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Sample records for left frontal area

  1. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J.; Ulmer, Stephan; Baumgaertner, Annette; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery is unclear. We demonstrate that a virtual lesion of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) decreased activity in the targeted area and increased activity in the contralateral homologous area during pseudoword repetition. This was associated with a stronger facilitatory drive from the right IFG to the left IFG. Importantly, responses became faster with increased influence of the right IFG on the left IFG. Our results shed new light on the dynamic...

  2. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  3. Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J

    2013-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery after left hemisphere damage remains unclear. Increased activation of the right hemisphere has been observed after left hemisphere damage. This may simply reflect a release from transcallosal inhibition that does not contribute to language...... functions. Alternatively, the right hemisphere may actively contribute to language functions by supporting disrupted processing in the left hemisphere via interhemispheric connections. To test this hypothesis, we applied off-line continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus...... (IFG) in healthy volunteers, then used functional MRI to investigate acute changes in effective connectivity between the left and right hemispheres during repetition of auditory and visual words and pseudowords. In separate sessions, we applied cTBS over the left anterior IFG (aIFG) or posterior IFG (p...

  4. Subliminal and supraliminal processing of facial expression of emotions: brain oscillation in the left/right frontal area.

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    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-03-26

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms) vs. subliminal (30 ms) stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition). The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  5. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms vs. subliminal (30 ms stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition. The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  6. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya.

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    Ohta, Shinri; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-01-01

    Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS), but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS) are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of topicalization constant, and

  7. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

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    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  8. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects...

  9. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Origin of human motor readiness field linked to left middle frontal gyrus by MEG and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Rygaard; Johannsen, P; Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1998-01-01

    Combined magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography identified a prior source of activity in the left middle frontal gyrus duping uncued movements of the right index finger Voluntary movements gave rise to a change in the cortical electrical potential known as the Bereitschaftspotent......Combined magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography identified a prior source of activity in the left middle frontal gyrus duping uncued movements of the right index finger Voluntary movements gave rise to a change in the cortical electrical potential known...... sources subsequently to be active were mapped to the supplementary motor area, premotor cortex, and motor cortex (M1), all in the left hemisphere. (C) 1998 Academic Press....

  11. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  12. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  13. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

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    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  14. Specific marker of feigned memory impairment: The activation of left superior frontal gyrus.

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    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Xue, Li; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Li-Li; Mei, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hu

    2015-11-01

    Faking memory impairment means normal people complain lots of memory problems without organic damage in forensic assessments. Using alternative forced-choice paradigm, containing digital or autobiographical information, previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that faking memory impairment could cause the activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions, and might involve a fronto-parietal-subcortical circuit. However, it is still unclear whether different memory types have influence on faking or not. Since different memory types, such as long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM), were found supported by different brain areas, we hypothesized that feigned STM or LTM impairment had distinct neural activation mapping. Besides that, some common neural correlates may act as the general characteristic of feigned memory impairment. To verify this hypothesis, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with an alternative word forced-choice paradigm were used in this study. A total of 10 right-handed participants, in this study, had to perform both STW and LTM tasks respectively under answering correctly, answering randomly and feigned memory impairment conditions. Our results indicated that the activation of the left superior frontal gyrus and the left medial frontal gyrus was associated with feigned LTM impairment, whereas the left superior frontal gyrus, the left precuneus and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were highly activated while feigning STM impairment. Furthermore, an overlapping was found in the left superior frontal gyrus, and it suggested that the activity of the left superior frontal gyrus might be acting as a specific marker of feigned memory impairment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

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    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

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    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  17. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

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    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Co-activation-based parcellation of the lateral prefrontal cortex delineates the inferior frontal junction area

    OpenAIRE

    Muhle-Karbe, Paul Simon; Derrfuss, Jan; Lynn, Maggie; Neubert, Franz Xaver; Fox, Peter; Brass, Marcel; Eickhoff, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The inferior frontal junction (IFJ) area, a small region in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), has received increasing interest in recent years due to its central involvement in the control of action, attention, and memory. Yet, both its function and anatomy remain controversial. Here, we employed a meta-analytic parcellation of the left LPFC to show that the IFJ can be isolated based on its specific functional connections. A seed region, oriented along the left inferior frontal ...

  19. Relative left frontal activity in reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion: Evidence from frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Sekiya, Takahiro; Minote, Natsumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that reappraisal (changing the way that one thinks about emotional events) is an effective strategy for regulating emotion, compared with suppression (reducing emotion-expressive behavior). In the present study, we investigated relative left frontal activity when participants were instructed to use reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion, by measuring frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Two electroencephalography (EEG) experiments were conducted; FAA was analyzed while 102 healthy participants (59 men, 43 women) watched negative images after being instructed to perform reappraisal (Experiment 1) and suppression (Experiment 2). Habitual use of reappraisal and suppression was also assessed using the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The results of Experiment 1 showed that relative left frontal activity was greater when instructed to use reappraisal of negative images than when normally viewing negative images. In contrast, we observed no difference between conditions of instructed suppression and normal viewing in Experiment 2. In addition, in male participants, habitual use of reappraisal was positively correlated with increased relative left frontal activity for instructed reappraisal, while habitual use of suppression did not show a significant correlation with changes in relative left frontal activity for instructed suppression. These results suggest that emotional responses to negative images might be decreased for instructed reappraisal, but not suppression. These findings support previous reports that reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy, compared with suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

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    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  1. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  2. [Hyperlexia in an adult patient with lesions in the left medial frontal lobe].

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    Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-04-01

    A 69-year-old right-handed woman developed a transcortical motor aphasia with hyperlexia following resection of a glioma in the left medial frontal lobe. Neurological examination revealed grasp reflex in the right hand and underutilization of the right upper extremity. An MRI demonstrated lesions in the left medial frontal lobe including the supplementary motor area and the anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, which extended to the anterior part of the body of corpus callosum. Neuropsychologically she was alert and cooperative. She demonstrated transcortical motor aphasia. Her verbal output began with echolalia. Furthermore hyperlexia was observed in daily activities and during examinations. During conversation she suddenly read words written on objects around her which were totally irrelevant to the talk. When she was walking in the ward with an examiner she read words written on a trash bag that passed by and signboards which indicated a name of a room. Her conversation while walking was intermingled with reading words, which was irrelevant to the conversation. She also read time on analog clocks, which were hung on a wall in a watch store. In a naming task, she read words written on objects first and named them upon repeated question about their names. When an examiner opened a newspaper in front of her without any instructions she began reading until the examiner prohibited it. Then she began reading again when an examiner turned the page, although she remembered that she should not read it aloud. She showed mild ideomotor apraxia of a left hand. Utilization behavior, imitation behavior, hypergraphia, or compulsive use of objects was not observed throughout the course. Hyperlexic tendency is a prominent feature of this patient's language output. Hyperlexia was often reported in children with pervasive developmental disorders including autism. There are only a few reports about hyperlexia in adults and some of them were related to diffuse brain dysfunction

  3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over Left Inferior Frontal and Posterior Temporal Cortex Disrupts Gesture-Speech Integration.

