each group......) subjected to either a sufficient (918 mg vitC/kg feed) or deficient (100 mg vitC/kg feed) maternal dietary regimen were assessed with regards to hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin isotype III staining intensity at 2 gestational time points (45 and 56). We found a distinct differential regional growth...

  16. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  17. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J

    2011-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution...... or thermodilution and left ventricular cardioangiographic techniques. In a paired comparison the mean difference between the invasive and radionuclide SV was -1 ml (SED 3.1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (p less than 0.01). Radionuclide LVEF values also correlated well with cardioangiographic measurements......, r = 0.93 (p less than 0.001). LVEF determined by multigated radionuclide cardiography was, however, significantly lower than when measured by cardioangiography, the mean difference being 6 per cent (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that radionuclide determinations of SV and LVEF...

  19. Detection the changes of hippocampal volume and the lateral ventricle vein in the patients with depression with susceptibility weighted imaging and morphological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Huihui; Li Yuefeng; Wang Dongqing; Wei Chuanshe; Duan Ruigen; Zhao Tian; Zhao Liang; Jiang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the hippocampal structure in the patients with depression in varying degrees of severity with the combination of the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and morphological measurement. Methods: Sixty patients (divided equally into mild, moderate and major group as the conditions of the severity of depression) and 20 healthy controls were scanned using the three dimensional fast low angle shot imaging sequence (3D-FLASH) and SWI. Then the morphological images were manually segmented and delineated by three doctors. The hippocampal volumes were calculated and standardized. The maximum diameter, length and the branching numbers of the Inferior ventricular vein which were clear demonstrated in the SWI were measured. The changes in the venous system and morphology among the three different degrees of severity in depression and the healthy controls were contrastively analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance. Results: Left and right hippocampal volumes: the mild group were 2246 ± 147, 2271 ± 151; the moderate group were 2028 ± 65, 2038 ± 57; the major group were 1965 ± 129, 1962 ± 110; the healthy control were 2287 ± 160, 2305 ± 171. There were statistically significant differences among the four groups (F = 7.45, 8.55, P < 0.01). The hippocampal volumes of depressive patients were smaller than that of the healthy controls, with the biggest variability occurred in the major depressive patients (Dunnett-t = -7.04, -7.54, P < 0.01) and the second in the moderate group (Dunnett-t = -6.73, -6.64, P < 0.01). There were no statistical significant difference between the mild group and the control (Dunnett-t = -0.85, -0.67, P > 0.05). The diameter,length and branch numbers of the lateral ventricle vein: the mild group were (0.94 ± 0.09) mm, (12.0 ± 1.07) mm and 3.67 ± 1.03 ; the moderate group were (0.81 ± 0.04) mm, (10.2 ± 1.25) mm and 2.00 ± 0.89 ; the major group were (0.70 ± 0.08) mm, (8.6 ± 1.40) mm and 1.83 ± 0.75 ; the healthy

  20. Predicting memory performance in normal ageing using different measures of hippocampal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, T.C.; Creasey, H.; Kril, J.J.; Grayson, D.A.; Piguet, O.; Bennett, H.P.; Ridley, L.J.; Broe, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life. (orig.)

  1. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  2. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  3. Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adulthood and Hippocampal Volume and Integrity at Middle Age: The CARDIA Study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Reis, Jared P; Levine, Deborah A; Bryan, R Nick; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Tedla, Yacob G; Allen, Norrina B; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bancks, Michael P; Sidney, Stephen; Pletcher, Mark J; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the relationships of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in young adulthood to hippocampal volume and integrity at middle age. We used data over 8 examinations spanning 25 years collected in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) of black and white adults (age, 18-30 years) started in 1985 to 1986. Visit-to-visit BP variability was defined as by SD BP and average real variability (ARV BP , defined as the absolute differences of BP between successive BP measurements). Hippocampal tissue volume standardized by intracranial volume (%) and integrity assessed by fractional anisotropy were measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at the year-25 examination (n=545; mean age, 51 years; 54% women and 34% African Americans). Mean systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP levels were 110/69 mm Hg at year 0 (baseline), 117/73 mm Hg at year 25, and ARV SBP and SD SBP were 7.7 and 7.9 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, higher ARV SBP was associated with lower hippocampal volume (unstandardized regression coefficient [standard error] with 1-SD higher ARV SBP : -0.006 [0.003]), and higher SD SBP with lower hippocampal fractional anisotropy (-0.02 [0.01]; all P young adulthood may be useful in assessing the potential risk for reductions in hippocampal volume and integrity in midlife. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Systematic comparison of different techniques to measure hippocampal subfield volumes in ADNI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Susanne G.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Das, Sandhitsu

    2018-01-01

    labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows. A. T1-based: 1. Freesurfer + Large......Objective Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield...... regression analyses were used to calculate effect sizes (ES) for group, amyloid positivity in controls, and associations with cognitive/memory performance for each approach. Results Subfield volumetry was better than whole hippocampal volumetry for the detection of the mild atrophy differences between...

  5. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  6. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Owen; Xie, Jing; Fletcher, Evan; Singh, Baljeet; Decarli, Charles; A, Saradha; Abdi, Hervé; Abdul Hadi, Normi; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Achuthan, Anusha; Adluru, Nagesh; Aggarwal, Namita; Aghajanian, Jania; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Duaa; Ahmed, Shiek; Ahmed, Fareed; Ahmed, Fayeza; Akbarifar, Roshanak; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Aksu, Yaman; Alcauter, Sarael; Daniel, Alexander; Alin, Aylin; Alshuft, Hamza; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Anderson, Dallas; Anderson, Jeff; Andorn, Anne; Ang, Amma; Angersbach, Steve; Ansarian, Reza; Appaji, Abhishek; Appannah, Arti; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armentrout, Steven; Arrighi, Michael; Arumughababu, S. Vethanayaki; Arunagiri, Vidhya; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashford, Wes; Aurelie, Le Page; Avants, Brian; Aviv, Richard; Avula, Ramesh; Ayache, Nicholas; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun; Ayhan, Murat; B V, Sumana; Babic, Tomislav; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Bagepally, Bhavani; Baird, Geoffrey; Baker, John; Baker, Suzanne; Bakker, Arnold; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Barbash, Shahar; Barker, Warren; Bartlett, Jonathan; Bartley, Mairead; Baruchin, Andrea; Battaglini, Iacopo; Bauer, Corinna; Bayley, Peter; Beck, Irene; Becker, James; Beckett, Laurel; Bednar, Martin; Bedner, Arkadiusz; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Bekris, Lynn; Belaroussi, Boubakeur; Belloch, Vicente; Ben Ahmed, Olfa; Bender, J. Dennis; Bendib, Mohamed Mokhtar; Benois-Pineau, Jenny; Bhagchandani, Sameer; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Biffi, Alessandro; Bilgic, Basar; Bilgin, Gokhan; Billing, Bill; Bishop, Courtney; Bittner, Daniel; Björnsdotter, Malin; Black, Sandra; Bloss, Cinnamon; Blunck, Yasmin; Bocti, Christian; Bohorquez, Adriana; Bokde, Arun; Boone, John; Borrie, Michael; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bouttout, Haroune; Bowman, DuBois; Gene, Gene; Boxer, Adam; Bozoki, Andrea; Bracard, Serge; Braskie, Meredith; Braunewell, Karl; Breitner, Joihn; Bresell, Anders; Brewer, James; Brickhouse, Michael; Brickman, Adam; Britschgi, Markus; Broadbent, Steve; Brock, Birgitte; Buchsbaum, Monte; Buerger, Katharina; Bunce, David; Burnham, Samantha; Burns, Jeffrey; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Butler, Tracy; Cabeza, Rafael; Cabral, George; Caffery, Terrell; Cai, Zhengchen; Callhoff, Johanna; Calvini, Piero; Campbell, Noll; Carbotti, Angela; Carle, Adam; Carmasin, Carle; Carpenter, Carmichael; Carvalho, Janessa; Casanova, Casanova Ramon; Casey, Anne; David, David; Cash, David; Cataldo, Rosella; Cella, Massimo; Chakravarty, Mallar; Chang, Ih; Chao, Linda; Charil, Arnaud; Che-Wei, Chang; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Ing-jou; Chen, Jung-Tai; Chen, Rong; Chen, Chuangquan; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Heng; Chen, Jake; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Cheng, Xi; Cheng, Bo; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Chertkow, Howard; Cheung, Vinci; Chiang, Gloria; Chiao, Ping; chibane, Mouatez Billah; Chida, Noriko; Chin, Simon; Ching, Christopher; Chisholm, Jane; Cho, Claire; Cho, Sung-Sik; Choe, John; Choubey, Suresh; Chowbina, Sudhir; Ciocia, Gianluigi; Clark, David; Clarkson, Matt; Clerc, Stephanie; Climer, Sharlee; Clunie, David; Coen, Michael; Coimbra, Alexandre; Compton, David; Coubard, Olivier; Coulin, Samuel; Coulson, Elizabeth; Cover, Keith S.; Crans, Gerald; Crawford, Karen; Croop, Robert; Crum, William; Cui, Yue; Da, Long; Daiello, Lori; Darby, Eveleen; Darkner, Sune; Darnell, Robert; Davatzikos, Christos; DavidPrakash, Bhaskaran; Davidson, Christopher; Davis, Melissa; de Bruijne, Marleen; Decker, Summer; DeDuck, Kristina; Dehghan, Hossein; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; DeOrchis, Vincent; Dépy Carron, Delphine; Desjardins, Benoit; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Devanand, Davangere; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Devier, Deidre; DeVous, Michael; Di, Xin; Di, Jianing; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Diciotti, Stefano; Dickerson, Bradford; Dickie, David Alexander; Dickinson, Philip; Dill, Vanderson; Ding, Xiaobo; Dinov, Ivo; Dobosh, Brian; Dobson, Howard; Dodge, Hiroko; Dolman, Andrew; Dolmo, Bess-Carolina; Dong, Wen; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dorflinger, Ernest; Dowling, Maritza; Dragicevic, Natasa; Dubal, Dena; Duchesne, Simon; Duff, Kevin; Dukart, Jürgen; Durazzo, Timothy; Dutta, Joyita; DWors, Robert; Egefjord, Lærke; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; Emahazion, Tesfai; Endres, Christopher; Epstein, Noam; Ereshefsky, Larry; Eskildsen, Simon; Espinosa, Eskildsen; Esposito, Mario; Ewers, Michael; Falcone, Guido; Fan, Zhen; Fan, Yong; Fan, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farahmandpoor, Zeinab; Farb, Norman; Fardo, David; Farias, Sarah; Farnum, Michael; Farrer, Lindsay; Fatke, Bastian; Faux, Noel; Favilla, Stefania; Fazlollahi, Amir; Feldman, Betsy; Félix, Zandra; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Fernandes, Michel; Fernandez, Santos; Fernandez, Elsa; Ferrer, Eugene; Fetterman, Bob; Figurski, Michal; Fillit, Howard; Finch, Stephen; Fiot, Jean-Baptiste; Flenniken, Derek; Flores, Christopher; Flynn Longmire, Crystal; Focke, Niels; Forsythe, Alan; Foxhall, Suzanne; Franko, Edit; Freeman, Roderick; Freire, Rodolpho; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Giovanni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Fujiwara, Ken; Fullerton, Terence; Gaffour, Yacine; Galvin, Ben; Gamst, Anthony; Gan, Ke; Gao, Sujuan; Garg, Gaurav; Gaser, Christian; Gastineau, Edward; Gattaz, Wagner; Gaubert, Malo; Gaudreau, Amanda; Gauthier, Serge; Ge, Tian; Gemme, Gianluca; Geraci, Joseph; Gholipour, Farhad; Ghosh, Debashis; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gieschke, Ronald; Gill, Ryan; Gillespie, William; Gitelman, Darren; Gkontra, Xenia; Gleason, Carey; Glymour, M. Maria; Godbey, Michael; Gold, Brian; Goldberg, Terry; Goldman, Jennifer; Gomar, Jesus; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Gore, Chris; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Goto, Masami; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Grasela, Thaddeus; Gray, Katherine; Gregory, Erik; Greicius, Michael; Grill, Joshua; Grolmusz, Vince; Gross, Alden; Gross, Alan; Grydeland, Håkon; Guignot, Isabelle; Guo, Hongbin; Guo, Gimiao; Guo, Liang-Hao; Gupta, Vinay; Guyot, Jennifer; Haas, Magali; Habeck, Christian; Habte, Frezghi; Haight, Thaddeus; Hajaj, Chen; Hajiesmaeili, Maryam; Hajjar, Ihab; Hammarstrom, Per; Hampel, Harald; Han, Zhaoying; Han, Duke; Hanna, Yousef; Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Hao, Yongfu; Hardy, Peter; Harrison, John; Harvey, Danielle; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Haynes, John-Dylan; He, Yong; He, Huiguang; Head, Denise; Heckemann, Rolf; Heegaard, Niels; Heidebrink, Judith; Hellyer, Peter; Helwig, Michael; Henderson, David; Herholz, Karl; Hess, Christopher; Hill, Sophie; Hisaka, Akihiro; Ho Ming, Au Yeung; Hobart, Jeremy; Hochstetler, Helen; Hofer, Scott; Hoffman, John; Holder, Daniel; Hollingworth, Paul; Holmes, Robin; Hong, Hyunseok; Hong, Hong; Honigberg, Lee; Hoogenraad, Frank; Hope, Thomas; Hot, Pascal; Hsieh, Helen; Hsu, Ailing; Hu, William; Hu, Xiaochen; Hu, Chenhui; Hu, Mingxing; Hua, Wen-Yu; Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Xudong; Huang, Juebin; Huang, Yifan; Huang, Chun-Jung; Huang, Zihan; Huentelman, Matthew; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Hurt, Stephen; Hussain, Maqbool; Hutchins, Jim; Hwang, Scott; Hyun, JungMoon; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Iglesias, Martina; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki; Iman, Adjoudj; Imani, Farzin; Immermann, Fred; Inlow, Mark; Inoue, Lurdes; Insel, Philip; Irizarry, Michael; Ishibashi, Taro; Ishii, Kenji; Ito, Kaori; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Jacks, Adam; Jacobson, Mark; Jacqmin, Philippe; Jaeger, Markus; Jagger, Richard; Jagust, William; Janousova, Eva; Jara, Hernan; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jenq, John; Jiang, Tianzi; Jiang, Chunxiang; Jiao, Yun; Jiaolong, Qin; Jin, Kun; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, Julene; Johnson, Kent; Gareth, Gareth; Jones, Mark; Jones, Richard; Joshi, Rohit; Joshi, Shantanu; Jouvent, Eric; Juengling, Freimut; Jung, Wonbeom; Junjie, Zhuo; K G, Muthamma; Kabilan, Meena; Kairui, Zhang; Kam, Hye Jin; Kamer, Angela; Kanakaraj, Sithara; Kanchev, Vladimir; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Kang, Hyunseok; Kang, Ju Hee; Kang, Jian; Karantzoulis, Stella; Kaushik, Sandeep S.; Kauwe, John; Kawashima, Shoji; Kaye, Edward; Kazemi, Samaneh; Ke, Han; Kelleher, Thomas; Kennedy, Richard; Keogh, Bart; Kerchner, Geoffrey; Kerr, Daniel; Keshava, Nirmal; Khalil, Andre; Khondker, Zakaria; Kiddle, Steven; Kihara, Takeshi; Killeen, Neil; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Seongkyun; Kim, Dajung; Kim, Ana; Kim, Jong Hun; Kimberg, Daniel; King, Richard; Kirby, Justin; Kirsch, Wolff; Klein, Gregory; Klimas, Michael; Kline, Richard; Klopfenstein, Erin; Koen, Joshua; Koenig, Loren; Koikkalainen, Juha; Kokomoor, Anders; Kong, Xiangnan; Koppel, Jeremy; Korolev, Igor; Krahnke, Tillmann; Krams, Michael; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhl, Donald; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, P. Kumar; Kuo, Julie; Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Labib, Victor; Labrish, Catherine; Lai, Song; Lakatos, Anita; Lalonde, François; Lam, Shing Chun Benny; Lam, On Ki; Lampron, Antoine; Landau, Susan; Lane, Barton; Langbaum, Jessica; Langford, Dianne; Lanius, Vivian; Lasch, Shirley; Latella, Marco; Hiuyan, Hiuyan; Leatherday, Christopher; Lee, Doheon; Lee, Grace; Lee, Sei; Lee, Jong an; Lemaitre, Herve; Lenfant, Pierre; Leonards, Ute; Leong, Leonards; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Leung, Kelvin; Leung, Yuk Yee; Levey, Allan; Li, Ming; Li, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Lexin; Li, Yanming; Li, Quanzheng; Li, Rui; Li, Yi; Li, Junning; Li, Yue; Li, Jun; Li, Weidong; Li, Xiaobo; Liang, Peipeng; Liang, Kuchang; Liang, Kelvin; Liao, Weiqi; Liao, Shu; Liaquat, Saad; Liaw, Chyn; Liberman, Gilad; Lilley, Patrick; Lin, Frank; Lin, Xiaoman; Lin, Ai-Ling; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Yawu; Liu, Yanping; Liu, Linda; Liu, Wei; Liu, Collins; Liu, Manhua; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Tao; Liu, Ye; Liu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yin; Liu, Dazhong; Liu, Sidong; Liu, Guodong; Llido, Jerome; Lo, Raymond; Lobach, Iryna; Lobanov, Victor; Lockhart, Andrew; Long, Ziyi; Long, Xiaojing; Long, Miaomiao; Looi, Jeffrey; Lu, Huanxiang; Lu, Yuefeng; Lu, Po-Haong; Lucena, Nathaniel; Luis, Jorge; Lukas, Carsten; Lukic, Ana; Luo, Xi; Luo, Xiongjian; Luo, Lei; Luo, Wanchun; Ma, Suk Ling; Ma, Shen-Ming; Mackin, Scott; Mada, Marius; Madabhushi, Anant; Madeira, Sara; Magland, Jeremy; Mahanta, Mohammad Shahin; Maikusa, Norihide; Maldjian, Joseph; Mandal, Indrajit; Mang, Mandal; Manjon, Jose; Mantri, Ninad; Manzour, Amir; Marcus, Daniel; Margolin, Richard; Marrett, Sean; Marshall, Gad; Martinez Gonzalez, Alberto; Martinez Torteya, Antonio; Martins, Renato; Mather, Mara; Mathis, Chester; Matoug, Sofia; Mattei, Peter; Matthews, Dawn; Mattis, Paul; McCarroll, Steven; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGinnis, Scott; McGonigle, John; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; McIntyre, John; McLaren, McIntyre; McMillan, Corey; McQuail, Joseph; Meadowcroft, Mark; Meda, Shashwath; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melrose, Rebecca; Mendelson, Alexander; Mendez, Mendelson; Menendez, Mendez; Meng, Meng; Meredith, Jere; Meyer, Carsten; Mez, Jesse; Mickael, Guedj; Mikula, Margit; Miller, Michael; Colleen, Colleen; Mintun, Mark; Mistridis, Panagiota; Mitchell, Mistridis; Mitsis, Effie; Mon, Mitsis; Moore, Dana; Morabito, Moore C.; Moradi Birgani, Parmida; Moratal, David; Morimoto, Bruce; Mormino, Elizabeth; Morris, Jill; Morris, Jeffrey; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Moscato, Pablo; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller, Kathyrne; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Mukund, Nandita; Mulder, Emma; Mungas, Dan; Munir, Kamran; Murayama, Shigeo; N, Sairam; Nagata, Ken; Nair, Anil; Nasrabadi, Samira; Nativio, Raffaella; Nazeri, Arash; Nejad, Leila; Nekooei, Sirous; Nemeth, Imola; Nencka, Andrew; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Nghi; Nguyen, Hien; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Niecko, Timothy; Nielsen, Casper; Niethammer, Marc; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Nordstrom, Matthew; Noshad, Sina; Notomi, Keiji; Novak, Nic; Nutakki, Gopi Chand; O'Charoen, Sirimon; Obisesan, Thomas; Oh, Joonmi; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Oliveira, João; Oliveira, Ailton; Oliver, Ruth; Olmos, Salvador; Oltra, Javier; Ong, Rowena; Ortner, Marion; Osadebey, Michael; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Ovando Vazquez, Cesare Moises; Overholser, Rosanna; P, Anishiya; P K A, Chitra; Pa, Judy; Palanisamy, Preethi; Pan, Guodong; Pan, Zhifang; Pan, Sarah; Pande, Yogesh; Pardo, Jose; Pardoe, Heath; Park, Sujin; Park, Lovingly; Park, Moon Ho; Park, Hyunjin; Parker, Christopher; Patel, Yogen; Patil, Amol; Patil, Manasi; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Pierre, Pierre; Pell, Gaby; Pennec, Xavier; Pereira, Francisco; Perlbarg, Vincent; Perneczky, Robert; Peters, Frederic; Petitti, Diana; Petrella, Jeffrey; Petrou, Myria; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Ngoc, Phuong Trinh Pham; Phillips, Justin; Phillips, Nicole; Pian, Wen-ting; Pierson, Ronald; Piovezan, Mauro; Pipitone, Jon; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Planes, Xavi; Podhorski, Adam; Poirier, Judes; Pomara, Nunzio; 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Tancredi, Daniel; Tang, Qi; Tanzi, Rudolph; Tarnow, Eugen; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Tarver, Erika; Tassy, Dominique; Tauber, Dominique; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Teipel, Stefan; Teng, Edmond; Termenon, Maite; Terriza, Felipe; Thambisetty, Madhav; Thames, April; Thatavarti, Raja Sekhar; Thiele, Frank; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Charlene; Thomas, Benjamin; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Wesley; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Toma, Ahmed; Tomita, Naoki; Toro, Roberto; Torrealdea, Patxi; Toschi, Nicola; Tosto, Giuseppe; Toussaint, Paule; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Triggs, Tyler; Trittschuh, Emily; Trotta, Gabriele; Truong Huu, Tram; Truran, Diana; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios; Tsanas, Athanasios; Tsang, Candy; Tufail, Ahsan; Tung, Joyce; Turken, And; Turner, Raymond; Tyagi, Puneet; Ueda, Yoji; Uematsu, Daisuke; Ullrich, Lauren; Umar, Nisser; Ungar, Leo; Valenzuela, Olga; van de Nes, Joseph; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lijn, Fedde; van Hecke, Wim; van Horn, John; van Leemput, Koen; van Train, Kenneth; Varkuti, Balint; Vasanawala, Minal; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Vellay, Stephane; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Verma, Manish; Vidoni, Eric; Louis, Louis; Vinyes, Georgina; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Vitek, Michael; Vogel, Simon; Voineskos, Aristotle; Vos, Stephanie; Vounou, Maria; Wade, Sara; Walsh, Alexander; Wang, Ze; Wang, Angela; Wang, Li; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Tiger; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zheyu; Wang, Tianyao; Wang, Yongmei Michelle; Wang, Song; Wang, Lei; Wang, Lubin; Wang, Squall; Wang, Jingyan; Ward, Michael; Ward, Andrew; Watson, David; Wefel, Jeffrey; Weiner, Michael; Wenzel, Fabian; Wesnes, Keith; Shawn, Shawn; Westlye, Lars T.; Wheland, David; Whitcher, Brandon; White, Brooke; Whitlow, Christopher; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Beth, Beth; Wilson, Lorraine; Wingo, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Wishart, Heather; Wiste, Heather; Wittemer, Elizabeth; Wolf, Henrike; Wolke, Ira; Wolz, Robin; Wong, Koon; Woo, Ellen; Woo, Jongwook; Woods, Lynn; Worth, Andrew; 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Q.; Yu, Peng; Yuan, Ying; Yuen, Bob; Yushkevich, Paul; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Zagorodnov, Vitali; Zahodne, Laura; Zarei, Mojtaba; Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zelinski, Elizabeth; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhan, Xhu; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Daoqiang; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Kate; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Luping; Zhou, Yongxia; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Xuyan; Zhu, Hongtu; Zhu, Linling; Zhu, Zangen; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zilka, Samantha; Zisserman, Andrew; Zito, Giancarlo; Zu, Zito; Zulfigar, Annam

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures

  8. Localized hippocampus measures are associated with Alzheimer pathology and cognition independent of total hippocampal volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, O.; Xie, J.; Fletcher, E.; Singh, B.; DeCarli, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological process is region-specific and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of localized hippocampus (HP) atrophy are known to detect region-specific changes associated with clinical AD, but it is unclear whether these measures

  9. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; Smits, Marion; de Groot, Marius; Mattace Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri A; Niessen, Wiro J; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Swieten, John C; van der Veen, Frederik M; Prins, Niels D

    2017-09-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory relates to hippocampal functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory does not relate to hippocampal structure in MCI. • Functional network changes are an important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI.

  10. Assessment of left atrial volume and function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Bue F Ross; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Linde, Jesper James

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. AF is associated with enlargement of the left atrium (LA), and the LA volume has important prognostic implications for the disease. The objective of the study was to determine how ...... measurements of LA volume and function obtained by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) correlate in patients with permanent AF....

  11. Reduced expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1: high IL-6 levels are associated with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frodl, T

    2012-01-01

    Neuroplasticity may have a core role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), a concept supported by experimental studies that found that excessive cortisol secretion and\\/or excessive production of inflammatory cytokines impairs neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The objective of this study was to examine how changes in the glucocorticoid and inflammatory systems may affect hippocampal volumes in MDD. A multimodal approach with structural neuroimaging of hippocampus and amygdala, measurement of peripheral inflammatory proteins interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression, and expression of glucocorticoid-inducible genes (glucocorticoid-inducible genes Leucin Zipper (GILZ) and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK-1)) was used in 40 patients with MDD and 43 healthy controls (HC). Patients with MDD showed smaller hippocampal volumes and increased inflammatory proteins IL-6 and CRP compared with HC. Childhood maltreatment was associated with increased CRP. Patients with MDD, who had less expression of the glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ or SGK-1 had smaller hippocampal volumes. Regression analysis showed a strong positive effect of GILZ and SGK-1 mRNA expression, and further inverse effects of IL-6 concentration, on hippocampal volumes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment, peripheral inflammatory and glucocorticoid markers and hippocampal volume are interrelated factors in the pathophysiology of MDD. Glucocorticoid-inducible genes GILZ and SGK-1 might be promising candidate markers for hippocampal volume changes relevant for diseases like MDD. Further studies need to explore the possible clinical usefulness of such a blood biomarker, for example, for diagnosis or prediction of therapy response.

  12. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection

  13. Early maternal alcohol consumption alters hippocampal DNA methylation, gene expression and volume in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Marjonen

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are known, but the molecular events that lead to the phenotypic characteristics are unclear. To unravel the molecular mechanisms, we have used a mouse model of gestational ethanol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v ethanol for the first 8 days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5. Early neurulation takes place by the end of this period, which is equivalent to the developmental stage early in the fourth week post-fertilization in human. During this exposure period, dynamic epigenetic reprogramming takes place and the embryo is vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors. Thus, we hypothesize that early ethanol exposure disrupts the epigenetic reprogramming of the embryo, which leads to alterations in gene regulation and life-long changes in brain structure and function. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in the mouse hippocampus revealed altered expression of 23 genes and three miRNAs in ethanol-exposed, adolescent offspring at postnatal day (P 28. We confirmed this result by using two other tissues, where three candidate genes are known to express actively. Interestingly, we found a similar trend of upregulated gene expression in bone marrow and main olfactory epithelium. In addition, we observed altered DNA methylation in the CpG islands upstream of the candidate genes in the hippocampus. Our MRI study revealed asymmetry of brain structures in ethanol-exposed adult offspring (P60: we detected ethanol-induced enlargement of the left hippocampus and decreased volume of the left olfactory bulb. Our study indicates that ethanol exposure in early gestation can cause changes in DNA methylation, gene expression, and brain structure of offspring. Furthermore, the results support our hypothesis of early epigenetic origin of alcohol-induced disorders: changes in gene regulation may have already taken place in embryonic stem cells and therefore can be seen in

  14. Left ventricular volume during supine exercise: importance of myocardial scar in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.L.; Scharf, J.; Ahnve, S.; Gilpin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that exercise-induced ischemia produces an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume; however, all of these studies have included patients with previous myocardial infarction. To test whether the end-diastolic volume response to exercise is related to the extent of myocardial scar, the results of gated radionuclide supine exercise tests performed on 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 subjects were reviewed. The patient group comprised 130 men aged 35 to 65 years (mean +/- SD 52 +/- 5) with documented coronary heart disease. The extent of myocardial ischemia and scar formation was assessed by stress electrocardiography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of left ventricular end-diastolic volume response at peak exercise: group 1 (n = 72) had an increase of end-diastolic volume greater than 10%, group 2 (n = 41) had a change in end-diastolic volume less than 10% and group 3 (n = 17) had a decrease in end-diastolic volume greater than 10% (n = 17). At rest there was no significant difference among groups in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, end-diastolic (EDVrest) or end-systolic volumes or ejection fraction (p greater than 0.05); however, at peak exercise the end-systolic volume response was significantly greater for group 1 (p less than 0.002)

  15. Left ventricular force-velocity relations measured from quick volume changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiereck, Piet; Boom, H.B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Left ventricles of rabbit hearts were subjected to series of quick volume releases (QVR) — taking placw within 6 ms — applied at fixed times in the cardiac cycle. The hearts were paced artificially and allowed to contract isovolumically. The QVR was used as a tool for realizing predetermined

  16. Measurement of left ventricular volume by biplane cine magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Fukiko; Hamamichi, Yuuji; Hashimoto, Ikuo; Tsubata, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ayumi; Okada, Toshio; Murakami, Arata; Futatsuya, Ryuusuke (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    To determine the ability of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes, we studied 20 children (age 4 months to 10 years) with various heart disease, validated by comparison with biplane LV angiography. Previous MRI studies to assess LV volumes have used multiple axial planes, which are compromised by partial volume effects and are time consuming to acquire and analyze. Accordingly, an imaging approach using biplane cine MRI and planes aligned with the true cardiac axes (the intrinsic long and short axis) of the LV was developed in views comparable with biplane LV angiography. In all patients, LV volumes were calculated by a Simpson's rule algorithm, both in MRI and LV angiography. MRI determined LV volumes were slightly underestimated but correlated reasonably well with angiographic values (LVEDV: Y=0.88X + 1.58, R=0.98, LVESV: Y=0.72X + 1.02, R=0.98). Especially, even in the patients who have abnormal left ventricular geometry such as Tetralogy of Fallot, MRI determined LV volumes correlated well with angiographic values. It is concluded that biplane cine MRI, using the intrinsic LV long and short axis planes, permits noninvasive assessment of LV volumes in views comparable to standard angiographic projections and appears practical for clinical use in childhood heart disease, because the scan and analysis time are relatively short. (author).

  17. Measurement of left ventricular volume by biplane cine magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichida, Fukiko; Hamamichi, Yuuji; Hashimoto, Ikuo; Tsubata, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ayumi; Okada, Toshio; Murakami, Arata; Futatsuya, Ryuusuke

    1993-01-01

    To determine the ability of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes, we studied 20 children (age 4 months to 10 years) with various heart disease, validated by comparison with biplane LV angiography. Previous MRI studies to assess LV volumes have used multiple axial planes, which are compromised by partial volume effects and are time consuming to acquire and analyze. Accordingly, an imaging approach using biplane cine MRI and planes aligned with the true cardiac axes (the intrinsic long and short axis) of the LV was developed in views comparable with biplane LV angiography. In all patients, LV volumes were calculated by a Simpson's rule algorithm, both in MRI and LV angiography. MRI determined LV volumes were slightly underestimated but correlated reasonably well with angiographic values (LVEDV: Y=0.88X + 1.58, R=0.98, LVESV: Y=0.72X + 1.02, R=0.98). Especially, even in the patients who have abnormal left ventricular geometry such as Tetralogy of Fallot, MRI determined LV volumes correlated well with angiographic values. It is concluded that biplane cine MRI, using the intrinsic LV long and short axis planes, permits noninvasive assessment of LV volumes in views comparable to standard angiographic projections and appears practical for clinical use in childhood heart disease, because the scan and analysis time are relatively short. (author)

  18. Striking volume intolerance is induced by mimicking arterial baroreflex failure in normal left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Kouta; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are supersensitive to volume overload, and a striking increase in left atrial pressure (LAP) often occurs transiently and is rapidly resolved by intravascular volume reduction. The arterial baroreflex is a powerful regulator of intravascular stressed blood volume. We examined whether arterial baroreflex failure (FAIL) mimicked by constant carotid sinus pressure (CSP) causes a striking increase in LAP and systemic arterial pressure (AP) by volume loading in rats with normal left ventricular (LV) function. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled CSP by a servo-controlled piston pump. We mimicked the normal arterial baroreflex by matching CSP to instantaneous AP and FAIL by maintaining CSP at a constant value regardless of AP. We infused dextran stepwise (infused volume [Vi]) until LAP reached 15 mm Hg and obtained the LAP-Vi relationship. We estimated the critical Vi as the Vi at which LAP reached 20 mm Hg. In FAIL, critical Vi decreased markedly from 19.4 ± 1.6 mL/kg to 15.6 ± 1.6 mL/kg (P baroreflex system we recently developed could fully restore the physiologic volume intolerance in the absence of native arterial baroreflex. Arterial baroreflex failure induces striking volume intolerance in the absence of LV dysfunction and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute heart failure, especially in states of HFpEF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depressed left ventricular performance. Response to volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, F.P.; Parker, M.M.; Natanson, C.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Parrillo, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Volume infusion, to increase preload and to enhance ventricular performance, is accepted as initial management of septic shock. Recent evidence has demonstrated depressed myocardial function in human septic shock. We analyzed left ventricular performance during volume infusion using serial data from simultaneously obtained pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic measurements and radionuclide cineangiography. Critically ill control subjects (n = 14), patients with sepsis but without shock (n = 21), and patients with septic shock (n = 21) had prevolume infusion hemodynamic measurements determined and received statistically similar volumes of fluid resulting in similar increases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. There was a strong trend (p = 0.004) toward less of a change in left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) after volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock compared with control subjects. The LVSWI response after volume infusion was significantly less in patients with septic shock when compared with critically ill control subjects (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate significantly altered ventricular performance, as measured by LVSWI, in response to volume infusion in patients with septic shock

  20. Absolute left ventricular volume by a non-invasive esophageal transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, A.H.; Siegel, J.A.; Denenberg, B.; Malmud, L.S.; Spann, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for determining absolute left ventricular volumes during routine clinical gated blood pool imaging is presented. The technique is geometry independent and is the first of its kind to correct for tissue attenuation by utilizing an in vivo point source. An orally administered gelatin capsule containing Tc-99m is used for this purpose. Serial images are obtained as the capsule transits the esophagus. The transmission factor is then determined by dividing the capsule count rate in the region of the left ventricle by the capsule counts recorded in air prior to administration. Thus, experimentally determined transmission factors are directly determined for each patient

  1. Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maorong; Li, Jun; Eyler, Lisa; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qingling; Tang, Jingsong; Liu, Feng; He, Zhong; Li, Lihua; Jin, Hua; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fang; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-03-01

    The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, their unaffected siblings and age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy controls. We used VBM to investigate differences in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. There were significant gray matter volumetric differences among the 3 groups in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri, bilateral middle temporal gyri, and superior temporal gyri (FDR ptemporal gyrus, and volume of this region was not different between siblings and patients. Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in schizophrenia and it indicate that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal development of cerebral lateralization. Furthermore, these data argue that patients and their unaffected siblings might share decreases in the gray matter volume of the left middle temporal gyrus, and this regional reduction might be a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diastolic compliance and exercise-induced left ventricular diastolic volume changes in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W.; Varma, V.; Wasserman, A.; Katz, R.; Reba, R.; Ross, A.