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    Zhao, Wanying; Riggs, Kevin; Schindler, Igor; Holle, Henning

    2018-02-21

    Language and action naturally occur together in the form of cospeech gestures, and there is now convincing evidence that listeners display a strong tendency to integrate semantic information from both domains during comprehension. A contentious question, however, has been which brain areas are causally involved in this integration process. In previous neuroimaging studies, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) have emerged as candidate areas; however, it is currently not clear whether these areas are causally or merely epiphenomenally involved in gesture-speech integration. In the present series of experiments, we directly tested for a potential critical role of IFG and pMTG by observing the effect of disrupting activity in these areas using transcranial magnetic stimulation in a mixed gender sample of healthy human volunteers. The outcome measure was performance on a Stroop-like gesture task (Kelly et al., 2010a), which provides a behavioral index of gesture-speech integration. Our results provide clear evidence that disrupting activity in IFG and pMTG selectively impairs gesture-speech integration, suggesting that both areas are causally involved in the process. These findings are consistent with the idea that these areas play a joint role in gesture-speech integration, with IFG regulating strategic semantic access via top-down signals acting upon temporal storage areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous neuroimaging studies suggest an involvement of inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus in gesture-speech integration, but findings have been mixed and due to methodological constraints did not allow inferences of causality. By adopting a virtual lesion approach involving transcranial magnetic stimulation, the present study provides clear evidence that both areas are causally involved in combining semantic information arising from gesture and speech. These findings support the view that, rather than being

  4. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

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    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  5. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

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    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  6. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functions of the left superior frontal gyrus in humans: a lesion study.

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    du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle; Seassau, Magali; Duffau, Hughes; Kinkingnehun, Serge; Samson, Yves; Zhang, Sandy; Dubois, Bruno

    2006-12-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is thought to contribute to higher cognitive functions and particularly to working memory (WM), although the nature of its involvement remains a matter of debate. To resolve this issue, methodological tools such as lesion studies are needed to complement the functional imaging approach. We have conducted the first lesion study to investigate the role of the SFG in WM and address the following questions: do lesions of the SFG impair WM and, if so, what is the nature of the WM impairment? To answer these questions, we compared the performance of eight patients with a left prefrontal lesion restricted to the SFG with that of a group of 11 healthy control subjects and two groups of patients with focal brain lesions [prefrontal lesions sparing the SFG (n = 5) and right parietal lesions (n = 4)] in a series of WM tasks. The WM tasks (derived from the classical n-back paradigm) allowed us to study the impact of the SFG lesions on domain (verbal, spatial, face) and complexity (1-, 2- and 3-back) processing within WM. As expected, patients with a left SFG lesion exhibited a WM deficit when compared with all control groups, and the impairment increased with the complexity of the tasks. This complexity effect was significantly more marked for the spatial domain. Voxel-to-voxel mapping of each subject's performance showed that the lateral and posterior portion of the SFG (mostly Brodmann area 8, rostral to the frontal eye field) was the subregion that contributed the most to the WM impairment. These data led us to conclude that (i) the lateral and posterior portion of the left SFG is a key component of the neural network of WM; (ii) the participation of this region in WM is triggered by the highest level of executive processing; (iii) the left SFG is also involved in spatially oriented processing. Our findings support a hybrid model of the anatomical and functional organization of the lateral SFG for WM, according to which this region is

  8. Activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in the first 200 ms of reading: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Kringelbach, Morten L; Ellis, Andrew W; Whitney, Carol; Holliday, Ian E; Hansen, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the left inferior frontal gyrus plays a key role in the cerebral cortical network that supports reading and visual word recognition. Less clear is when in time this contribution begins. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has both good spatial and excellent temporal resolution, to address this question. MEG data were recorded during a passive viewing paradigm, chosen to emphasize the stimulus-driven component of the cortical response, in which right-handed participants were presented words, consonant strings, and unfamiliar faces to central vision. Time-frequency analyses showed a left-lateralized inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) response to words between 100-250 ms in the beta frequency band that was significantly stronger than the response to consonant strings or faces. The left inferior frontal gyrus response to words peaked at approximately 130 ms. This response was significantly later in time than the left middle occipital gyrus, which peaked at approximately 115 ms, but not significantly different from the peak response in the left mid fusiform gyrus, which peaked at approximately 140 ms, at a location coincident with the fMRI-defined visual word form area (VWFA). Significant responses were also detected to words in other parts of the reading network, including the anterior middle temporal gyrus, the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the angular and supramarginal gyri, and the left superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest very early interactions between the vision and language domains during visual word recognition, with speech motor areas being activated at the same time as the orthographic word-form is being resolved within the fusiform gyrus. This challenges the conventional view of a temporally serial processing sequence for visual word recognition in which letter forms are initially decoded, interact with their phonological and semantic representations, and only then gain access to a speech code.

  9. Repetition Suppression in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Predicts Tone Learning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Takashima, Atsuko; Dediu, Dan; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2016-06-01

    Do individuals differ in how efficiently they process non-native sounds? To what extent do these differences relate to individual variability in sound-learning aptitude? We addressed these questions by assessing the sound-learning abilities of Dutch native speakers as they were trained on non-native tone contrasts. We used fMRI repetition suppression to the non-native tones to measure participants' neuronal processing efficiency before and after training. Although all participants improved in tone identification with training, there was large individual variability in learning performance. A repetition suppression effect to tone was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) before training. No whole-brain effect was found after training; a region-of-interest analysis, however, showed that, after training, repetition suppression to tone in the left IFG correlated positively with learning. That is, individuals who were better in learning the non-native tones showed larger repetition suppression in this area. Crucially, this was true even before training. These findings add to existing evidence that the left IFG plays an important role in sound learning and indicate that individual differences in learning aptitude stem from differences in the neuronal efficiency with which non-native sounds are processed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  11. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  12. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Behavioral approach system sensitivity and risk taking interact to predict left-frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Chelsea L; Goldstein, Kim E; LaBelle, Denise R; Brown, Christopher W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-09-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relative left-frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry. BAS sensitivity moderated the relationship between risk taking and EEG asymmetry. More specifically, individuals who were high in BAS sensitivity showed left-frontal EEG asymmetry regardless of their level of risk-taking behavior. However, among individuals who were moderate in BAS sensitivity, risk taking was positively associated with asymmetry. These findings suggest that cognitive and personality correlates of bipolar risk may evidence unique contributions to a neural measure of trait-approach motivation. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-07-28

    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  16. The left inferior frontal gyrus: A neural crossroads between abstract and concrete knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Canini, Matteo; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2018-07-15

    Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts. We conducted an fMRI study on 27 participants, using a lexical decision task involving both abstract and concrete words, whose IMG and CA values were explicitly modelled in separate parametric analyses. The LIFG was significantly more activated for abstract than for concrete words, and a conjunction analysis showed a common activation for words with low IMG or low CA only in the LIFG, in the same area reported for abstract words. A regional template map of brain activations was then traced for words with low IMG or low CA, and BOLD regional time-series were extracted and correlated with the specific LIFG neural activity elicited for abstract words. The regions associated to low IMG, which were functionally correlated with LIFG, were mainly in the left hemisphere, while those associated with low CA were in the right hemisphere. Finally, in order to reveal which LIFG-related network increased its connectivity with decreases of IMG or CA, we conducted generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. The connectivity strength values extracted from each region connected with the LIFG were correlated with specific LIFG neural activity for abstract words, and a regression

  17. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7 year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every four-months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline 1) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7 year follow-up period, 2) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and 3) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry. PMID:22775582

  18. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate external localization of the left frontal cortex in dogs by using pointer based frameless neuronavigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dockx

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In humans, non-stereotactic frameless neuronavigation systems are used as a topographical tool for non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. TMS studies in dogs may provide treatment modalities for several neuropsychological disorders in dogs. Nevertheless, an accurate non-invasive localization of a stimulation target has not yet been performed in this species. Hypothesis This study was primarily put forward to externally locate the left frontal cortex in 18 healthy dogs by means of a human non-stereotactic neuronavigation system. Secondly, the accuracy of the external localization was assessed. Animals A total of 18 healthy dogs, drawn at random from the research colony present at the faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University, were used. Methods Two sets of coordinates (X, Y, Z and X″, Y″, Z″ were compared on each dog their tomographical dataset. Results The non-stereotactic neuronavigation system was able to externally locate the frontal cortex in dogs with accuracy comparable with human studies. Conclusion and clinical importance This result indicates that a non-stereotactic neuronavigation system can accurately externally locate the left frontal cortex and paves the way to use guided non-invasive brain stimulation methods as an alternative treatment procedure for neurological and behavioral disorders in dogs. This technique could, in analogy with human guided non-invasive brain stimulation, provide a better treatment outcome for dogs suffering from anxiety disorders when compared to its non-guided alternative.

  20. Enhanced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in deaf and dyslexic adults during rhyming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Brammer, Michael J; Waters, Dafydd; Goswami, Usha

    2009-07-01

    Hearing developmental dyslexics and profoundly deaf individuals both have difficulties processing the internal structure of words (phonological processing) and learning to read. In hearing non-impaired readers, the development of phonological representations depends on audition. In hearing dyslexics, many argue, auditory processes may be impaired. In congenitally profoundly deaf individuals, auditory speech processing is essentially absent. Two separate literatures have previously reported enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus in both deaf and dyslexic adults when contrasted with hearing non-dyslexics during reading or phonological tasks. Here, we used a rhyme judgement task to compare adults from these two special populations to a hearing non-dyslexic control group. All groups were matched on non-verbal intelligence quotient, reading age and rhyme performance. Picture stimuli were used since this requires participants to generate their own phonological representations, rather than have them partially provided via text. By testing well-matched groups of participants on the same task, we aimed to establish whether previous literatures reporting differences between individuals with and without phonological processing difficulties have identified the same regions of differential activation in these two distinct populations. The data indicate greater activation in the deaf and dyslexic groups than in the hearing non-dyslexic group across a large portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This includes the pars triangularis, extending superiorly into the middle frontal gyrus and posteriorly to include the pars opercularis, and the junction with the ventral precentral gyrus. Within the left inferior frontal gyrus, there was variability between the two groups with phonological processing difficulties. The superior posterior tip of the left pars opercularis, extending into the precentral gyrus, was activated to a greater extent by deaf than dyslexic

  1. Subliminal semantic priming changes the dynamic causal influence between the left frontal and temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging experiments have revealed that subliminal priming of a target stimulus leads to the reduction of neural activity in specific regions concerned with processing the target. Such findings lead to questions about the degree to which the subliminal priming effect is based only on decreased activity in specific local brain regions, as opposed to the influence of neural mechanisms that regulate communication between brain regions. To address this question, this study recorded EEG during performance of a subliminal semantic priming task. We adopted an information-based approach that used independent component analysis and multivariate autoregressive modeling. Results indicated that subliminal semantic priming caused significant modulation of alpha band activity in the left inferior frontal cortex and modulation of gamma band activity in the left inferior temporal regions. The multivariate autoregressive approach confirmed significant increases in information flow from the inferior frontal cortex to inferior temporal regions in the early time window that was induced by subliminal priming. In the later time window, significant enhancement of bidirectional causal flow between these two regions underlying subliminal priming was observed. Results suggest that unconscious processing of words influences not only local activity of individual brain regions but also the dynamics of neural communication between those regions.

  2. Working memory and the identification of facial expression in patients with left frontal glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yong-Gao; Huang, Ling-Juan; Li, Shi-Yun; Ke, Chao; Chen, Yu; Jin, Yu; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Patients with brain tumors may have cognitive dysfunctions including memory deterioration, such as working memory, that affect quality of life. This study was to explore the presence of defects in working memory and the identification of facial expressions in patients with left frontal glioma. This case-control study recruited 11 matched pairs of patients and healthy control subjects (mean age ± standard deviation, 37.00 ± 10.96 years vs 36.73 ± 11.20 years; 7 male and 4 female) from March through December 2011. The psychological tests contained tests that estimate verbal/visual-spatial working memory, executive function, and the identification of facial expressions. According to the paired samples analysis, there were no differences in the anxiety and depression scores or in the intelligence quotients between the 2 groups (P > .05). All indices of the Digit Span Test were significantly worse in patients than in control subjects (P patient and control groups. Of all 7 Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) indexes, only the Preservative Response was significantly different between patients and control subjects (P Patients were significantly less accurate in detecting angry facial expressions than were control subjects (30.3% vs 57.6%; P identification of other expressions. The backward indexes of the Digit Span Test were associated with emotion scores and tumor size and grade (P Patients with left frontal glioma had deficits in verbal working memory and the ability to identify anger. These may have resulted from damage to functional frontal cortex regions, in which roles in these 2 capabilities have not been confirmed. However, verbal working memory performance might be affected by emotional and tumor-related factors.

  3. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  4. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  5. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions

  6. Hostile Attribution Bias Mediates the Relationship Between Structural Variations in the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus and Trait Angry Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angry rumination is a common mental phenomenon which may lead to negative social behaviors such as aggression. Although numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on brain area activation during angry rumination, to our knowledge no study has examined the neuroanatomical and cognitive mechanisms of this process. In this study, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis, using a region of interest analysis to identify the structural and cognitive mechanisms underlying individual differences in trait angry rumination (as measured by the Angry Rumination Scale in a sample of 82 undergraduate students. We found that angry rumination was positively correlated with gray matter density in the left middle frontal gyrus (left-MFG, which is implicated in inhibition control, working memory, and emotional regulation. The mediation analysis further revealed that hostile attribution bias (as measured by the Social Information Processing–Attribution Bias Questionnaire acted as a cognitive mechanism underlying the positive association between the left-MFG gray matter density and trait angry rumination. These findings suggest that hostile attribution bias may contribute to trait angry rumination, while the left-MFG may play an important role in the development of hostile attribution bias and trait angry rumination. The study reveals the brain mechanisms of trait angry rumination and plays a role in revealing the cognitive mechanisms of the development of trait angry rumination.

  7. Facilitation of speech repetition accuracy by theta burst stimulation of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restle, Julia; Murakami, Takenobu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    The posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) in the left hemisphere is thought to form part of the putative human mirror neuron system and is assigned a key role in mapping sensory perception onto motor action. Accordingly, the pIFG is involved in motor imitation of the observed actions of others but it is not known to what extent speech repetition of auditory-presented sentences is also a function of the pIFG. Here we applied fMRI-guided facilitating intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS), or depressant continuous TBS (cTBS), or intermediate TBS (imTBS) over the left pIFG of healthy subjects and compared speech repetition accuracy of foreign Japanese sentences before and after TBS. We found that repetition accuracy improved after iTBS and, to a lesser extent, after imTBS, but remained unchanged after cTBS. In a control experiment, iTBS was applied over the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), a region not involved in sensorimotor processing of auditory-presented speech. Repetition accuracy remained unchanged after iTBS of MOG. We argue that the stimulation type and stimulation site specific facilitating effect of iTBS over left pIFG on speech repetition accuracy indicates a causal role of the human left-hemispheric pIFG in the translation of phonological perception to motor articulatory output for repetition of speech. This effect may prove useful in rehabilitation strategies that combine repetitive speech training with iTBS of the left pIFG in speech disorders, such as aphasia after cerebral stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Left frontal hub connectivity delays cognitive impairment in autosomal-dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