    1983-01-01

    This study consists of 46 consecutive patients who had supine resting and exercise multigated (MUGA) blood pool studies. All patients had angio-graphically important coronary stenosis in at least one major vessel. Thirty-five out of 46 patients with coronary artery disease increased left ventricular end diastolic volume with a supine exercise. The remaining eleven patients dit not dilate the left ventricle. Those patients, who were able to increase their end diastolic volume during exercise, had better compliance of the left ventricle manifested by lower end diastolic pressures, whereas, patients with poor left ventricular compliance were unable to volume expand during supine exercise

  3. Hippocampal volume change measurement: Quantitative assessment of the reproducibility of expert manual outlining and the automated methods FreeSurfer and FIRST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.R.; de Jong, R.A.; Knol, D.L.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Cover, K.S.; Visser, P.J.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To measure hippocampal volume change in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), expert manual delineation is often used because of its supposed accuracy. It has been suggested that expert outlining yields poorer reproducibility as compared to automated methods, but

  4. Interplay of hippocampal volume and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function as markers of stress vulnerability in men at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruessner, M; Bechard-Evans, L; Pira, S; Joober, R; Collins, D L; Pruessner, J C; Malla, A K

    2017-02-01

    Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results. Study participants were 42 antipsychotic-naive UHR subjects (24 men) and 46 healthy community controls (23 men). Saliva samples for the assessment of CAR were collected at 0, 30 and 60 min after awakening. HV was determined from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using a semi-automatic segmentation protocol. Cortisol measures and HV were not significantly different between UHR subjects and controls in total, but repeated-measures multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced cortisol levels 60 min after awakening and smaller left HV in male UHR individuals. In UHR participants only, smaller left and right HV was significantly correlated with a smaller total CAR (ρ = 0.42, p = 0.036 and ρ = 0.44, p = 0.029, respectively), corresponding to 18% and 19% of shared variance (medium effect size). Our findings suggest that HV reduction in individuals at UHR for psychosis is specific to men and linked to reduced post-awakening cortisol concentrations. Abnormalities in the neuroendocrine circuitry modulating stress vulnerability specifically in male UHR subjects might explain increased psychosis risk and disadvantageous illness outcomes in men compared to women.

  5. Quantitation of right and left ventricular volume with MR imaging in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxt, L.M.; Katz, J.; Kolb, T.; Czegledy, F.P.; Barst, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper tests the utility of MR imaging in quantitating changes in ventricular volume and function in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes were determined in six patients with PPH and in eight controls. Short-axis images were obtained from the cardiac apex to the base at ED and ES, and the ventricular cavities were planimetered. Volumes were computed by summing the areas of the cavities times the thickness of the sections (12-14 mm). The intersection gap (1-3 mm) was averaged between adjacent sections. Results were indexed to the subject's body surface area. This technique was verified by comparison of results obtained by this method with the water displacement volumes of ventricular casts of eight excised bovine hearts and six water-filled balloons. Linear regression and the unpaired Students t test were used to test significance

  6. Assessment of left ventricular function and volumes by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - comparison of two algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, T.; Fischer, R.; Brink, I.; Moser, E.; Krause, T.; Saurbier, B.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Left ventricular volume and function can be computed from gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging using emory cardiac toolbox (ECT) or gated SPECT quantification (GS-Quant). The aim of this study was to compare both programs with respect to their practical application, stability and precision on heart-models as well as in clinical use. Methods: The volumes of five cardiac models were calculated by ECT and GS-Quant. 48 patients (13 female, 35 male) underwent a one day stress-rest protocol and gated SPECT. From these 96 gated SPECT images, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were estimated by ECT and GS-Quant. For 42 patients LVEF was also determined by echocardiography. Results: For the cardiac models the computed volumes showed high correlation with the model-volumes as well as high correlation between ECT and GS-Quant (r ≥0.99). Both programs underestimated the volume by approximately 20-30% independent of the ventricle-size. Calculating LVEF, EDV and ESV, GS-Quant and ECT correlated well to each other and to the LVEF estimated by echocardiography (r ≥0.86). LVEF values determined with ECT were about 10% higher than values determined with GS-Quant or echocardiography. The incorrect surfaces calculated by the automatic algorithm of GS-Quant for three examinations could not be corrected manually. 34 of the ECT studies were optimized by the operator. Conclusion: GS-Quant and ECT are two reliable programs in estimating LVEF. Both seem to underestimate the cardiac volume. In practical application GS-Quant was faster and easier to use. ECT allows the user to define the contour of the ventricle and thus is less susceptible to artifacts. (orig.) [de

  7. Determination of left atrial volume in healthy dogs and dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract: The left atrial volume (LAV can be obtained using the biplane Simpson's method via echocardiography. Although in medicine this parameter has been considered to be a prognostic marker of left atrial enlargement in several cardiac diseases, in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD, a valvulopathy characterized by left atrial (LA volume overload, atrial enlargement is usually assessed by the LA-to-Aorta ratio (LA:Ao. Therefore, the body surface area (BSA-indexed LAV was measured in healthy dogs and in dogs with MMVD using the biplane Simpson's method. For this purpose, a total of 107 healthy dogs (control and 81 dogs with MMVD in ACVIM stages B1, B2 and C were assessed, with LAV being calculated during atrial diastole (d and systole (s through the biplane Simpson's method. Two-dimensional apical four-chamber (4C and two-chamber (2C images were obtained in every dog through the left parasternal window. The values obtained from healthy dogs were correlated with body weight using Pearson's test. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to compare healthy and MMVD dogs, as well as to investigate differences according with MMVD stages. A strong positive correlation was documented between either LAVd (r> 0.77 or LAVs (r> 0.73 and body weight in healthy dogs. The BSA-indexed LAV calculated for MMVD dogs was significantly different (p<0.01 from that obtained for the control group. Also, LAV was significantly different (P<0.05 when stages B2 and C, and B1 and C were compared. In conclusion, this study provided a reference for left atrial volume and the applicability of this technique to assess atrial overload in dogs with varying-stage MMVD.

  8. Changes in hippocampal volume and neuron number co-occur with memory decline in old homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Kanyok, Nate; Schreiber, Austin J; Flaim, Mary E; Bingman, Verner P

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related structural changes, which have been used to explain, in part, age-related memory decline. These changes are generally characterized by atrophy (e.g., a decrease in volume and number of synaptic contacts). Recent studies have reported age-related spatial memory deficits in older pigeons similar to those seen in older mammals. However, to date, little is known about any co-occurring changes in the aging avian hippocampal formation (HF). In the current study, it was found that the HF of older pigeons was actually larger and contained more neurons than the HF of younger pigeons, a finding that suggests that the pattern of structural changes during aging in the avian HF is different from that seen in the mammalian hippocampus. A working hypothesis for relating the observed structural changes with spatial-cognitive decline is offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  10. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Miles, Christina; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen; Obenaus, Andre; Figueroa, Johnny D

    2016-01-01

    Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress ( p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Reduction of cardiac volume in left-breast treatment fields by respiratory maneuvers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-M.; Cash, Ethan; Chen, M.-H.; Chin Lee; Manning, Warren J.; Harris, Jay; Bornstein, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A previous study of healthy female volunteers suggested that deep inspiratory breath holding can reduce the cardiac volume in the treatment portals for left-breast cancer treatment. The reduction of irradiated cardiac volume may be important considering the reported late cardiac morbidity and mortality and the frequent coexistent use of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. In the present study, we evaluated the heart volume in the fields and, thus, the true benefit of this respiratory maneuver in breast cancer patients undergoing CT simulation. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (median age, 53) were studied. For each patient, CT scans were performed both when the patient breathed normally (quiet respiration) and when the patient held her breath after a deep inspiration. Tangential fields were planned using the same medial, lateral, superior, and inferior borders on skin for the normal breathing and the breath-holding configurations. The cardiac and left-lung volumes within the tangential fields were calculated for both breathing configurations. Multiple scan series were performed for the breath-holding configuration to provide a more accurate delineation of the cardiac tissue and to study the reproducibility of the patient's position between different cycles of deep inspiration. Results: None of the patients had difficulty holding her breath for 20 s. The cardiac volume in the field was reduced (-86 ± 24%; p 3 vs 97 cm 3 , p < 0.001). However, the fractional volume of the left lung in the field was essentially unchanged. For all but 1 patient, the maximum difference between the external body contours from different breath holding cycles was 5 mm and occurred at the lateral aspect of the breast. At the medial aspect, as indicated by the position of the midline marker, the variations were well within the currently accepted tolerance for patient positioning during tangential treatment. Conclusions: Deep-inspiration breath

  12. Progressive Decline in Hippocampal CA1 Volume in Individuals at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis Who Do Not Remit: Findings from the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, New Fei; Holt, Daphne J; Cheung, Mike; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Goh, Alex; Wang, Mingyuan; Lim, Joseph Kw; de Souza, Joshua; Poh, Joann S; See, Yuen Mei; Adcock, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Chee, Michael Wl; Lee, Jimmy; Zhou, Juan

    2017-05-01

    Most individuals identified as ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis do not develop frank psychosis. They continue to exhibit subthreshold symptoms, or go on to fully remit. Prior work has shown that the volume of CA1, a subfield of the hippocampus, is selectively reduced in the early stages of schizophrenia. Here we aimed to determine whether patterns of volume change of CA1 are different in UHR individuals who do or do not achieve symptomatic remission. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 1-2 follow-up time points (at 12-month intervals) from 147 UHR and healthy control subjects. An automated method (based on an ex vivo atlas of ultra-high-resolution hippocampal tissue) was used to delineate the hippocampal subfields. Over time, a greater decline in bilateral CA1 subfield volumes was found in the subgroup of UHR subjects whose subthreshold symptoms persisted (n=40) and also those who developed clinical psychosis (n=12), compared with UHR subjects who remitted (n=41) and healthy controls (n=54). No baseline differences in volumes of the overall hippocampus or its subfields were found among the groups. Moreover, the rate of volume decline of CA1, but not of other hippocampal subfields, in the non-remitters was associated with increasing symptom severity over time. Thus, these findings indicate that there is deterioration of CA1 volume in persistently symptomatic UHR individuals in proportion to symptomatic progression.

  13. Effect of Hemodialysis on Left and Right Ventricular Volume and Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jin Suk; Koh, Chang Soon

    1985-01-01

    With the improvement of hemodialysis, the course of thc discase in patient with endstage renal disease has been clearly improved. Nevertheless, among several shortcomings to our present mode of renal replacement therapy, cardiovascular complications have been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors such as anemia, arteriovenous shunting of blood, intermittent extracorporeal circulation and hypertension may be contributing. But little is known about the quantitative cardiac hemodynamic characteristics occurred during hemodialysis. The purpose of this study is to observe the sequential hemodynamic changes before, during and after the hemodialysis and to investigate: reliable parameters in the detection of ventricular dysfunction. In the present study, equilibrium radionuclide cardiac angiography was performed and left and right ventricular volume indices, ejection phase indices of both ventricular, performance were measured in the 16 stable patients with chronic renal failure treated with maintenance hemodialysis sequentially i.e. before, during (carly and late phase) and after the hemodialysis. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The indices of the left ventricular function were not changed during the hemodialysis but increased after the hemodialysis. 2) The indices of the right ventricular function(EF, SVI) were significantly decreased in the early phase (15, 30 minutes after starting extracorporeal circulation) but recovered after the hemodialysis, 3) The ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly decreased in the early phase and the lung volume indices were significantly increased at the same phase. As a conclusion, hemodialysis improves left ventricular function maybe du to increased contractility, and effects on the right ventricular function maybe due to the increased lung volume in the early phase of hemodialysis.

  14. Left atrial volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höllmer, M.; Willesen, J. L.; Tolver, A.

    2017-01-01

    stroke volume increased, whereas LA reservoir and contractile function decreased with increasing disease severity. A maximal LA volume heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100......%. An active LA emptying fraction heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 82%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dogs with MMVD appear to have larger LA...... of cardiac compensation. Left atrial function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate LA volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD. ANIMALS: This prospective study included 205 client-owned dogs of different breeds, 114...

  15. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mattace Raso, Francesco U. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Geriatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Veen, Frederik M. van der [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute of Psychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prins, Niels D. [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  16. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van; Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der; Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A.; Mattace Raso, Francesco U.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veen, Frederik M. van der; Prins, Niels D.

    2017-01-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of the relationship between left atrial volume and myocardial ischemia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathophysiology of ischemia involves the cellular effect of myocardial ischemia, reactive oxygen species, and reactive inflammatory enzymes. Left atrial (LA ischemia has been shown to have several mechanisms through which it can lead to abnormalities in left ventricular filling in early diastole and thus reduces LA passive functional reserve. In this review, we evaluated the physiological mechanisms of LA during myocardial ischemia, as previously demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.Methods: Several databases were searched in order to find related articles. The outcome of interest included LA function measurements (measurement of LA volume during ischemia. By applying a standardized protocol, reviewers independently extracted and assessed the studies.Results: The literature review indicated 50 publications, among which 15 studies were eligible for analysis. Assessment of LA dimension and function is essential for clinical evaluation and prognostic purposes. Conclusion: The present article revealed that LA passive emptying volume and LA emptying volume significantly increased in myocardial ischemia. Further researches could provide a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind LA enlargement and help to predict clinical outcomes in many cardiovascular disorders.

  18. Lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy using a novel uncertainty analysis of MR diffusion in hippocampus, cingulum, and fornix, and hippocampal volume and FLAIR intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Schwalb, Jason M; Elisevich, Kost V; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Hamidian, Hajar; Akhondi-Asl, Ali-Reza; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2014-07-15

    To analyze the utility of a quantitative uncertainty analysis approach for evaluation and comparison of various MRI findings for the lateralization of epileptogenicity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), including novel diffusion-based analyses. We estimated the hemispheric variation uncertainty (HVU) of hippocampal T1 volumetry and FLAIR (Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) intensity. Using diffusion tensor images of 23 nonepileptic subjects, we estimated the HVU levels of mean diffusivity (MD) in the hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the posteroinferior cingulum and crus of fornix. Imaging from a retrospective cohort of 20 TLE patients who had undergone surgical resection with Engel class I outcomes was analyzed to determine whether asymmetry of preoperative volumetrics, FLAIR intensities, and MD values in hippocampi, as well as FA values in posteroinferior cingula and fornix crura correctly predicted laterality of seizure onset. Ten of the cohort had pathologically proven mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Seven of these patients had undergone extraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) for lateralization or to rule out extra-temporal foci. HVU was estimated to be 3.1×10(-5) for hippocampal MD, 0.027 for FA in posteroinferior cingulum, 0.018 for FA in crus of fornix, 0.069 for hippocampal normalized volume, and 0.099 for hippocampal normalized FLAIR intensity. Using HVU analysis, a higher hippocampal MD value, lower FA within the posteroinferior cingulum and crus of fornix, shrinkage in hippocampal volume, and higher hippocampal FLAIR intensity were observed beyond uncertainty on the side ipsilateral to seizure onset for 10, 10, 9, 9, and 10 out of 10 pathology-proven MTS patients, respectively. Considering all 20 TLE patients, these numbers were 18, 15, 14, 13, and 16, respectively. However, consolidating the lateralization results of HVU analysis on these quantities by majority voting has detected the epileptogenic side for 19 out of 20 cases

  19. Sex differences in resilience to childhood maltreatment: effects of trauma history on hippocampal volume, general cognition and subclinical psychosis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplin, Erin; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R; Derosse, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Recent data suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume in healthy adults. Because this association is also evident in adults with psychiatric illness, it has been suggested that reductions in hippocampal volume associated with childhood maltreatment may be a risk factor for psychiatric illness. Such an interpretation suggests that healthy adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more resilient to the effects of maltreatment. Current models of resilience suggest, however, that resiliency should be measured across multiple domains of functioning. The present study sought to investigate childhood maltreatment in relationship to hippocampal volumes in healthy adults and to address the question of whether the putative resiliency extends to other domains of functioning. Sixty-seven healthy Caucasian adults were assessed for a history of childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical abuse and received high resolution structural MR imaging scans. Participants with and without histories of abuse or neglect were compared on measures of total hippocampal volume, general cognitive ability and subclinical psychopathology. Our results suggest that childhood emotional abuse is associated with reduced hippocampus volume in males, but not in females. However, emotional abuse was associated with higher levels of subclinical psychopathology in both males and females. These data suggest that while females may be more resilient to the neurological effects of childhood maltreatment, they are not more resilient to the psychiatric symptoms associated with childhood maltreatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these different levels of resilience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, J.L.; Medland, S.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Hibar, D.P.; Senstad, R.E.; Winkler, A.M.; Toro, R.; Appel, K.; Bartecek, R.; Bergmann, O.; Hottenga, J.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Montgomery, G.W.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Kahn, R.S.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sämann, P.G.; Saykin, A.J.; Schumann, G.; Smoller, J.W.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Martin, N.G.; Franke, B.; Wright, M.J.; Thompson, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal

  1. Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, J.L.; Medland, S.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Hibar, D.P.; Senstad, R.E.; Winkler, A.M.; Toro, R.; Appel, K.; Bartecek, R.; Bergmann, O.; Bernard, M.; Brown, A.A.; Cannon, D.M.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Christoforou, A.; Domin, M.; Grimm, O.; Hollinshead, M.; Holmes, A.J.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Langan, C.; Lopez, L.M.; Hansell, N.K.; Hwang, K.S.; Kim, S.; Laje, G.; Lee, P.H.; Liu, X.; Loth, E.; Lourdusamy, A.; Mattingsdal, M.; Mohnke, S.; Maniega, S.M.; Nho, K.; Nugent, A.C.; O'Brien, C.; Papmeyer, M.; Putz, B.; Ramasamy, A.; Rasmussen, J.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Risacher, S.L.; Roddey, J.C.; Rose, E.J.; Ryten, M.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Strengman, E.; Teumer, A.; Trabzuni, D.; Turner, J.; Eijk, K. van; Erp, T.G. van; Tol, M.J. van; Wittfeld, K.; Wolf, C. de; Woudstra, S.; Aleman, A.; Alhusaini, S.; Almasy, L.; Binder, E.B.; Brohawn, D.G.; Cantor, R.M.; Carless, M.A.; Corvin, A.; Czisch, M.; Curran, J.E.; Davies, G.; Almeida, M.A. de; Delanty, N.; Depondt, C.; Duggirala, R.; Dyer, T.D.; Erk, S.; Fagerness, J.; Fox, P.T.; Freimer, N.B.; Gill, M.; Goring, H.H.; Hagler, D.J.; Hoehn, D.; Holsboer, F.; Hoogman, M.; Hosten, N.; Jahanshad, N.; Johnson, M.P.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Kent Jr., J.W.; Kochunov, P.; Lancaster, J.L.; Lawrie, S.M.; Liewald, D.C.; Mandl, R.C.W.; Matarin, M.; Mattheisen, M.; Meisenzahl, E.; Melle, I.; Moses, E.K.; Muhleisen, T.W.; Nauck, M.; Nothen, Markus; Olvera, R.L.; Pandolfo, M.; Pike, G.B.; Puls, R.; Reinvang, I.; Renteria, M.E.; Rietschel, M.; Roffman, J.L.; Royle, N.A.; Rujescu, D.; Savitz, J.; Schnack, H.G.; Schnell, K.; Seiferth, N.; Smith, C.; Steen, V.M.; Valdes Hernandez, M.C.; Heuvel, M. van den; Wee, N.J. van der; Haren, N.E.M. van; Veltman, J.A.; Volzke, H.; Walker, R.; Westlye, L.T.; Whelan, C.D.; Agartz, I.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Dale, A.M.; Djurovic, S.; Drevets, W.C.; Hagoort, P.; Hall, J.; Heinz, A.; Jack Jr., C.R.; Foroud, T.M.; Hellard, S. Le; Macciardi, F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Poline, J.B.; Porteous, D.J.; Sisodiya, S.M.; Starr, J.M.; Sussmann, J.; Toga, A.W.; Veltman, D.J.; Walter, H.; Weiner, M.W.; Bis, J.C.; Ikram, M.A.; Smith, A.V.; Gudnason, V.; Tzourio, C.; Vernooij, M.W.; Launer, L.J.; DeCarli, C.; Seshadri, S.; Andreassen, O.A.; Apostolova, L.G.; Bastin, M.E.; Blangero, J.; Brunner, H.G.; Buckner, R.L.; Cichon, S.; Coppola, G.; Zubicaray, G.I. de; Deary, I.J.; Donohoe, G.; Geus, E.J. de; Espeseth, T.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Glahn, D.C.; Grabe, H.J.; Hardy, J.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Jenkinson, M.; Kahn, R.S.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, A.M.; McMahon, F.J.; McMahon, K.L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Morris, D.W.; Muller-Myhsok, B.; Nichols, T.E.; Ophoff, R.A.; Paus, T.; Pausova, Z.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Potkin, S.G.; Samann, P.G.; Saykin, A.J.; Schumann, G.; Smoller, J.W.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Martin, N.G.; Franke, B.; Wright, M.J.; Thompson, P.M.; Klaasen, A.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal

  2. Automated cross-sectional and longitudinal hippocampal volume measurement in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kelvin K; Barnes, Josephine; Ridgway, Gerard R; Bartlett, Jonathan W; Clarkson, Matthew J; Macdonald, Kate; Schuff, Norbert; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2010-07-15

    Volume and change in volume of the hippocampus are both important markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Delineation of the structure on MRI is time-consuming and therefore reliable automated methods are required. We describe an improvement (multiple-atlas propagation and segmentation (MAPS)) to our template library-based segmentation technique. The improved technique uses non-linear registration of the best-matched templates from our manually segmented library to generate multiple segmentations and combines them using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Change in volume over 12months (MAPS-HBSI) was measured by applying the boundary shift integral using MAPS regions. Methods were developed and validated against manual measures using subsets from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The best method was applied to 682 ADNI subjects, at baseline and 12-month follow-up, enabling assessment of volumes and atrophy rates in control, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD groups, and within MCI subgroups classified by subsequent clinical outcome. We compared our measures with those generated by Surgical Navigation Technologies (SNT) available from ADNI. The accuracy of our volumes was one of the highest reported (mean(SD) Jaccard Index 0.80(0.04) (N=30)). Both MAPS baseline volume and MAPS-HBSI atrophy rate distinguished between control, MCI and AD groups. Comparing MCI subgroups (reverters, stable and converters): volumes were lower and rates higher in converters compared with stable and reverter groups (pmethods give accurate and reliable volumes and atrophy rates across the clinical spectrum from healthy aging to AD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Left Atrial Volume as Predictor of Valve Replacement and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Asymptomatic Mild to Moderate Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Egstrup, Kenneth; Wachtell, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We hypothesized that LA volume was predictive of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic valve...

  4. Variations on calculating left-ventricular volume with the radionuclide count-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koral, K.F.; Rabinovitch, M.A.; Kalff, V.

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for the calculation of left-ventricular volume by the count-based method utilizing red-blood-cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc and a parallel-hole collimator are evaluated. Attenuation correction, linked to an additional left posterior oblique view, is utilized for all 26 patients. The authors examine (1) two methods of calculating depth, (2) the use of a pair of attenuation coefficients, (3) the optimization of attenuation coefficients, and (4) the employment of an automated program for expansion of the region of interest. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) from the correlation of the radionuclide volumes with the contrast-angiography volumes, and the root-mean-square difference between the two volume sets at the minimum SEE are computed. It is found that optimizing a single linear attenuation coefficient assumed for attenuation correction best reduces the value of the SEE. The average of the optimum value from the end-diastolic data and that from the end-systolic data is 0.11 cm-1. This value agrees with the mean minus one standard deviation value determined independently from computed tomography scans (0.13-0.02 cm-1). It is also found that expansion of the region of interest beyond the second-derivative edge with an automated program, in order to correctly include more counts, does not lower the SEE as hoped. This result is in contrast to the results of others with different data and a manual method. Possible causes for the difference are given

  5. Altered Hippocampal Morphology in Unmedicated Patients with Major Depressive Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E Bearden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite converging evidence that major depressive illness is associated with both memory impairment and hippocampal pathology, findings vary widely across studies and it is not known whether these changes are regionally specific. In the present study we acquired brain MRIs (magnetic resonance images from 31 unmedicated patients with MDD (major depressive disorder; mean age 39.2±11.9 years; 77% female and 31 demographically comparable controls. Three-dimensional parametric mesh models were created to examine localized alterations of hippocampal morphology. Although global volumes did not differ between groups, statistical mapping results revealed that in MDD patients, more severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater left hippocampal atrophy, particularly in CA1 (cornu ammonis 1 subfields and the subiculum. However, previous treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with a trend towards larger left hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest effects of illness severity on hippocampal size, as well as a possible effect of past history of atypical antipsychotic treatment, which may reflect prolonged neuroprotective effects. This possibility awaits confirmation in longitudinal studies.

  6. Beneficial effects of elevating cardiac preload on left-ventricular diastolic function and volume during heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brothers, R M; Pecini, Redi; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    to both thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (P stress reduced LVEDV (P reduction in LVEDV to LBNP was similar between thermoneutral and heat stress conditions, whereas the reduction after volume infusion......Volume loading normalizes tolerance to a simulated hemorrhagic challenge in heat-stressed individuals, relative to when these individuals are thermoneutral. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs is unknown. This project tested two unique hypotheses; that is, the elevation of central blood volume...... via volume loading while heat stressed would 1) increase indices of left ventricular diastolic function, and 2) preserve left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) during a subsequent simulated hemorrhagic challenge induced by lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Indices of left ventricular...

  7. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Stomby, Andreas; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12) with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12) for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume wa...

  8. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  9. Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hibar, Derrek P.; Senstad, Rudy E.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Toro, Roberto; Appel, Katja; Bartecek, Richard; Bergmann, Orjan; Bernard, Manon; Brown, Andrew A.; Cannon, Dara M.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Christoforou, Andrea; Domin, Martin; Grimm, Oliver; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Langan, Camilla; Lopez, Lorna M.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Kim, Sungeun; Laje, Gonzalo; Lee, Phil H.; Liu, Xinmin; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Mattingsdal, Morten; Mohnke, Sebastian; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; O'Brien, Carol; Papmeyer, Martina; Putz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roddey, J. Cooper; Rose, Emma J.; Ryten, Mina; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Strengman, Eric; Teumer, Alexander; Trabzuni, Daniah; Turner, Jessica; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolf, Christiane; Woudstra, Saskia; Aleman, Andre; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Brohawn, David G.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Corvin, Aiden; Czisch, Michael; Curran, Joanne E.; Davies, Gail; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fagerness, Jesen; Fox, Peter T.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gill, Michael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Hagler, Donald J.; Hoehn, David; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogman, Martine; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Lancaster, Jack L.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liewald, David C.; Mandl, Rene; Matarin, Mar; Mattheisen, Manuel; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Moses, Eric K.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nauck, Matthias; Noethen, Markus M.; Olvera, Rene L.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pike, G. Bruce; Puls, Ralf; Reinvang, Ivar; Renteria, Miguel E.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Savitz, Jonathan; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schnell, Knut; Seiferth, Nina; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Veltman, Joris A.; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Agartz, Ingrid; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Dale, Anders M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Hagoort, Peter; Hall, Jeremy; Heinz, Andreas; Jack, Clifford R.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Macciardi, Fabio; Montgomery, Grant W.; Poline, Jean Baptiste; Porteous, David J.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Starr, John M.; Sussmann, Jessika; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Bis, Joshua C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Smith, Albert V.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tzourio, Christophe; Vernooij, Meike W.; Launer, Lenore J.; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Bastin, Mark E.; Blangero, John; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Cichon, Sven; Coppola, Giovanni; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernandez, Guillen; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Hardy, John; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Jenkinson, Mark; Kahn, Rene S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Morris, Derek W.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nichols, Thomas E.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W.; Potkin, Steven G.; Saemann, Philipp G.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schumann, Gunter; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease(1,2) and is reduced in schizophrenia(3), major depression(4) and

  10. Myocardial perfusion SPECT for assessment of left ventricular function and volume- comparison with echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xu; Huang Gang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular volume and function by gated SPECT and comparison of the results with echocardiography. Methods: 65 Consecutive patients (49 male, 16 female; mean age 61+11 years) who underwent both gated 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT and echocardiography within a 15 days period were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were any change in clinical status between acquisition of the gated SPECT and echocardiography studies, acute myocardial infarction occurring less than 7 days before study, and surgical procedures occurring within 30 days of the study. The clinical diagnosis of each patient was not considered, as this was not relevant to the purpose of the study. The diagnoses were as follows: coronary artery disease (n=46), hypertensive heart disease (n=8), old myocardial infarction (n=5), myocarditis (n=2), and routine medical examination(n=4). A dose of 740 MBq of 99 Tc m -sestamibi was administered in resting condition. Gated SPECT images were obtained with ADAC Vertex MCD-AC SPECT system. The raw projection images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (ramp filter), without attenuation correction. The data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) were obtained using AUTOQUANT software (ADAC corporation). The echocardiography study used its standard techniques. Two nuclear medicine physicians processed the raw images respectively to evaluate internal reproducibility of gated SPECT. In order to compare the results of gated SPECT with echocardiography on different left ventricular volumes, all patients were divided into two groups (EDV 90 ml, n=34) based by EDV measurements in echocardiography. Results: The correlation coefficient of LVEF, EDV, ESV between SPECT and echocardiography were 0.77, 0.86 and 0.90 respectively. P 0.07). The reproducibility of gated SPECT was excellent. There were no significant differences in

  11. Altered hippocampal volume and functional connectivity in males with Internet gaming disorder comparing to those with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Heejung; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Jung, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Dai-Jin; Park, Sun-Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong

    2017-07-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs). The volume in the hippocampus positively correlated with the symptom severity of IGD. Moreover, functional connectivity analysis with the hippocampus/amygdala cluster revealed that the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed stronger functional connectivity in individuals with IGD compared to those with AUD. In contrast, individuals with AUD exhibited the smaller cerebellar volume and thinner medial frontal cortex than HCs. The volume in the cerebellum correlated with impaired working memory function as well as duration of illness in AUD group. Findings suggested that altered volume and functional connectivity in the hippocampus/amygdala in IGD might be associated with abnormally enhanced memory process of gaming-related cues, while abnormal cortical changes and cognitive impairments in AUD might be associated with neurotoxic effects of alcohol.

  12. The study of dose variation and change of heart volume using 4D-CT in left breast radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Mi; Cheon, Geum Seong; Heo, Gyeong Hun; Shin, Sung Pil; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Chang Uk; Kim, Hoi Nam

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the results of changed heart volume and heart dose in the left breast cancer patients while considering the movements of respiration. During the months of March and May in 2012, we designated the 10 patients who had tangential irradiation with left breast cancer in the department of radiation Oncology. With acquired images of free breathing pattern through 3D and 4D CT, we had planed enough treatment filed for covered up the whole left breast. It compares the results of the exposed dose and the volume of heart by DVH (Dose Volume histogram). Although total dose was 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/28 fraction), reirradiated 9 Gy (1.8 Gy/5 Fraction) with PTV (Planning Target Volume) if necessary. It compares the results of heart volume and heart dose with the free breathing in 3D CT and 4D CT. It represents the maximum difference volume of heart is 40.5%. In addition, it indicated the difference volume of maximum and minimum, average are 8.8% and 27.9%, 37.4% in total absorbed dose of heart. In case of tangential irradiation (opposite beam) in left breast cancer patients, it is necessary to consider the changed heart volume by the respiration of patient and the heartbeat of patient

  13. Assessment of left atrial volume and mechanical function in ischemic heart disease: a multi slice computed tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Kofoed, Klaus F; Møller, Jacob E

    2010-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) maximal volume contains prognostic information in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction. However, only few studies have investigated the detailed mechanical function of the LA in these patients. We assessed the feasibility of evaluating LA volume and mechani...

  14. Value of the regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular dimensions after valve replacement in aortic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); C. Tirtaman; E. Bos (Egbert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the value of regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV) ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular (LV) dimensions after uncomplicated valve replacement in 34 patients with severe pure aortic insufficiency. The RSV/EDV ratio

  15. Hippocampal volume is positively associated with behavioural inhibition (BIS) in a large community-based sample of mid-life adults: the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Windsor, Tim D; Anstey, Kaarin J; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2008-09-01

    The fields of personality research and neuropsychology have developed with very little overlap. Gray and McNaughton were among the first to recognize that personality traits must have neurobiological correlates and developed models relating personality factors to brain structures. Of particular note was their description of associations between conditioning, inhibition and activation of behaviours, and specific neural structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality constructs representing the behavioural inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) were associated with volumetric measures of the hippocampus and amygdala in humans. Amygdalar and hippocampal volumes were measured in 430 brain scans of cognitively intact community-based volunteers. Linear associations between brain volumes and the BIS/BAS measures were assessed using multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, intra-cranial and total brain volume. Results showed that hippocampal volumes were positively associated with BIS sensitivity and to a lesser extent with BAS sensitivity. No association was found between amygdalar volume and either the BIS or BAS. These findings add support to the model of Gray and McNaughton, which proposes a role of the hippocampus in the regulation of defensive/approach behaviours and trait anxiety but suggest an absence of associations between amygdala volume and BIS/BAS measures.

  16. Response of left ventricular volume to exercise in man assessed by radionuclide equilibrium angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Karliner, J.; Ricci, D.; Schuler, G.; Pfisterer, M.; Peterson, K.; Ashburn, W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the effects of exercise on left ventricular volumes we studied 10 normal men, 15 patients with coronary disease who developed angina pectoris during exercise, and 10 patients with known coronary disease who did not develop angina during exercise. Each subject performed supine bicycle exercise under a mobile, single-crystal scintillation camera until angina or fatigue occurred. Technetium-99m bound to human serum albumin was the imaging agent. Data were collected at rest and during the last 2 minutes of each 3-minute stage of exercise and for 10 minutes after exercise. Volumes were calculated by a new radionuclide technique that correlated well with cineangiography and is expressed in nondimensional units. In normal subjects, the end-diastolic volume (EDV) at rest was not different from that a peak exercise. The end-systolic volume (ESV) decreased at peak exercise. ESV decreased progressively in all but two of 30 exercise periods. Angina patients had a larger EDV at rest and during chest pain than normals. Angina patients increased their ESV during chest pain resulting in a decreased ejection fraction (EF). All angina patients had a higher ESV during chest pain than during the exercise stage before chest pain. As a group, patients who did not develop angina had a lower EDV at rest and peak exercise than those who did develop angina. We conclude: that the EF increases during exercise due to a decrease in ESV; that the EF in patients with angina decreases because of an increase in ESV; and that the EF in coronary disease patients without angina shows no change because there is no significant change in the ESV. Radionuclide equilibrium angiography may prove useful for assessing EF and volume changes in patients with coronary artery disease

  17. Verbal and visual memory performance and hippocampal volumes, measured by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Eugenia; Santos, Alicia; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; Vives, Yolanda; Pires, Patricia; Crespo, Iris; Portella, Maria J; de Juan-Delago, Manel; Barahona, Maria-José; Webb, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) affects cognition and memory. Our objective was to evaluate memory and hippocampal volumes (HV) on 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) in CS patients and controls. Thirty-three CS patients (11 active, 22 cured) and 34 controls matched for age, sex, and education underwent Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure memory tests. Gray matter and HV were calculated on 3T MRI, using FreeSurfer image analyses software. No differences in HV were observed between active and cured CS or controls. Memory performance was worse in CS patients than controls (P visual memory (P = 0.04) than controls. In 12 CS patients, memory was below normative cutoff values for verbal (n = 6, cured), visual memory (n = 10, six cured) or both (n = 4); these patients with severe memory impairments showed smaller HV compared with their matched controls (P = 0.02 with verbal impairment; P = 0.03 with visual impairment). They were older (P = 0.04), had shorter education (P = 0.02), and showed a trend toward longer duration of hypercortisolism (P = 0.07) than the remaining CS patients. Total (P = 0.004) and cortical (P = 0.03) brain gray matter volumes were decreased in CS compared with controls, indicating brain atrophy, whereas subcortical gray matter (which includes HV) was reduced only in the 12 patients with severe memory impairment. Verbal and visual memory is worse in CS patients than controls, even after biochemical cure. HV was decreased only in those whose memory scores were below normative cutoff values.

  18. Automated hippocampal segmentation in patients with epilepsy: Available free online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gavin P; Cardoso, M Jorge; Williams, Elaine J; Burdett, Jane L; Bartlett, Philippa A; Espak, Miklos; Behr, Charles; Duncan, John S; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hippocampal sclerosis, a common cause of refractory focal epilepsy, requires hippocampal volumetry for accurate diagnosis and surgical planning. Manual segmentation is time-consuming and subject to interrater/intrarater variability. Automated algorithms perform poorly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. We validate and make freely available online a novel automated method. Methods Manual hippocampal segmentation was performed on 876, 3T MRI scans and 202, 1.5T scans. A template database of 400 high-quality manual segmentations was used to perform automated segmentation of all scans with a multi-atlas–based segmentation propagation method adapted to perform label fusion based on local similarity to ensure accurate segmentation regardless of pathology. Agreement between manual and automated segmentations was assessed by degree of overlap (Dice coefficient) and comparison of hippocampal volumes. Key Findings The automated segmentation algorithm provided robust delineation of the hippocampi on 3T scans with no more variability than that seen between different human raters (Dice coefficients: interrater 0.832, manual vs. automated 0.847). In addition, the algorithm provided excellent results with the 1.5T scans (Dice coefficient 0.827), and automated segmentation remained accurate even in small sclerotic hippocampi. There was a strong correlation between manual and automated hippocampal volumes (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.929 on the left and 0.941 on the right in 3T scans). Significance We demonstrate reliable identification of hippocampal atrophy in patients with hippocampal sclerosis, which is crucial for clinical management of epilepsy, particularly if surgical treatment is being contemplated. We provide a free online Web-based service to enable hippocampal volumetry to be available globally, with consequent greatly improved evaluation of those with epilepsy. PMID:24151901

  19. Metabolic volume performs better than SUVmax in the detection of left ventricular assist device driveline infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramovic, Nemanja; Weckesser, Matthias; Milankovic, Danka; Vrachimis, Alexis; Wenning, Christian [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Dell' Aquila, Angelo Maria; Sindermann, Juergen R. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a new and highly promising therapy in supporting end-stage heart failure patients, either bridging them to heart transplantation or as a destination therapy. Infection is one of the major complications associated with LVAD implants. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has already been shown to be useful in the detection of LVAD infection. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PET analysis techniques (visual grading versus SUVmax and metabolic volume). We retrospectively analyzed 48 patients with implanted LVAD who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT that were either suspected to have a driveline or device infection or inflammation of unknown origin. PET/CT was analyzed qualitatively (visual grading) and quantitatively (SUVmax and metabolic volume) and matched to the final clinical diagnosis concerning driveline infection. The final diagnosis (standard of reference) was made at the end of clinically recorded follow-up or transplantation and included microbiological cultures of the driveline exit site and/or surgical samples, and clinical signs of infection despite negative cultures as well as recurrence of symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were 87.5%, 79%, 81% and 86% for visual score, 87.5%, 87.5%, 87.5% and 87.5% for SUVmax and 96%, 87.5%, 88.5%, 95.5% for metabolic volume, respectively. ROC analysis revealed an AUC of.929 for SUVmax and.969 for metabolic volume. Both SUVmax and metabolic volume had a high detection rate of patients with driveline infection (21/24 = 91.5% true positive vs. 23/26 = 88.5% true positive, respectively). However, metabolic volume detected more patients without any infection correctly (1/22 = 4.5% false negative vs. 3/24 = 12.5% false negative). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of LVAD driveline infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Particularly the use of the metabolic volume yields very

  20. Changes with age in left ventricular function and volumes at rest and postexercise in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Isobe, Satoshi; Hirai, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, it has been reported that the plasma estrogen levels diminish immediately after menopause, and that this phenomenon affects left ventricular (LV) function and volumes. However, the effects of age on LV function and volumes for a relatively short period in the postmenopausal women remain to be established. Electrocardiographically gated-myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has recently provided accurate estimations of perfusion, cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. We investigated the age-related changes in LV function and volumes in postmenopausal women using electrocardiographically gated-myocardial scintigraphy. Twenty-two consecutive healthy postmenopausal women (mean age of 63.8±9.4 years, from 42 to 77 years) without cardiac disease underwent stress/rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated-myocardial SPECT with 16 frames per cardiac cycle at baseline and follow-up (1.0±0.3 years later). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volumes were calculated by quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. Fourier series were retained for the analysis of the volume curve. From this volume curve, we derived the following diastolic indices: peak filling rate (PFR) and time to PFR (TPFR). End-systolic volume index (ESVI) significantly decreased at postexercise (p=0.02) and tended to decrease at rest (p=0.06) from the baseline to the follow-up study. LVEF significantly increased at both postexercise (p=0.01) and rest (p=0.03) from the baseline to the follow-up study. The TPFR at rest tended to be prolonged from the baseline to the follow-up study (p=0.07). The absolute increase in LVEF at postexercise tended to decrease with age [4.8% (50s) vs. 3.4% (60s) vs. 1.2% (70s)]. An age-related change in cardiac performance is apparent at an approximately 1 year follow-up in postmenopausal women. In particular, the increase in LV systolic function tends to show the greatest value in the 50s subjects among the 3 generations. (author)

  1. Distinguishing Depressive Pseudodementia from Alzheimer Disease: A Comparative Study of Hippocampal Volumetry and Cognitive Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevki Sahin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a condition which may develop secondary to depression. The aim of this study was to contribute to the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer disease (AD and DPD by comparing the neurocognitive tests and hippocampal volume. Materials and Methods: Patients who met criteria of AD/DPD were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT, Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Hippocampal volume was measured by importing the coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to the Vitrea 2 workstation. Results: A significant difference was found between the AD and DPD groups on the WMS test, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Boston Naming Test, MMSE, GDS, and left hippocampal volume. A significant correlation between BFRT and bilateral hippocampal volumes was found in the AD group. No correlation was found among parameters in DPD patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that evaluation of facial recognition and left hippocampal volume may provide more reliable evidence for distinguishing DPD from AD. Further investigations combined with functional imaging techniques including more patients are needed.

  2. Remote Zone Extracellular Volume and Left Ventricular Remodeling in Survivors of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Jaclyn; Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Rauhalammi, Samuli M.; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The natural history and pathophysiological significance of tissue remodeling in the myocardial remote zone after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is incompletely understood. Extracellular volume (ECV) in myocardial regions of interest can now be measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients who sustained an acute STEMI were enrolled in a cohort study (BHF MR-MI [British Heart Foundation Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction study]). Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at 1.5 Tesla at 2 days and 6 months post STEMI. T1 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery mapping was performed before and 15 minutes after contrast (0.15 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine) in 140 patients at 2 days post STEMI (mean age: 59 years, 76% male) and in 131 patients at 6 months post STEMI. Remote zone ECV was lower than infarct zone ECV (25.6±2.8% versus 51.4±8.9%; Premote zone ECV (Premote zone ECV (P=0.010). No ST-segment resolution (P=0.034) and extent of ischemic area at risk (Premote zone ECV at 6 months (ΔECV). ΔECV was a multivariable associate of the change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 6 months (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 (0.10–2.76); P=0.036). ΔECV is implicated in the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling post STEMI, but because the effect size is small, ΔECV has limited use as a clinical biomarker of remodeling. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02072850. PMID:27354423

  3. The repeatability of left ventricular volume assessment by a new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system during head-up tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Bonpei; Hosaka, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Katsuhiro

    2001-01-01

    The precise measurement of changes in left ventricular volume is important to elucidate the mechanisms of neurally mediated syncope. This study was conducted to determine whether or not a brand-new ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system (C-VEST system) can be clinically used to easily and precisely measure left ventricular volume and function in tilt testing. To assess the repeatability of the C-VEST system, 12 healthy volunteers (mean age 24±4 years old) underwent 20 minute head-up tilt testing and we measured the temporal changes in left ventricular volume and ejection fraction twice a day (first and second studies). To investigate the changes in the C-VEST measurements and the detector position in the first and second studies, tilt testing was performed with an 80-degree passive tilt, which is the same as the standard procedure used in diagnosing neurally mediated syncope. The coefficient of repeatability for both the C-VEST and detector position was well within the clinical range (coefficient of repeatability in left ventricular volume ranged from 1.7 to 2.8; coefficient of repeatability in the detector position ranged from 2.3 to 3.1). Precise evaluation of the left ventricular volume can be achieved by an ambulatory radionuclide monitoring system in tilt testing. (author)

  4. ECG-gated blood pool tomography in the determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    ECG-gated blood pool tomography promises to provide a ''gold standard'' for noninvasive measurement of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion. This study compares these measurements with those from planar radionuclide imaging and contrast ventriculography. End diastolic and end systolic blood pool images were acquired tomographically using an IGE400A rotating gamma camera and Star computer, and slices were reconstructed orthogonal to the long axis of the heart. Left ventricular volume was determined by summing the areas of the slices, and wall motion was determined by comparison of end diastolic and end systolic contours. In phantom experiments this provided an accurate measurement of volume (r=0.98). In 32 subjects who were either normal or who had coronary artery disease left ventricular volume (r=0.83) and ejection fraction (r=0.89) correlated well with those using a counts based planar technique. In 16 of 18 subjects who underwent right anterior oblique X-ray contrast ventriculography, tomographic wall motion agreed for anterior, apical, and inferior walls, but abnormal septal motion which was not apparent by contrast ventriculography, was seen in 12 subjects tomographically. All 12 had disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and might have been expected to have abnormal septal motion. ECG-gated blood pool tomography can thus determine left ventricular volume and ejection fraction accurately, and provides a global description of wall motion in a way that is not possible from any single planar image

  5. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Shalon Edwards, N; McKenna, Mary C; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Relation of left ventricular function, mass, and volume to NT-proBNP in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.S.; Kim, W.Y.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross......-sectional study, all patients with type 1 diabetes underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. We included 63 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 73 patients with normoalbuminuria. RESULTS: All patients had normal global LVF. LVM was increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared...... with patients with persistent normoalbuminuria. Patients with nephropathy had smaller left ventricular volumes and increased levels of NT-proBNP. Linear regression analysis in patients with diabetic nephropathy showed that NT-proBNP and creatinine were associated with LVM. CONCLUSIONS: Increased LVM...

  7. Desmin loss and mitochondrial damage precede left ventricular systolic failure in volume overload heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Jason L; Rogowski, Michael; Agnetti, Giulio; Fu, Lianwu; Powell, Pamela; Wei, Chih-Chang; Collawn, James; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to chronic volume overload (VO) in rats and humans is characterized by disorganization of the cardiomyocyte desmin/mitochondrial network. Here, we tested the hypothesis that desmin breakdown is an early and continuous process throughout VO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had aortocaval fistula (ACF) or sham surgery and were examined 24 h and 4 and 12 wk later. Desmin/mitochondrial ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Protein and kinome analysis were performed in isolated cardiomyocytes, and desmin cleavage was assessed by mass spectrometry in left ventricular (LV) tissue. Echocardiography demonstrated a 40% decrease in the LV mass-to-volume ratio with spherical remodeling at 4 wk with ACF and LV systolic dysfunction at 12 wk. Starting at 24 h and continuing to 4 and 12 wk, with ACF there is TEM evidence of extensive mitochondrial clustering, IHC evidence of disorganization associated with desmin breakdown, and desmin protein cleavage verified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry. IHC results revealed that ACF cardiomyocytes at 4 and 12 wk had perinuclear translocation of αB-crystallin from the Z disk with increased α, β-unsaturated aldehyde 4-hydroxynonelal. Use of protein markers with verification by TUNEL staining and kinome analysis revealed an absence of cardiomyocyte apoptosis at 4 and 12 wk of ACF. Significant increases in protein indicators of mitophagy were countered by a sixfold increase in p62/sequestosome-1, which is indicative of an inability to complete autophagy. An early and continuous disruption of the desmin/mitochondrial architecture, accompanied by oxidative stress and inhibition of apoptosis and mitophagy, suggests its causal role in LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction in VO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides new evidence of early onset (24 h) and continuous (4-12 wk) desmin misarrangement and disruption of the normal sarcomeric and mitochondrial

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  9. Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......Measurement of left atrial (LA) maximal volume (LA(max)) using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides prognostic information in several cardiac diseases. However, the relationship between LA(max) and LA function is poorly understood and TTE is less well suited for measuring......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...

  10. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming [Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shinn Forng [National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (CN)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 {+-} 17 and 80 {+-} 10 mmHg; 120 {+-} 14 and 80 {+-} 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 {+-} 9.3 and 70.6 {+-} 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 {+-} 5.7 and 25.6 {+-} 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 {+-} 5.1% and 63.5 {+-} 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  11. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan; Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming; Peng, Shinn Forng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 ± 17 and 80 ± 10 mmHg; 120 ± 14 and 80 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 ± 9.3 and 70.6 ± 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 ± 5.7 and 25.6 ± 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 ± 5.1% and 63.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  12. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki,11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system.Materials and methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11 or normal saline (Saline group, n=11 for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups.Results: SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001. LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001, whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05. Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01 but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05. Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05, whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L

  13. Fixed volume particle trace emission for the analysis of left atrial blood flow using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Stephen; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Eriksson, Jonatan; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Bolger, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    4D Flow MRI has been used to quantify normal and deranged left ventricular blood flow characteristics on the basis of functionally distinct flow components. However, the application of this technique to the atria is challenging due to the presence of continuous inflow. This continuous inflow necessitates plane-based emission of particle traces from the inlet veins, leading to particles that represents different amounts of blood, and related quantification errors. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel fixed-volume approach for particle tracing and employ this method to develop quantitative analysis of 4D blood flow characteristics in the left atrium. 4D Flow MRI data were acquired during free-breathing using a navigator-gated gradient-echo sequence in three volunteers at 1.5T. Fixed-volume particle traces emitted from the pulmonary veins were used to visualize left atrial blood flow and to quantitatively separate the flow into two functionally distinct flow components: Direct flow=particle traces that enter and leave the atrium in one heartbeat, Retained flow=particle traces that enter the atrium and remains there for one cardiac cycle. Flow visualization based on fixed-volume traces revealed that, beginning in early ventricular systole, flow enters the atrium and engages with residual blood volume to form a vortex. In early diastole during early ventricular filling, the organized vortical flow is extinguished, followed by formation of a second transient atrial vortex. Finally, in late diastole during atrial contraction, a second acceleration of blood into the ventricle is seen. The direct and retained left atrial flow components were between 44 and 57% and 43-56% of the stroke volume, respectively. In conclusion, fixed-volume particle tracing permits separation of left atrial blood flow into different components based on the transit of blood through the atrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy using thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, echocardiography and vectorcardiography. Comparison between pressure and volume overloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Yasunori; Owada, Kenji; Suzuki, Shigebumi

    1983-09-01

    Thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH). Twelve out of 40 patients had pressure overloading (aortic stenosis: 5, hypertension: 7), 14 patients had volume overloading (aortic regurgitation: 9, mitral regurgitation: 5) and 14 had idiopathic cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic type (HCM): 8, congestive type (CCM): 6), respectively. LV area, LV uptake index and wall uptake ratio were calculated from left anterior oblique view of /sup 201/Tl myocardial images. These three indices of both pressure overloading and volume overloading were significantly higher than those of controls. The degree of LVH was indicated by both LV area and LV uptake index. LV area was significantly larger in volume overloading than in pressure overloading. In idiopathic cardiomyopathy, these three indices of HCM and LV area and LV uptake index of CCM were significantly increased compared with those of controls. LV area of CCM was significantly larger than that of HCM, while wall uptake ratio of HCM was significantly higher than that of CCM. LV uptake index and wall uptake ratio of HCM became higher according as left ventricular cavity became smaller. LV area of CCM became larger in proportion as left ventricular cavity became larger and as left ventricular wall thickness became thinner. (author).

  15. Stomach position versus liver-to-thoracic volume ratio in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Anne-Gaël; Cannie, Mieke M; Guilbaud, Lucie; De Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Martinovic, Jéléna; Nowakowska, Dorota; Milejska-Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Rodó, Carlota; Viaris de Lesegno, Benjamin; Votino, Carmela; Senat, Marie-Victoire; Jani, Jacques C; Benachi, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    To describe a new grading method for stomach position (SP) in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) using ultrasound and to correlate SP to liver position and to liver-to-thoracic cavity volume ratio (LiTR) using magnetic resonance imaging. SP were graded at the level of the 4-chamber view as following: grade 1-to-4 for stomach not visualised, visualised anteriorly at the apex of the heart, stomach showing abdominal structures anteriorly and stomach with its larger part posterior to the level of the atrial-ventricular heart valves, respectively. The LiTR was calculated and correlated to SP using the Mann-Whitney U test. Seventy-four fetuses were included. Median LiTR for grade 1 SP was 0% and was not different from median LiTR for grade 2 SP (0%, p=NS). Median LiTR for grade 3 SP was 14.9% and was significantly higher than for grade 2 SP (p<0.001). Similarly, median LiTR for grade 4 SP was 20.7% and was significantly higher than for grade 3 SP (p<0.05). When SP was grade 1 or 2, liver was intra-abdominal in 21 (84%) out of 25 fetuses while it was always intrathoracic for SP 3 or 4. In L-CDH, SP as described represents a simple indirect measurement of intrathoracic position and quantification of liver.

  16. Left ventricular time volume curve analysis in the detection of limited ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liechtenstein, M.; Blanchett, W.; Andrews, J.; Hunt, D.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether limited coronary artery disease (CAD) could be accurately detected using the Cardiac Gated Blood Pool (CGBP) scan with exercise. Regional left ventricular time volume curves (RLTVD) were generated from 52 studies (46 patients: 22 normals, 24 abnormals). The parameters assessed both globally and regionally and at rest (R) and exercise (Ex) were: (1) the ejection fraction (EF) (2) the change in ejection fraction from R to Ex (δEF) (3) an early contraction index (ECI) (4) a maximal emptying index (DR) and (5) a maximal refilling index (AR). After careful analysis of these parameters it was decided that our diagnostic criteria would rely on the following: (1) the EF at R and Ex (2) the δ EF (3) the ECI at Ex (4) the AR at Ex This study showed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of the CGBP scan can be improved considerably with the inclusion of RLTVC from the levels obtained when the EF parameters alone are considered. It is possible with this technique to accurately diagnose limited CAD. (Author)

  17. Relation of left ventricular function, mass, and volume to NT-proBNP in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Anne Sofie; Kim, Won Yong; Tarnow, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES-To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a cross-sectional...... is identified in asymptomatic type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy compared with normoalbuminuric patients. Elevated levels of NT-proBNP were associated with increased LVM, which are both markers of increased cardiovascular risk.......-sectional study, all patients with type 1 diabetes underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. We included 63 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 73 patients with normoalbuminuria. RESULTS-All patients had normal global LVF. LVM was increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared......OBJECTIVES-To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a cross...

  18. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kareem, Ihssan A; Stancak, Andrej; Parkes, Laura M; Sluming, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    To compare manual volumetry of gray matter (GM) / white matter (WM) of Broca's area subparts: pars opercularis (POP) and pars triangularis (PTR) in both hemispheres between musicians and nonmusician, as it has been shown that these regions are crucial for musical abilities. A previous voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study conducted in our laboratory reported increased GM density in Broca's area of left hemisphere in male orchestral musicians. Functional segregation of POP/PTR justified separate volumetric analysis of these parts. We used the same cohort for the VBM study. Manual morphometry (stereology) was used to compare volumes between 26/26 right-handed orchestral musicians/nonmusicians. As expected, musicians showed significantly increased GM volume in the Broca's area, specifically in the left POP. No significant results were detected in right POP, left/right PTR GM volumes, and WM volumes for all regions. Results were positively correlated with years of musical performance (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001). This result corroborates the VBM study and is in line with the hypothesis of critical involvement of POP in hearing-action integration being an integral component of frontoparietotemporal mirror neuron network. We hypothesize that increased size of musicians' left POP represent use-dependent structural adaptation in response to intensive audiomotor skill acquisition. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Does Left Atrial Volume and Pulmonary Venous Anatomy Predict the Outcome of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Irene; Chilukuri, Karuna; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Scherr, Daniel; Dalal, Darshan; Nazarian, Saman; Henrikson, Charles; Spragg, David; Berger, Ronald; Marine, Joseph; Calkins, Hugh

    Introduction: Preprocedural factors may be helpful in selecting patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for treatment with catheter ablation and in making an assumption regarding their prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether left atrial (LA) volume and pulmonary venous (PV)

  20. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J.; Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe

    2016-01-01

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mahidol University, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  2. Left atrial volume index in patients with heart failure and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function: the role of established echocardiographic parameters, circulating cystatin C and galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivlas, Christos; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Psarras, Stelios; Giamouzis, Gregory; Skoularigis, Ioannis; Chryssanthopoulos, Stavros; Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Ramcharitar, Steve; Barnes, Edward; Papasteriadis, Evangelos; Cokkinos, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    Backround: Left atrial (LA) enlargement plays an important role in the development of heart failure (HF) and is a robust prognostic factor. Fibrotic processes have also been advocated to evoke HF through finite signalling proteins. We examined the association of two such proteins, cystatin C (CysC) and galectin-3 (Gal-3), and other clinical, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters with LA volume index (LAVi) in patients with HF with severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Severe renal, liver, autoimmune disease and cancer were exclusion criteria. A total of 40 patients with HF (31 men, age 66.6 ± 1.7) with LVEF = 25.4 ± 0.9% were divided into two groups according to the mean LAVi (51.03 ± 2.9 ml/m 2 ) calculated by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Greater LAVi was positively associated with LV end-diastolic volume ( p = 0.017), LV end-systolic volume ( p = 0.025), mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) ( p = 0.001), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) ( p < 0.001), restrictive diastolic filling pattern ( p = 0.003) and atrial fibrillation ( p = 0.005). Plasma CysC was positively correlated with LAVi ( R 2 = 0.135, p = 0.019) and log-transformed plasma Gal-3 ( R 2 = 0.109, p = 0.042) by simple linear regression analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only MRV ( t = 2.236, p = 0.032), CysC ( t = 2.467, p = 0.019) and RVSP ( t = 2.155, p = 0.038) were significant predictors of LAVi. Apart from known determinants of LAVi, circulating CysC and Gal-3 were associated with greater LA dilatation in patients with HF with reduced LVEF. Interestingly, the correlation between these two fibrotic proteins was positive.

  3. Evaluation of left atrial function by multidetector computed tomography before left atrial radiofrequency-catheter ablation: Comparison of a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Florian, E-mail: florian.wolf@meduniwien.ac.a [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ourednicek, Petr [Philips Medical Systems, Prague (Czech Republic); Loewe, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Richter, Bernhard; Goessinger, Heinz David; Gwechenberger, Marianne [Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Plank, Christina; Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Toepker, Michael; Lammer, Johannes [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare a manual and automated 3D volume segmentation tool for evaluation of left atrial (LA) function by 64-slice multidetector-CT (MDCT). Methods and materials: In 33 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation a MDCT scan was performed before radiofrequency-catheter ablation. Atrial function (minimal volume (LAmin), maximal volume (LAmax), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF)) was evaluated by two readers using a manual and an automatic tool and measurement time was evaluated. Results: Automated LA volume segmentation failed in one patient due to low LA enhancement (103HU). Mean LAmax, LAmin, SV and EF were 127.7 ml, 93 ml, 34.7 ml, 27.1% by the automated, and 122.7 ml, 89.9 ml, 32.8 ml, 26.3% by the manual method with no significant difference (p > 0.05) and high Pearsons correlation coefficients (r = 0.94, r = 0.94, r = 0.82 and r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), respectively. The automated method was significantly faster (p < 0.001). Interobserver variability was low for both methods with Pearson's correlation coefficients between 0.98 and 0.99 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Evaluation of LA volume and function with 64-slice MDCT is feasible with a very low interobserver variability. The automatic method is as accurate as the manual method but significantly less time consuming permitting a routine use in clinical practice before RF-catheter ablation.

  4. Preliminary evidence for obesity and elevations in fasting insulin mediating associations between cortisol awakening response and hippocampal volumes and frontal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Wedin, William; Tirsi, Aziz; Convit, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and brain abnormalities in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While adolescents with T2DM exhibit similar brain abnormalities, less is known about whether brain impairments and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities are already present in adolescents with pre-diabetic conditions such as insulin resistance (IR). This study included 33 adolescents with IR and 20 without IR. Adolescents with IR had a blunted CAR, smaller hippocampal volumes, and greater frontal lobe atrophy compared to controls. Mediation analyses indicated pathways whereby a smaller CAR was associated with higher BMI which was in turn associated with fasting insulin levels, which in turn was related to smaller hippocampal volume and greater frontal lobe atrophy. While we had hypothesized that HPA dysregulation may result from brain abnormalities, our findings suggest that HPA dysregulation may also impact brain structures through associations with metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in mechanically ventilated rats following LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpanath, Thomas G V; Smeding, Lonneke; Hirsch, Alexander; Lagrand, Wim K; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-10-07

    High tidal volume ventilation has shown to cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), possibly contributing to concomitant extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. The present study examined whether left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on tidal volume size and whether this effect is augmented during lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced lung injury. Twenty male Wistar rats were sedated, paralyzed and then randomized in four groups receiving mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg or 19 ml/kg with or without intrapulmonary administration of LPS. A conductance catheter was placed in the left ventricle to generate pressure-volume loops, which were also obtained within a few seconds of vena cava occlusion to obtain relatively load-independent LV systolic and diastolic function parameters. The end-systolic elastance / effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea) ratio was used as the primary parameter of LV systolic function with the end-diastolic elastance (Eed) as primary LV diastolic function. Ees/Ea decreased over time in rats receiving LPS (p = 0.045) and high tidal volume ventilation (p = 0.007), with a lower Ees/Ea in the rats with high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS compared to the other groups (p tidal volume ventilation without LPS (p = 0.223). A significant interaction (p tidal ventilation and LPS for Ees/Ea and Eed, and all rats receiving high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS died before the end of the experiment. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction while preventing death following LPS-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated rats. Our data advocates the use of low tidal volumes, not only to avoid VILI, but to avert ventilator-induced myocardial dysfunction as well.

  6. Left-right differences in ovarian volume and antral follicle count in 1423 women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Hvidman, Helene Westring; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate side differences in antral follicle count (AFC) and ovarian volume in left versus right ovaries in relation to chronological and "biological" age, the latter estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. The cohort comprised 1423 women......: 1014 fertile and 409 infertile. All were examined by transvaginal sonography and serum AMH. Overall the right ovary contained 8.1% more antral follicles (p = 0.002) and had 10.7% larger volume compared with the left (p right ovarian volume was larger than the left (p...... ≤ 0.003). AFC was significantly higher in the right compared to the left ovary in the three upper AMH quartiles (p ≤ 0.005). The findings were similar when stratified in age quartiles. More than half (54.8%) had polycystic ovarian (PCO) morphology in at least one ovary. Of these women, 46.3% (n = 361...

  7. Left Atrial Volume Index and Prediction of Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Solar Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alves Secundo Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some international studies, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and increased left atrial volume index (LAVI have worse long-term prognosis. However, national Brazilian studies confirming this prediction are still lacking. Objective: To evaluate LAVI as a predictor of major cardiovascular events (MCE in patients with ACS during a 365-day follow-up. Methods: Prospective cohort of 171 patients diagnosed with ACS whose LAVI was calculated within 48 hours after hospital admission. According to LAVI, two groups were categorized: normal LAVI (≤ 32 mL/m2 and increased LAVI (> 32 mL/m2. Both groups were compared regarding clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, in- and out-of-hospital outcomes, and occurrence of ECM in up to 365 days. Results: Increased LAVI was observed in 78 patients (45%, and was associated with older age, higher body mass index, hypertension, history of myocardial infarction and previous angioplasty, and lower creatinine clearance and ejection fraction. During hospitalization, acute pulmonary edema was more frequent in patients with increased LAVI (14.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.024. After discharge, the occurrence of combined outcome for MCE was higher (p = 0.001 in the group with increased LAVI (26% as compared to the normal LAVI group (7% [RR (95% CI = 3.46 (1.54-7.73 vs. 0.80 (0.69-0.92]. After Cox regression, increased LAVI increased the probability of MCE (HR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.28-7.40, p = 0.012. Conclusion: Increased LAVI is an important predictor of MCE in a one-year follow-up.

  8. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerup, Morten; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil; Baandrup, Ulrik T; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Nygaard, Hans; Funder, Jonas; Aalkjær, Christian; Sauer, Cathrine; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Østergaard, Kristine; Grøndahl, Carsten; Candy, Geoffrey; Hasenkam, J Michael; Secher, Niels H; Bie, Peter; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Giraffes--the tallest extant animals on Earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures. We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic pressures to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 521±61 ml and 228±42 ml, respectively, yielding an ejection fraction of 56±4% and a stroke volume of 0.59 ml kg(-1). Left ventricular circumferential wall stress was 7.83±1.76 kPa. We conclude that, relative to body mass, a small left ventricular cavity and a low stroke volume characterizes the giraffe heart. The adaptations result in typical mammalian left ventricular wall tensions, but produce a lowered cardiac output. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Hippocampal-thalamic wiring in medial temporal lobe epilepsy: Enhanced connectivity per hippocampal voxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, Vera; Valabregue, Romain; Thivard, Lionel; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine; Dupont, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis is often accompanied by widespread changes in ipsilateral and contralateral white matter connectivity. Recent studies have proposed that patients may show pathologically enhanced wiring of the limbic circuits. To better address this issue, we specifically probed connection patterns between hippocampus and thalamus and examined their impact on cognitive function. A group of 44 patients with TLE (22 with right and 22 with left hippocampal sclerosis) and 24 healthy control participants were examined with high-resolution T1 imaging, memory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Thirty-four patients had further extensive neuropsychological testing. After whole brain segmentation with FreeSurfer, tractography streamline samples were drawn with hippocampus as the seed and thalamus as the target region. Two tractography strategies were applied: The first targeted the anatomic thalamic volume segmented in FreeSurfer and the second a functional region of interest in the mediodorsal thalamus derived from the activation during delayed recognition memory. We found a pronounced enhancement of connectivity between the sclerotic hippocampus and the ipsilateral thalamus both in the right and left TLE as compared to healthy control participants. This finding held for both the anatomically and the functionally defined thalamic target. Although differences were apparent in the number of absolute fibers, they were most pronounced when correcting for hippocampal volume. In terms of cognitive function, the number of hippocampal-thalamic connections was negatively correlated with performance in a variety of executive tasks, notably in the Trail Making Test, thus suggesting that the pathologic wiring did not compensate cognitive curtailing. We suggest that TLE is accompanied by an abnormal and dysfunctional enhancement of connectivity between the hippocampus and the thalamus

  10. Angiographic determination of the left-ventricular myocardial volume with the help of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing could for the first time be introduced as a new method to screen the myocardium in the left-ventricular angiocardiography. The method makes a reliable quantitative determination of the muscle mass of the left ventricle possible. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Reduced left ventricular filling following blood volume extraction does not result in compensatory augmentation of cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rachel; MacLeod, David; George, Keith; Oxborough, David; Shave, Rob; Stembridge, Mike

    2018-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A reduction in left ventricular (LV) filling, and concomitant increase in heart rate, augments LV mechanics to maintain stroke volume (SV); however, the impact of reduced LV filling in isolation on SV and LV mechanics is currently unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? An isolated decrease in LV filling did not provoke a compensatory increase in mechanics to maintain SV; in contrast, LV mechanics and SV were reduced. These data indicate that when LV filling is reduced without changes in heart rate, LV mechanics do not compensate to maintain SV. An acute non-invasive reduction in preload has been shown to augment cardiac mechanics to maintain stroke volume and cardiac output. Such interventions induce concomitant changes in heart rate, whereas blood volume extraction reduces preload without changes in heart rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a preload reduction in isolation resulted in augmented stroke volume achieved via enhanced cardiac mechanics. Nine healthy volunteers (four female, age 29 ± 11 years) underwent echocardiography for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mechanics in a supine position at baseline and end extraction after the controlled removal of 25% of total blood volume (1062 ± 342 ml). Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously by a pressure transducer attached to an indwelling radial artery catheter. Heart rate and total peripheral resistance were unchanged from baseline to end extraction, but systolic blood pressure was reduced (from 148 to 127 mmHg). From baseline to end extraction there were significant reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (from 89 to 71 ml) and stroke volume (from 56 to 37 ml); however, there was no change in LV twist, basal or apical rotation. In contrast, LV longitudinal strain (from -20 to -17%) and basal circumferential strain (from -22 to -19%) were significantly reduced from

  12. Indexed left atrial volume predicts the recurrence of non-valvular atrial fibrillation after successful cardioversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Procolo; Bursi, Francesca; Delle Donne, Grazia; Malavasi, Vincenzo; Casali, Edoardo; Barbieri, Andrea; Melandri, Francesco; Modena, Maria Grazia

    2011-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) induces remodelling of the left atrium (LA). Indexed LA volume (iLAV) as more accurate measure of LA size has not been evaluated as predictor of recurrence of AFib after cardioversion. We identified 411 adults (mean age 64.1 ± 11.4 years, 34.5% women) who underwent successful cardioversion and with no history of other atrial arrhythmia, stroke, congenital heart disease, valvular dysfunction, surgery, thyroid dysfunction, acute or chronic inflammatory disease, and pacemaker. All echocardiographic data were retrieved from the laboratory database. iLAV was measured off-line using Simpson's method. Clinical characteristics and recurrence of clinical AFib were determined by review of medical records. Patients with scheduled follow-up of at least 6 months were included. About 250 patients (60.8%) developed AFib recurrence after a median (25th-75th percentile) follow-up of 345.0 (210.0-540.0) days. Patients with AFib recurrence had significantly greater iLAV than patients without AFib recurrence (39.7 ± 8.4 vs. 31.4 ± 4.6, P < 0.001). Each mL/m(2) increase in iLAV was associated with a 30% increased risk of AFib recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 1.30, confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.38, P < 0.001]. In a multivariable model, each mL/m(2) increase in iLAV was independently associated with a 21% increase in the risk of AFib recurrence (OR 1.21, CI 1.11-1.30, P < 0.001). The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves, generated to compare LA diameter and iLAV as predictors of AFib recurrence, were 0.59 ± 0.3 and 0.85 ± 0.2, respectively (P < 0.001). The present study is the first to show that larger iLAV before cardioversion, as a more accurate measure of LA remodelling than LA diameter, is strongly and independently associated with higher risks of AFib recurrence.