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    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Düzel, Emrah; Jessen, Frank; Buerger, Katharina; Levin, Johannes; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Haass, Christian; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Fagan, Anne M; Paumier, Katrina; Benzinger, Tammie; Masters, Colin L; Morris, John C; Perneczky, Robert; Janowitz, Daniel; Catak, Cihan; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Wagner, Michael; Teipel, Stefan; Kilimann, Ingo; Ramirez, Alfredo; Rossor, Martin; Jucker, Mathias; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Spottke, Annika; Boecker, Henning; Brosseron, Frederic; Falkai, Peter; Fliessbach, Klaus; Heneka, Michael T; Laske, Christoph; Nestor, Peter; Peters, Oliver; Fuentes, Manuel; Menne, Felix; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Franke, Christiana; Schneider, Anja; Kofler, Barbara; Westerteicher, Christine; Speck, Oliver; Wiltfang, Jens; Bartels, Claudia; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Metzger, Coraline; Bittner, Daniel; Weiner, Michael; Lee, Jae-Hong; Salloway, Stephen; Danek, Adrian; Goate, Alison; Schofield, Peter R; Bateman, Randall J; Ewers, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Patients with Alzheimer’s disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer’s pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. However, no study has yet assessed whether such hub connectivity of the left frontal cortex supports reserve throughout the evolution of pathological brain changes in Alzheimer’s disease, including the presymptomatic stage when cognitive decline is subtle. To address this research gap, we obtained cross-sectional resting state functional MRI in 74 participants with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, 55 controls from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network and 75 amyloid-positive elderly participants, as well as 41 amyloid-negative cognitively normal elderly subjects from the German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases multicentre study on biomarkers in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. For each participant, global left frontal cortex connectivity was computed as the average resting state functional connectivity between the left frontal cortex (seed) and each voxel in the grey matter. As a marker of disease stage, we applied estimated years from symptom onset in autosomal dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease cases. In both autosomal dominant and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease patients, higher levels of left frontal cortex connectivity were correlated with greater education. For autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease, a significant left frontal cortex connectivity

  10. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in

  11. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain–behaviour and structure–function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI–diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor

  12. Prominence vs. aboutness in sequencing: a functional distinction within the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Grewe, Tanja; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Prior research on the neural bases of syntactic comprehension suggests that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) correlates with the processing of word order variations. However, there are inconsistencies with respect to the specific subregion within the IFG that is implicated by these findings: the pars opercularis or the pars triangularis. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the dissociation between pars opercularis and pars triangularis activation may reflect functional differences between clause-medial and clause-initial word order permutations, respectively. To this end, we directly compared clause-medial and clause-initial object-before-subject orders in German in a within-participants, event-related fMRI design. Our results showed increased activation for object-initial sentences in a bilateral network of frontal, temporal and subcortical regions. Within the lIFG, posterior and inferior subregions showed only a main effect of word order, whereas more anterior and superior subregions showed effects of word order and sentence type, with higher activation for sentences with an argument in the clause-initial position. These findings are interpreted as evidence for a functional gradation of sequence processing within the left IFG: posterior subportions correlate with argument prominence-based (local) aspects of sequencing, while anterior subportions correlate with aboutness-based aspects of sequencing, which are crucial in linking the current sentence to the wider discourse. This proposal appears compatible with more general hypotheses about information processing gradients in prefrontal cortex (Koechlin & Summerfield, 2007). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early aphasia rehabilitation is associated with functional reactivation of the left inferior frontal gyrus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Flavia; Ambrosi, Claudia; Mascaro, Lorella; Scarpazza, Cristina; Pasquali, Patrizia; Frugoni, Marina; Magoni, Mauro; Biagi, Laura; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Early poststroke aphasia rehabilitation effects and their functional MRI (fMRI) correlates were investigated in a pilot, controlled longitudinal study. Twelve patients with mild/moderate aphasia (8 Broca, 3 anomic, and 1 Wernicke) were randomly assigned to daily language rehabilitation for 2 weeks (starting 2.2 [mean] days poststroke) or no rehabilitation. The Aachen Aphasia Test and fMRI recorded during an auditory comprehension task were performed at 3 time intervals: mean 2.2 (T1), 16.2 (T2), and 190 (T3) days poststroke. Groups did not differ in terms of age, education, aphasia severity, lesions volume, baseline fMRI activations, and in task performance during fMRI across examinations. Rehabilitated patients significantly improved in naming and written language tasks (Paphasia treatment is useful, has durable effects, and may lead to early enhanced recruitment of brain areas, particularly the left inferior frontal gyrus, which persists in the chronic phase.

  14. Bihemispheric stimulation over left and right inferior frontal region enhances recovery from apraxia of speech in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Fiori, Valentina; Cipollari, Susanna; Campana, Serena; Razzano, Carmelina; Di Paola, Margherita; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have already shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a useful tool for enhancing recovery in aphasia. However, all tDCS studies have previously investigated the effects using unihemisperic stimulation. No reports to date have examined the role of bihemispheric tDCS on aphasia recovery. Here, eight aphasic persons with apraxia of speech underwent intensive language therapy in two different conditions: real bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional stimulation over the left Broca's area and cathodic contralesional stimulation over the right homologue of Broca's area, and a sham condition. In both conditions, patients underwent concurrent language therapy for their apraxia of speech. The language treatment lasted 10 days (Monday to Friday, then weekend off, then Monday to Friday). There was a 14-day intersession interval between the real and the sham conditions. In all patients, language measures were collected before (T0), at the end of (T10) and 1 week after the end of (F/U) treatment. Results showed that after simultaneous excitatory stimulation to the left frontal hemisphere and inhibitory stimulation to the right frontal hemisphere regions, patients exhibited a significant recovery not only in terms of better accuracy and speed in articulating the treated stimuli but also in other language tasks (picture description, noun and verb naming, word repetition, word reading) which persisted in the follow-up session. Taken together, these data suggest that bihemispheric anodic ipsilesional and cathodic contralesional stimulation in chronic aphasia patients may affect the treated function, resulting in a positive influence on different language tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  16. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  17. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Oka

    Full Text Available In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves, but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task. Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections.Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05, but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p < 0.05 in the right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p < 0.05 only in the right frontal eye field.Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions.

  18. Greater Activity in the Frontal Cortex on Left Curves: A Vector-Based fNIRS Study of Left and Right Curve Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kouji; Takahashi, Hideki; Li, Shuguang; Sugimachi, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Kimihiko; Suda, Yoshihiro; Kato, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the brain, the mechanisms of attention to the left and the right are known to be different. It is possible that brain activity when driving also differs with different horizontal road alignments (left or right curves), but little is known about this. We found driver brain activity to be different when driving on left and right curves, in an experiment using a large-scale driving simulator and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Research Design and Methods The participants were fifteen healthy adults. We created a course simulating an expressway, comprising straight line driving and gentle left and right curves, and monitored the participants under driving conditions, in which they drove at a constant speed of 100 km/h, and under non-driving conditions, in which they simply watched the screen (visual task). Changes in hemoglobin concentrations were monitored at 48 channels including the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the primary motor cortex and the parietal cortex. From orthogonal vectors of changes in deoxyhemoglobin and changes in oxyhemoglobin, we calculated changes in cerebral oxygen exchange, reflecting neural activity, and statistically compared the resulting values from the right and left curve sections. Results Under driving conditions, there were no sites where cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during right curves than during left curves (p > 0.05), but cerebral oxygen exchange increased significantly more during left curves (p right premotor cortex, the right frontal eye field and the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Under non-driving conditions, increases were significantly greater during left curves (p right frontal eye field. Conclusions Left curve driving was thus found to require more brain activity at multiple sites, suggesting that left curve driving may require more visual attention than right curve driving. The right frontal eye field was activated under both driving and non-driving conditions

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal cortex improves speech fluency in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jennifer; Möttönen, Riikka; Watkins, Kate E

    2018-04-01

    See Crinion (doi:10.1093/brain/awy075) for a scientific commentary on this article.Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 5% of children, and persisting in 1% of adults. Promoting lasting fluency improvement in adults who stutter is a particular challenge. Novel interventions to improve outcomes are of value, therefore. Previous work in patients with acquired motor and language disorders reported enhanced benefits of behavioural therapies when paired with transcranial direct current stimulation. Here, we report the results of the first trial investigating whether transcranial direct current stimulation can improve speech fluency in adults who stutter. We predicted that applying anodal stimulation to the left inferior frontal cortex during speech production with temporary fluency inducers would result in longer-lasting fluency improvements. Thirty male adults who stutter completed a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal cortex. Fifteen participants received 20 min of 1-mA stimulation on five consecutive days while speech fluency was temporarily induced using choral and metronome-timed speech. The other 15 participants received the same speech fluency intervention with sham stimulation. Speech fluency during reading and conversation was assessed at baseline, before and after the stimulation on each day of the 5-day intervention, and at 1 and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention. Anodal stimulation combined with speech fluency training significantly reduced the percentage of disfluent speech measured 1 week after the intervention compared with fluency intervention alone. At 6 weeks after the intervention, this improvement was maintained during reading but not during conversation. Outcome scores at both post-intervention time points on a clinical assessment tool (the Stuttering Severity Instrument, version 4) also showed significant improvement in the group receiving

  20. What makes a frontal area of primate brain the frontal eye field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre ePouget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal eye field region (FEF of the oculomotor pathways has been intensely studied. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate the phylogenetic displacement of the FEF locus in primate species. The locus is arrayed along the arcuate sulcus in monkeys and abuts into the primary motor strip region in humans. The strengths and limitations of the various functional, anatomical and histological methodologies used to identify such regions are also discussed.

  1. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  2. Enhancing verbal creativity: modulating creativity by altering the balance between right and left inferior frontal gyrus with tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, N; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2015-04-16

    Creativity is the production of novel ideas that have value. Previous research indicated that while regions in the right hemisphere are implicated in the production of new ideas, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is associated with increased creativity, indicating that the left IFG damage may have a "releasing" effect on creativity. To examine this, in the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate activity of the right and the left IFG. In the first experiment we show that whereas anodal tDCS over the right IFG coupled with cathodal tDCS over the left IFG increases creativity as measured by a verbal divergent thinking task, the reverse stimulation does not affect creative production. To further confirm that only altering the balance between the two hemispheres is crucial in modulating creativity, in the second experiment we show that stimulation targeting separately the left IFG (cathodal stimulation) or the right IFG (anodal stimulation) did not result in changes in creativity as measured by verbal divergent thinking. These findings support the balance hypothesis, according to which verbal creativity requires a balance of activation between the right and the left frontal lobes, and more specifically, between the right and the left IFG. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlations between measures of executive attention and cortical thickness of left posterior middle frontal gyrus - a dichotic listening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Arvid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frontal lobe has been associated to a wide range of cognitive control functions and is also vulnerable to degeneration in old age. A recent study by Thomsen and colleagues showed a difference between a young and old sample in grey matter density and activation in the left middle frontal cortex (MFC and performance on a dichotic listening task. The present study investigated this brain behaviour association within a sample of healthy older individuals, and predicted a positive correlation between performance in a condition requiring executive attention and measures of grey matter structure of the posterior left MFC. Methods A dichotic listening forced attention paradigm was used to measure attention control functions. Subjects were instructed to report only the left or the right ear syllable of a dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllable pair. A conflict situation appears when subjects are instructed to report the left ear stimulus, caused by the conflict with the bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Overcoming this processing conflict was used as a measure of executive attention. Thickness and volumes of frontal lobe regions were derived from automated segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance image acquisitions. Results The results revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between the thickness measure of the left posterior MFC and performance on the dichotic listening measures of executive attention. Follow-up analyses showed that this correlation was only statistically significant in the subgroup that showed the typical bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Conclusion The results suggest that the left MFC is a part of an executive attention network, and that the dichotic listening forced attention paradigm may be a feasible tool for assessing subtle attentional dysfunctions in older adults.

  4. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudowords and real words: an event-related fMRI study on auditory lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuangwei; Zhang, John X; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Renhua; Hu, Xiaoping; Weng, Xuchu; Tan, Li Hai

    2005-06-01

    After Newman and Twieg and others, we used a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design and contrasted the lexical processing of pseudowords and real words. Participants carried out an auditory lexical decision task on a list of randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. The pseudowords were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical code properties. Processing of pseudowords and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudowords than for real words. This result disconfirms a popular view that this area plays a role in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, as such a conversion process was unnecessary in our task with auditory stimulus presentation. An alternative view was supported that attributes increased activity in left IFG for pseudowords to general processes in decision making, specifically in making positive versus negative responses. Activation in left supramarginal gyrus was of a much larger volume for real words than for pseudowords, suggesting a role of this region in the representation of phonological or semantic information for two-character Chinese words at the lexical level.

  5. Neural substrates of semantic relationships: common and distinct left-frontal activities for generation of synonyms vs. antonyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2009-11-01

    Synonymous and antonymous relationships among words may reflect the organization and/or processing in the mental lexicon and its implementation in the brain. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is employed to compare brain activities during generation of synonyms (SYN) and antonyms (ANT) prompted by the same words. Both SYN and ANT, when compared with reading nonwords (NW), activated a region in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 46). Neighboring this region, there was a dissociation observed in that the ANT activation extended more anteriorly and laterally to the SYN activation. The activations in the left middle frontal gyrus may be related to mental processes that are shared in the SYN and ANT generations, such as engaging semantically related parts of mental lexicon for the word search, whereas the distinct activations unique for either SYN or ANT generation may reflect the additional component of antonym retrieval, namely, reversing the polarity of semantic relationship in one crucial dimension. These findings suggest that specific components in the semantic processing, such as the polarity reversal for antonym generation and the similarity assessment for synonyms, are separately and systematically laid out in the left-frontal cortex.

  6. Left frontal meningioangiomatosis associated with type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia causing refractory epilepsy and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Alexandre; Mellerio, Charles; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Still, Megan; Zerah, Michel; Bourgeois, Marie; Pallud, Johan

    2018-03-29

    We report the surgical management of a lesional drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a meningioangiomatosis associated with a type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia located in the left supplementary motor area in a young male patient. A first anatomical-based partial surgical resection was performed at 11 years old under general anaesthesia without intraoperative mapping, which allowed for postoperative seizure control (Engel IA) for six years. The patient then presented with intractable right sensatory and aphasic focal onset seizures despite two appropriate antiepileptic drugs. A second functional-based surgical resection was performed using intraoperative cortico-subcortical functional mapping with direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions. A complete surgical resection was performed and a left partial supplementary motor area syndrome was observed. At six postoperative months, the patient is seizure free (Engel IA) with an ongoing decrease in antiepileptic drug therapy. Intraoperative functional brain mapping can be applied to preserve the brain function and networks around a meningioangiomatosis to facilitate the resection of potentially epileptogenic perilesional dysplastic cortex and to tailor the extent of resection to functional boundaries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Endoscopic facelift of the frontal and temporal areas in multiple planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogen; Ma, Haihuan; Xue, Zhiqiang; Qi, Huijie; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The detachment planes used in endoscopic facelifts play an important role in determining the results of facial rejuvenation. In this study, we introduced the use of multiple detachment planes for endoscopic facelifts of the frontal and temporal areas, and examined its outcome. This study included 47 patients (38 female, 9 male) who requested frontal and temporal facelifts from January 2009 to January 2014. The technique of dissection in multiple planes was used for all 47 patients. In this technique, the frontal dissection was first carried out in the subgaleal plane, before being changed to the subperiosteal plane about 2 cm above the eyebrow line. Temporal dissection was carried out in both the subcutaneous and subgaleal planes. After detachment, frontal and temporal fixations were achieved using nonabsorbable sutures, and the incisions were closed. During follow-up (ranging from 6-24 months after surgery), the patients were shown their pre- and postoperative images, and asked to rate their satisfaction with the procedure. Complications encountered were documented. All 47 patients had complete recovery without any serious complications. The patient satisfaction rate was 93.6%. Minor complications included dimpling at the suture site, asymmetry, overcorrection, transitory paralysis, late oedema, haematoma, infection, scarring and hair loss. These complications resolved spontaneously and were negligible after complete recovery. Dissection in multiple planes is valuable in frontal and temporal endoscopic facelifts. It may be worthwhile to introduce the use of this technique in frontal and temporal facelifts, as it may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  9. The left inferior frontal gyrus is involved in adjusting response bias during a perceptual decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckless, Greg E; Ousdal, Olga T; Server, Andres; Walter, Henrik; Andreassen, Ole A; Jensen, Jimmy

    2014-05-01

    Changing the way we make decisions from one environment to another allows us to maintain optimal decision-making. One way decision-making may change is how biased one is toward one option or another. Identifying the regions of the brain that underlie the change in bias will allow for a better understanding of flexible decision-making. An event-related, perceptual decision-making task where participants had to detect a picture of an animal amongst distractors was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Positive and negative financial motivation were used to affect a change in response bias, and changes in decision-making behavior were quantified using signal detection theory. Response bias became relatively more liberal during both positive and negative motivated trials compared to neutral trials. For both motivational conditions, the larger the liberal shift in bias, the greater the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity. There was no relationship between individuals' belief that they used a different strategy and their actual change in response bias. The present findings suggest that the left IFG plays a role in adjusting response bias across different decision environments. This suggests a potential role for the left IFG in flexible decision-making.