  13. Effects of perfusion detect on the measurement of left ventricular mass, ventricular volume and post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The presence of perfusion defect may influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) measurement by quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (QGS), and ischemic myocardium, usually showing perfusion defect may produce post-stress LV dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluated the effects of extent and reversibility of perfusion defect on the automatic measurement of LVM by QGS and to investigate the effect of reversibility of perfusion defect on post-stress LV dysfunction. Forty-six patients (male/female=34:12, mean age=64 years) with perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion SPECT underwent rest and post-stress QGS. Forty patients (87%) showed reversible defect. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF), and LV myocardial volume were obtained from QGS by autoquant program, and LVM was calculated by multiplying the LV myocardial volume by the specific gravity of myocardium. LVMs measured at rest and post-stress QGS showed good correlation, and higher correlation was founded in the subjects with fixed perfusion defect and with small defect (smaller than 20%). There were no significant differences in EDVs, ESVs and EFs between obtained by rest and post-stress QGS in patients with fixed myocardial defect. Whereas, EF obtained by post-stress QGS was lower than that by rest QGS in patients with reversible defect and 10 (25%) of them showed decreases in EF more than 5% in post-stress QGS, as compared to that of rest QGS. Excellent correlations of EDVs, ESVs, EFs between rest and post-stress QGS were noted. Patients with fixed defect had higher correlation between defect can affect LVM measurement by QGS and patients with reversible defect shows post-stress LV dysfunction more frequently than patients with fixed perfusion defect.

  14. Changes in intraventricular septal thickness, left ventrical wall thickness and left ventricular volume in obese adolescents on a high protein weight reducing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, E H; Stallings, V A; Pencharz, P B; Duncan, W J; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    Ten obese adolescents (153 percent ideal body weight) underwent significant weight reduction over a two to three month period using a low calorie, low carbohydrate, protein diet. The subjects lost a mean of 13.9 +/- 4.3 kg, representing a decrease of 15.5 +/- 5.0 percent of initial body weight. Serial measures of intraventricular septal thickness (ST), left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) and left ventricular volume (LVV) were determined by standard m-mode echocardiographic methods over 14 weeks to determine the effect of weight reduction on these indicators of cardiac size. The ST changed over the study period from 8.2 +/- 1.9 mm to 7.3 +/- 2.0 mm; the LVWT from 7.6 +/- 1.8 mm to 6.3 +/- 1.1 mm; and the LVV from 47.1 +/- 4.0 mm to 42.0 +/- 2.8 mm. These numerical decreases were not significantly different. Over this study period, the diet allowed weight loss with no apparent effect on the cardiac size (ST, LVWT, LVV) as measured by echocardiography in these obese adolescents.

  15. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (The FIT-AD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Bronas, Ulf G; Konety, Suma; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Dysken, Maurice; Jack, Clifford; Wyman, Jean F; Vock, David; Smith, Glenn

    2014-10-11

    Alzheimer's disease, a global public health issue, accounts for 60 to 80% of all dementias. Alzheimer's disease primarily causes cognitive impairment and drugs have only modest short-term effects, highlighting a pressing need to develop effective interventions. Aerobic exercise holds promise for treating cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease through biologically sound mechanisms. Nonetheless, aerobic exercise studies in Alzheimer's disease are limited with mixed findings. This pilot randomized controlled trial will investigate the effects of a 6-month, individualized, moderate-intensity cycling intervention (20 to 50 minutes per session, 3 times a week) on cognition and hippocampal volume in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The specific aims are to: 1) determine the immediate effect of the cycling intervention on cognition in Alzheimer's disease; 2) examine if the cycling intervention slows cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease from baseline to 12 months; and 3) assess the effect of aerobic exercise on hippocampal volume over 12 months. Ninety subjects will be randomized on a 2:1 allocation ratio to cycling or attention control (low-intensity stretching) and followed for another 6 months. Allocations will be concealed to all investigators and outcome assessors will be blinded to group assignments and previous data. Cognition will be measured by the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition at baseline before randomization and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Hippocampal volume will be measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 and 12 months. The sample size of 90 will give 80% power to detect a 2.5-point difference in within-group changes in the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition at 6 months for the cycling group. Findings from this study will address the critical gap of exercise efficacy in Alzheimer's disease and use of magnetic resonance imaging as an outcome measure in clinical trials

  16. Clinical usefulness of cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular volume and diagnosis of heart and great vessel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Anno, Hirofumi; Uritani, Tomizo (Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    ECG-gated cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 20 patients with various heart deseases. Left ventricular volume (LVV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated on MR images obtained in left ventricular vertical and horizontal long axis views. The findings were compared with those obtained from left ventriculography. There was a significant positive correlation between MR imaging and ventriculography for both LVV and LVEF (p<0.001). In Marfan syndrome after surgery for dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, MR imaging was capable of visualizing not only the whole aorta in a single plane but also enlargement of the aortic root. It also depicted asynergy and thinned wall of the infarcted myocardium for myocardial infarction; an enlarged left auricle, the thickened septum, and constricted outflow tract for idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis; shunt flow for ventricular septum defect; and an enlarged aortic root for aortitis syndrome. Using ventriculography as the standard, cine MR imaging was frequently false positive for the detection of mitral regurgitation. There was, however, good concordance between MR imaging and ventriculography in detecting aortic regurgitation. In addition, MR imaging was equivalent to color Doppler technique for detecting valvular regurgitation. (N.K.).

  17. Clinical usefulness of cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular volume and diagnosis of heart and great vessel diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Anno, Hirofumi; Uritani, Tomizo

    1990-01-01

    ECG-gated cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 20 patients with various heart deseases. Left ventricular volume (LVV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated on MR images obtained in left ventricular vertical and horizontal long axis views. The findings were compared with those obtained from left ventriculography. There was a significant positive correlation between MR imaging and ventriculography for both LVV and LVEF (p<0.001). In Marfan syndrome after surgery for dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, MR imaging was capable of visualizing not only the whole aorta in a single plane but also enlargement of the aortic root. It also depicted asynergy and thinned wall of the infarcted myocardium for myocardial infarction; an enlarged left auricle, the thickened septum, and constricted outflow tract for idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis; shunt flow for ventricular septum defect; and an enlarged aortic root for aortitis syndrome. Using ventriculography as the standard, cine MR imaging was frequently false positive for the detection of mitral regurgitation. There was, however, good concordance between MR imaging and ventriculography in detecting aortic regurgitation. In addition, MR imaging was equivalent to color Doppler technique for detecting valvular regurgitation. (N.K.)

  18. Left ventricular outflow tract mean systolic acceleration as a surrogate for the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Fabrice; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration (LVOT(Acc)) during alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility and LV filling. BACKGROUND: Most indexes described to quantify LV systolic function, such as LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, are dependent on loading conditions. METHODS: In 18 sheep (4 normal, 6 with aortic regurgitation, and 8 with old myocardial infarction), blood flow velocities through the LVOT were recorded using conventional pulsed Doppler. The LVOT(Acc) was calculated as the aortic peak velocity divided by the time to peak flow; LVOT(Acc) was compared with LV maximal elastance (E(m)) acquired by conductance catheter under different loading conditions, including volume and pressure overload during an acute coronary occlusion (n = 10). In addition, a clinically validated lumped-parameter numerical model of the cardiovascular system was used to support our findings. RESULTS: Left ventricular E(m) and LVOT(Acc) decreased during ischemia (1.67 +/- 0.67 mm Hg.ml(-1) before vs. 0.93 +/- 0.41 mm Hg.ml(-1) during acute coronary occlusion [p < 0.05] and 7.9 +/- 3.1 m.s(-2) before vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 m.s(-2) during coronary occlusion [p < 0.05], respectively). Left ventricular outflow tract systolic acceleration showed a strong linear correlation with LV E(m) (y = 3.84x + 1.87, r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Similar findings were obtained with the numerical modeling, which demonstrated a strong correlation between predicted and actual LV E(m) (predicted = 0.98 [actual] -0.01, r = 0.86). By analysis of variance, there was no statistically significant difference in LVOT(Acc) under different loading conditions. CONCLUSIONS: For a variety of hemodynamic conditions, LVOT(Acc) was linearly related to the LV contractility index LV E(m) and was independent of loading conditions. These findings were consistent with numerical modeling. Thus, this Doppler index may serve as a good noninvasive index of LV

  19. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stomby, Andreas; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized...... to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12) with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12) for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group...... of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing...

  20. Prognostic value of 3-dimensional echocardiographical heart volume assessment in patients scheduled for left ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Albert; Kurz, Stephan; Anwar, Sibtain; Potapov, Jevgenij; Krall, Christian; O'Brien, Benjamin; Habazettl, Helmut; Krabatsch, Thomas; Kukucka, Marian

    2018-01-30

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support is an increasingly important and successful therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart failure. As chronic heart failure progresses, the left and right ventricles adapt by enlarging its volume and patients present for LVAD implantation with varying degrees of dilatation. By quantitatively assessing right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes using 3D transoesophageal echocardiography and correlating the findings with clinical outcomes, we aim to investigate the prognostic value of LV and RV volumes for early survival after LVAD implantation. This is a single-centre, non-randomized diagnostic cohort study using prospectively collected clinical and 3D echocardiographic data from 65 patients scheduled for LVAD implantation, using centrifugal pumps for long-term support (HeartWare and HeartMate 3). The primary end-point for this study is 60-day mortality, with longer term survival as a secondary end-point. We divided our cohort group into survivors and non-survivors at 60 days [49 patients (75%) and 16 patients (25%), respectively]. Right to left end-diastolic ratio assessed by 2D echocardiography was significantly higher in the 60-day non-survivors group (0.70 ± 0.09 vs 0.62 ± 0.11; P = 0.01). Indexed end-diastolic volume parameters (LV, RV and overall heart) showed significant differences among the groups and were higher in the 60-day survivors group (LV volume 154 ± 51 ml/m2 vs 110 ± 40 ml/m2, P = 0.004; RV volume 96 ± 27 ml/m2 vs 80 ± 23 ml/m2, P = 0.05; heart 250 ± 64 ml/m2 vs 190 ± 57 ml/m2, P= 0.003). To investigate haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters, the right to left end-diastolic ratio and indexed RV end-diastolic volume were associated with 60-day mortality in the logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for patients with indexed RV end-diastolic volume >82 ml/m2 vs indexed RV end

  1. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiu Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM and NPPB (100 µM, but not to tamoxifen (10 µM. Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX and NMDA (40 µM AP-5 receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage.

  2. Normal right- and left ventricular volumes and myocardial mass in children measured by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Achim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of ventricular volume by Steady State Free Precession (SSFP cardiovascular magnetic resonance is accurate and reproducible. Normal values exist for adults, but are lacking for children. We sought to establish normal values for left and right ventricular volumes, mass and function in healthy children by using SSFP. Methods and results Fifty children (27 females, 23 males without cardiovascular disease were evaluated. Median age was 11 years (range 7 months – 18 years, weight 35 kg (range 7–77 kg, height 146 cm (range 66–181 cm. Thirty-six examinations were performed with breath holding, 14 in freely breathing sedated children. Ventricular volumes and mass were measured in the end systolic and end diastolic phase on SSFP cine images acquired in a short axis plane as a stack of 12 contiguous slices covering full length of both ventricles. Regression analysis showed an exponential relationship between body surface area (BSA and ventricular volumes and mass (normal value = a*BSAb. Normative curves for males and females are presented in relation to BSA for the enddiastolic volume, endsystolic volume and mass of both ventricles. Intra- and interobserver variability of the measurements was within the limits of 2% and 7% respectively, except for right ventricular mass (10%. Conclusion The exponential equation for calculation of normal values for each ventricular parameter and graphical display of normative curves for data acquired in healthy children by SSFP cardiovascular magnetic resonance are provided.

  3. Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  5. Interstudy repeatability of left and right ventricular volume estimations by serial-gated tomographic radionuclide angiographies using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Maj; Haase, Christine; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with 99MTc-HSA equilibrium radionuclide angiography (RA) is frequently used for assessing cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interstudy repeatability of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular volume...

  6. Left ventricular volume measurement in mice by conductance catheter: evaluation and optimization of calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Møller; Kristiansen, Steen B; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    of the hypertonic saline bolus was inferior to injection into the pulmonary artery as a calibration method. Calibration with an independent measurement of stroke volume decreased the agreement with V(MRI). Correction for an increase in blood conductivity during the in vivo experiments improved estimation of EDV...

  7. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomby, Andreas; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12) with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12) for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group was included as a reference ( n = 6). The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced a significant weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and increased peak oxygen uptake without any significant group differences. Furthermore, both interventions were associated with increased functional brain responses within the right anterior hippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus and increased volume of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing disorders await further studies. Clinical trials registration number: Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01513798.

  8. Smaller Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multisite ENIGMA-PGC Study: Subcortical Volumetry Results From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Mark W; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Dennis, Emily L; Davis, Sarah L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Stevens, Jennifer S; Densmore, Maria; Haswell, Courtney C; Ipser, Jonathan; Koch, Saskia B J; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Lebois, Lauren A M; Peverill, Matthew; Baker, Justin T; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Frijling, Jessie L; Gruber, Staci A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Jahanshad, Neda; Koopowitz, Sheri; Levy, Ifat; Nawijn, Laura; O'Connor, Lauren; Olff, Miranda; Salat, David H; Sheridan, Margaret A; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Winternitz, Sherry R; Wolff, Jonathan D; Wolf, Erika J; Wang, Xin; Wrocklage, Kristen; Abdallah, Chadi G; Bryant, Richard A; Geuze, Elbert; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kaufman, Milissa L; King, Anthony P; Krystal, John H; Lagopoulos, Jim; Bennett, Maxwell; Lanius, Ruth; Liberzon, Israel; McGlinchey, Regina E; McLaughlin, Katie A; Milberg, William P; Miller, Mark W; Ressler, Kerry J; Veltman, Dick J; Stein, Dan J; Thomaes, Kathleen; Thompson, Paul M; Morey, Rajendra A

    2018-02-01

    Many studies report smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings have not always been consistent. Here, we present the results of a large-scale neuroimaging consortium study on PTSD conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)-Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) PTSD Working Group. We analyzed neuroimaging and clinical data from 1868 subjects (794 PTSD patients) contributed by 16 cohorts, representing the largest neuroimaging study of PTSD to date. We assessed the volumes of eight subcortical structures (nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus, and lateral ventricle). We used a standardized image-analysis and quality-control pipeline established by the ENIGMA consortium. In a meta-analysis of all samples, we found significantly smaller hippocampi in subjects with current PTSD compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (Cohen's d = -0.17, p = .00054), and smaller amygdalae (d = -0.11, p = .025), although the amygdala finding did not survive a significance level that was Bonferroni corrected for multiple subcortical region comparisons (p < .0063). Our study is not subject to the biases of meta-analyses of published data, and it represents an important milestone in an ongoing collaborative effort to examine the neurobiological underpinnings of PTSD and the brain's response to trauma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stomby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12 with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12 for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group was included as a reference (n = 6. The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced a significant weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and increased peak oxygen uptake without any significant group differences. Furthermore, both interventions were associated with increased functional brain responses within the right anterior hippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus and increased volume of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing disorders await further studies. Clinical trials registration number: Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01513798.

  10. Automatic computation of left ventricular volume changes over a cardiac cycle from echocardiography images by nonlinear dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Sani, Zahra; Shalbaf, Ahmad; Behnam, Hamid; Shalbaf, Reza

    2015-02-01

    Curve of left ventricular (LV) volume changes throughout the cardiac cycle is a fundamental parameter for clinical evaluation of various cardiovascular diseases. Currently, this evaluation is often performed manually which is tedious and time consuming and suffers from significant interobserver and intraobserver variability. This paper introduces a new automatic method, based on nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) for extracting the curve of the LV volume changes over a cardiac cycle from two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography images. Isometric feature mapping (Isomap) is one of the most popular NLDR algorithms. In this study, a modified version of Isomap algorithm, where image to image distance metric is computed using nonrigid registration, is applied on 2-D echocardiography images of one cycle of heart. Using this approach, the nonlinear information of these images is embedded in a 2-D manifold and each image is characterized by a symbol on the constructed manifold. This new representation visualizes the relationship between these images based on LV volume changes and allows extracting the curve of the LV volume changes automatically. Our method in comparison to the traditional segmentation algorithms does not need any LV myocardial segmentation and tracking, particularly difficult in the echocardiography images. Moreover, a large data set under various diseases for training is not required. The results obtained by our method are quantitatively evaluated to those obtained manually by the highly experienced echocardiographer on ten healthy volunteers and six patients which depict the usefulness of the presented method.

  11. Semi-automated quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunde Ketil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that real-time three-dimensional (3D echocardiography (RT3DE gives more accurate and reproducible left ventricular (LV volume and ejection fraction (EF measurements than traditional two-dimensional methods. A new semi-automated tool (4DLVQ for volume measurements in RT3DE has been developed. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method compared to a 3D echo standard. Methods LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV, end-systolic volumes (ESV, and EF measured using 4DLVQ were compared with a commercially available semi-automated analysis tool (TomTec 4D LV-Analysis ver. 2.2 in 35 patients. Repeated measurements were performed to investigate inter- and intra-observer variability. Results Average analysis time of the new tool was 141s, significantly shorter than 261s using TomTec (p p = NS, with bias and 95% limits of agreement of 2.1 ± 21 ml, -0.88 ± 17 ml, and 1.6 ± 11% for EDV, ESV, and EF respectively. Intra-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 7.5 ± 6.2 ml vs. 7.7 ± 7.3 ml for EDV, 5.5 ± 5.6 ml vs. 5.0 ± 5.9 ml for ESV, and 3.0 ± 2.7% vs. 2.1 ± 2.0% for EF (p = NS. The inter-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 9.0 ± 5.9 ml vs. 17 ± 6.3 ml for EDV (p p p = NS. Conclusion In conclusion, the new analysis tool gives rapid and reproducible measurements of LV volumes and EF, with good agreement compared to another RT3DE volume quantification tool.

  12. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  13. Comparison of left and right ventricular volume measurement using the Simpson's method and the area length method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, Klaus; Schuster, Antonius; Fruehwald, Julia; Mair, Michael; Burger, Ralph; Toepker, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ventricular volume measurement using a volumetric approach in the three standard cardiac planes and ventricular volume estimation by a geometrical model, the Area-Length method (ALM). Materials and methods: Fifty-six healthy volunteers were examined (27 males, 29 females) on a 1.5 T MR-unit with ECG-triggered steady state free precision (SSFP) Cine-MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Multiple slices in standardized planes including the short-axis view (sa), 4-chamber view (4ch), left and right 2-chamber views (2ch) were used to cover the whole heart. End-systolic and end-diastolic ventricular volumes (EDV, ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated with Simpson's rule in all planes and with ALM in the 2ch and 4ch planes. Global function parameters measured in the sa plane were compared with those obtained in the other imaging planes. Results: A very good correlation is observed when comparing functional parameters calculated with Simpson's rule in all imaging planes: for instance, the mean EDV/ESV of the left and right ventricle of the female population group measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: left ventricle EDV/ESV 114.3/44.4, 120.9/46.5, and 117.7/45.3 ml; right ventricle EDV/ESV 106.6/46.0, 101.2/41.1, and 103.5/43.0 ml. Functional parameters of the left ventricle calculated with ALM in 2ch and 4ch correlate to parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule in the range of 5-10%: for instance, the EDV/ESV of the left ventricle of the male population group measured in the sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 160.3/63.5, 163.1/59.0, and 167.0/65.7 ml. Functional parameters of the right ventricle measured with ALM in 4ch are 40-50% lower and calculated in 2ch almost double as high as compared with the parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule: for instance, male right ventricular EDV/ESV measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 153.4/68.1, 97.5/34.5, and 280.2/123.2 ml. The EF correlates for all imaging planes measured with the Simpson's rule

  14. Comparison of left and right ventricular volume measurement using the Simpson's method and the area length method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at; Schuster, Antonius [Department of Radiology, LKH Feldkirch (Austria); Fruehwald, Julia [Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Mair, Michael; Burger, Ralph; Toepker, Michael [Department of Radiology, LKH Feldkirch (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: To compare ventricular volume measurement using a volumetric approach in the three standard cardiac planes and ventricular volume estimation by a geometrical model, the Area-Length method (ALM). Materials and methods: Fifty-six healthy volunteers were examined (27 males, 29 females) on a 1.5 T MR-unit with ECG-triggered steady state free precision (SSFP) Cine-MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Multiple slices in standardized planes including the short-axis view (sa), 4-chamber view (4ch), left and right 2-chamber views (2ch) were used to cover the whole heart. End-systolic and end-diastolic ventricular volumes (EDV, ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated with Simpson's rule in all planes and with ALM in the 2ch and 4ch planes. Global function parameters measured in the sa plane were compared with those obtained in the other imaging planes. Results: A very good correlation is observed when comparing functional parameters calculated with Simpson's rule in all imaging planes: for instance, the mean EDV/ESV of the left and right ventricle of the female population group measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: left ventricle EDV/ESV 114.3/44.4, 120.9/46.5, and 117.7/45.3 ml; right ventricle EDV/ESV 106.6/46.0, 101.2/41.1, and 103.5/43.0 ml. Functional parameters of the left ventricle calculated with ALM in 2ch and 4ch correlate to parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule in the range of 5-10%: for instance, the EDV/ESV of the left ventricle of the male population group measured in the sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 160.3/63.5, 163.1/59.0, and 167.0/65.7 ml. Functional parameters of the right ventricle measured with ALM in 4ch are 40-50% lower and calculated in 2ch almost double as high as compared with the parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule: for instance, male right ventricular EDV/ESV measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 153.4/68.1, 97.5/34.5, and 280.2/123.2 ml. The EF correlates for all imaging planes measured

  15. Effects of ApoE-epsilon4 allele load and age on the rates of grey matter and hippocampal volumes loss in a longitudinal cohort of 1186 healthy elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Fabrice; Lemaître, Hervé; Dufouil, Carole; Grassiot, Blandine; Delcroix, Nicolas; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Tzourio, Christophe; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2010-11-15

    In a sample of 1186 healthy subjects aged 65 to 89 years who were scanned twice with MRI 3.6 years apart, we studied the effects of age and ApoE-epsilon4 allele load on the rate of atrophy of grey matter and hippocampus. Rates of grey matter and hippocampal volumes loss were computed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry and region of interest analysis. Longitudinal analysis showed that an age-related annual rate of grey matter volume loss was only seen in epsilon4 homozygotes only (n=14) whereas no age effect was seen epsilon4 heterozygotes (n=239) and in noncarriers (n=933). ApoE-epsilon4 homozygotes also had a significantly larger rate of hippocampal volume loss than heterozygotes or noncarriers. During the same period, no effect or interaction of ApoE genotype and age was observed on cognitive decline, as assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). These data do not suggest an epsilon4 gene dose effect on the rate of hippocampal volume loss in healthy elderly subjects as most of the effect was limited to homozygotes. Hippocampal volume loss may not be a good imaging marker to understand the effect of the ApoE-epsilon4 allele on the risk of dementia in a population-based setting. It could be hypothesized that the impact of a single ApoE-epsilon4 allele on brain structures is largely delayed in time. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of left ventricular chamber and myocardial volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Application of a newly developed edge-detection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Hirase, Yoshinori; Sagoh, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hideaki [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software has been reported to demonstrate inaccurate edge detection in the left ventricular chamber in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. In this study we developed a method to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV) and left myocardial volume (LMV) from gated SPECT data using a newly developed edge-detection algorithm, and we compared it with the QGS method of calculating LVV and LMV in a phantom study. Our method gave more accurate measurements LVV and LMV whereas the QGS method underestimated LMV. Compared with QGS LVV and LMV, our method yielded better results in the phantom study. (author)

  17. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  18. Donepezil decreases annual rate of hippocampal atrophy in suspected prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Chupin, Marie; Hampel, Harald; Lista, Simone; Cavedo, Enrica; Croisile, Bernard; Louis Tisserand, Guy; Touchon, Jacques; Bonafe, Alain; Ousset, Pierre Jean; Ait Ameur, Amir; Rouaud, Olivier; Ricolfi, Fréderic; Vighetto, Alain; Pasquier, Florence; Delmaire, Christine; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Dufouil, Carole; Lehericy, Stéphane; Tonelli, Isabelle; Duveau, Françoise; Colliot, Olivier; Garnero, Line; Sarazin, Marie; Dormont, Didier

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of donepezil on the rate of hippocampal atrophy in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day) in subjects with suspected prodromal AD. Subjects underwent two brain magnetic resonance imaging scans (baseline and final visit). The primary efficacy outcome was the annualized percentage change (APC) of total hippocampal volume (left + right) measured by an automated segmentation method. Two-hundred and sixteen only subjects were randomized across 28 French expert clinical sites. In the per protocol population (placebo = 92 and donepezil = 82), the donepezil group exhibited a significant reduced rate of hippocampal atrophy (APC = -1.89%) compared with the placebo group (APC = -3.47%), P donepezil compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of diastolic phase by left ventricular volume curve using s2-gated equilibrium method among radioisotope angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshirou; Sakai, Akira; Inada, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Kobayashi, Akitoshi

    1982-01-01

    S2-gated (the second heart sound) method was designed by authors. In 6 normal subjects and 16 patients (old myocardial infarction 12 cases, hypertension 2 cases and aortic regurgitation 2 cases), radioisotope (RI) angiography using S2-gated equilibrium method was performed. In RI angiography, sup(99m)Tc-human serum albumin (HSA) 555MBq (15mCi) as tracer, PDP11/34 as minicomputer and PCG/ECG symchromizer (Metro Inst.) were used. Then left ventricular (LV) volume curve by S2-gated and electrocardiogram (ECG) R wave-gated method were obtained. Using LV volume curve, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), mean ejection rate (mER, s -1 ), mean filling rate (mFR, -1 ) and rapid filling fraction (RFF) were calculated. mFR indicated mean filling rate during rapid filling phase. RFF was defined as the filling fraction during rapid filling phase among stroke volume. S2-gated method was reliable in evaluation of early diastolic phase, compared with ECG-gated method. There was the difference between RFF in normal group and myocardial infarction (MI) group (p < 0.005). RFF in 2 groups were correlated with EF (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). RFF was useful in evaluating MI cases who had normal EF values. The comparison with mER by ECG-gated and mFR by S2-gated was useful in evaluating MI cases who had normal mER values. mFR was remarkably lower than mER in MI group, but was equal to mER in normal group approximately. In conclusion, the evaluation using RFF and mFR by S2-gated method was useful in MI cases who had normal systolic phase indices. (author)

  20. Agreement of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes between adenosine stress TL-201 gated SPECT and echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, M. S. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ewha, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yang, Y. J.; Kang, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Electrocardiogram-gated TI-201 SPECT measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) have shown high correlation with conventional methods. However, how much these parameters measured by TI-201 gated SPECT differ from those by echocardiography has not been assessed. Adenosine stress (Ad-G) and redistribution TI-201 gated SPECT (Re-G) and resting echocardiography were conducted in 337 patients (184 male, 153 female). EDV, ESV and LVEF measured by QGS software were compared with the results by echocardiography. Patients with arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation or frequent premature contractions) or evidence of fixed or reversible perfusion defects on TI-201 SPECT were excluded. EF, EDV and ESV measured by Ad-G (63.3{+-}9.8,73.8{+-}30.2,29.1{+-}20.1) and Re-G (65.2{+-}11.6,69.1{+-}30.1,26.5{+-}20.3) correlated well with those by Echo (61.4{+-}7.9,78.3{+-}2.7, 30.7{+-} 17.5 ; r of Ad-G=0.547, 0.850, 0.827, p<0.001 ; r of Re-G=0.585, 0.838, 0.819, p<0.001). However the difference (mean, SD, SEE of Echo - gated SPECT) was statistically significant (EF: Ad-G=1.71, 8.92, 0.48, Re-G=3.59, 10.39, 0.56, p<0.001 ; EDV: Ad-G=4.75, 16.21, 0.88, Re-G=9.53, 16.77, 0.91, p<0.001 ; ESV: Ad-G=1.75, 11.35, 0.61, p<0.05, Re-G=4.29, 11.7, 0.63, p<0.001). Bland-Altman plots showed that the difference of EDV and ESV did not vary in any systematic way over the range of measurement, whereas the difference of EF increased with increasing average EF by Echo and gated-SPECT. The difference of EF, EDV, and ESV between Ad-G and Echo was significantly smaller than those between Re-G and Echo (p<0.001). Gated TI-201 SPECT underestimates EDV and ESV over a wide range of volume. As a result, EF by gated TI-201 SPECT is overestimated especially in patients with small LV volume. Ad-G is preferable to Re-G in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in place of Echo because of smaller bias.

  1. Respiratory influence on left atrial volume calculation with 3D-echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørgaard, Mathias; Linde, Jesper J; Ismail, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    with chest pain were examined with 3D echocardiography and LAV was quantified during inspiratory breath hold, expiratory breath hold and during free breathing. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, only 65 had an echocardiographic window that allowed for 3D echocardiography in the entire respiratory cycle. Mean...... atrial end diastolic volume was 45.4 ± 14.5 during inspiratory breath hold, 46.4 ± 14.8 during expiratory breath hold and 45.6 ± 14.3 during free respiration. Mean end systolic volume was 17.6 ± 7.8 during inspiratory breath hold, 18.8 ± 8.0 during expiratory breath hold and 18.3 ± 8.0 during free...... respiration. No significant differences were seen in any of the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The present study adds to the feasibility of 3D LAV quantitation. LAV estimation by 3D echocardiography may be performed during either end-expiratory or end-inspiratory breath-hold without any significant...

  2. History of mild traumatic brain injury is associated with deficits in relational memory, reduced hippocampal volume, and less neural activity later in life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim M Monti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a history of head trauma is associated with memory deficits later in life. The majority of previous research has focused on moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, but recent evidence suggests that even a mild TBI (mTBI can interact with the aging process and produce reductions in memory performance. This study examined the association of mTBI with memory and the brain by comparing young and middle-aged adults who have had mTBI in their recent (several years ago and remote (several decades ago past, respectively, with control subjects on a face-scene relational memory paradigm while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hippocampal volumes were also examined from high-resolution structural images. Results indicated middle-aged adults with a head injury in their remote past had impaired memory compared to gender, age, and education matched control participants, consistent with previous results in the study of memory, aging, and TBI. The present findings extended previous results by demonstrating that these individuals also had smaller bilateral hippocampi, and had reduced neural activity during memory performance in cortical regions important for memory retrieval. These results indicate that a history of mTBI may be one of the many factors that negatively influence cognitive and brain health in aging.

  3. Total bile acid levels are associated with left atrial volume and cardiac output in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voiosu, Andrei M; Wiese, Signe; Voiosu, Theodor A

    2018-01-01

    , echocardiographic, and biochemical means. Associations between total serum BA concentrations and markers of systolic or diastolic dysfunction and the presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy were tested through univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with cirrhosis were assessed...... and diastolic dysfunction were rare in the cohort. Total BA levels associated with several echocardiographic parameters of the hyperdynamic syndrome in univariate analysis but only with left atrial volume in multivariate analysis (P=0.007). BA concentrations did not differ according to the presence...... to investigate the association between total BA levels and echocardiographic and biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients were enrolled prospectively in this hypothesis-generating study and evaluated for cardiac and hemodynamic dysfunction through clinical...

  4. Simpson's method of discs in Salukis and Whippets: Echocardiographic reference intervals for end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckerdieck, M; Holler, P; Smets, P; Wess, G

    2015-12-01

    Sighthound breeds are known to have different cardiac sizes and dimensions from other breeds; therefore, breed-specific references are required to avoid misinterpretation of echocardiographic findings. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) reference intervals derived from Simpson's method of discs (SMOD) do not exist for Salukis or Whippets. To establish EDV and ESV reference intervals for SMOD in Salukis and Whippets. 110 Salukis and 119 Whippets. Reference intervals for SMOD with and without normalization to body surface area (BSA) were established using the right parasternal and left apical views in 93 healthy Salukis and 82 healthy Whippets. Volumes were compared between both echocardiographic views, genders, and racing and show pedigree dogs. The 90% reference intervals were calculated using the robust method. Agreement between right-sided and left-sided echocardiographic views was good. Reference intervals indexed to body surface area (BSA) for Whippets were 59-109 mL/m² for end-diastolic volume index and 18-53 mL/m² for end-systolic volume index. Corresponding values for Salukis were 68-126 mL/m² for end-diastolic volume index and 27-64 mL/m² for end-systolic volume index. There were no indexed volume differences between male and female or racing and show pedigree dogs in both breeds. The non-normalized volumes significantly differed between genders. Whippets and Salukis had larger systolic and diastolic left ventricular volumes compared with other breeds. This study provided echocardiographic reference intervals for SMOD-derived left ventricular volumes for these athletic breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review: effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in patients with a myocardial infarction and in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Barlera, Simona; Latini, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: To summarize and quantify results of echocardiographic studies examining the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on left ventricular remodelling in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction...... (LVSD). METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of eligible studies providing data on end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed. RESULTS: Data from 16 eligible studies were meta-analysed. The results of studies including...... patients with MI and preserved LVEF (>45%) showed no significant benefit of ACE inhibition. Results of studies/subgroups with mean LVEF diastolic and systolic volumes of 3.0 (0.1, 6.0) ml and 2.25 (0.04, 4.4) ml in short-term (4-14 weeks) follow...