  10. Mirror Neurons, the Representation of Word meaning, and the Foot of the Third Left Frontal Convolution

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    de Zubicaray, Greig; Postle, Natasha; McMahon, Katie; Meredith, Matthew; Ashton, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has attempted to demonstrate a preferential involvement of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in the comprehension of effector-related action word (verb) meanings. These studies have assumed that Broca's area (or Brodmann's area 44) is the homologue of a monkey premotor area (F5) containing mouth and hand mirror…

  11. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

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    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  12. Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Błasiak-Kołacińska, Nina; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies results in case of an adult patient with low grade glioma (LGG) in dominant hemisphere suggest brain plasticity process with acquisition of language functions by the non-dominant hemisphere speech regions. A 36-years old right-handed woman was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for surgical treatment of brain tumor. An MRI examination revealed a pathological mass in the left frontal lobe, in close topographical relationship to the Broca’s area. A left fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed, with an intraoperative awake language mapping procedure. A total resection of the pathological mass was achieved. The tumor was examined histologically as LGG. In the follow-up MRI exam 32 months after the operation a tumor recurrence was suggested. The fMRI exams performed preoperative and 3, 32 and 41 months after the operation showed changes in language regions activation patterns, with a progressive right-sided activation of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Pre- and postoperative cognitive evaluation by a neuropsychologist did not detect any language impairment. We present a running process of reorganization of language areas in a patient after brain tumor resection, from strong left-sided to symmetrical lateralization. 1. FMRI results in comparison with the psychological status of the patient proved contribution of functional reorganization to the preservation of language performance. 2. A slow growing LGG as well as the recurrence of the tumor near the left Broca’s area might be the factors leading to reorganization of language-related areas by recruiting the right hemisphe

  13. Comparison of Metabolite Concentrations in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Left Frontal White Matter, and the Left Hippocampus in Patients in Stable Schizophrenia Treated with Antipsychotics with or without Antidepressants. 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Study

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    Dominik Strzelecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Managing affective, negative, and cognitive symptoms remains the most difficult therapeutic problem in stable phase of schizophrenia. Efforts include administration of antidepressants. Drugs effects on brain metabolic parameters can be evaluated by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. We compared spectroscopic parameters in the left prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, the left frontal white matter (WM and the left hippocampus and assessed the relationship between treatment and the spectroscopic parameters in both groups. We recruited 25 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR, with dominant negative symptoms and in stable clinical condition, who were treated with antipsychotic and antidepressive medication for minimum of three months. A group of 25 patients with schizophrenia, who were taking antipsychotic drugs but not antidepressants, was matched. We compared metabolic parameters (N-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol (mI, glutamatergic parameters (Glx, choline (Cho, and creatine (Cr between the two groups. All patients were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. In patients receiving antidepressants we observed significantly higher NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios within the DLPFC, as well as significantly higher mI/Cr within the frontal WM. Moreover, we noted significantly lower values of parameters associated with the glutamatergic transmission—Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho in the hippocampus. Doses of antipsychotic drugs in the group treated with antidepressants were also significantly lower in the patients showing similar severity of psychopathology.

  14. Left frontal eye field remembers “where” but not “what”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campana, G.; Cowey, A.; Casco, C.; Oudsen, G.J.M.; Walsh, V.

    2007-01-01

    Short-term memory of basic stimulus features seems to rely upon low-level functional components of the visual pathways. By using a repetition priming paradigm, we previously showed that visual area V5/MT is important for holding motion direction information, but not spatial position information.

  15. The effect of left frontal transcranial direct-current stimulation on propranolol-induced fear memory acquisition and consolidation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Khani-Abyaneh, Mozhgan; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-07-28

    Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0.1mg/kg) impaired fear memory retrieval. Pre/post-training application of anodal tDCS when propranolol was administered prior to training reversed contextual memory retrieval whereas only the anodal application prior to training could induce the same result in the auditory test. Meanwhile, anodal stimulation had no effect on fear memories by itself. Moreover, regardless of when cathode was applied and propranolol administered, their combination restored contextual memory retrieval, while only cathodal stimulation prior to training facilitated the contextual memory retrieval. Also, auditory memory retrieval was restored when cathodal stimulation and propranolol occurred prior to training but it was abolished when stimulation occurred after training and propranolol was administered prior to training. Collectively, our findings show that tDCS applied on the left frontal cortex of mice affects fear memory performance. This alteration seems to be task-dependent and varies depending on the nature and timing of the stimulation. In certain conditions, tDCS reverses the effect of propranolol. These results provide initial evidence to support the timely use of tDCS for the modulation of fear-related memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lai, Jian-jun; Qu, Yuan-ming

    2004-07-07

    To explore surgical treatment of gliomas involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the superior frontal gyrus. Clinical data and follow-up outcome of 16 patients with low graded astrocytomas involving the supplementary motor area were analyzed. SMA syndrome was developed in 6 patients in whom the posterior tumor resection line was at a distance of more than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus and resolved after 12 months. Hemiplegia occurred however in 8 patients in whom the resection line was less than 1 cm to precentral sulcus and only resolved in 3 patients during follow period 12 months. When the resection is performed at a distance of less than 1 cm from the precentral sulcus, surgery for gliomas of involving the supplementary motor area in the superior frontal gyrus may be result in permanent morbidity.

  17. Quantitative analysis of basal dendritic tree of layer III pyramidal neurons in different areas of adult human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeba, Martina; Jovanov-Milosević, Natasa; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Large long projecting (cortico-cortical) layer IIIc pyramidal neurons were recently disclosed to be in the basis of cognitive processing in primates. Therefore, we quantitatively examined the basal dendritic morphology of these neurons by using rapid Golgi and Golgi Cox impregnation methods among three distinct Brodmann areas (BA) of an adult human frontal cortex: the primary motor BA4 and the associative magnopyramidal BA9 from left hemisphere and the Broca's speech BA45 from both hemispheres. There was no statistically significant difference in basal dendritic length or complexity, as dendritic spine number or their density between analyzed BA's. In addition, we analyzed each of these BA's immunocytochemically for distribution of SMI-32, a marker of largest long distance projecting neurons. Within layer IIIc, the highest density of SMI-32 immunopositive pyramidal neurons was observed in associative BA9, while in primary BA4 they were sparse. Taken together, these data suggest that an increase in the complexity of cortico-cortical network within human frontal areas of different functional order may be principally based on the increase in density of large, SMI-32 immunopositive layer IIIc neurons, rather than by further increase in complexity of their dendritic tree and synaptic network.