  6. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  7. [Evaluation of the clinical suitability of automated left ventricle's fraction and volume measurements in 3-dimensional echocardiography compared to values obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żygadło, Agnieszka; Kaźnica-Wiatr, Magdalena; Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Knap, Klaudia; Lenart-Migdalska, Aleksandra; Smaś-Suska, Monika; Skubera, Maciej; Urbańczyk-Zawadzka, Małgorzata; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2017-10-23

    Recently a lot of authors have been trying to determine the usefulness of 3-dimensional echocardiography (TTE 3D) in evaluation of ejection fraction and left ventricular volume, but few attempt to compare it to the current gold standard of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 3D imaging technics allows to avoid errors caused by geometry of the heart chambers and foreshortened views. American Echocardiographic Guidelines recommend the use of 3-dimensional echocardiography in daily clinical practice. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of automated 3D TTE software to calculate left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricle end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricle end systolic volume (LVESV), and to compare those measurements calculated in CMR and in 3D TTE. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of automated 3D TTE software to calculate left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricle end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricle end systolic volume (LVESV), and to compare those measurements calculated in CMR and in 3D TTE. The mean LVEF in 3D TTE was 65% +/- 12%; LVEDV 123 ml +/- 67 ml, LVESV 42 ml +/- 29 ml. The CMR LVEF in the study group was 61% +/- 9%, LVEDV 134 ml +/- 51ml, LVESV 54 ml +/- 33 ml. Wilcoxon rank test showed no difference between medians of the measurements, the correlation coefficient between LVEF in 3D TTE and CMR was R = 0.84 (p = 0.036). LVEF calculated in 3D TTE shows good correlation with LVEF computed in CMR. However good visualization of the endocardium, especially in the apex, is essential. The volume of left ventricle is underestimated in 3D TTE. In previous studies underestimation of LVEDV and LVESV was explained by exclusion of endocardial trabeculae from the left ventricle cavity in automated measurement. The automated 3D TTE software allows simple, fast and precise evaluation of parameters of the left ventricle - especially LVEF. Automated 3D TTE software gives hope for

  8. Echocardiographic predictors of early in-hospital heart failure during first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: does myocardial performance index and left atrial volume improve diagnosis over conventional parameters of left ventricular function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Cristiano V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF has been considered a major determinant of early outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Myocardial performance index (MPI has been associated to early evolution in AMI in a heterogeneous population, including non ST-elevation or previous AMI. Left atrial volume has been related with late evolution after AMI. We evaluated the independent role of clinical and echocardiographic variables including LVEF, MPI and left atrial volume in predicting early in-hospital congestive heart failure (CHF specifically in patients with a first isolated ST-elevation AMI. Methods Echocardiography was performed within 30 hours of chest pain in 95 patients with a first ST-elevation AMI followed during the first week of hospitalization. Several clinical and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. CHF was defined as Killip class ≥ II. Multivariate regression analysis was used to select independent predictor of in-hospital CHF. Results Early in-hospital CHF occurred in 29 (31% of patients. LVEF ≤ 0.45 was the single independent and highly significant predictor of early CHF among other clinical and echocardiographic variables (odds ratio 17.0; [95% CI 4.1 - 70.8]; p Conclusion For patients with first, isolated ST-elevation AMI, LVEF assessed by echocardiography still constitutes a strong and accurate independent predictor of early in-hospital CHF, superior to isolated MPI and left atrial volume in this particular subset of patients.

  9. MRI volumetric measurement of hippocampal formation based on statistic parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jianming; Jiang Biao; Zhou Jiong; Zhang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI volumetric measurement of hippocampal formation using statistic parametric mapping (SPM) software and to discuss the value of the method applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The SPM software was used to divide the three-dimensional MRI brain image into gray matter, white matter and CSF separately. The bilateral hippocampal formations in both AD group and normal control group were delineated and the volumes were measured. The SPM method was compared with conventional method based on region of interest (ROI), which was the gold standard of volume measurement. The time used in measuring the volume by these two methods were respectively recorded and compared by two independent samples't test. Moreover, 7 physicians measured the left hippocampal formation of one same control with both of the two methods. The frequency distribution and dispersion of data acquired with the two methods were evaluated using standard deviation coefficient. Results (1) The volume of the bilateral hippocampal formations with SPM method was (1.88 ± 0.07) cm 3 and (1.93 ± 0.08) cm 3 respectively in the AD group, while was (2.99 ± 0.07) cm 3 and (3.02 ± 0.06) cm 3 in the control group. The volume of bilateral hippocampal formations measured by ROI method was (1.87 ± 0.06) cm 3 and (1.91 ± 0.09) cm 3 in the AD group, while was (2.97 ± 0.08) cm 3 and (3.00 ± 0.05) cm 3 in the control group. There was no significant difference between SPM method and conventional ROI method in the AD group and the control group (t=1.500, 1.617, 1.095, 1.889, P>0.05). However, the time used for delineation and volume measurement was significantly different. The time used in SPM measurement was (38.1 ± 2.0) min, while that in ROI measurement was (55.4 ± 2.4) min (t=-25.918, P 3 respectively. The frequency distribution of hippocampal formation volume measured by SPM method and ROI method was different. The CV SPM was 7% and the CV ROI was 19%. Conclusions: The borders of

  10. Echocardiographic predictors of early in-hospital heart failure during first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: does myocardial performance index and left atrial volume improve diagnosis over conventional parameters of left ventricular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lilian P; Campos, Orlando; Peres, Clovis A; Machado, Cristiano V; Carvalho, Antonio C

    2011-06-03

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been considered a major determinant of early outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Myocardial performance index (MPI) has been associated to early evolution in AMI in a heterogeneous population, including non ST-elevation or previous AMI. Left atrial volume has been related with late evolution after AMI. We evaluated the independent role of clinical and echocardiographic variables including LVEF, MPI and left atrial volume in predicting early in-hospital congestive heart failure (CHF) specifically in patients with a first isolated ST-elevation AMI. Echocardiography was performed within 30 hours of chest pain in 95 patients with a first ST-elevation AMI followed during the first week of hospitalization. Several clinical and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. CHF was defined as Killip class ≥ II. Multivariate regression analysis was used to select independent predictor of in-hospital CHF. Early in-hospital CHF occurred in 29 (31%) of patients. LVEF ≤ 0.45 was the single independent and highly significant predictor of early CHF among other clinical and echocardiographic variables (odds ratio 17.0; [95% CI 4.1 - 70.8]; p < 0.0001). MPI alone could not predict CHF in first ST-elevation AMI patients. Left atrial volume was not associated with early CHF in such patients. For patients with first, isolated ST-elevation AMI, LVEF assessed by echocardiography still constitutes a strong and accurate independent predictor of early in-hospital CHF, superior to isolated MPI and left atrial volume in this particular subset of patients.

  11. Ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy is associated with long-term memory dysfunction after ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; van Uden, Inge W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-07-01

    Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However, neurodegenerative disease, such as amyloid pathology, is generally absent at young age. Accumulating evidence suggests that infarction itself may cause secondary neurodegeneration in remote areas. Therefore, we investigated the relation between long-term memory performance and hippocampal volume in young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We studied all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our academic hospital center between 1980 and 2010. Episodic memory of 173 patients was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey Complex Figure and compared with 87 stroke-free controls. Hippocampal volume was determined using FSL-FIRST, with manual correction. On average 10 years after stroke, patients had smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes compared with controls after left-hemispheric stroke (5.4%) and right-hemispheric stroke (7.7%), with most apparent memory dysfunctioning after left-hemispheric stroke. A larger hemispheric stroke was associated with a smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volume (b=-0.003, Pstroke (b=-0.028 ml, P=0.002) and right-hemispheric stroke (b=-0.015 ml, P=0.03). Our results suggest that infarction is associated with remote injury to the hippocampus, which may lower or expedite the threshold for cognitive impairment or even dementia later in life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genetic influence of apolipoprotein E4 genotype on hippocampal morphometry: An N = 725 surface-based Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Leporé, Natasha; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Baxter, Leslie C; Caselli, Richard J; Wang, Yalin

    2014-08-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hippocampal volumes are generally smaller in AD patients carrying the e4 allele compared to e4 noncarriers. Here we examined the effect of APOE e4 on hippocampal morphometry in a large imaging database-the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We automatically segmented and constructed hippocampal surfaces from the baseline MR images of 725 subjects with known APOE genotype information including 167 with AD, 354 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 204 normal controls. High-order correspondences between hippocampal surfaces were enforced across subjects with a novel inverse consistent surface fluid registration method. Multivariate statistics consisting of multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM) and radial distance were computed for surface deformation analysis. Using Hotelling's T(2) test, we found significant morphological deformation in APOE e4 carriers relative to noncarriers in the entire cohort as well as in the nondemented (pooled MCI and control) subjects, affecting the left hippocampus more than the right, and this effect was more pronounced in e4 homozygotes than heterozygotes. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that showed e4 carriers exhibit accelerated hippocampal atrophy; we extend these findings to a novel measure of hippocampal morphometry. Hippocampal morphometry has significant potential as an imaging biomarker of early stage AD. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fully-automated left ventricular mass and volume MRI analysis in the UK Biobank population cohort: evaluation of initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Aung, Nay; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Francis, Jane; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan; Greiser, Andreas; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Hayes, Carmel; Young, Alistair A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2018-02-01

    UK Biobank, a large cohort study, plans to acquire 100,000 cardiac MRI studies by 2020. Although fully-automated left ventricular (LV) analysis was performed in the original acquisition, this was not designed for unsupervised incorporation into epidemiological studies. We sought to evaluate automated LV mass and volume (Siemens syngo InlineVF versions D13A and E11C), against manual analysis in a substantial sub-cohort of UK Biobank participants. Eight readers from two centers, trained to give consistent results, manually analyzed 4874 UK Biobank cases for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass (LVM). Agreement between manual and InlineVF automated analyses were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Tenfold cross-validation was used to establish a linear regression calibration between manual and InlineVF results. InlineVF D13A returned results in 4423 cases, whereas InlineVF E11C returned results in 4775 cases and also reported LVM. Rapid visual assessment of the E11C results found 178 cases (3.7%) with grossly misplaced contours or landmarks. In the remaining 4597 cases, LV function showed good agreement: ESV -6.4 ± 9.0 ml, 0.853 (mean ± SD of the differences, ICC) EDV -3.0 ± 11.6 ml, 0.937; SV 3.4 ± 9.8 ml, 0.855; and EF 3.5 ± 5.1%, 0.586. Although LV mass was consistently overestimated (29.9 ± 17.0 g, 0.534) due to larger epicardial contours on all slices, linear regression could be used to correct the bias and improve accuracy. Automated InlineVF results can be used for case-control studies in UK Biobank, provided visual quality control and linear bias correction are performed. Improvements between InlineVF D13A and InlineVF E11C show the field is rapidly advancing, with further improvements expected in the near future.

  14. Cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carolina Mattos; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Noffs, Maria Helena da Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the cognitive performance of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), in comparison with that of matched, healthy controls. We report the relationship between cognitive measures and duration of epilepsy, correlating with hippocampal volumes, and the impact of educational level on cognitive decline. This study involved 61 outpatients (40 with 8 years of formal education) with unilateral HS and 61 controls. Volumetric MRI was performed on all patients and 10 controls. The results (mean, SD) of the neuropsychological tests of healthy subjects and patients were compared using the Student t and Mann-Whitney tests. Patients performed worse than controls in the neuropsychological evaluation. When adjusted z scores were used to calculate the impairment index, patients had a greater percentage of abnormal tests compared with controls. The cognitive decline, assessed through the impairment index, correlated with duration of epilepsy. Higher level of education did not protect against this decline, thus not supporting the hypothesis of cerebral reserve in this population. A significant correlation between hippocampal volumetric measures and duration of epilepsy was observed only in patients with left HS. Patients with TLE caused by HS present with cognitive morbidity that extends beyond memory deficits. Cognitive decline is associated with duration of epilepsy, and in patients with left-sided HS, duration may correlate with volumetric hippocampal loss.

  15. Assessment of vasodilator therapy in patients with severe congestive heart failure: limitations of measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, B.G.; Dehmer, G.J.; Markham, R.V. Jr.; Willerson, J.T.; Hillis, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Although noninvasive techniques are often used to assess the effect of vasodilator therapy in patients with congestive heart failure, it is unknown whether changes in noninvasively determined left ventricular ejection fraction, volume, or dimension reliably reflect alterations in intracardiac pressure and flow. Accordingly, we compared the acute effect of sodium nitroprusside on left ventricular volume and ejection fraction (determined scintigraphically) with its effect on intracardiac pressure and forward cardiac index (determined by thermodilution) in 12 patients with severe, chronic congestive heart failure and a markedly dilated left ventricle. Nitroprusside (infused at 1.3 +/- 1.1 [mean +/- standard deviation] microgram/kg/min) caused a decrease in mean systemic arterial, mean pulmonary arterial, and mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as well as a concomitant increase in forward cardiac index. Simultaneously, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes decreased, but the scintigraphically determined cardiac index did not change significantly. Left ventricular ejection fraction averaged 0.19 +/- 0.05 before nitroprusside administration and increased by less than 0.05 units in response to nitroprusside in 11 of 12 patients. The only significant correlation between scintigraphically and invasively determined variables was that between the percent change in end-diastolic volume index and the percent change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (r . 0.68, p . 0.01). Although nitroprusside produced changes in scintigraphically determined left ventricular ejection fraction, end-systolic volume index, and cardiac index, these alterations bore no predictable relation to changes in intracardiac pressure, forward cardiac index, or vascular resistance. Furthermore, nitroprusside produced a considerably greater percent change in the invasively measured variables than in the scintigraphically determined ones

  16. Age- and gender-specific differences in left ventricular cardiac function and volumes determined by gated SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, P. de; Wiele, C. van de; Winter, F. de; Dierckx, R.A.; Sutter, J. de; Backer, G. de

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine normative volumetric data and ejection fraction values derived from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using the commercially available software algorithm QGS (quantitative gated SPET). From a prospective database of 876 consecutive patients who were referred for a 2-day stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin (925 MBq) gated SPET study, 102 patients (43 men, 59 women) with a low (<10%) pre-test likelihood of coronary disease were included (mean age 57.6 years). For stress imaging, a bicycle protocol was used in 79 of the patients and a dipyridamole protocol in 23. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic and -systolic volumes (EDV and ESV) were calculated by QGS. EDV and ESV were corrected for body surface area, indicated by EDVi and ESVi. To allow comparison with previous reports using other imaging modalities, men and women were divided into three age groups (<45 years, ≥45 years but <65 years and ≥65 years). Men showed significantly higher EDVi and ESVi values throughout and lower LVEF values when compared with women in the subgroup ≥65 years (P<0.05, ANOVA). Significant negative and positive correlations were found between age and EDVi and ESVi values for both women and men and between LVEF and age in women (Pearson P≤0.01). LVEF values at bicycle stress were significantly higher than at rest (P=0.000, paired t test), which was the result of a significant decrease in ESV (P=0.003), a phenomenon which did not occur following dipyridamole stress (P=0.409). The data presented suggest that LVEF and EDVi and ESVi as assessed by QGS are strongly gender-specific. Although the physiological significance of these results is uncertain and needs further study, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of cardiac function and volumes of patients by means of QGS should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  17. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuli; Li, Jinghui; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Zhao, Shihua [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongjie [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Minjie [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sirajuddin, Arlene; Arai, Andrew E. [Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); An, Jing [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Siemens MRI Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Kellman, Peter [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The differences in ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p < 0.05). Global ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p < 0.001) and LV hypertrophy (r = 0.667, p < 0.001). ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. (orig.)

  18. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuli; Li, Jinghui; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Zhao, Shihua; Hu, Hongjie; Lu, Minjie; Sirajuddin, Arlene; Arai, Andrew E.; An, Jing; Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin; Kellman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The differences in ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p < 0.05). Global ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p < 0.001) and LV hypertrophy (r = 0.667, p < 0.001). ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. (orig.)

  19. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing...

  20. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  1. The impact of preload reduction with head-up tilt testing on longitudinal and transverse left ventricular mechanics: a study utilizing deformation volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caroline; Forsythe, Lynsey; Somauroo, John; George, Keith; Oxborough, David

    2018-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on load, intrinsic contractility and relaxation with a variable impact on specific mechanics. Strain (ε) imaging allows the assessment of cardiac function; however, the direct relationship between volume and strain is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of preload reduction through head-up tilt (HUT) testing on simultaneous left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and transverse function and their respective contribution to volume change. A focused transthoracic echocardiogram was performed on 10 healthy male participants (23 ± 3 years) in the supine position and following 1 min and 5 min of HUT testing. Raw temporal longitudinal ε (Ls) and transverse ε (Ts) values were exported and divided into 5% increments across the cardiac cycle and corresponding LV volumes were traced at each 5% increment. This provided simultaneous LV longitudinal and transverse ε and volume loops (deformation volume analysis - DVA). There was a leftward shift of the ε-volume loop from supine to 1 min and 5 min of HUT ( P  maintenance of LV filling in the setting of reduced preload. DVA provides information on the relative contribution of mechanics to a change in LV volume and may have a role in the assessment of clinical populations. © 2018 The authors.

  2. Familial and environmental influences on brain volumes in twins with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchioni, Marco M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Chaddock, Christopher; Cole, James H; Ettinger, Ulrich; Oses, Ana; Metcalfe, Hugo; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually. We conducted between-group testing and full genetic modelling. We included 168 twins in our study. Whole brain, grey matter, white matter and right hippocampal volumes were smaller in twins with schizophrenia. Twin correlations were larger for whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes in monozygotic than dizygotic twins and were significantly heritable, whereas hippocampal volume was the most environmentally sensitive. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between schizophrenia and reductions in all the brain volumes except for that of the left hippocampus. For whole brain, grey matter and the right hippocampus the etiological links with schizophrenia were principally associated with the shared familial environment. Lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia were both associated with lower whole brain volume and with lower white matter and grey matter volumes, respectively. Scan data were collected across 2 sites, and some groups were modest in size. Whole brain, grey matter and right hippocampal volume reductions are linked to schizophrenia through correlated familial risk (i.e., the shared familial environment). The degree of influence of etiological factors varies between brain structures, leading to the possibility of a neuroanatomically specific etiological imprint.

  3. Validation of 3D echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease: a comparison study with cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark K; Su, Xioahong; Tworetzky, Wayne; Soriano, Brian D; Powell, Andrew J; Marx, Gerald R

    2010-11-01

    quantitative assessment and validation of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass in neonates and infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is important for clinical management but has not been undertaken. We compared matrix-array 3D echocardiography (3D echo) measurements of volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) with those measured by cardiac MRI in young patients with CHD and small LVs because of either young age or LV hypoplasia. thirty-five patients aged LVs (age appropriate or hypoplastic), matrix-array 3D echo measurements of mass and volumes compare well with MRI, providing an important modality for ventricular size and performance analysis in these patients, particularly in those with left-side heart obstructive lesions.

  4. Three-dimensional echocardiography: assessment of inter- and intra-operator variability and accuracy in the measurement of left ventricular cavity volume and myocardial mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.K.; Drangova, M. [Advanced Imaging Research Laboratories, John P Robarts Research Institute, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Boughner, D.R. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); London Health Sciences Centre, University Campus. London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Fenster, A. [Advanced Imaging Research Laboratories, John P Robarts Research Institute, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada). E-mail: afenster at irus.rri.on.ca

    2000-05-01

    Accurate left ventricular (LV) volume and mass estimation is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We propose that our technique of 3D echocardiography provides an accurate quantification of LV volume and mass by the reconstruction of 2D images into 3D volumes, thus avoiding the need for geometric assumptions. We compared the accuracy and variability in LV volume and mass measurement using 3D echocardiography with 2D echocardiography, using in vitro studies. Six operators measured the LV volume and mass of seven porcine hearts, using both 3D and 2D techniques. Regression analysis was used to test the accuracy of results and an ANOVA test was used to compute variability in measurement. LV volume measurement accuracy was 9.8% (3D) and 18.4% (2D); LV mass measurement accuracy was 5% (3D) and 9.2% (2D). Variability in LV volume quantification with 3D echocardiography was %SEM{sub inter} = 13.5%, %SEM{sub intra} = 11.4%, and for 2D echocardiography was %SEM{sub inter} = 21.5%, %SEM{sub intra} = 19.1%. We derived an equation to predict uncertainty in measurement of LV volume and mass using 3D echocardiography, the results of which agreed with our experimental results to within 13%. 3D echocardiography provided twice the accuracy for LV volume and mass measurement and half the variability for LV volume measurement as compared with 2D echocardiography. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional echocardiography: assessment of inter- and intra-operator variability and accuracy in the measurement of left ventricular cavity volume and myocardial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.K.; Drangova, M.; Boughner, D.R.; Fenster, A.; Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1

    2000-01-01

    Accurate left ventricular (LV) volume and mass estimation is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We propose that our technique of 3D echocardiography provides an accurate quantification of LV volume and mass by the reconstruction of 2D images into 3D volumes, thus avoiding the need for geometric assumptions. We compared the accuracy and variability in LV volume and mass measurement using 3D echocardiography with 2D echocardiography, using in vitro studies. Six operators measured the LV volume and mass of seven porcine hearts, using both 3D and 2D techniques. Regression analysis was used to test the accuracy of results and an ANOVA test was used to compute variability in measurement. LV volume measurement accuracy was 9.8% (3D) and 18.4% (2D); LV mass measurement accuracy was 5% (3D) and 9.2% (2D). Variability in LV volume quantification with 3D echocardiography was %SEM inter = 13.5%, %SEM intra = 11.4%, and for 2D echocardiography was %SEM inter = 21.5%, %SEM intra = 19.1%. We derived an equation to predict uncertainty in measurement of LV volume and mass using 3D echocardiography, the results of which agreed with our experimental results to within 13%. 3D echocardiography provided twice the accuracy for LV volume and mass measurement and half the variability for LV volume measurement as compared with 2D echocardiography. (author)

  6. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured

  7. Regional hippocampal involvement and cognitive impairment in pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A; Morelli, Maria E; Amato, Maria P; Moiola, Lucia; Ghezzi, Angelo; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Capra, Ruggero; Pagani, Elisabetta; Portaccio, Emilio; Fiorino, Agnese; Pippolo, Lorena; Pera, Maria C; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    We assessed global and regional hippocampal volume abnormalities in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their correlations with clinical, neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging metrics. From 53 pediatric MS patients and 18 healthy controls, global hippocampal volume was computed using a manual tracing procedure. Regional hippocampal volume modifications were assessed using a radial mapping analysis. MS patients with abnormal performance in three or more tests of a neuropsychological battery for children were classified as cognitively impaired. Global hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients compared with controls, but did not correlate with clinical, neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging measures. Compared to controls, MS patients experienced bilateral radial atrophy of the cornu ammonis, subiculum and dentate gyrus subfields as well as radial hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus subfield. Regional hippocampal volume modifications correlated with brain T2 lesion volume as well as attention and language abilities. Global hippocampal volume did not differ between cognitively impaired (n=12) and cognitively preserved MS patients. Compared to cognitively preserved, cognitively impaired MS patients had atrophy of the subiculum and dentate gyrus subfields of the right hippocampus. Hippocampal subregions have different vulnerability to damage in pediatric MS. Regional rather than global hippocampal involvement contributes to global cognitive impairment as well as to deficits of selected cognitive tests. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. T1 measurements identify extracellular volume expansion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Abbasi, Siddique A; Neilan, Tomas G; Shah, Ravi V; Chen, Yucheng; Heydari, Bobak; Cirino, Allison L; Lakdawala, Neal K; Orav, E John; González, Arantxa; López, Begoña; Díez, Javier; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y

    2013-05-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and a potential substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. Sarcomere mutations seem to induce profibrotic changes before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) develops. To further evaluate these processes, we used cardiac magnetic resonance with T1 measurements on a genotyped HCM population to quantify myocardial extracellular volume (ECV). Sarcomere mutation carriers with LVH (G+/LVH+, n=37) and without LVH (G+/LVH-, n=29), patients with HCM without mutations (sarcomere-negative HCM, n=11), and healthy controls (n=11) underwent contrast cardiac magnetic resonance, measuring T1 times pre- and postgadolinium infusion. Concurrent echocardiography and serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury were also available in a subset. Compared with controls, ECV was increased in patients with overt HCM, as well as G+/LVH- mutation carriers (ECV=0.36±0.01, 0.33±0.01, 0.27±0.01 in G+/LVH+, G+/LVH-, controls, respectively; P≤0.001 for all comparisons). ECV correlated with N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide levels (r=0.58; P60% of overt patients with HCM but absent from G+/LVH- subjects. Both ECV and late gadolinium enhancement were more extensive in sarcomeric HCM than sarcomere-negative HCM. Myocardial ECV is increased in HCM sarcomere mutation carriers even in the absence of LVH. These data provide additional support that fibrotic remodeling is triggered early in disease pathogenesis. Quantifying ECV may help characterize the development of myocardial fibrosis in HCM and ultimately assist in developing novel disease-modifying therapy, targeting interstitial fibrosis.

  9. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for left ventricular stroke volume assessment: a comparison study with three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Da; Pedro, Fátima; Deister, Lizandra; Sahlén, Anders; Manouras, Aristomenis; Shahgaldi, Kambiz

    2012-08-01

    Whether measurement of left ventricular outflow tract diameter (LVOTd) using color Doppler (CD) in order to more accurately define LVOTd is more accurate for determination of stroke volume (SV) than gray scale and compare it with direct measurement of LVOT area (a) using three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for SV determination. Twenty-one volunteers were examined. LVOTa was calculated by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) using the following formula: π× (d/2)(2) , d = LVOT diameter by gray scale and CD, respectively. Planimetry of LVOTa was performed in parasternal long axis using 3DE. Eccentricity Index was calculated using the lateral and anterior-posterior LVOTd. SV was obtained by four different methods: (1) 2D gray scale, (2) 2D color, (3) LVOTa × LVOT velocity time integral, and (4) SV by Simpson's biplane method. Gray scale LVOTd was significantly smaller compared to LVOTd obtained with CD (P vs 3.67 ± 0.70 cm(2) , P vs 3.61 ± 0.89 cm(2) , P = 0.011). Half of the subjects had at least 17% difference between the lateral and anterior-posterior LVOTd. There were significant differences between SV by 2D gray scale and 2D CD (82.8 ± 17.1 mL vs 92.4 ± 16.8 mL, P vs 90.7 ± 19.8 mL, P = 0.025). Our study demonstrates LVOT being frequently elliptical. SV and LVOTa were found to be similar when comparing 2DE CD and 3DE planimetry and showed higher values in comparison to 2DE gray scale, which suggests 2DE CD to be an alternative approach for SV assessment. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dendritic right/left asymmetries in the neurons of the human hippocampal formation: a quantitative Golgi study Assimetrias dendríticas direita/esquerda nos neurónios da formação do hipocampo humano: estudo quantitativo Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Sá

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To search for right/left asymmetries in the dendritic trees of the neuronal populations and in the cell-free layer volumes of the human hipoccampal formation. METHOD: In necropsic material obtained from six male individuals we performed a quantitative Golgi study of the dendritic trees of dentate granules, CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons and a volumetric analysis of dentate gyrus molecular layer, strata oriens plus alveus and strata lacunosum-moleculare plus radiatum of CA3 and CA1 fields. RESULTS: We found inter-hemispheric asymmetries in the dendrites trees of all neurons, reaching the significant level in the number of granule cells dendritic segments (higher in the left than in the right hemisphere, dendritic branching density of CA3 pyramidal cells and mean dendritic length of CA1 apical terminal segments (higher in the right than in the opposite side. No volumetric differences were observed. CONCLUSION: This study points to different anatomical patterns of connectivity in the hippocampal formations of both hemispheres which may underlie functional asymmetries.OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a existência de assimetrias direita/esquerda nas arborizações dendríticas neuronais e nos volumes das camadas não celulares da formação do hipocampo humano. MÉTODO: Efectuamos estudo quantitativo Golgi das arborizações dendríticas dos grânulos da fascia denteada e das células piramidais de CA3 e CA1, e uma análise estereológica dos volumes da camada molecular da fascia denteada, do strata oriens + alveus e do strata lacunosum-moleculare + radiatum de CA3 e de CA1 em material necrópsico colhido em 6 indivíduos do sexo masculino. RESULTADOS: Encontrámos assimetrias inter-hemisféricas nas arborizações dendríticas de todos os neurónios, significativas no número de segmentos dendríticos das células granulares (maior à esquerda do que à direita na densidade de ramificação dendrítica das pirâmides de CA3 e no comprimento dendr

  11. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  12. Analysis of parahippocampal gyrus in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Nelson Fortes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Analysis of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG involvement in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS by MR imaging. The simultaneous occurrence of ipsilateral fornix (F and mamillary body (MB volume loss was checked also. These findings were correlated with the side of hippocampal involvement, the sex, patient´s age, and the symptoms onset. METHOD: The MR images of 115 patients with HS were studied retrospectively. All the examinations were performed on 1.5 T units (SIGNA, GE, Milwaukee, WI and included high resolution coronal T2-weighted images (3 mm thickness, 0.6 mm gap. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged between 3.5 and 80 years (mean 34.1; 62 (53.9% were female and 53 (46.1% were male. There were HS on the left side in 53 (46.0%, on the right side in 51 (44.3%, and bilateral in 11 (9.7%. In 43 (37.3% cases there were ipsilateral PHG volume loss and signal hyper intensity on T2-weighted imaging. In 29 (25.2% cases there were ipsilateral fornix volume loss and in 10 (34.5% of this there were also ipsilateral MB changes. In abnormal PHG, 23 (53.4% were on the left side, 17 (39.5% were on the right side, and 3 (7.1% were bilateral. There were fornix changes in 15 (34.8% cases and MB volume loss in 5 (11.6% cases. Pertinent clinical data were obtained in only 18 (41.8% of the PHG lesion cases and 11 (61.1% of these patients had epileptic attacks for more than 20 years before the examination. CONCLUSION: PHG involvement must be investigated in patients with HS and we suggest that the term mesial temporal sclerosis should be used only if there are also changes at this anatomical site.

  13. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papma, Janne M.; Smits, Marion; De Groot, Marius; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri A.; Niessen, W.J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; van Swieten, John C.; van der Veen, Frederik M.; Prins, Niels D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the

  14. Left atrial volume and function in patients following ST elevation myocardial infarction and the association with clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Engstrøm, Thomas; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2013-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) transfers blood to the left ventricle in a complex manner. LA function is characterized by passive emptying (LA passive fraction), active emptying (LA ejection fraction), and total emptying (LA fractional change). Despite this complexity, the clinical relevance of the LA is b...

  15. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Kathrin; Müller, Patrick; Aye, Norman; Schmicker, Marlen; Dordevic, Milos; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hökelmann, Anita; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE). Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females), and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females) completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum). The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.

  16. Left ventricular volume measurements with free breathing respiratory self-gated 3-dimensional golden angle radial whole-heart cine imaging - Feasibility and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Karen; Ugander, Martin; Sigfridsson, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a free breathing respiratory self-gated isotropic resolution technique for left ventricular (LV) volume measurements. A 3D radial trajectory with double golden-angle ordering was used for free-running data acquisition during free breathing in 9 healthy volunteers. A respiratory self-gating signal was extracted from the center of k-space and used with the electrocardiogram to bin all data into 3 respiratory and 25 cardiac phases. 3D image volumes were reconstructed and the LV endocardial border was segmented. LV volume measurements and reproducibility from 3D free breathing cine were compared to conventional 2D breath-held cine. No difference was found between 3D free breathing cine and 2D breath-held cine with regards to LV ejection fraction, stroke volume, end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume (Pcine and 2D breath-held cine (Pcine and conventional 2D breath-held cine showed similar values and test-retest repeatability for LV volumes in healthy volunteers. 3D free breathing cine enabled retrospective sorting and arbitrary angulation of isotropic data, and could correctly measure LV volumes during free breathing acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    limits defined as mean value minus two standard deviations for ventricular ejection fraction and end diastolic volume were LVEF (men: 50%, women: 50%), LEDV (men: 45 mL, women: 40 mL), RVEF (men: 29%, women: 28%), and REDV (men: 73 mL, women: 57 mL).There was a significant negative correlation between...... disease is presented. There are age-related changes in cardiac dimensions with age depending on gender, although with only limited influence on LVEF or RVEF....... age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary...

  18. Left main bronchus compression as a result of tuberculous lymphnode compression of the right-sided airways with right lung volume loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikou, S; Van Wyk, M J; Goussard, P; Gie, R P

    2014-03-01

    The superior mediastinal space is confined by the sterno-manubrium anteriorly and the vertebral column posterior. An abnormal relationship between the superior mediastinal structures may result in compression of the left main bronchus. In patients with right-sided pneumonectomy an exaggerated compensatory response may lead to stretching and compression of the remainder of the intra-thoracic airway. Lymphobronchial TB mimics pneumonectomy when it causes compression of the bronchus intermedius, between nodal lymphnode groups with resultant volume loss in the right lung and displacement of the mediastinum to the right. The left main bronchus may be at risk of compression due to rotation and displacement of the major vessels. To report pediatric cases of right-sided lymphobronchial TB with volume loss, demonstrate the use of angle measurements to quantify mediastinal dynamics and support a pathogenetic theory for left main bronchus compression. CT scans in children with TB and right lung volume loss, were compared retrospectively with controls using angle measurements based on descriptions of the aorta-carinal syndrome and the post-pneumonectomy syndrome. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare groups. The "Pulmonary bifurcation angle" between the main pulmonary arteries reached statistical significance (P = 0.025). The "Pulmonary outflow tract rotation" angle (pulmonary trunk with the mid sagittal plane) approached statistical significance (P = 0.078). The left main bronchus ranged from complete obliteration in two patients to 0.7 cm. In 16 of 30 patients the size was reduced to less than 75% of expected. In children with right lung volume loss from TB, the compression of the contralateral bronchus is due to narrowing of the pulmonary artery bifurcation angle as the main trunk rotates towards the midline. This is comparable to the post-pneumonectomy syndrome. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; hide

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, Pmeasurement methods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  20. Update on Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Juliana R; Cortés, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G

    2015-10-01

    The diagnostic hallmarks of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are severe volume loss of the hippocampus, severe neuronal loss, and reactive gliosis involving primarily two especially vulnerable fields, CA1 and the subiculum. Occasionally, HS may be the only neuropathological change detected in older individuals with dementia and is known as pure HS. In the majority of cases, HS occurs in the setting of other degenerative changes, usually Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these cases, it is classified as combined HS. Although a clinical profile for HS has been identified, its similarities with AD make the diagnosis during life quite challenging; thus, the diagnosis is often made postmortem. The pathogenesis of HS is not completely understood, but the strong association with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), in approximately 90%, and the recent discovery of genetic risk factors are important contributions to a better understanding of the disease process.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  2. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  3. Left atrial volume in patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Egstrup, K.; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    area. Mean values for age and AVA were 67 +/- 10 years and 1.27 +/- 0.5 cm2, respectively, and 574 were women (38%). Mean value for LA volume indexed (LAVI) was 36 +/- 13 ml/m2. Enlargement of LA volume (> or =32 ml/m2) was found in 57% of patients. AVA indexed was significantly correlated to LAVI (r.......0001), presence of LV hypertrophy (beta = 3.4, p Gender and LV ejection fraction were eliminated from the final model. In conclusion, LA volume is often enlarged in asymptomatic patients with AS. Furthermore, LA volume is related to AVA even...

  4. Comparison of Gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with Echocardiography for the Measurement of Left Ventricular Volumes and Ejection Fraction in Patients With Severe Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifard, Maryam; Ghaedian, Tahereh; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Malek, Hadi; Firoozabadi, Hasan; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Haghjoo, Majid; Amin, Ahmad; Azizian, Nasrin; Rastgou, Feridoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is known as a feasible tool for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and volumes, which are of great importance in the management and follow-up of patients with coronary artery diseases. However, considering the technical shortcomings of SPECT in the presence of perfusion defect, the accuracy of this method in heart failure patients is still controversial. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the results from gated SPECT MPI with those from echocardiography in heart failure patients to compare echocardiographically-derived left ventricular dimension and function data to those from gated SPECT MPI in heart failure patients. Patients and Methods: Forty-one patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (EF ≤ 35%) who were referred for gated SPECT MPI were prospectively enrolled. Quantification of EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) was performed by using quantitative gated spect (QGS) (QGS, version 0.4, May 2009) and emory cardiac toolbox (ECTb) (ECTb, revision 1.0, copyright 2007) software packages. EF, EDV, and ESV were also measured with two-dimensional echocardiography within 3 days after MPI. Results: A good correlation was found between echocardiographically-derived EF, EDV, and ESV and the values derived using QGS (r = 0.67, r = 0.78, and r = 0.80 for EF, EDV, and ESV, respectively; P echocardiography. ECTb-derived EDV was also significantly higher than the EDV measured with echocardiography and QGS. The highest correlation between echocardiography and gated SPECT MPI was found for mean values of ESV different. Conclusions: Gated SPECT MPI has a good correlation with echocardiography for the measurement of left ventricular EF, EDV, and ESV in patients with severe heart failure. However, the absolute values of these functional parameters from echocardiography and gated

  5. Calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT: 5D-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Nordström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF is of increasing interest in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD. 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET is considered the gold standard for non-invasive MBF measurements. However, calculation of left ventricular (LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF is not possible from standard 15O-water uptake images. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of calculating LV volumes and LVEF from cardiac-gated parametric blood volume (V B 15O-water images and from first pass (FP images. Sixteen patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation underwent an eight-gate dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI. V B and FP images were generated for each gate. Calculations of end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, stroke volume (SV and LVEF were performed with automatic segmentation of V B and FP images, using commercially available software. LV volumes and LVEF were calculated with surface-, count-, and volume-based methods, and the results were compared with gold standard MRI. Results Using V B images, high correlations between PET and MRI ESV (r = 0.89, p  0.86, p < 0.001. Conclusion Calculation of LV volumes and LVEF from dynamic 15O-water PET is feasible and shows good correlation with MRI. However, the analysis method is laborious, and future work is needed for more automation to make the method more easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  6. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  7. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...... late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume....

  8. Operationalizing hippocampal volume as an enrichment biomarker for amnestic MCI trials: effect of algorithm, test-retest variability and cut-point on trial cost, duration and sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P.; Sun, J.; Wolz, R.; Stephenson, D.; Brewer, J.; Fox, N.C.; Cole, P.E.; Jack, C.R.; Hill, D.L.G.; Schwarz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of computational algorithm, measurement variability and cut-point on hippocampal volume (HCV)-based patient selection for clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We used normal control and amnestic MCI subjects from ADNI-1 as normative reference and screening cohorts. We evaluated the enrichment performance of four widely-used hippocampal segmentation algorithms (FreeSurfer, HMAPS, LEAP and NeuroQuant) in terms of two-year changes in MMSE, ADAS-Cog and CDR-SB. We modeled the effect of algorithm, test-retest variability and cut-point on sample size, screen fail rates and trial cost and duration. Results HCV-based patient selection yielded not only reduced sample sizes (by ~40–60%) but also lower trial costs (by ~30–40%) across a wide range of cut-points. Overall, the dependence on the cut-point value was similar for the three clinical instruments considered. Conclusion These results provide a guide to the choice of HCV cut-point for aMCI clinical trials, allowing an informed trade-off between statistical and practical considerations. PMID:24211008

  9. Operationalizing hippocampal volume as an enrichment biomarker for amnestic mild cognitive impairment trials: effect of algorithm, test-retest variability, and cut point on trial cost, duration, and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Sun, Jia; Wolz, Robin; Stephenson, Diane; Brewer, James; Fox, Nick C; Cole, Patricia E; Jack, Clifford R; Hill, Derek L G; Schwarz, Adam J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of computational algorithm, measurement variability, and cut point on hippocampal volume (HCV)-based patient selection for clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We used normal control and amnestic MCI subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI-1) as normative reference and screening cohorts. We evaluated the enrichment performance of 4 widely used hippocampal segmentation algorithms (FreeSurfer, Hippocampus Multi-Atlas Propagation and Segmentation (HMAPS), Learning Embeddings Atlas Propagation (LEAP), and NeuroQuant) in terms of 2-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB). We modeled the implications for sample size, screen fail rates, and trial cost and duration. HCV based patient selection yielded reduced sample sizes (by ∼40%-60%) and lower trial costs (by ∼30%-40%) across a wide range of cut points. These results provide a guide to the choice of HCV cut point for amnestic MCI clinical trials, allowing an informed tradeoff between statistical and practical considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis of the hippocampal formation: dependence on handedness and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, D; Stošić-Opinćal, T; Petronijević, N; Puškaš, L; Djulejić, V; Milić, I; Marinković, S

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the most important parts of the brain in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric analysis in various domains, but not completely from all aspects, including the handedness. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible differences in the volume of the right and left HF among the healthy right-handed and left-handed subjects, and to determine whether the volume differences are age related. The MRI of this prospective study was performed using T1 fast field echo (FFE) sequence. The 124 subsequent coronal slices (thickness 1.5 mm) were performed in each participant. The obtained HF volumes were normalised and statistically compared. Volunteers comprised 30 persons aged 22.0 years, 12 of whom were the left-handed, and 30 persons aged 75.2 years on average, 9 of whom were the left-handed. The right and left HF volumes averaged 2.986 cm3 and 2.858 cm3 in the right-handed, and 2.879 cm³ and 3.020 cm³ in the left-handed young volunteers, as well as 2.728 cm³ and 2.650 cm³ in the right-handed, and 2.617 cm³ and 2.780 cm³ in the left-handed elderly persons. The HF volume ratios in the young left-handed participants showed a significant left-greater-than-right asymmetry. A significant difference was also noticed within the right-to-left volume ratios of the right- and left-handed young and elderly participants. The latter reduction in the HF volume within the aged group can be interpreted as a slight atrophy of the HF. There is a significant difference in the volumes of the left and right HF of the left-handed young participants. The age related HF volume differences were proven between the groups of the young and elderly volunteers. The obtained data should be included into the future MRI studies of the HF volumes in various clinical domains.

  11. Beneficial effects of elevating cardiac preload on left-ventricular diastolic function and volume during heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brothers, R M; Pecini, Redi; Dalsgaard, M

    2014-01-01

    Volume loading normalizes tolerance to a simulated hemorrhagic challenge in heat-stressed individuals, relative to when these individuals are thermoneutral. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs is unknown. This project tested two unique hypotheses; that is, the elevation of central blood volume...... conditions prior to and during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge. Heat stress did not change indices of diastolic function. Subsequent volume infusion elevated indices of diastolic function, specifically early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (E') and early diastolic propagation velocity (E) relative...

  12. Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Volume in Patients Undergoing 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with ECG-Based Maximum Tube Current Modulation: a Comparison with Echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Jin; Choo, Ki Seok; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Su; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin; Jeong, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    To compare multi-detector CT (MDCT) using 128-slice coronary CT angiography (Definition AS+, Siemens Medical Solution, Forchheim, Germany) with ECG-based maximum tube current modulation with echocardiography for the determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), as well as assessing coronary artery image quality and patient radiation dose. Thirty consecutive patients (M:F = 20:10: mean age, 57.9 ± 11.4 years) were referred for MDCT for evaluation of atypical chest pain. EF, EDV and ESV were determined for both MDCT and echocardiography, and the correlation coefficients were assessed. Coronary artery segment subjective image quality (1, excellent: 4, poor) and radiation dose were recorded. Left ventricular EF, EDV, and ESV were calculated by MDCT and echocardiography and the comparison showed a significant correlation with those estimated by echocardiography (p < 0.05). Consistently, the LVEFs calculated by MDCT and echocardiography were not statistically different. However, LV, EDV and ESV from MDCT were statistically higher than those from echocardiography (p < 0.05). The average image quality score of the coronary artery segment was 1.10 and the mean patient radiation dose was 3.99 ± 1.85 mSv. Although LV volume was overestimated by MDCT, MDCT provides comparable results to echocardiography for LVEF and LVV, with a low radiation dose

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volume in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: Gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) versus echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, Fatma; Isgoren, S.; Demir, H.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B.

    2005-01-01

    Left ventricular function, volumes and regional wall motion provide valuable diagnostic information and are of long-term prognostic importance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of 2D-echocardiography and gated single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) for evaluation of these parameters in patients with DCM. Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography were performed in 33 patients having DCM. Gated SPECT data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were processed using an automated algorithm. Standard technique was used for 2D-echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated using both modalities and was scored by two independent observers using a 16-sement model with a 5-point scoring system. The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for the assessment of regional wall motion was 56% (298/528 segments). With gated SPECT, LEVF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) were 27+-9%, 217+-73mL, respectively, and 30.8%, 195+-58mL and, 137+-48 mL with echocardiography. The correlation between gated SPECT and 2-D-echocardiography was good (r=0.76, P<0.01) for the assessment of LVEF. The correlation for EDV and ESV were also good, but with wider limits of agreement (r=0.72, P<0.01 and r=0.73, P<0.01, respectively) and significantly higher values were obtained with gated SPECT (P<0.01). Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography correlate well for the assessment of LV function and LV volumes. Like 2D-echocardiography, gated SPECT provides reliable information about LV function and dimension with the additional advantage of perfusion data. (author)

  14. Analysis of global systolic and diastolic left ventricular performance using volume-time curves by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Ziad; Erbel, Raimund; Barkhausen, Joerg; Hunold, Peter; Bartel, Thomas; Buck, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) volume-time curves (VTC) have been described to provide quantitative data on the dynamics of global LV performance beyond ejection fraction. However, generation of VTCs by conventional 2-dimensional imaging techniques is inherently limited because of inaccurate geometric volume assumptions. We, therefore, studied whether the new concept of volumetric scanning as realized by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) can be used to provide accurate VTCs. In 30 healthy participants, VTCs were generated from 18 to 24 absolute LV volumes per second by transthoracic RT-3DE and compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used for reference. LVs were traced manually in 9 to 11 parallel, short-axis planes and volumes calculated by disk method. From VTCs, we determined peak ejection rate (PER), peak early filling rate (PFR), time to PER and PFR, and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. For initial clinical application, 2 patient groups of coronary (n = 15) and hypertensive heart disease (n = 16) were studied. In healthy participants, VTCs agreed with MRI (mean errors: PER, -39 +/- 67 mL/s; PFR, -18 +/- 84 mL/s; time to PER, 8 +/- 21 milliseconds; time to PFR 4 +/- 18 milliseconds [not significant vs 0]) whereas VTCs in coronary and hypertensive groups revealed significantly impaired diastolic function. Scanning time for VTCs was only 1 to 2 minutes by RT-3DE and 8 +/- 2 minutes by MRI (P performance such as LV filling rates that is currently unavailable for the cardiologist.

  15. Measuring the volume of the hippocampus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of hippocampal formation (HPF) in healthy Chinese Han adults and provide database for researching on a variety of diseases associated with alteration of hippocampal structure. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range=18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i. e., Group A (age range=18 to 30), B (age range=31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The margin of HPF were outlined manually for each side. Using multiple linear regression, relationships between hippocampal volume and sex, age, weight and height were analyzed respectively. Independent two sample t test was used to study the differences between male and female and between left and right. The differences of hippocampal volume among age groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Hippocampal volume for left and right side were (4752±659) and (5032±660) mm 3 respectively. The volume of HPF is significant correlated with gender and age, but without relevance to height and weight (left and right r=0.283,0.311, F=30.127,37.050,P 3 respectively for men, and (4647±624) and (4904±630) mm 3 for women. The right hippocampal volume was larger than the left (t=7.030,6.696, P 3 respectively, while the volumes of the fight hippocampus were (5340± 647), (5276±582), (5264±620), (5133±661), (4894±699) mm 3 respectively. Among age groups, the differences were statistically significant (left and right F=5.737,7.607, P 0.05). There was no significant difference of hippocampal among different groups in women (P>0.05). Conclusions: With high-resolution MRI, the volume of the HPF was accurately measured, so as to provide the basic data for research of the hippocampus

  16. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  17. SU-F-J-22: Lung VolumeVariability Assessed by Bh-CBCT in 3D Surface Image Guided Deep InspirationBreath Hold (DIBH) Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A; Stanley, D; Papanikolaou, N; Crownover, R [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With the increasing use of DIBH techniques for left-sided breast cancer, 3D surface-image guided DIBH techniques have improved patient setup and facilitated DIBH radiation delivery. However, quantification of the daily separation between the heart and left breast still presents a challenge. One method of assuring separation is to ensure consistent left lung filling. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to retrospectively quantify left lung volume from weekly breath hold-CBCTs (bh-CBCT) of left-sided breast patients treated using a 3D surface imaging system. Methods: Ten patients (n=10) previously treated to the left breast using the C-Rad CatalystHD system (C-RAD AG, Uppsala Sweden) were evaluated. Patients were positioned with CatalystHD and with bh-CBCT. bh-CBCTs were acquired at the validation date, first day of treatment and at subsequent weekly intervals. Total treatment courses spanned from 3 to 5 weeks. bh-CBCT images were exported to VelocityAI and the left lung volume was segmented. Volumes were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 41 bh-CBCTs were contoured in VelocityAI for the 10 patients. The mean left lung volume for all patients was 1657±295cc based on validation bh-CBCT. With the subsequent lung volumes normalized to the validation lung volume, the mean relative ratios for all patients were 1.02±0.11, 0.97±0.14, 0.98±0.11, 1.02±0.01, and 0.96±0.02 for week 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Overall, the mean left lung volume change was ≤4.0% over a 5-week course; however left lung volume variations of up to 28% were noted in a select patient. Conclusion: With the use of the C-RAD CatalystHD system, the mean lung volume variability over a 5-week course of DIBH treatments was ≤4.0%. By minimizing left lung volume variability, heart to left breast separation maybe more consistently maintained. AN Gutierrez has a research grant from C-RAD AG.

  18. Volume of the left ventricle at the end of a ventricular diastole in computerised tomography compared with cardiac catheter ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienmueller, R.; Lissner, J.; Kment, A.; Bohn, J.; Strauer, B.E.; Hellwig, D.; Erdmann, E.; Cyran, J.; Steinbeck, G.

    1981-06-01

    In 47 patients the authors calculated the volume at the end of a diastole according to both the cardiac catheter ventriculogram and the CT ventriculogram, comparing the results obtained with each of these methods. A linear regression was found. The correlation coefficient was approximately r = 0.96; n = 47. Cardiological examination revealed that of the examined patients (including the cardiac catheter finding) 18 patients had coronary heart disease, whereas 9 had cardiomyopathy, 6 artial hypertension, 9 had various cardiac abnormalities and 5 did not show any organically manifest heart disease. The article discusses CT determination of the volume at the end of the ventricular diastole, and discusses the results.

  19. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  20. Being overweight is associated with hippocampal atrophy: the PATH Through Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, N; Sargent-Cox, K; Fraser, M; Sachdev, P; Anstey, K J

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the past two decades, with major implications for individual well-being, population health and the economy. Of particular concern is the risk obesity presents for brain health and its consequences in an ageing population. These associations and their time course are not well understood, particularly after middle age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether being overweight/obese or having an increasing body weight is associated with hippocampal atrophy in early old age. Participants were 420 unimpaired (Mini-Mental State Examination >26) individuals aged 60-64 years, living in the community and taking part in a large prospective study of ageing over an 8 year follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected at three assessments and the hippocampus was manually traced by expert neuroscientists. Multi-level analyses assessing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hippocampal atrophy over 8 years while controlling for important covariates were conducted. Analyses showed that BMI was negatively associated with left (coefficient: -10.65 mm(3); s.e. 4.81; P=0.027) and right (coefficient: -8.18 mm(3); s.e. 4.91; P=0.097) hippocampal volume at the first assessment. Over the follow-up period, those with a higher BMI experienced greater hippocampal atrophy and more so in the left (P=0.001) than in the right (P=0.058) hippocampus. The findings from this study provide important evidence indicating that being overweight or obese is associated with poorer brain health. These results are consistent with those of previous animal and human studies and further stress the importance of reducing the rate of obesity through education, population health interventions and policy.

  1. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Peter A; Ahl, Ragnhild; Hedstrom, Erik; Ugander, Martin; Allansdotter-Johnsson, Ase; Friberg, Peter; Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male). Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006) and ESV (p < 0.001), similar SV (p = 0.51) and lower EF (p = 0.014). No gender differences were seen in the youngest, 11–15 year, age range. LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use

  2. Left atrium volume index is influenced by aortic stiffness and central pulse pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a hemodynamic and echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tomasz; Wysokiński, Andrzej

    2013-03-04

    Left atrial volume index (LAVI) has recently emerged as a useful biomarker for risk stratification and risk monitoring in many clinical settings. Many hemodynamic factors such as preload and afterload have an effect on evaluating left atrium function. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between LAVI and aortic stiffness index (ASI) and selected markers characterizing hemodynamic state in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The study population consisted of 100 patients (56 men, 44 women), 67.2 (±10.9) years old DM2, scheduled for routine coronary angiography. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure parameters needed for calculation of LAVI and ASI. During invasive procedures, central pulse pressure (CPP) in the ascendens aorta and left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were recorded. Selected laboratory parameters were obtained, including lipidogram, serum uric acid, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, cTnT, myoglobin, BNP, HbA1C, creatinine, and GFR. Both LAVI and ASI were greater and CPP and LVEDP were markedly elevated in DM2 patients compared to controls. The independent predictors of LAVI were ASI (ß=0.331; p=0.011), CPP (ß=0.312; p=0.020), LVEDP (ß=0.381; p=0.006), HbA1C (ß=0.379; p=0.008), and BNP (ß=0,423; pDM2 patients.

  3. Long-term effects of L- and N-type calcium channel blocker on uric acid levels and left atrial volume in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Mitsuru; Mano, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Akiyo; Fujiwara, Shohei; Sugahara, Masataka; Hirotani, Shinichi; Tsujino, Takeshi; Komamura, Kazuo; Koshiba, Masahiro; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with hypertension and hyperuricemia. However, it is not clear whether the L- and N-type calcium channel blocker will improve LV diastolic dysfunction through the reduction of uric acid. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of anti-hypertensive therapy, the L- and N-type calcium channel blocker, cilnidipine or the L-type calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, on left atrial reverse remodeling and uric acid in hypertensive patients. We studied 62 patients with untreated hypertension, randomly assigned to cilnidipine or amlodipine for 48 weeks. LV diastolic function was assessed with the left atrial volume index (LAVI), mitral early diastolic wave (E), tissue Doppler early diastolic velocity (E') and the ratio (E/E'). Serum uric acid levels were measured before and after treatment. After treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures equally dropped in both groups. LAVI, E/E', heart rate and uric acid levels decreased at 48 weeks in the cilnidipine group but not in the amlodipine group. The % change from baseline to 48 weeks in LAVI, E wave, E/E' and uric acid levels were significantly lower in the cilnidipine group than in the amlodipine group. Larger %-drop in uric acid levels were associated with larger %-reduction of LAVI (p uric acid levels.

  4. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  5. Single-beat versus multibeat real-time 3D echocardiography for assessing left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: a comparison study with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macron, Laurent; Lim, Pascal; Bensaid, Alexandre; Nahum, Julien; Dussault, Caroline; Mitchell-Heggs, Laurens; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Deux, Jean-François; Gueret, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is superior to 2D echocardiography in assessing left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF), but its feasibility is limited by multibeat acquisition, which requires an optimal breath-hold and a regular heart rhythm. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of single- and 2-beat RT3DE for LV volume and EF assessment. Sixty-six consecutive patients referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) underwent RT3DE and CMR on the same day. Of the 50 patients (age, 59+/-18 years; 68%men; 42% coronary artery disease; LVEF=49+/-14%; limits, 14% to 76%) with an adequate RT3DE image quality, accuracy for LV volumes and EF measurements of single- and 2-beat modalities were compared with the conventional 4-beat acquisition and CMR. Correlations with CMR for LV end-diastolic volume (161+/-59 mL, r=0.93 to 0.94) and end-systolic volume (86+/-56 mL, r=0.93 to 0.96) were excellent regardless of the number of cardiac cycles used. However, because of the low temporal resolution (7+/-2 volumes per second), single-beat underestimated LVEF (bias, -5+/-8%) with greater bias than 2-beat (bias, 1+/-6%, P<0.001) and 4-beat (bias, 3+/-7%, P<0.001) modalities. Interestingly, 2-beat provided accuracy similar to 4-beat for end-diastolic volume (bias, -17+/-21 mL versus -15+/-23 mL), end-systolic volume (bias, -9+/-16 mL versus -12+/-17 mL), and LVEF (bias, 1+/-6% versus 3+/-7%) measurements, but fewer stitching artifacts were observed with 2- than 4-beat modalities (3% versus 30%). Compared with conventional multibeat acquisitions, 2-beat modality provides similar accuracy in LV volume and EF measurements and should be preferred due to fewer stitching artifacts. In contrast, the temporal resolution of single-beat modality appears insufficient to provide an accurate estimation of LVEF.

  6. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerup, Morten; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil Toft

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes--the tallest extant animals on Earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted...... by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures. We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small intraventricular...... cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic pressures...

  7. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  8. Increased left ventricular myocardial extracellular volume is associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance in children after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Luining, Wietske; Seed, Mike; Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Manlhiot, Cedric; Elders, Bernadette; McCrindle, Brian W; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-10-26

    Unfavorable left ventricular (LV) remodelling may be associated with adverse outcomes after Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We sought to assess T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of diffuse LV myocardial fibrosis in children after TOF repair, and associated factors. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, native (=non-contrast) T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were quantified in the LV myocardium using CMR. Results were related to ventricular volumes and function, degree of pulmonary regurgitation, as well as surgical characteristics, and exercise capacity. There was no difference in native T1 times or ECV between 31 TOF patients (age at CMR 13.9 ± 2.4 years, 19 male) and 15 controls (age at CMR 13.4 ± 2.6 years, 7 male). Female TOF patients had higher ECVs than males (25.2 ± 2.9 % versus 22.7 ± 3.3 %, p < 0.05). In the patient group, higher native T1 and ECV correlated with higher Z-Scores of right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, but not with reduced left and right ventricular ejection fraction or higher pulmonary regurgitation fraction. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery correlated with increased native T1 times and ECVs (r = 0.48, p < 0.05 and r = 0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). Maximum workload (percent of predicted for normal) correlated inversely with ECV (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Higher native T1 times correlated with worse LV longitudinal (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and mid short axis circumferential strain (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). As compared to controls, TOF patients did not express higher markers of diffuse fibrosis. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery as well as biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance are associated with markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis after TOF repair. Female patients have higher markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis than males.

  9. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourvouri, E.C.; Poldermans, D.; Sianos, G.; Sozzi, F.B.; Schinkel, A.F.L.; Sutter, J. de; Roelandt, J.R.T.C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bax, J.J. [Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Parcharidis, G. [Dept. of Cardiology, AHEPA Univ. Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Valkema, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%{+-}6%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated by both modalities and scored by two independent observers using a 16-segment model with a 5-point scoring system (1= normokinesia, 2= mild hypokinesia, 3= severe hypokinesia, 4= akinesia and 5= dyskinesia). LVEF and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were evaluated by 2D echocardiography using the Simpson's biplane discs method. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPET software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for assessment of regional wall motion was 69%. The correlations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography for the assessment of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were excellent (r=0.94, P<0.01, and r=0.96, P<0.01, respectively). The correlation for LVEF was also good (r=0.83, P<0.01). In conclusion: in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, close and significant relations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography were observed for the assessment of regional and global LV function and LV volumes; gated SPET has the advantage that it provides information on both LV function/dimensions and perfusion. (orig.)

  10. Right Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias: Is There a Correlation between Prenatal Lung Volume and Postnatal Survival, as in Isolated Left Diaphragmatic Hernias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Teresa; Danzer, Enrico; Oliver, Edward R; Edgar, J Christopher; Iyoob, Suzanne; Partridge, Emily A; Johnson, Ann M; Peranteau, William H; Coleman, Beverly G; Flake, Alan W; Johnson, Mark P; Hedrick, Holly H; Adzick, N Scott

    2018-01-01

    Whereas left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernias (L-CDH) have been extensively studied and their prognostic parameters delineated, right-sided hernias (R-CDH) have not. Published results remain inconclusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate if proven prognostic indicators of postnatal survival in the fetus with L-CDH apply to the fetus with R-CDH. Retrospective single-center study of R-CDH fetuses with available prenatal studies assessed for fetal lung volume by means of ultrasound-measured observed versus expected (O/E) lung area to head circumference (LHR) and magnetic resonance-calculated O/E total lung volume (TLV) in a 12-year time period. Percentage of herniated liver volume and postnatal use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were also evaluated. In a cohort of 24 patients, O/E LHR, O/E TLV, percentage of herniated liver, and postnatal use of ECMO are not prognostic indicators of survival in the fetus with R-CDH. Cut-off values of O/E LHR of ≤45 or O/E TLV ≤25, known to select a population of severe cases for the L-CDH fetus, do not appear to extrapolate to the R-CDH fetus, as survival in both R-CDH groups is 60%. The findings in this study suggest that L- and R-CDH appear to behave differently, and that factors that make L-CDH fatal (low O/E TLV and O/E LHR, high-volume herniated liver) may not apply to the fetus with R-CDH. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, David R; Brown, Alistair G; Varma, Susheel; Sheridan, Paul J; Lawford, Patricia; Hose, David R; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Shi, Yubing

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF) are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF%) decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax). For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  12. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Warriner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The American Heart Association (AHA/American College of Cardiology (ACC guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV pressure-volume (PV loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF% decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  13. Neuropathologic correlates of hippocampal atrophy in the elderly: a clinical, pathologic, postmortem MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Dawe

    Full Text Available The volume of the hippocampus measured with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is increasingly used as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the neuropathologic basis of structural MRI changes in the hippocampus in the elderly has not been directly assessed. Postmortem MRI of the aging human brain, combined with histopathology, could be an important tool to address this issue. Therefore, this study combined postmortem MRI and histopathology in 100 elderly subjects from the Rush Memory and Aging Project and the Religious Orders Study. First, to validate the information contained in postmortem MRI data, we tested the hypothesis that postmortem hippocampal volume is smaller in subjects with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease compared to subjects with mild or no cognitive impairment, as observed in antemortem imaging studies. Subsequently, the relations of postmortem hippocampal volume to AD pathology, Lewy bodies, amyloid angiopathy, gross infarcts, microscopic infarcts, and hippocampal sclerosis were examined. It was demonstrated that hippocampal volume was smaller in persons with a clinical diagnosis of AD compared to those with no cognitive impairment (P = 2.6 × 10(-7 or mild cognitive impairment (P = 9.6 × 10(-7. Additionally, hippocampal volume was related to multiple cognitive abilities assessed proximate to death, with its strongest association with episodic memory. Among all pathologies investigated, the most significant factors related to lower hippocampal volume were shown to be AD pathology (P = 0.0018 and hippocampal sclerosis (P = 4.2 × 10(-7. Shape analysis allowed for visualization of the hippocampal regions most associated with volume loss for each of these two pathologies. Overall, this investigation confirmed the relation of hippocampal volume measured postmortem to clinical diagnosis of AD and measures of cognition, and concluded that both AD pathology and hippocampal sclerosis affect hippocampal

  14. Simpson's method of discs for measurement of echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes: breed-specific reference ranges in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, P; Daminet, S; Wess, G

    2014-01-01

    Boxer dogs are predisposed to congenital and adult onset cardiac diseases. Breed-specific reference values for M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic measurements previously have been established. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volumes (EDV) can be measured by M-mode or two-dimensional methods, such as Simpson's method of discs (SMOD). Reference ranges for SMOD-derived LV volumes are lacking. To determine reference intervals for EDV and ESV in Boxer dogs. Previously collected data from 85 healthy Boxers (37 males and 48 females) were used for analysis. Simpson's method of discs-derived EDV and ESV were measured using offline analysis by 1 observer, in both the right parasternal and the left apical views. Measurements were compared between both views and between male and female dogs using a t-test. Reference intervals were established using the mean + 2 × SD. Measurements obtained from both views showed good agreement, and mean EDVI and ESVI, indexed to body surface area (BSA), were calculated. Reference intervals were 49-93 mL/m² for EDVI, and 22-50 mL/m² for ESVI. EDV and ESV were significantly higher in males compared with females, when indexing to BSA, but not when indexing to body weight. The upper limit for ESVI exceeds the previously suggested cut-off of 30 mL/m² for detection of systolic dysfunction. The reference intervals generated in this study should be useful clinically in the assessment of LV size and function in Boxer dogs. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Rotational X-ray angiography: a method for intra-operative volume imaging of the left-atrium and pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation ablation guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzke, R.; Zagorchev, L.; d'Avila, A.; Thiagalingam, A.; Reddy, V. Y.; Chan, R. C.

    2007-03-01

    Catheter-based ablation in the left atrium and pulmonary veins (LAPV) for treatment of atrial fibrillation in cardiac electrophysiology (EP) are complex and require knowledge of heart chamber anatomy. Electroanatomical mapping (EAM) is typically used to define cardiac structures by combining electromagnetic spatial catheter localization with surface models which interpolate the anatomy between EAM point locations in 3D. Recently, the incorporation of pre-operative volumetric CT or MR data sets has allowed for more detailed maps of LAPV anatomy to be used intra-operatively. Preoperative data sets are however a rough guide since they can be acquired several days to weeks prior to EP intervention. Due to positional and physiological changes, the intra-operative cardiac anatomy can be different from that depicted in the pre-operative data. We present an application of contrast-enhanced rotational X-ray imaging for CT-like reconstruction of 3D LAPV anatomy during the intervention itself. Depending on the heart size a single or two selective contrastenhanced rotational acquisitions are performed and CT-like volumes are reconstructed with 3D filtered back projection. In case of dual injection, the two volumes depicting the left and right portions of the LAPV are registered and fused. The data sets are visualized and segmented intra-procedurally to provide anatomical data and surface models for intervention guidance. Our results from animal and human experiments indicate that the anatomical information from intra-operative CT-like reconstructions compares favorably with preacquired imaging data and can be of sufficient quality for intra-operative guidance.

  16. Establishment of normal limits for left ventricular ejection fraction and volume measurements from 99Tcm-sestamibi myocardial perfusion gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchun; Li Sijin; Kang Chunsong; Hu Guang; Liu Jianzhong; Wang Jin; Kong Fanzhen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Gated SPECT is a reproducible method for assessing left ventricular volume (LVV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 99 Tcm-sestamibi ( 99 Tcm-MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging studies. LVV and LVEF measurements by this approach correlate well with those obtained from other cardiovascular imaging techniques. Nevertheless, the lack of criteria for abnormal test findings has limited the potential clinical application of this new imaging technique. Methods: Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT with 99 Tcm-MIBI (QGSPECT) was performed on 96 individuals with a low Bayesian likelihood ( 99 Tcm-MIBI, 2-dimensional echocardiography was performed on 30 cases within 72 h. Results: The correlation between rest QGSPECT and 2-dimensional echocardiography was r=0.714 for LVEF (p 2 in men and ≤60 ml/m 2 in women, and ESV index ≤41 ml/m 2 in men and ≤25 ml/m 2 in women. Conclusion: (1) Quantification of LV function can be accurately evaluated using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT with 99 Tcm-MIBI, (2) Using a cohort of low-likelihood subjects, we generated sex-specific normal limits for LVV and LVEF for myocardial perfusion gated SPECT. These normal limits can now be evaluated prospectively for their potential clinical value. (authors)

  17. Aerobic fitness, hippocampal viscoelasticity, and relational memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Johnson, Curtis L; Daugherty, Ana M; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-06-01

    The positive relationship between hippocampal structure, aerobic fitness, and memory performance is often observed among children and older adults; but evidence of this relationship among young adults, for whom the hippocampus is neither developing nor atrophying, is less consistent. Studies have typically relied on hippocampal volumetry (a gross proxy of tissue composition) to assess individual differences in hippocampal structure. While volume is not specific to microstructural tissue characteristics, microstructural differences in hippocampal integrity may exist even among healthy young adults when volumetric differences are not diagnostic of tissue health or cognitive function. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for measuring viscoelastic tissue properties and provides quantitative measures of tissue integrity. We have previously demonstrated that individual differences in hippocampal viscoelasticity are related to performance on a relational memory task; however, little is known about health correlates to this novel measure. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between hippocampal viscoelasticity and cardiovascular health, and their mutual effect on relational memory in a group of healthy young adults (N=51). We replicated our previous finding that hippocampal viscoelasticity correlates with relational memory performance. We extend this work by demonstrating that better aerobic fitness, as measured by VO 2 max, was associated with hippocampal viscoelasticity that mediated the benefits of fitness on memory function. Hippocampal volume, however, did not account for individual differences in memory. Therefore, these data suggest that hippocampal viscoelasticity may provide a more sensitive measure to microstructural tissue organization and its consequences to cognition among healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative assessment of primary mitral regurgitation using left ventricular volumes obtained with new automated three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic software: A comparison with 3-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Iacuzio, Laura; Schouver, Elie Dan; Castel, Anne Laure; Toledano, Manuel; Rusek, Stephane; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2018-03-30

    Quantitative assessment of primary mitral regurgitation (MR) using left ventricular (LV) volumes obtained with three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE) recently showed encouraging results. Nevertheless, 3D TTE is not incorporated into everyday practice, as current LV chamber quantification software products are time consuming. To investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of new automated fast 3D TTE software (HeartModel A.I. ; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA) for the quantification of LV volumes and MR severity in patients with isolated degenerative primary MR; and to compare regurgitant volume (RV) obtained with 3D TTE with a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference. Fifty-three patients (37 men; mean age 64±12 years) with at least mild primary isolated MR, and having comprehensive 3D TTE and CMR studies within 24h, were eligible for inclusion. MR RV was calculated using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method and the volumetric method (total LV stroke volume minus aortic stroke volume) with either CMR or 3D TTE. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of 3D TTE was excellent (coefficient of variation≤10%) for LV volumes. MR RV was similar using CMR and 3D TTE (57±23mL vs 56±28mL; P=0.22), but was significantly higher using the PISA method (69±30mL; PTTE). The PISA method consistently overestimated MR RV compared with CMR (bias 12±21mL), while no significant bias was found between 3D TTE and CMR (bias 2±14mL). Concordance between echocardiography and CMR was higher using 3D TTE MR grading (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89) than with PISA MR grading (ICC=0.78). Complete agreement with CMR grading was more frequent with 3D TTE than with the PISA method (76% vs 63%). 3D TTE RV assessment using the new generation of automated software correlates well with CMR in patients with isolated degenerative primary MR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  20. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Kim, Seok Yeon; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Jae Kyun; Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 ± 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV V /LV V ) were calculated. RV V /LV V was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 ± 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV V /LV V and PASP (R = 0.82, p V /LV V were 0.990 and 0.892. RV V /LV V was 1.01 ± 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 ± 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P V /LV V , sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  1. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Torun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.2 ± 17.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.4 ± 32.7 months were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH >1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v. vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca +2 , phosphate (P, Ca × P product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT, median weekly erythropoietin (EPO dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca +2 (P = 0.853, P (P = 0.447, Ca × P product (P = 0.587, PTH (P = 0.273, ferritin (P = 0.153 and TSAT (P = 0.104. After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P = 0.048. The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.4 ± 12.0 to 60.0 ± 24.4 mg/day (P = 0.01. There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients.