  18. Motor Speech Apraxia in a 70-Year-Old Man with Left Dorsolateral Frontal Arachnoid Cyst: A [18F]FDG PET-CT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas I. Bohnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech apraxia is a speech disorder of impaired syllable sequencing which, when seen with advancing age, is suggestive of a neurodegenerative process affecting cortical structures in the left frontal lobe. Arachnoid cysts can be associated with neurologic symptoms due to compression of underlying brain structures though indications for surgical intervention are unclear. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a two-year history of speech changes along with decreased initiation and talkativeness, shorter utterances, and dysnomia. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG Positron Emission and Computed Tomography (PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed very focal left frontal cortical hypometabolism immediately adjacent to an arachnoid cyst but no specific evidence of a neurodegenerative process.

  19. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  20. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-12-05

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH.

  1. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  2. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.

  3. Interfering with the neural activity of mirror-related frontal areas impairs mentalistic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-07-01

    According to recently proposed interactive dual-process theories, mentalizing abilities emerge from the coherent interaction between two physically distinct neural systems: (1) the mirror network, coding for the low-level embodied representations involved in pre-reflective sociocognitive processes and (2) the mentalizing network per se, which codes for higher level representations subtending the reflective attribution of psychological states. However, although the latest studies have shown that the core areas forming these two neurocognitive systems do indeed maintain effective connectivity during mentalizing, it is unclear whether an intact mirror system (and, more specifically, its anterior node, namely the posterior inferior frontal cortex) is a prerequisite for accurate mentalistic inferences. Intraoperative brain mapping via direct electrical stimulation offers a unique opportunity to address this issue. Electrical stimulation of the brain creates a "virtual" lesion, which provides functional information on well-defined parts of the cerebral cortex. In the present study, five patients were mapped in real time while they performed a mentalizing task. We found six responsive sites: four in the lateral part of the right pars opercularis and two in the dorsal part of the right pars triangularis. On the subcortical level, two additional sites were located within the white matter connectivity of the pars opercularis. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that the right inferior frontal cortex and its underlying axonal connectivity have a key role in mentalizing. Specifically, our findings support the hypothesis whereby transient, functional disruption of the mirror network influences higher order mentalistic inferences.

  4. A study on the various diameters of the heart and frontal cardiac area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Soo

    1970-01-01

    Cardiac measurement by radiographic method is the most accurate procedure by which physicians can obtain data regarding cardiac size in life. In order to determine the standard values among Koreans, cardiac mensuration by the radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 225 healthy Korean infants, 111 of whom were males and 114 were females. The results were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter at one month of age is 4.56 ± 0.12 cm in male and 5.00 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.35 ± 0.12 cm in male, 7.42 ± 0.09 cm in female. 2. Board diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 4.53 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 5.82 ± 0.14 cm in male, 5.94 ± 0.14 cm in female. 3. Long diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 5.30 ± 0.23 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.67 ± 0.15 cm in male, 7.55 ± 0.11 cm in female. 4. The obliquity of the cardiac axis shows no significant difference in age and sex. The range of the measurements are between 31 .deg and 37 .deg. 5. Frontal cardiac area at one month of age is 14.36 ± 1.11 cm 2 in male and 18.97 ± 0.14 cm 2 in female and at eleven months of age 35.27 ± 1.21 cm 2 in male, 35.43 ± 0.45 cm 2 in female. 6. In every diameter and frontal cardiac area, except the obliquity of the cardiac axis, show greater value in female at the age of 1 month, but show almost same value in male as in female at the age of 11 months

  5. Dissociation between unconscious motor response facilitation and conflict in medial frontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ostilio, Kevin; Garraux, Gaëtan

    2012-01-01

    Masked prime tasks have shown that sensory information that has not been consciously perceived can nevertheless modulate behavior. The neuronal correlates of behavioral manifestations of visuomotor priming remain debated, particularly with respect to the distribution and direction (i.e. increase or decrease) of activity changes in medial frontal areas. Here, we predicted that these discrepant results could be accounted for by two automatic and unconscious processes embedded in this task: response conflict and facilitation. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as 24 healthy participants had to respond, as fast as possible, to a target arrow presented immediately after a subliminal masked prime arrow. There were three experimental conditions defined by the prime-target relationship: compatible, incompatible, and neutral. The classical visuomotor priming effect was reproduced, with relatively longer reaction times (RTs) in incompatible trials. Longer RTs in incompatible than in neutral trials were specifically associated with stronger blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in a conflict-related network comprising the anterior cingulate cortex and right frontal associative areas. Motor response facilitation as shown by shorter RTs in compatible than in neutral trials was associated with reduced activation in a motor preparation network including the medial and lateral premotor cortices, as a result of the repetition suppression of the fMRI BOLD signal. The present results provide new insights into automatic and unconscious visuomotor priming processes, suggesting an involvement of either a cognitive or motor network, depending on the prime-target relationship. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist’s pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere

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    Chirchiglia D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,1 Domenico Murrone,2 Pasquale Chirchiglia,3 Rosa Marotta4 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, 3School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion. Keywords: cerebral cavernoma, cavernous angioma, headache, frontal syndrome, pseudodepression syndrome 

  7. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  8. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Wang, Yiquan; Liu, Weibo; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhou, Heshan; Yang, Jinyu; Cohen, Zachary; Zhu, Yihong; Zang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  9. Electrical stimulation over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) determines long-term effects in the recovery of speech apraxia in three chronic aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, P; Marinelli, C V; Bonifazi, S; Fiori, V; Ceravolo, M G; Provinciali, L; Tomaiuolo, F

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies have shown that modulating cortical activity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects the performance of both healthy and brain-damaged subjects. In this study, we investigated the potential of tDCS for the recovery of apraxia of speech in 3 patients with stroke-induced aphasia. Over 2 weeks, three aphasic subjects participated in a randomized double-blinded experiment involving intensive language training for their articulatory difficulties in two tDCS conditions. Each subject participated in five consecutive daily sessions of anodic tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) and sham stimulation over the left inferior frontal gyrus (referred to as Broca's area) while they performed a repetition task. By the end of each week, a significant improvement was found in both conditions. However, all three subjects showed greater response accuracy in the anodic than in the sham condition. Moreover, results for transfer of treatment effects, although different across subjects, indicate a generalization of the recovery at the language test. Subjects 2 and 3 showed a significant improvement in oral production tasks, such as word repetition and reading, while Subjects 1 and 2 had an unexpected significant recovery in written naming and word writing under dictation tasks. At three follow-ups (1 week, 1 and 2 months after the end of treatment), response accuracy was still significantly better in the anodic than in sham condition, suggesting a long-term effect on the recovery of their articulatory gestures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resting-State Connectivity of the Left Frontal Cortex to the Default Mode and Dorsal Attention Network Supports Reserve in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Franzmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reserve refers to the phenomenon of relatively preserved cognition in disproportion to the extent of neuropathology, e.g., in Alzheimer’s disease. A putative functional neural substrate underlying reserve is global functional connectivity of the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC, Brodmann Area 6/44. Resting-state fMRI-assessed global LFC-connectivity is associated with protective factors (education and better maintenance of memory in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Since the LFC is a hub of the fronto-parietal control network that regulates the activity of other networks, the question arises whether LFC-connectivity to specific networks rather than the whole-brain may underlie reserve. We assessed resting-state fMRI in 24 MCI and 16 healthy controls (HC and in an independent validation sample (23 MCI/32 HC. Seed-based LFC-connectivity to seven major resting-state networks (i.e., fronto-parietal, limbic, dorsal-attention, somatomotor, default-mode, ventral-attention, visual was computed, reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance after accounting for age and hippocampal atrophy. In both samples of MCI, LFC-activity was anti-correlated with the default-mode network (DMN, but positively correlated with the dorsal-attention network (DAN. Greater education predicted stronger LFC-DMN-connectivity (anti-correlation and LFC-DAN-connectivity. Stronger LFC-DMN and LFC-DAN-connectivity each predicted higher reserve, consistently in both MCI samples. No associations were detected for LFC-connectivity to other networks. These novel results extend our previous findings on global functional connectivity of the LFC, showing that LFC-connectivity specifically to the DAN and DMN, two core memory networks, enhances reserve in the memory domain in MCI.