  2. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Skimminge, Arnold; Rasmussen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    -weighted images (3 T) from 22 patients and 28 matched healthy controls were analysed using tensor-based morphometry. Non-parametric voxel-wise group comparisons were performed. Small volume correction was employed for striatum, hippocampus and ventricles. Dose-dependent medication effects and associations...

  3. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rehfeld

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC, a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE. Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females, and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum. The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.

  4. Optimizing hippocampal segmentation in infants utilizing MRI post-acquisition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Ahmadzai, Zohra M; Wood, Stephen J; Inder, Terrie E; Warfield, Simon K; Doyle, Lex W; Egan, Gary F

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the most reliable method for infant hippocampal segmentation by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging post-acquisition processing techniques: contrast to noise ratio (CNR) enhancement, or reformatting to standard orientation. MR scans were performed with a 1.5 T GE scanner to obtain dual echo T2 and proton density (PD) images at term equivalent (38-42 weeks' gestational age). 15 hippocampi were manually traced four times on ten infant images by 2 independent raters on the original T2 image, as well as images processed by: a) combining T2 and PD images (T2-PD) to enhance CNR; then b) reformatting T2-PD images perpendicular to the long axis of the left hippocampus. CNRs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. T2-PD images had 17% higher CNR (15.2) than T2 images (12.6). Original T2 volumes' ICC was 0.87 for rater 1 and 0.84 for rater 2, whereas T2-PD images' ICC was 0.95 for rater 1 and 0.87 for rater 2. Reliability of hippocampal segmentation on T2-PD images was not improved by reformatting images (rater 1 ICC = 0.88, rater 2 ICC = 0.66). Post-acquisition processing can improve CNR and hence reliability of hippocampal segmentation in neonate MR scans when tissue contrast is poor. These findings may be applied to enhance boundary definition in infant segmentation for various brain structures or in any volumetric study where image contrast is sub-optimal, enabling hippocampal structure-function relationships to be explored.

  5. A Radiation-Induced Hippocampal Vascular Injury Surrogate Marker Predicts Late Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, Reza [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pramanik, Priyanka; Aryal, Madhava P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chapman, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to develop a hippocampal vascular injury surrogate marker for early prediction of late neurocognitive dysfunction in patients receiving brain radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females, 31-80 years of age) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective longitudinal study. Patients received diagnoses of low-grade glioma or benign tumor and were treated by (3D) conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4-59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Six dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18-month post-RT, and quantified for vascular parameters related to blood-brain barrier permeability, K{sup trans}, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, V{sub p}. The temporal changes in the means of hippocampal transfer constant K{sup trans} and V{sub p} after starting RT were modeled by integrating the dose effects with age, sex, hippocampal laterality, and presence of tumor or edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose response in hippocampi was correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction at 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The mean K{sup trans} Increased significantly from pre-RT to 1-month post-RT (P<.0004), which significantly depended on sex (P<.0007) and age (P<.00004), with the dose response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose response in the left hippocampus of females correlated significantly with changes in memory function at 6 (r=−0.95, P<.0006) and 18-months (r=−0.88, P<.02) post-RT. Conclusions: The early hippocampal vascular dose response could be a predictor of late neurocognitive dysfunction. A personalized hippocampus sparing strategy may be considered in the future.

  6. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Automated hippocampal segmentation in 3D MRI using random undersampling with boosting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglietta, Rosalia; Amoroso, Nicola; Boccardi, Marina; Bruno, Stefania; Chincarini, Andrea; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Inglese, Paolo; Redolfi, Alberto; Tangaro, Sabina; Tateo, Andrea; Bellotti, Roberto

    The automated identification of brain structure in Magnetic Resonance Imaging is very important both in neuroscience research and as a possible clinical diagnostic tool. In this study, a novel strategy for fully automated hippocampal segmentation in MRI is presented. It is based on a supervised algorithm, called RUSBoost, which combines data random undersampling with a boosting algorithm. RUSBoost is an algorithm specifically designed for imbalanced classification, suitable for large data sets because it uses random undersampling of the majority class. The RUSBoost performances were compared with those of ADABoost, Random Forest and the publicly available brain segmentation package, FreeSurfer. This study was conducted on a data set of 50 T1-weighted structural brain images. The RUSBoost-based segmentation tool achieved the best results with a Dice's index of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) for the left (right) brain hemisphere. An independent data set of 50 T1-weighted structural brain scans was used for an independent validation of the fully trained strategies. Again the RUSBoost segmentations compared favorably with manual segmentations with the highest performances among the four tools. Moreover, the Pearson correlation coefficient between hippocampal volumes computed by manual and RUSBoost segmentations was 0.83 (0.82) for left (right) side, statistically significant, and higher than those computed by Adaboost, Random Forest and FreeSurfer. The proposed method may be suitable for accurate, robust and statistically significant segmentations of hippocampi.

  8. Left atrial volume assessment in atrial fibrillation using multimodality imaging: a comparison of echocardiography, invasive three-dimensional CARTO and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbat, Mark G; Wilber, David; Thomas, Kevin; Malick, Owais; Bashir, Atif; Agrawal, Anoop; Biswas, Santanu; Sanagala, Thriveni; Syed, Mushabbar A

    2015-06-01

    Left atrial size in atrial fibrillation is a strong predictor of successful ablation and cardiovascular events. Cardiac magnetic resonance multislice method (CMR-MSM) is the current gold standard for left atrial volume (LAV) assessment but is time consuming. We investigated whether LAV with more rapid area-length method by echocardiography (Echo-AL) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-AL) and invasive measurement by 3D-CARTO mapping during ablation correlate with the CMR-MSM. We studied 250 consecutive patients prior to atrial fibrillation ablation. CMR images were acquired on 3T scanner to measure LAV by MSM and biplane area-length method. Standard echocardiography views were used to calculate LAV by biplane area-length method. LAV during ablation was measured by 3D-CARTO mapping. LAV was compared using intra-class correlation (ICC), Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman plots. CMR-MSM was used as the reference standard. Mean LAV using CMR-MSM was 112.7 ± 36.7 ml. CMR-AL method overestimated LAV by 13.3 ± 21.8 ml (11.2%, p atrial fibrillation. CMR-AL and 3D-CARTO correlated and agreed well with CMR-MSM (r = 0.87 and 0.74, ICC = 0.80 and 0.77 respectively). However, Echo-AL had poor correlation and agreement with CMR-MSM (r = 0.66 and ICC = 0.48). Bland-Altman plots confirmed these findings. CMR-AL method may be used as an alternative to CMR-MSM, as it is non-invasive, rapid, and correlates well with CMR-MSM. LAV by different modalities should not be used interchangeably.

  9. Reference Values for Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography-Derived Left Ventricular Volumes and Ejection Fraction: Review and Meta-Analysis of Currently Available Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Sergio; Costanzo, Luca; Tamburino, Corrado; Monte, Ines

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) as the reference technique to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). We performed a meta-analysis to identify normative reference values by real time 3DE in healthy subjects. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases using the key search terms three-dimensional echocardiography, volumes, and healthy. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis, and source of variation was investigated using meta-regression. After selection, 13 articles were included (2806 subjects). Four studies were conducted in children and young adolescents; one study provided data in an independent pediatric subgroup. In adults, pooled mean value for LV EDV was 98.4 mL (95%CI, 87-110 mL), while LV ESV mean value was 37.0 mL (95%CI, 32-42 mL). LV EF mean value was 62.9% (95%CI 61.7-64.2%). Male subjects showed a significant increase in both LV EDV index (mean difference 5.3 mL/m(2) ; P < 0.001) and LV ESV index (mean difference 3.3 mL/m(2) ; P < 0.001). LV EF was significantly higher in female subjects (P = 0.003). In pediatric studies, LV EDV pooled mean value was 53.1 mL (95%CI, 38.1-68 mL), while for LV ESV, it was 19.8 mL (95%CI, 14.8-24.8 mL); LV EF mean value was 63.3% (95%CI, 61.6-65%). Significant heterogeneity and inconsistency were noted among studies. Age, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate were identified as a source of between-studies variation for LV volumes. Body surface area was a predictor of nonindexed LV volumes. Data from available studies of normative values for 3DE were summarized. Our findings may increase the generalizability of LV normative data by 3DE. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hippocampal correlates of depression in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-12-01

    Mixed findings have been reported on the relationship between hippocampal integrity and major depression in clinical populations. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated associations between hippocampal measures and depressive symptoms in nondemented older adults. Here, we address this issue by imaging 36 nondemented adults over age 70 from the Einstein Aging Study, a community-based sample from the Bronx, NY. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression scale (GDS). Clinically significant depression was defined using a cut-off score of 5 or greater. Hippocampal data included MRI-derived volume data normalized to midsagittal area and MRS-derived N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratios (NAA/Cr). Our result indicates that smaller total hippocampal volume was associated with higher GDS scores, but there were no significant association between hippocampal NAA/Cr and GDS score. These effects were consistent after controlling for age, education, and gender. Reduction in hippocampal volume could represent a risk factor or a consequence of depression in older adults. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of the hippocampus in the development and experience of depression in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Native T1 Relaxation Time and Extracellular Volume Fraction as Accurate Markers of Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Valve Disease - Comparison With Targeted Left Ventricular Myocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockova, Radka; Kacer, Petr; Pirk, Jan; Maly, Jiri; Sukupova, Lucie; Sikula, Viktor; Kotrc, Martin; Barciakova, Lucia; Honsova, Eva; Maly, Marek; Kautzner, Josef; Sedmera, David; Penicka, Martin

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived native T1 relaxation time and myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction and the extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) on targeted myocardial left ventricular (LV) biopsy. The study population consisted of 40 patients (age 63±8 years, 65% male) undergoing valve and/or ascending aorta surgery for severe aortic stenosis (77.5%), root dilatation (7.5%) or valve regurgitation (15%). The T1 relaxation time was assessed in the basal interventricular septum pre- and 10-min post-contrast administration using the modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence prior to surgery. LV myocardial biopsy specimen was obtained during surgery from the basal interventricular septal segment matched with the T1 mapping assessment. The percentage of myocardial collagen was quantified using picrosirius red staining. The average percentage of myocardial collagen was 22.0±14.8%. Both native T1 relaxation time with cutoff value ≥1,010 ms (sensitivity=90%, specificity=73%, area under the curve=0.82) and ECV with cutoff value ≥0.32 (sensitivity=80%, specificity=90%, area under the curve=0.85) showed high accuracy to identify severe (>30%) DMF. The native T1 relaxation time showed significant correlation with LV mass (Pmarkers of DMF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1202-1209).

  12. Transcriptional Changes Associated with Long-Term Left Ventricle Volume Overload in Rats: Impact on Enzymes Related to Myocardial Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Roussel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with left ventricle (LV volume overload (VO remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO. Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling.

  13. Detection of the Hippocampal Formation Asymmetry in Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Sarač-Hadžihalilović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to analyze asymmetry of hippocampal formation in PTSD patients. The objects of the analysis were 10 MRI scans of patients with PTSD with established cognitive function damage. MRI scans were obtained using MAGNET IMPACT SIEMENS 1,0 TESLA in T1 and T2 relaxation. The measurement of hippocampal formation dimensions, and comparisons between the right and the left side were done using evaluate - distance program on the MRI instrument of the Institute of Radiology at Sarajevo Clinics Center. We tested 20 patients with PTSD 49,9 years of average age with standard deviation of 4,62 years. Based on the analysis of our results regarding the size of hippocampal formation in all the three projections (axial, coronal and sagital, in the group of patients with PTSD, we can the make the following observations: In axial slice the length of hippocampal formation measured on the left and right side is significantly asymmetric in all patients. In the sagital slice, the hippocampal formation measured on the left side is in many cases longer than in the right - 50 %.In coronal slice no significant differences were found in the proportion of patients according to symmetry/asymmetry of hippocampal formation width on the left and right.The difference in average size of hippocampal formation between the left and right side measured in axial and coronal slices is not statistically significant, but it is significant in sagitall slice.So, the results of this new research, showed smaller hippocampal dimensions in PTSD as measured using MRI. We have to be careful about what projection we are refusing to as being watched hippocampal formation because the results will depend on that. We suggest that future studies be done in more projections because of the importance of statistically significant conclusions. MRI - volumetric measurements have their value.

  14. Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J

    2017-01-15

    Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pmemory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Value of the fraction of ejection and the end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle calculated by means of Gated-Spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.M.; Bermudez, M.C.; Fernandez, B.; Delgado, J.; Martin, A.; Martinez, J.J.; Padilla, O.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The fraction of ejection is one of the predictions factors more important after a acute heart attack and is essential its calculation in these patients. On the other hand the existence of residue ischemia is a basic information to predict the evolution and to decide the treatment about this pathology. The use of the Gated-Spect can contribute of simultaneous form both information. Our aim was to evaluate the utility of the fraction of ejection and of the volume end-diastolic of the left ventricle calculated by means of Gated-Spect as well as the relation that exists with the fact of the existence of scar in this images. Materials and Methods: 34 patients were studied (27 men and 7 women) sent to our service for accomplishment of Spect of myocardium perfusion for suspicion it diagnoses of heart attack of myocardium for present at least 2 of 3 clinical classic criteria (typical clinic, alterations ECG and increase enzymatic), to that was realized heart Gated-Spect with 925 MBq of Tc99-tetrofosmin after pharmacological stimulation with adenosine and 2 days later Spect with 333 MBq of the same tracer for acquisition of base images. Results: All the patients presented faults of perfusion fixed assimilable to zones of scar, finding in 13 of them certain degree of reversibility that was indicating existence of residue ischemia. The average of fraction of ejection was of 36.62% . Dividing by groups the fraction of ejection in the scar without ischemia ensued from 32.33% and in the scar with ischemia from 43.54%, being the difference between both groups significant statistically (P=0.003). For the volume end-diastolic the average belonged to 141.97 ml being divided in 157.90 ml for the pure scar and 116.23 ml for the scar with ischemia being this difference also significant (P=0.04) the relation is verified likewise between fraction of ejection and volume telediastolico with Pearson's coefficient between both variables of-0.79. Conclusion: According to our results the

  16. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization

  17. Episodic autobiographical memory is associated with variation in the size of hippocampal subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Bacopulos, Agnes; Amaral, Robert S C; Olsen, Rosanna K; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, Adam K; Levine, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Striking individual differences exist in the human capacity to recollect past events, yet, little is known about the neural correlates of such individual differences. Studies investigating hippocampal volume in relation to individual differences in laboratory measures of episodic memory in young adults suggest that whole hippocampal volume is unrelated (or even negatively associated) with episodic memory. However, anatomical and functional specialization across hippocampal subregions suggests that individual differences in episodic memory may be linked to particular hippocampal subregions, as opposed to whole hippocampal volume. Given that the DG/CA 2/3 circuitry is thought to be especially critical for supporting episodic memory in humans, we predicted that the volume of this region would be associated with individual variability in episodic memory. This prediction was supported using high-resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real-world (autobiographical) episodic memory. In addition to the association with DG/CA 2/3 , we further observed a relationship between episodic autobiographical memory and subiculum volume, whereas no association was observed with CA 1 or with whole hippocampal volume. These findings provide insight into the possible neural substrates that mediate individual differences in real-world episodic remembering in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Radiation Dose–Dependent Hippocampal Atrophy Detected With Longitudinal Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Kaifi, Samar [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dalia, Yoseph; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Kuperman, Joshua; White, Nathan S. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Farid, Nikdokht [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy (RT) to the brain, patients often experience memory impairment, which may be partially mediated by damage to the hippocampus. Hippocampal sparing in RT planning is the subject of recent and ongoing clinical trials. Calculating appropriate hippocampal dose constraints would be improved by efficient in vivo measurements of hippocampal damage. In this study we sought to determine whether brain RT was associated with dose-dependent hippocampal atrophy. Methods and Materials: Hippocampal volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 52 patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT for primary brain tumors. Study patients had high-resolution, 3-dimensional volumetric MRI before and 1 year after RT. Images were processed using software with clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration and Conformité Européene marking for automated measurement of hippocampal volume. Automated results were inspected visually for accuracy. Tumor and surgical changes were censored. Mean hippocampal dose was tested for correlation with hippocampal atrophy 1 year after RT. Average hippocampal volume change was also calculated for hippocampi receiving high (>40 Gy) or low (<10 Gy) mean RT dose. A multivariate analysis was conducted with linear mixed-effects modeling to evaluate other potential predictors of hippocampal volume change, including patient (random effect), age, hemisphere, sex, seizure history, and baseline volume. Statistical significance was evaluated at α = 0.05. Results: Mean hippocampal dose was significantly correlated with hippocampal volume loss (r=−0.24, P=.03). Mean hippocampal volume was significantly reduced 1 year after high-dose RT (mean −6%, P=.009) but not after low-dose RT. In multivariate analysis, both RT dose and patient age were significant predictors of hippocampal atrophy (P<.01). Conclusions: The hippocampus demonstrates radiation dose–dependent atrophy after treatment for brain

  19. Prediction of dementia by hippocampal shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... with dementia during a 9 year follow-up period, was selected from a large population based cohort study. 47 Age and gender matched subjects who stayed cognitively intact were selected from the same cohort study as a control group. The hippocampi were automatically segmented and all segmentations were inspected...... and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation experiments...

  20. Effect of patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale on left ventricular stroke volume measurement by electrical velocimetry in comparison to transthoracic echocardiography in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Martin Ernst; Hartwich, Jana; Obrecht, Denise; Kersten, Jan Felix; Singer, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    This prospective single-center observational study compared impedance cardiography [electrical velocimetry (EV)] with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, based on trans-aortic flow) and analyzed the influence of physiological shunts, such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or patent foramen ovale (PFO), on measurement accuracy. Two hundred and ninety-one triplicate simultaneous paired left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) measurements by EV (LVSV EV ) and TTE (LVSV TTE ) in 99 spontaneously breathing neonates (mean weight 3270 g; range 1227-4600 g) were included. For the whole cohort, the mean absolute LVSV EV was 5.5 mL, mean LVSV TTE was 4.9 mL, resulting in an absolute Bland-Altman bias of -0.7 mL (limits of agreement LOA -3.0 to 1.7 mL), relative bias -12.8 %; mean percentage error MPE 44.9 %; true precision TP EV 33.4 % (n = 99 aggregated data points). In neonates without shunts (n = 32): mean LVSV EV 5.0 mL, mean LVSV TTE 4.6 mL, Bland-Altman bias -0.4 mL (LOA -2.8 to 2.0 mL), relative bias -8.2 %; MPE 50.7 %; TP EV 40.9 %. In neonates with shunts (PDA and/or PFO; n = 67): mean LVSV EV 5.8 mL, mean LVSV TTE 5.0 mL, bias -0.8 mL (LOA -3.1 to 1.5 mL), relative bias -14.8 %, MPE 41.9 %, TP EV 29.3 %. Accuracy was affected by PDA and/or PFO, with a significant increase in the relative difference in LVSV EV versus LVSV TTE : Subjects without shunts -2.9 % (n = 91), PFO alone -9.6 % (n = 125), PDA alone -14.0 % (n = 12), and PDA and PFO -18.5 % (n = 63). Physiological shunts (PDA and/or PFO) in neonates affect measurement accuracy and cause overestimation of LVSV EV compared with LVSV TTE .

  1. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Impaired by Transient and Moderate Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe thyroid hormone (TH) deprivation during development impairs neurogenesis throughout the brain. The hippocampus also maintains a capacity for neurogenesis throughout life which is reduced in adult-onset hypothyroidism. This study examined hippocampal volume in the neonate a...

  2. Temporal lobe epilepsy: quantitative MR volumetry in detection of hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nikdokht; Girard, Holly M; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Smith, Michael E; Magda, Sebastian W; Lim, Wei Y; Lee, Roland R; McDonald, Carrie R

    2012-08-01

    To determine the ability of fully automated volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to depict hippocampal atrophy (HA) and to help correctly lateralize the seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was conducted with institutional review board approval and in compliance with HIPAA regulations. Volumetric MR imaging data were analyzed for 34 patients with TLE and 116 control subjects. Structural volumes were calculated by using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared software for automated quantitative MR imaging analysis (NeuroQuant). Results of quantitative MR imaging were compared with visual detection of atrophy, and, when available, with histologic specimens. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal sensitivity and specificity of quantitative MR imaging for detecting HA and asymmetry. A linear classifier with cross validation was used to estimate the ability of quantitative MR imaging to help lateralize the seizure focus. Quantitative MR imaging-derived hippocampal asymmetries discriminated patients with TLE from control subjects with high sensitivity (86.7%-89.5%) and specificity (92.2%-94.1%). When a linear classifier was used to discriminate left versus right TLE, hippocampal asymmetry achieved 94% classification accuracy. Volumetric asymmetries of other subcortical structures did not improve classification. Compared with invasive video electroencephalographic recordings, lateralization accuracy was 88% with quantitative MR imaging and 85% with visual inspection of volumetric MR imaging studies but only 76% with visual inspection of clinical MR imaging studies. Quantitative MR imaging can depict the presence and laterality of HA in TLE with accuracy rates that may exceed those achieved with visual inspection of clinical MR imaging studies. Thus, quantitative MR imaging may enhance standard visual analysis, providing a useful and viable means for translating volumetric analysis into

  3. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sub-regional hippocampal injury is associated with fornix degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Young Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers. To test this hypothesis, multi-modal imaging, combining measures of local hippocampal radii with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, was applied to 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 96 cognitively normal individuals. Fornix microstructural degradation, as measured by reduced DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA, was prominent in both MCI and AD, and was associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Further, reduced fornix FA was associated with reduced anterior CA1 and antero-medial subiculum thickness. Finally, while both lesser fornix FA and lesser hippocampal volume were associated with lesser episodic memory, only the hippocampal measures were significant predictors of episodic memory in models including both hippocampal and fornix predictors. The region-specific association between fornix integrity and hippocampal neuronal death may provide in vivo evidence for degenerative white matter injury in AD: axonal pathology that is closely linked to neuronal injury.

  6. Sub-Regional Hippocampal Injury is Associated with Fornix Degeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Young; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen Thomas; Singh, Baljeet; Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce; Martinez, Oliver; Buonocore, Michael H.; Persianinova, Maria; DeCarli, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers. To test this hypothesis, multi-modal imaging, combining measures of local hippocampal radii with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), was applied to 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 96 cognitively normal individuals. Fornix microstructural degradation, as measured by reduced DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA), was prominent in both MCI and AD, and was associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Further, reduced fornix FA was associated with reduced anterior CA1 and antero-medial subiculum thickness. Finally, while both lesser fornix FA and lesser hippocampal volume were associated with lesser episodic memory, only the hippocampal measures were significant predictors of episodic memory in models including both hippocampal and fornix predictors. The region-specific association between fornix integrity and hippocampal neuronal death may provide in vivo evidence for degenerative white matter injury in AD: axonal pathology that is closely linked to neuronal injury. PMID:22514534

  7. Regional brain volumes, diffusivity, and metabolite changes after electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.; Magnusson, P.; Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of hippocampal plasticity in the antidepressant effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Method: We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton MR spectroscopy (1 H- MRS) to investigate hippocampal volume, diffusivity...

  8. Assessment of left and right ventricular parameters in healthy Korean volunteers using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: change in ventricular volume and function based on age, gender and body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-A; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Sang-Chol; Oh, Jae K

    2012-12-01

    The clinical utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is growing and is being used predominantly as a means of measuring ventricular function. The normal reference range of ventricular function may vary based on age, sex and ethnicity. At present, most CMR reference values for healthy individuals have been reported from Western countries. The intent of this study was to investigate the normal CMR reference range for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) parameters in healthy Koreans. Healthy volunteers between the ages of 20-70 years without any history of cardiovascular disease or associated risk factors were prospectively recruited to be a part of this study. A total of 124 patients were recruited for this study. Steady-state free precession pulse sequences were used to obtain the cine images for LV and RV volume analysis. All parameters were analyzed based on age and gender, and normalized to body surface area (BSA). LV volume, mass and cardiac output were significantly greater in males than in females. However, all of these parameters which are associated with BSA and gender differences disappeared when corrected for BSA. RV volume was less in females even after the data was normalized for BSA. LV and RV volumes normalized for BSA gradually decreased with greater age, whereas the ejection fraction increased with age, thus maintaining the stroke volume index and cardiac index. LV and RV volumes, mass and function values for a healthy population largely depend on BSA and should be evaluated after normalization by BSA. LV parameters show no difference based on gender, but RV volume is less in the female. Greater age is associated with less ventricular volume, suggesting the possibility of volume sensitivity in the elderly.

  9. Normal values of left ventricularmass and cardiac chamber volumes assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Kühl, J Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal values of left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac chamber sizes are prerequisites for the diagnosis of individuals with heart disease. LVM and cardiac chamber sizes may be recorded during cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and thus modality specific normal values are need...

  10. Automatic system for estimating the volume of the left ventricle based on two-dimensional MRI images of the heart along the long axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porshnev, S. V.; Bobkova, A. O.; Zyuzin, V. V.; Mukhtarov, A. A.; Chernyshev, M. A.; Akhmetov, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a system that allows automatic estimation of systole, diastole and left ventricular ejection fraction of the heart based on the sequence of MRI images from the apical two-chamber and four-chamber positions. The implemented system was tested on the images of the heart of 200 patients, and its accuracy and operability was assessed.

  11. Measurement of left atrial volume by 2D and 3D non-contrast computed tomography compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredgart, Maise Høigaard; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2018-01-01

    , and multiplied by slice spacing, thus generating a measure of LA volume. The LA volume was indexed to body surface area. On 2D NCCT, the largest axial cross-section LA area was traced manually. Results: The mean LA volume was 102 ± 28 ml in MRI compared with 103 ± 28 ml in 3D NCCT. 3D NCCT showed good agreement...... with MRI measurements (mean difference −0.7 ml/m2; 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.2 to 0.9). By Bland-Altman, 3D NCCT also showed good agreement with MRI (limits of agreement: −18.7–17.4 ml/m2). Furthermore, good correlation was found between 2D NCCT and 3D NCCT LA volume (r = 0.93). Conclusion: 2D and 3D...

  12. Hippocampal activity during the transverse patterning task declines with cognitive competence but not with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leirer Vera M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hippocampus is a brain region that is particularly affected by age-related morphological changes. It is generally assumed that a loss in hippocampal volume results in functional deficits that contribute to age-related cognitive decline. In a combined cross-sectional behavioural and magnetoencephalography (MEG study we investigated whether hippocampal-associated neural current flow during a transverse patterning task - which requires learning relational associations between stimuli - correlates with age and whether it is modulated by cognitive competence. Results Better performance in several tests of verbal memory, verbal fluency and executive function was indeed associated with higher hippocampal neural activity. Age, however, was not related to the strength of hippocampal neural activity: elderly participants responded slower than younger individuals but on average produced the same neural mass activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that in non-pathological aging, hippocampal neural activity does not decrease with age but is rather related to cognitive competence.

  13. Porencephaly in dogs and cats: relationships between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ai; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Nakade, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    Porencephaly is the congenital cerebral defect and a rare malformation and described few MRI reports in veterinary medicine. MRI features of porencephaly are recognized the coexistence with the unilateral/bilateral hippocampal atrophy, caused by the seizure symptoms in human medicine. We studied 2 dogs and 1 cat with congenital porencephaly to characterize the clinical signs and MRI, and to discuss the associated MRI with hippocampal atrophy. The main clinical sign was the seizure symptoms, and all had hippocampal atrophy at the lesion side or the larger defect side. There is association between hippocampal atrophy or the cyst volume and the severe of clinical signs, and it is suggested that porencephaly coexists with hippocampal atrophy as well as humans in this study.

  14. Remote effects of hippocampal damage on default network connectivity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Lars; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Spreer, Joachim; Wagner, Kathrin

    2009-12-01

    In the healthy human brain the hippocampus is known to work in concert with a variety of cortical brain regions. It has recently been linked to the default network of the brain, with the precuneus being its core hub. Here we studied the remote effects of damage to the hippocampus on functional connectivity patterns of the precuneus. From 14 epilepsy patients with selective, unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 8 healthy control subjects, we acquired functional MRI data during performance of an object-location memory task. We assessed functional connectivity of a functionally defined region in the precuneus, which showed the typical properties of the default network: significant task-related deactivation, which was reduced in patients compared to control subjects. In control subjects, a largely symmetrical pattern of functional coherence to the precuneus emerged, including canonical default network areas such as ventral medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the hippocampi. Assessment of group differences within the default network areas revealed reduced connectivity to the precuneus in ipsilesional middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus in left hippocampal sclerosis patients compared to controls. Furthermore, left hippocampal sclerosis patients showed lower connectivity than right hippocampal sclerosis patients in left middle temporal gyrus, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and left amygdala. We report remote effects of unilateral hippocampal damage on functional connectivity between distant brain regions associated with the default network of the human brain. These preliminary results underline the impact of circumscribed pathology on functionally connected brain regions.

  15. Associations between hippocampal morphometry and neuropathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Blanken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are established pathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed the temporal lobes of 9 Alzheimer's dementia (AD and 7 cognitively normal (NC subjects. Brains were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. We extracted hippocampal volumes and radial distances using automated segmentation techniques. Hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ, tau, and cresyl violet to evaluate neuronal counts. The hippocampal subfields, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, and subiculum were manually traced so that the neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden could be obtained for each region. We used linear regression to detect associations between hippocampal atrophy in 3D, clinical diagnosis and total as well as subfield pathology burden measures. As expected, we found significant correlations between hippocampal radial distance and mean neuronal count, as well as diagnosis. There were subfield specific associations between hippocampal radial distance and tau in CA2, and cresyl violet neuronal counts in CA1 and subiculum. These results provide further validation for the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Center Harmonized Hippocampal Segmentation Protocol (HarP.

  16. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  17. Optimizing patient positioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy in hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siglin, Joshua; Champ, Colin E; Vakhnenko, Yelena; Witek, Matthew E; Peng, Cheng; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Harrison, Amy S; Shi, Wenyin

    2014-01-01

    Sparing the hippocampus during whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) offers potential neurocognitive benefits. However, previously reported intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans use multiple noncoplanar beams for treatment delivery. An optimized coplanar IMRT template for hippocampal-sparing WBRT would assist in clinical workflow and minimize resource utilization. In this study, we sought to determine the optimal patient position to facilitate coplanar treatment planning and delivery of hippocampal-sparing WBRT using IMRT. A variable angle, inclined board was utilized for patient positioning. An anthropomorphic phantom underwent computed tomography simulation at various head angles. The IMRT goals were designed to achieve target coverage of the brain while maintaining hippocampal dose-volume constraints designed to conform to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0933 protocol. Optimal head angle was then verified using data from 8 patients comparing coplanar and noncoplanar WBRT IMRT plans. Hippocampal, hippocampal avoidance region, and whole brain mean volumes were 1.1 cm(3), 12.5 cm(3), and 1185.1 cm(3), respectively. The hippocampal avoidance region occupied 1.1% of the whole brain planning volume. For the 30-degree head angle, a 7-field coplanar IMRT plan was generated, sparing the hippocampus to a maximum dose of 14.7 Gy; D100% of the hippocampus was 7.4 Gy and mean hippocampal dose was 9.3 Gy. In comparison, for flat head positioning the hippocampal Dmax was 22.9 Gy with a D100% of 9.2 Gy and mean dose of 11.7 Gy. Target coverage and dose homogeneity was comparable with previously published noncoplanar IMRT plans. Compared with conventional supine positioning, an inclined head board at 30 degrees optimizes coplanar whole brain IMRT treatment planning. Clinically acceptable hippocampal-sparing WBRT dosimetry can be obtained using a simplified coplanar plan at a 30-degree head angle, thus obviating the need for complex and time consuming noncoplanar

  18. Protracted hippocampal development is associated with age-related improvements in memory during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Botdorf, Morgan; Canada, Kelsey; Cox, Lisa; Hancock, Gregory R

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for memory. Previous studies have shown that age-related differences in specialization along the longitudinal axis of this structure (i.e., subregions) and within its internal circuitry (i.e., subfields) relate to age-related improvements in memory in school-age children and adults. However, the influence of age on hippocampal development and its relations with memory ability earlier in life remains under-investigated. This study examined effects of age and sex on hippocampal subregion (i.e., head, body, tail) and subfield (i.e., subiculum, CA1, CA2-4/DG) volumes, and their relations with memory, using a large sample of 4- to 8-year-old children. Results examining hippocampal subregions suggest influences of both age and sex on the hippocampal head during early childhood. Results examining subfields within hippocampal head suggest these age effects may arise from CA1, whereas sex differences may arise from subiculum and CA2-4/DG. Memory ability was not associated with hippocampal subregion volume but was associated with subfield volume. Specifically, within the hippocampal head, relations between memory and CA1 were moderated by age; in younger children bigger was better, whereas in older children smaller was superior. Within the hippocampal body, smaller CA1 and larger CA2-4/DG contributed to better memory performance across all ages. Together, these results shed light on hippocampal development during early childhood and support claims that the prolonged developmental trajectory of the hippocampus contributes to memory development early in life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of critical coronary stenosis on global systolic left ventricular function quantified by pressure-volume relations during dobutamine stress in the canine heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendijk, P.; Baan, J.; van der Velde, E. T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we quantified the effects of a critical coronary stenosis on global systolic function using pressure-volume relations at baseline and during incremental dobutamine stress. The effects of coronary stenosis have previously been analyzed mainly in terms of regional (dys)function. Global

  20. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain : a case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Erik; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Görgan; Wysocka, Anna; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduc...

  1. Hippocampal substructural vulnerability to sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic primary insomnia: magnetic resonance imaging morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Hosung; Suh, Sooyeon; Hong, Seung Bong

    2014-07-01

    Despite compelling evidence from animal studies indicating hippocampal subfield-specific vulnerability to poor sleep quality and related cognitive impairment, there have been no human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal subfield volume and sleep disturbance. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of volume changes across hippocampal subfields in patients with primary insomnia relative to controls. Pointwise morphometry allowed for volume measurements of hippocampal regions on T1-weighted MRI. University hospital. Twenty-seven unmedicated patients (age: 51.2 ± 9.6 y) and 30 good sleepers as controls (50.4 ± 7.1 y). N/A. We compared hippocampal subfield volumes between patients and controls and correlated volume with clinical and neuropsychological features in patients. Patients exhibited bilateral atrophy across all hippocampal subfields (P sleep quality (higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and higher arousal index of polysomnography) (r 0.45, P sleep fragmentation and related chronic stress condition. Atrophy in the CA3-4-DG region was associated with impaired cognitive functions in patients. These observations may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that make patients with chronic sleep disturbance vulnerable to cognitive impairment. Joo EY, Kim H, Suh S, Hong SB. Hippocampal substructural vulnerability to sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with chronic primary insomnia: magnetic resonance imaging morphometry.

  2. Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2010-02-01

    Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function.

  3. Stress, depression and hippocampal damage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adrenocortical (HPA) axis which regulates secretion of the stress responsive corticosteroids. The hippocampus is known to provide an inhibitory feedback to the HPA axis. Hippocampal damage then would result in disinhibition of the HPA axis ...

  4. Reversing dobutamine-induced tachycardia using ivabradine increases stroke volume with neutral effect on cardiac energetics in left ventricular post-ischaemia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkehaug, J P; Naesheim, T; Torgersen Engstad, E; Kildal, A B; Myrmel, T; How, O-J

    2016-10-01

    Compensatory tachycardia can potentially be deleterious in acute heart failure. In this study, we tested a therapeutic strategy of combined inotropic support (dobutamine) and selective heart rate (HR) reduction through administration of ivabradine. In an open-chest pig model (n = 12) with left ventricular (LV) post-ischaemia dysfunction, cardiac function was assessed by LV pressure catheter and sonometric crystals. Coronary flow and blood samples from the coronary sinus were used to measure myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). LV energetics was assessed by comparing MVO2 with cardiac work at a wide range of workloads. In the post-ischaemia heart, dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1)  min(-1) ) increased cardiac output (CO) by increasing HR from 102 ± 21 to 131 ± 16 bpm (beats per min; P efficiency. Similar findings on efficiency and LV function were also seen using an ex vivo working mouse heart protocol. A combined infusion of dobutamine and ivabradine had a neutral effect on post-ischaemia LV efficiency and increased left ventricular output without an increase in HR. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Selected Gray Matter Volumes and Gender but Not Basal Ganglia nor Cerebellum Gyri Discriminate Left Versus Right Cerebral Hemispheres: Multivariate Analyses in human Brains at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafael; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Rios, Camilo

    2015-07-01

    Interest in the lateralization of the human brain is evident through a multidisciplinary number of scientific studies. Understanding volumetric brain asymmetries allows the distinction between normal development stages and behavior, as well as brain diseases. We aimed to evaluate volumetric asymmetries in order to select the best gyri able to classify right- versus left cerebral hemispheres. A cross-sectional study performed in 47 right-handed young-adults healthy volunteers. SPM-based software performed brain segmentation, automatic labeling and volumetric analyses for 54 regions involving the cerebral lobes, basal ganglia and cerebellum from each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate discriminant analysis (DA) allowed the assembling of a predictive model. DA revealed one discriminant function that significantly differentiated left vs. right cerebral hemispheres: Wilks' λ = 0.008, χ(2) (9) = 238.837, P vision and language; our findings favored the concept that lateralization has been evolutionary favored by mental processes increasing cognitive efficiency and brain capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hippocampal development at gestation weeks 23 to 36. An ultrasound study on preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ewald, Uwe [Uppsala University, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    During fetal development, the hippocampal structures fold around the hippocampal sulcus into the temporal lobe. According to the literature, this inversion should be completed at gestation week (GW) 21. Thereafter, the hippocampal shape should resemble the adult shape. However, incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is found in 19% of the common population. The aim of this study was to study fetal hippocampal development by examining neonates born preterm. We analyzed cranial ultrasound examinations, performed as a part of the routine assessment of all preterm infants, over a 3-year period and excluded the infants with brain pathology. The final material consisted of 158 children born <35 GW. A rounded form (the ratio between the horizontal and vertical diameters of the hippocampal body {<=}1) in coronal slices was considered the sign of IHI. The age at examination was 23-24 GW in 24 neonates, 25-28 GW in 70 neonates, and 29-36 GW in 64 neonates. IHI was found in 50%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. The difference between the neonates <25 GW and {>=}25 GW was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of bilateral IHI was highest in the youngest age group. In the other groups, the left-sided IHI was the most common. In about 50% of the neonates, hippocampal inversion is not completed up to GW 24; but from 25 GW onwards, the frequency and laterality of IHI is similar to that in the adult population. (orig.)

  7. Hippocampal Atrophy Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Correlates with Disruption of Astrocyte Morphology and Capillary Coverage by AQP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzabi, Maryam; Ardalan, Maryam; Iversen, Nina Kerting

    2018-01-01

    techniques to detect differences in astrocyte morphology, and global spatial sampling method was used to quantify the length density of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) positive capillaries. Our results indicated that hippocampal volume, as measured both by MRI and by histological approaches, was significantly lower...... in SAH animals than in the sham-operated group. Accordingly, in this animal model of SAH, hippocampal atrophy existed already at the time of DCI onset in humans. SAH induced retraction of GFAP positive astrocyte processes, accompanied by a significant reduction in the length density of AQP4 positive...... capillaries as well as narrowing of hippocampal capillaries. Meanwhile, astrocyte volume was higher in SAH mice compared with the sham-operated group. Morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes seemingly disrupt glia-vascular interactions early after SAH and may contribute to hippocampal atrophy. We...

  8. Acceleration of hippocampal atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, K Abigail; Frost, Chris; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Rowe, Chris C; Villemagne, Victor; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of brain atrophy measured from serial magnetic resonance imaging precede symptom onset in Alzheimer's disease and may be useful outcome measures for prodromal clinical trials. Appropriate trial design requires a detailed understanding of the relationships between β-amyloid load and accumulation, and rate of brain change at this stage of the disease. Fifty-two healthy individuals (72.3 ± 6.9 years) from Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Aging had serial (0, 18 m, 36 m) magnetic resonance imaging, (0, 18 m) Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography, and clinical assessments. We calculated rates of whole brain and hippocampal atrophy, ventricular enlargement, amyloid accumulation, and cognitive decline. Over 3 years, rates of whole brain atrophy (p atrophy (p = 0.001, p = 0.023), and ventricular expansion (p atrophy rates were also independently associated with β-amyloid accumulation over the first 18 months (p = 0.003). Acceleration of left hippocampal atrophy rate was associated with baseline β-amyloid load across the cohort (p atrophy are associated with both baseline β-amyloid load and accumulation, and that there is presymptomatic, amyloid-mediated acceleration of hippocampal atrophy. Clinical trials using rate of hippocampal atrophy as an outcome measure should not assume linear decline in the presymptomatic phase. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology; Cesnjevar, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  10. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M.; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S.; Cesnjevar, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  11. Lower Ipsilateral Hippocampal Integrity after Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Memory impairment after stroke is poorly understood as stroke rarely occurs in the hippocampus. Previous studies have observed smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes after stroke compared with controls. Possibly, these findings on macroscopic level are not the first

  12. Lower Ipsilateral Hippocampal Integrity after Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Memory impairment after stroke is poorly understood as stroke rarely occurs in the hippocampus. Previous studies have observed smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes after stroke compared with controls. Possibly, these findings on macroscopic level are not the first

  13. Ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy is associated with long-term memory dysfunction after ischemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Uden, I.W.M. van; Tuladhar, A.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Dijk, E.J. van; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However,

  14. Subregional Hippocampal Morphology and Psychiatric Outcome in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm and at Term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Cole

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been reported to be structurally and functionally altered as a sequel of very preterm birth (<33 weeks gestation, possibly due its vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic damage in the neonatal period. We examined hippocampal volumes and subregional morphology in very preterm born individuals in mid- and late adolescence and their association with psychiatric outcome.Structural brain magnetic resonance images were acquired at two time points (baseline and follow-up from 65 ex-preterm adolescents (mean age = 15.5 and 19.6 years and 36 term-born controls (mean age=15.0 and 19.0 years. Hippocampal volumes and subregional morphometric differences were measured from manual tracings and with three-dimensional shape analysis. Psychiatric outcome was assessed with the Rutter Parents' Scale at baseline, the General Health Questionnaire at follow-up and the Peters Delusional Inventory at both time points.In contrast to previous studies we did not find significant difference in the cross-sectional or longitudinal hippocampal volumes between individuals born preterm and controls, despite preterm individual having significantly smaller whole brain volumes. Shape analysis at baseline revealed subregional deformations in 28% of total bilateral hippocampal surface, reflecting atrophy, in ex-preterm individuals compared to controls, and in 22% at follow-up. In ex-preterm individuals, longitudinal changes in hippocampal shape accounted for 11% of the total surface, while in controls they reached 20%. In the whole sample (both groups larger right hippocampal volume and bilateral anterior surface deformations at baseline were associated with delusional ideation scores at follow-up.This study suggests a dynamic association between cross-sectional hippocampal volumes, longitudinal changes and surface deformations and psychosis proneness.

  15. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  16. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A; Chapman, C; Tsien, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal vascular

  17. Feasibility and Accuracy of Automated Software for Transthoracic Three-Dimensional Left Ventricular Volume and Function Analysis: Comparisons with Two-Dimensional Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Manual Method, and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Gloria; Piazzese, Concetta; Lang, Roberto M; Muratori, Manuela; Chiorino, Elisa; Mapelli, Massimo; Fusini, Laura; Ali, Sarah Ghulam; Gripari, Paola; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Pepi, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a new automated software package (HeartModel) was developed to obtain three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) volumes using a model-based algorithm (MBA) with a "one-button" simple system and user-adjustable slider. The aims of this study were to verify the feasibility and accuracy of the MBA in comparison with other commonly used imaging techniques in a large unselected population, to evaluate possible accuracy improvements of free operator border adjustments or changes of the slider's default position, and to identify differences in method accuracy related to specific pathologies. This prospective study included consecutive 200 patients. LV volumes and ejection fraction were obtained using the MBA and compared with the two-dimensional biplane method, the 3D full-volume (3DFV) modality, and, in 90 of 200 cases, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements. To evaluate the optimal position of the slider with respect to the 3DFV and CMR modalities, a set of threefold cross-validation experiments was performed. Optimized and manually corrected LV volumes obtained using the MBA were also tested. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to assess intertechnique agreement. Automatic volumes were feasible in 194 patients (94.5%), with a mean processing time of 29 ± 10 sec. MBA-derived volumes correlated significantly with all evaluated methods, with slight overestimation of two-dimensional biplane and slight underestimation of CMR measurements. Higher correlations were found between MBA and 3DFV measurements, with negligible differences both in volumes (overestimation) and in LV ejection fraction (underestimation), respectively. Optimization of the user-adjustable slider position improved the correlation and markedly reduced the bias between the MBA and 3DFV or CMR. The accuracy of MBA volumes was lower in some pathologies for incorrect definition of LV endocardium. The MBA is highly feasible, reproducible, and rapid, and it correlates

  18. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for hippocampal sclerosis: postoperative MR appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renowden, S A; Matkovic, Z; Adams, C B; Carpenter, K; Oxbury, S; Molyneux, A J; Anslow, P; Oxbury, J

    1995-10-01

    To analyze the anatomic consequences of selective amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis and to correlate the clinical outcome with the MR appearance. Seventeen patients were examined with clinical and neuropsychologic examination and cranial MR after AH (7 transcortical AH, 10 trans-Sylvian AH). The clinical and neuropsychologic outcomes after AH were compared with those of anterior lobectomy (ATL). There was no significant difference in seizure cure between transcortical or trans-Sylvian AH and ATL. However, patients with left AH fared significantly better in terms of verbal IQ and nonverbal memory when compared with those with left ATL. Verbal memory and cognition were not significantly different in the two AH groups. Variable amounts of hippocampal and amygdala remnants were found in both AH groups and did not correlate with seizure cure. White matter change consistent with gliosis probably secondary to wallerian degeneration was demonstrated in the anterior temporal lobe to a mean distance of 4.5 cm after transcortical AH and to a lesser degree as a consequence of trans-Sylvian AH. Nine patients (53%) (4 transcortical All, 5 trans-Sylvian AH) demonstrated wallerian degeneration in the optic radiations after surgery. All had incomplete contralateral quadrantanopia. There is more secondary damage to the temporal lobe after AH than was previously recognized. The extent of hippocampal and amygdala resection in AH do not seem to be directly related to seizure cure. Visual field defects are common in AH because of the anterior but variable course of the optic radiations

  19. Hippocampal polysynaptic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Rie; Kang, Siu; Takahashi, Naoya; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuki, Norio; Fukai, Tomoki; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2011-09-14

    Neural circuitry is a self-organizing arithmetic device that converts input to output and thereby remodels its computational algorithm to produce more desired output; however, experimental evidence regarding the mechanism by which information is modified and stored while propagating across polysynaptic networks is sparse. We used functional multineuron calcium imaging to monitor the spike outputs from thousands of CA1 neurons in response to the stimulation of two independent sites of the dentate gyrus in rat hippocampal networks ex vivo. Only pyramidal cells were analyzed based on post hoc immunostaining. Some CA1 pyramidal cells were observed to fire action potentials only when both sites were simultaneously stimulated (AND-like neurons), whereas other neurons fired in response to either site of stimulation but not to concurrent stimulation (XOR-like neurons). Both types of neurons were interlaced in the same network and altered their logical operation depending on the timing of paired stimulation. Repetitive paired stimulation for brief periods induced a persistent reorganization of AND and XOR operators, suggesting a flexibility in parallel distributed processing. We simulated these network functions in silico and found that synaptic modification of the CA3 recurrent excitation is pivotal to the shaping of logic plasticity. This work provides new insights into how microscopic synaptic properties are associated with the mesoscopic dynamics of complex microcircuits.

  20. Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, M; Lorenzetti, V; Suo, C; Zalesky, A; Fornito, A; Takagi, M J; Lubman, D I; Solowij, N

    2016-01-01

    Shifting policies towards legalisation of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational use raise significant ethical issues for health-care providers seeking evidence-based recommendations. We investigated whether heavy cannabis use is associated with persistent harms to the hippocampus, if exposure to cannabidiol offers protection, and whether recovery occurs with abstinence. To do this, we assessed 111 participants: 74 long-term regular cannabis users (with an average of 15.4 years of use) and 37 non-user healthy controls. Cannabis users included subgroups of participants who were either exposed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not to cannabidiol (CBD) or exposed to both, and former users with sustained abstinence. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging from which three measures of hippocampal integrity were assessed: (i) volume; (ii) fractional anisotropy; and (iii) N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Three curve-fitting models across the entire sample were tested for each measure to examine whether cannabis-related hippocampal harms are persistent, can be minimised (protected) by exposure to CBD or recovered through long-term abstinence. These analyses supported a protection and recovery model for hippocampal volume (P=0.003) and NAA (P=0.001). Further pairwise analyses showed that cannabis users had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls. Users not exposed to CBD had 11% reduced volumes and 15% lower NAA concentrations. Users exposed to CBD and former users did not differ from controls on any measure. Ongoing cannabis use is associated with harms to brain health, underpinned by chronic exposure to THC. However, such harms are minimised by CBD, and can be recovered with extended periods of abstinence. PMID:26756903

  1. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID...... deficiency protected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in vitro from neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. In vivo, BID-knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia...... between BID-KO and WT mice. The inflammatory response was reduced by BID deficiency as indicated by a change in microglial/leukocyte response. In conclusion, our data suggest that BID deficiency is neuroprotective in an in vitro model and modulates the inflammatory response to focal cerebral ischemia...

  2. Hippocampal development in youth with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Light scattering changes follow evoked potentials from hippocampal Schaeffer collateral stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1997-01-01

    We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge...

  4. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  5. Advanced quantitative 201-Tl gated SPECT (QGS-A) images for the assessment of left ventricular function and volumes. Comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Yasunobu; Mitsue, Noriko; Sato, Shigehiko; Kato, Kimihiko; Saito, Masaya [Seki Chuo Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance and validity of the advanced quantitative 201-Tl and 99m-Tc gated SPECT (QGS-A) methods. We studied 79 patients (48 men, 31 women; mean age 70{+-}14 yr) with cardiomyopathy (n=4) and ischemic (n=57) or congestive heart disease (n=18). All subjects were investigated as to the correlation between values with QGS-A and UCG. Either 201-Tl (n=51) or 99m-Tc (n=28) gated SPECT was performed at rest (n=48) or stress (n=31) stage followed by UCG within one month. Gated SPECT data, including EDV, ESV, and LVEF, were quantified by using an automatic algorithm as QGS-A, whereas UCG data (EDV, ESV, and LVEF) were determined by the standard technique. A significant correlation was found between 201-Tl or 99m-Tc QGS-A and UCG with respect to EDV, ESV, and LVEF (201-Tl: r=0.761, 0.882, 0.819; 99m-Tc: r=0.515, 0.765, 0.695, respectively, all p values <0.01), regardless of the use of rest images. The mean values of EDV, ESV, and LVEF calculated by QGS-A were significantly lower than those of UCG (all p values <0.01). LV volumes and LVEF calculated by both 201-Tl and 99m-Tc QGS-A were significantly correlated with those obtained by UCG. These findings support the clinical significance and validity of 201-Tl and 99m-Tc QGS-A for simultaneously assessing both LV function and myocardial perfusion imaging. (author)

  6. Left Ventricular Stroke Volume Quantification by Contrast Echocardiography – Comparison of Linear and Flow-Based Methods to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele-Michael, Abiola O.; Fujikura, Kana; Devereux, Richard B; Islam, Fahmida; Hriljac, Ingrid; Wilson, Sean R.; Lin, Fay; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) quantified LV stroke volume (SV) is widely used to assess systolic performance after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study compared two common echo approaches – predicated on flow (Doppler) and linear chamber dimensions (Teichholz) – to volumetric SV and global infarct parameters quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Multimodality imaging was performed as part of a post-AMI registry. For echo, SV was measured by Doppler and Teichholz methods. Cine-CMR was used for volumetric SV and LVEF quantification, and delayed-enhancement CMR for infarct size. Results 142 patients underwent same-day echo and CMR. On echo, mean SV by Teichholz (78±17ml) was slightly higher than Doppler (75±16ml; Δ=3±13ml, p=0.02). Compared to SV on CMR (78±18ml), mean difference by Teichholz (Δ=−0.2±14; p=0.89) was slightly smaller than Doppler (Δ−3±14; p=0.02) but limits of agreement were similar between CMR and echo methods (Teichholz: −28, 27 ml, Doppler: −31, 24ml). For Teichholz, differences with CMR SV were greatest among patients with anteroseptal or lateral wall hypokinesis (p<0.05). For Doppler, differences were associated with aortic valve abnormalities or root dilation (p=0.01). SV by both echo methods decreased stepwise in relation to global LV injury as assessed by CMR-quantified LVEF and infarct size (p<0.01). Conclusions Teichholz and Doppler calculated SV yield similar magnitude of agreement with CMR. Teichholz differences with CMR increase with septal or lateral wall contractile dysfunction, whereas Doppler yields increased offsets in patients with aortic remodeling. PMID:23488864

  7. Induction of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is involved in stress-induced hippocampal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Matrisciano

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that mediate stress-induced hippocampal damage may shed new light into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We focused on the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1, an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, involved in neurodegeneration. Mice exposed to mild restraint stress showed increased hippocampal levels of Dkk-1 and reduced expression of β-catenin, an intracellular protein positively regulated by the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In adrenalectomized mice, Dkk-1 was induced by corticosterone injection, but not by exposure to stress. Corticosterone also induced Dkk-1 in mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and, at least in the latter model, the action of corticosterone was reversed by the type-2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. To examine whether induction of Dkk-1 was causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage, we used doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a defective induction of Dkk-1. As compared to control mice, doubleridge mice showed a paradoxical increase in basal hippocampal Dkk-1 levels, but no Dkk-1 induction in response to stress. In contrast, stress reduced Dkk-1 levels in doubleridge mice. In control mice, chronic stress induced a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with neuronal loss and dendritic atrophy in the CA1 region, and a reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Doubleridge mice were resistant to the detrimental effect of chronic stress and, instead, responded to stress with increases in dendritic arborisation and neurogenesis. Thus, the outcome of chronic stress was tightly related to changes in Dkk-1 expression in the hippocampus. These data indicate that induction of Dkk-1 is causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage and provide the first evidence that Dkk-1 expression is regulated by corticosteroids in the central

  8. Hippocampal shape is predictive for the development of dementia in a normal, elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    assessed whether hippocampal shape provides additional predictive value independent of hippocampal volume. Five hundred eleven brain MRI scans from elderly nondemented participants of a prospective population-based imaging study were used. During the 10-year follow-up period, 52 of these subjects developed...... dementia. For training and evaluation independent of age and gender, a subset of 50 cases and 150 matched controls was selected. The hippocampus was segmented using an automated method. From the segmentation, the volume was determined and a statistical shape model was constructed. We trained a classifier...

  9. Performance of new automated transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiographic software for left ventricular volumes and function assessment in routine clinical practice: Comparison with 3 Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Dan Schouver, Elie; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Rusek, Stephane; Dommerc, Carinne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is superior to two-dimensional Simpson's method for assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Nevertheless, 3D TTE is not incorporated into everyday practice, as current LV chamber quantification software products are time-consuming. To evaluate the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of new fully automated fast 3D TTE software (HeartModel A.I. ; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA) for quantification of LV volumes and LVEF in routine practice; to compare the 3D LV volumes and LVEF obtained with a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference; and to optimize automated default border settings with CMR as reference. Sixty-three consecutive patients, who had comprehensive 3D TTE and CMR examinations within 24hours, were eligible for inclusion. Nine patients (14%) were excluded because of insufficient echogenicity in the 3D TTE. Thus, 54 patients (40 men; mean age 63±13 years) were prospectively included into the study. The inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities of 3D TTE were excellent (coefficient of variationTTE compared with CMR (bias=-22±34mL; PTTE and CMR for ESV and LVEF were excellent (r=0.93 and r=0.91, respectively; PTTE using new-generation fully automated software is a feasible, fast, reproducible and accurate imaging modality for LV volumetric quantification in routine practice. Optimization of border detection settings may increase agreement with CMR for EDV assessment in dilated ventricles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Altena, E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Vis, J.C.; de Rijke, W.; van Someren, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep before learning benefits memory encoding through unknown mechanisms. We found that even a mild sleep disruption that suppressed slow-wave activity and induced shallow sleep, but did not reduce total sleep time, was sufficient to affect subsequent successful encoding-related hippocampal

  11. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Hippocampal activation correlates with visual confrontation naming: fMRI findings in controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia B; Powell, Rob; Thompson, Pamela J; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K; Stretton, Jason; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark R; Price, Cathy J; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J

    2011-08-01

    In patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) decreased naming ability is common, suggesting a critical role for the medial left temporal lobe in this task. We investigated the integrity of language networks with functional MRI (fMRI) in controls and TLE patients. We performed an fMRI verbal fluency paradigm in 22 controls and 66 patients with unilateral mesial TLE (37 left HS, 29 right HS). Verbal fluency and naming ability were investigated as part of the standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment. Naming ability was assessed using a visual confrontation naming test. Left TLE patients had significantly lower naming scores than controls and those with right TLE. Right TLE patients performed less well than controls, but better than those with left TLE. Left TLE had significantly lower scores for verbal fluency than controls. In controls and right TLE, left hippocampal activation during the verbal fluency task was significantly correlated with naming, characterised by higher scores in subjects with greater hippocampal fMRI activation. In left TLE no correlation with naming scores was seen in the left hippocampus, but there was a significant correlation in the left middle and inferior frontal gyri, not observed in controls and right TLE. In left and right TLE, out of scanner verbal fluency scores significantly correlated with fMRI activation for verbal fluency in the left middle and inferior frontal gyri. Good confrontation naming ability depends on the integrity of the hippocampus and the connecting fronto-temporal networks. Functional MRI activation in the left hippocampus during verbal fluency is associated with naming function in healthy controls and patients with right TLE. In left TLE, there was evidence of involvement of the left frontal lobe when naming was more proficient, most likely reflecting a compensatory response due to the ongoing epileptic activity and/or underlying pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  13. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  14. Effects of cognitive training on gray matter volumes in memory clinic patients with subjective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvig, Andreas; Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Skaane, Nina V; Dale, Anders M; Holland, Dominic; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Sundseth, Oyvind; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-01-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, with few established options for treatment. Here we investigate the effects of two months episodic memory training on regional brain atrophy in 19 memory clinic patients with SMI. We used a sensitive longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging protocol and compared the patients with 42 matched healthy volunteers randomly assigned to a group performing the same training, or a no-training control group. Following intervention, the SMI sample exhibited structural gray matter volume increases in brain regions encompassing the episodic memory network, with cortical volume expansion of comparable extent as healthy training participants. Further, we found significant hippocampal volume increases in the healthy training group but not in the SMI group. Still, individual differences in left hippocampal volume change in the patient group were related to verbal recall improvement following training. The present results reinforce earlier studies indicating intact brain plasticity in aging, and further suggest that training-related brain changes can be evident also in the earliest form of cognitive impairment.

  15. Why and how to spare the hippocampus during brain radiotherapy: the developing role of hippocampal avoidance in cranial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazda, Tomas; Slampa, Pavel; Laack, Nadia N; Jancalek, Radim; Pospisil, Petr; Sevela, Ondrej; Prochazka, Tomas; Vrzal, Miroslav; Burkon, Petr; Slavik, Marek; Hynkova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the rationale for and feasibility of hippocampal sparing techniques during brain irradiation. Radiotherapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of brain tumors and with the improvement in overall survival for these patients over the last few decades, there is an effort to minimize potential adverse effects leading to possible worsening in quality of life, especially worsening of neurocognitive function. The hippocampus and associated limbic system have long been known to be important in memory formation and pre-clinical models show loss of hippocampal stem cells with radiation as well as changes in architecture and function of mature neurons. Cognitive outcomes in clinical studies are beginning to provide evidence of cognitive effects associated with hippocampal dose and the cognitive benefits of hippocampal sparing. Numerous feasibility planning studies support the feasibility of using modern radiotherapy systems for hippocampal sparing during brain irradiation. Although results of the ongoing phase II and phase III studies are needed to confirm the benefit of hippocampal sparing brain radiotherapy on neurocognitive function, it is now technically and dosimetrically feasible to create hippocampal sparing treatment plans with appropriate irradiation of target volumes. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of studies that provide a rationale for hippocampal avoidance and provide summary of published feasibility studies in order to help clinicians prepare for clinical usage of these complex and challenging techniques

  16. Grey matter volume in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and associated eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Henderson, Luke A; Madden, Sloane; Macefield, Vaughan G; Touyz, Stephen; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Foroughi, Nasim; Hay, Phillipa

    2017-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN; however, differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers. Clinical features were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. AN subjects displayed reduced grey matter volumes in the insula, amygdala, prefrontal, hippocampal and cingulate cortices and the precuneus, relative to healthy controls. In a subset of 10 AN subjects who were followed after weight recovery, grey matter volumes increased to near-control levels in the orbito- and medial prefrontal, insular, left hippocampal and mid- and posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus. The recovery of the right anterior thalamus and the left orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with improvements in eating concerns and shape concerns, respectively. However, large parts of the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nuclei and right hippocampus did not display any grey matter recovery following a short-term of treatment. These results show that in adolescents with AN, some brain regions display marked recovery in grey matter volume following weight recovery, whereas others do not, considering grey mater recovery possibly linked to symptom improvement. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protective Variant for Hippocampal Atrophy Identified by Whole Exome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Kim, Sungeun; Risacher, Shannon L.; Shen, Li; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Swaminathan, Shanker; Lin, Hai; Ramanan, Vijay K.; Liu, Yunlong; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Inlow, Mark H.; Siniard, Ashley L.; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Aisen, Paul S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Green, Robert C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Furney, Simon J.; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; McDonald, Brenna C.; Farlow, Martin R.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-exome sequencing to identify variants other than APOE associated with the rate of hippocampal atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An in-silico predicted missense variant in REST (rs3796529) was found exclusively in subjects with slow hippocampal volume loss and validated using unbiased whole-brain analysis and meta-analysis across 5 independent cohorts. REST is a master regulator of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation that has not been previously implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. These findings nominate REST and its functional pathways as protective and illustrate the potential of combining next-generation sequencing with neuroimaging to discover novel disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25559091

  18. Sodium-potassium ATPase emerges as a player in hippocampal phenotypes of Angelman syndrome mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Jada J; Vaden, Ryan J

    2014-07-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities, ataxia, and unusually happy affect. The hippocampal pyramidal cells of Angelman syndrome model mice have altered intrinsic membrane properties, which Kaphzan et al. (Cell Rep 4: 405-412, 2013) demonstrate can be corrected by genetic reduction of the α1-subunit of the sodium-potassium ATPase. Intriguingly, this manipulation also restores hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. In this Neuro Forum, we discuss translational implications of this work and remaining questions left in its wake. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis tonus is associated with hippocampal microstructural asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Jernigan, Terry L; Iversen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that prolonged high levels of cortisol have adverse effects on hippocampal neurons and glial cells. Morphometric studies linking hippocampus volume to basal HPA-axis activity, however, have yielded less consistent results. Asymmetry may also be considered, since there is gr......It is well-established that prolonged high levels of cortisol have adverse effects on hippocampal neurons and glial cells. Morphometric studies linking hippocampus volume to basal HPA-axis activity, however, have yielded less consistent results. Asymmetry may also be considered, since....... Observed associations raise a number of possibilities, among them an asymmetric role of the hippocampus on HPA-axis regulation, or conversely, that individual variations in secreted cortisol, perhaps associated with stress, may have lateralized effects on hippocampal microstructure. Our results point...

  1. APOE ε4 is associated with disproportionate progressive hippocampal atrophy in AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N Manning

    Full Text Available To investigate whether APOE ε4 carriers have higher hippocampal atrophy rates than non-carriers in Alzheimer's disease (AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and controls, and if so, whether higher hippocampal atrophy rates are still observed after adjusting for concurrent whole-brain atrophy rates.MRI scans from all available visits in ADNI (148 AD, 307 MCI, 167 controls were used. MCI subjects were divided into "progressors" (MCI-P if diagnosed with AD within 36 months or "stable" (MCI-S if a diagnosis of MCI was maintained. A joint multi-level mixed-effect linear regression model was used to analyse the effect of ε4 carrier-status on hippocampal and whole-brain atrophy rates, adjusting for age, gender, MMSE and brain-to-intracranial volume ratio. The difference in hippocampal rates between ε4 carriers and non-carriers after adjustment for concurrent whole-brain atrophy rate was then calculated.Mean adjusted hippocampal atrophy rates in ε4 carriers were significantly higher in AD, MCI-P and MCI-S (p≤0.011, all tests compared with ε4 non-carriers. After adjustment for whole-brain atrophy rate, the difference in mean adjusted hippocampal atrophy rate between ε4 carriers and non-carriers was reduced but remained statistically significant in AD and MCI-P.These results suggest that the APOE ε4 allele drives atrophy to the medial-temporal lobe region in AD.

  2. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  3. Associations Between Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Brain Structure and Function: Findings From the SABRE (Southall and Brent Revisited) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chloe M; Williams, Emily D; Chaturvedi, Nish; Tillin, Therese; Stewart, Robert J; Richards, Marcus; Shibata, Dean; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D

    2017-04-18

    Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been inconsistently associated with early cognitive impairment, and mechanistic pathways have been poorly considered. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between LV dysfunction and structural/functional measures of the brain and explored the role of potential mechanisms. A total of 1338 individuals (69±6 years) from the Southall and Brent Revisited study underwent echocardiography for systolic (tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave) and diastolic (left atrial diameter) assessment. Cognitive function was assessed and total and hippocampal brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Global LV function was assessed by circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. The role of potential mechanistic pathways of arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, microvascular disease, and inflammation were explored. After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, lower systolic function was associated with lower total brain (beta±standard error, 14.9±3.2 cm 3 ; P function was associated with poorer working memory (-0.21±0.07, P =0.004) and fluency scores (-0.18±0.08, P =0.02). Reduced global LV function was associated with smaller hippocampal volume (-0.10±0.03 cm 3 , P =0.004) and adverse visual memory (-0.076±0.03, P =0.02) and processing speed (0.063±0.02, P =0.006) scores. Separate adjustment for concomitant cardiovascular risk factors attenuated associations with hippocampal volume and fluency only. Further adjustment for the alternative pathways of microvascular disease or arterial stiffness attenuated the relationship between global LV function and visual memory. In a community-based sample of older people, measures of LV function were associated with structural/functional measures of the brain. These associations were not wholly explained by concomitant risk factors or potential mechanistic pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  4. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment: comparison with cardiac computed tomography; Comparacao entre a afericao da fracao de ejecao e dos volumes do ventriculo esquerdo, medidos com ecocardiografia tridimensional em tempo real e com tomografia computadorizada ultra-rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Marcelo L.C.; Nomura, Cesar H.; Tranchesi Junior, Bernardino; Oliveira, Wercules A. de; Naccarato, Gustavo; Serpa, Bruna S.; Cury, Alexandre; Passos, Rodrigo B.D.; Nobrega, Marcel V. da; Funari, Marcelo B.G.; Pfefermam, Abhaham; Makdisse, Marcia; Fischer, Claudio H.; Morhy, Samira S., E-mail: luiz766@terra.com.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)

  5. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijns, Olaf; Karaca, Ümit; Andrade, Pablo; de Nijs, Laurence; Küsters, Benno; Peeters, Andrea; Dings, Jim; Pannek, Heinz; Ebner, Alois; Rijkers, Kim; Hoogland, Govert

    2015-10-01

    To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transporter-3, followed by quantification of the immunoreactivity in the hilus by optical density measurements. GABA-transporter 3 positive hilar cells were counted and GABA-transporter protein expression in sections that included all hippocampal subfields was quantified by Western blot. The hilar GABA-transporter 1 expression of patients with severe hippocampal sclerosis was about 7% lower compared to that in the mild hippocampal sclerosis/control group (psclerosis group than in the mild hippocampal sclerosis/control group (non-significant). Also, severe hippocampal sclerosis samples contained 34% less (non-significant) GABA-transporter 3 positive cells compared to that of controls. Protein expression as assessed by Western blot showed that GABA-transporter 1 was equally expressed in mild and severe hippocampal sclerosis samples, whereas GABA-transporter 3 was reduced by about 62% in severe hippocampal sclerosis samples (psclerosis. Implications for the use of GABAergic antiepileptic therapies in hippocampal sclerosis vs non-hippocampal sclerosis patients rema