  11. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Furukawa, Emi; Kurihara, Masanori; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords) and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties) with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6) and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  12. Frontal Phonological Agraphia and Acalculia with Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory due to Left Inferior Precentral Gyrus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Sakurai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with phonological agraphia (selective impairment of kana [Japanese phonetic writing] nonwords and acalculia (mental arithmetic difficulties with impaired verbal short-term memory after a cerebral hemorrhage in the opercular part of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6 and the adjacent postcentral gyrus. The patient showed phonemic paragraphia in five-character kana nonword writing, minimal acalculia, and reduced digit and letter span. Mental arithmetic normalized after 8 months and agraphia recovered to the normal range at 1 year after onset, in parallel with an improvement of the auditory letter span score from 4 to 6 over a period of 14 months and in the digit span score from 6 to 7 over 24 months. These results suggest a close relationship between the recovery of agraphia and acalculia and the improvement of verbal short-term memory. The present case also suggests that the opercular part of the precentral gyrus constitutes the phonological route in writing that conveys phonological information of syllable sequences, and its damage causes phonological agraphia and acalculia with reduced verbal short-term memory.

  13. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  14. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N.

    2001-01-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  15. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  16. Radon emanations: a tectonic indicator in the Dharamsala area of Himalayan Frontal Zone, Himachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    While throughout the length of Himalayas good exposures of the tertiary and the pre-Tertiary occurs occur, but in the Dharamsala and its adjoining areas of Himalayan Frontal Zone, tertiary and the pre-Tertiary rocks are present within a short aerial distance. This diverse lithology within a short span of distance along with the structural heterogeneity has made this region of Himalayas tectonically significant. This unique tectano-stratigraphic configuration of this area is primarily attributed to the major faults and folds which are either along the Himalayan trend or transverse to it. Interestingly the area is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zone-V of seismic atlas of India. It has been observed that regional thrusts systems and lineaments, control seismo-tectonic activity in the region. Contemporary geomorphological re-adjustments in the form of erosion intensity (meandering/drainage pattern or river incision) as a result of active nature of lineaments have been observed. In addition, due to the rampant seismic activity in the region especially in year 2013, the area has witnessed a sequence of landslides. The study further reveals these the signatures of morphological adjustment coincide with zones which have deciphered higher proportions of radon activity. Because radon transport through rocks is largely dependent on the geology of the area, which includes lithology, compaction, porosity structural/tectonic features like thrusts, faults, joints and fractures. Occurrences of landslide the thrust zones, coupled with high emanations of radon (both in soil and water) alludes attention towards dominant role of neo-tectonic activity in the area. (author)

  17. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  18. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  19. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore the catho...

  20. Supplementation of Antipsychotic Treatment with the Amino Acid Sarcosine Influences Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Parameters in Left Frontal White Matter in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzelecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. 1H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase

  1. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  2. Pre-surgical evaluation of the cerebral tumor in the left language related areas by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Zhitong; Ma Lin; Weng Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of combination of BOLD-fMRI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in pre-operative evaluation of cerebral tumors located at the left language related areas. Methods: A non-vocal button pressing semantic judging paradigm was developed and validated in 10 right-handed volunteers at 3 T. After validation, this protocol combined with DTI were applied to 15 patients with left cerebral tumor prior to surgical resection, and 3 of them had aphasia. fMRI data analysis was on subject-specific basis by one-sampled t-test. The distance from the tumor to Broca area and pre-central 'hand-knot' area were measured separately. Functional language laterality index (LI) was calculated by taking out Broca area and Wernicke area. Three dimensional architecture of frontal lobe white matter fibers, especially arcuate fasciculus, were visualized using diffusion tensor tractography on Volume-one software. The images demonstrating relationship among tumor, language activation areas and white matter fibers were reviewed by neurosurgeons as part of pre-operative planning. One year after the operation, patients were followed up with MRI and language function test. Results: The non-vocal semantic judging paradigm successfully detect Broca area, Wernicke area and pre-central 'hand-knot' area. In 12 of 15 patients, the relationship of Broca area and pre-central motor area to the left brain tumor in language related areas was identified, which make the pre-operative neurosurgical plan applicable to minimize the disruption of language and motor. 8 patients had the left language dominant hemisphere, 3 patients with the right language dominant hemisphere and 1 patient with bilateral dominance. The other 3 patients' fMRI data were corrupted by patients' motion. Diffusion tensor images were corrupted by motion in 1 patient but demonstrated the impact of tumor on left accouter fasciculus in 14 patients. Diffusion tensor tractography showed disruption of left

  3. The Sport Expert's Attention Superiority on Skill-related Scene Dynamic by the Activation of left Medial Frontal Gyrus: An ERP and LORETA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengyang; Qi, Changzhu; Lu, Yang; Song, Amanda; Hayat, Saba Z; Xu, Xia

    2018-05-21

    Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs. non-tennis) and negative emotional faces in the context of a visual attention task, where the pictures of sport scenes or of negative emotional faces randomly followed the pictures with overlapping sport scenes and negative emotional faces. ERP results showed that for experts, the evoked potential of attentional competition elicited by the overlap of tennis scene was significantly larger than that evoked by the overlap of non-tennis scene, while this effect was absent for novices. The LORETA showed that the experts' left medial frontal gyrus (MFG) cortex was significantly more active as compared to the right MFG when processing the overlap of tennis scene, but the lateralization effect was not significant in novices. Those results indicate that experts have attentional superiority on skill-related scene information, despite intruding the scene through negative emotional faces that are prone to cause negativity bias toward their visual field as a strong distractor. This superiority is actuated by the activation of left MFG cortex and probably due to self-reference. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-reflection and the inner voice: activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus during perceptual and conceptual self-referential thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alain; Hamper, Breanne

    2012-01-01

    Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to be reliably recruited during inner speech production. The percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension was calculated. Fifty five percent of all studies reviewed indicated LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-reflection tasks; on average LIFG activation is observed 16% of the time during completion of non-self tasks (e.g., attention, perception). The highest LIFG activation rate was observed during retrieval of autobiographical information. The LIFG was significantly more recruited during conceptual tasks (e.g., prospection, traits) than during perceptual tasks (agency and self-recognition). This constitutes additional evidence supporting the idea of a participation of inner speech in self-related thinking.

  6. TMS interferes with lexical-semantic retrieval in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus: Evidence from cyclical picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We used TMS to investigate the contribution of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to lexical/semantic selection and retrieval processes using a cyclical naming paradigm. Participants named pictures that were presented repeatedly across six cycles, either in semantically related or unrelated sets. Previous research has suggested that selection demands are higher for related sets, especially after repetition, since participants experience competition from the activation of semantic neighbours. In contrast, retrieval demands are greater for unrelated sets in the absence of semantic priming, particularly on the first cycle when the target names have not been previously activated. Therefore, this paradigm can reveal independent effects of (i) retrieval demands (i.e., the ease of accessing picture names from visual input) and (ii) selection/competition. We found that rTMS to LIFG and pMTG produced similar behavioural effects: stimulation of both sites disrupted picture naming performance on early cycles (when participants were less practised at producing the picture names) and for semantically-related sets (when there was the potential for increased competition and yet also facilitation from semantic neighbours). There were no effects of TMS when either retrieval or selection requirements were maximal on their own. The data therefore support the view that both LIFG and pMTG contribute to picture name retrieval, with both sites playing a critical role in mediating the semantic facilitation of naming when retrieval demands are high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tell it to a child! A brain stimulation study of the role of left inferior frontal gyrus in emotion regulation during storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Mattiassi, Alan D A; Buiatti, Tania; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In everyday life we need to continuously regulate our emotional responses according to their social context. Strategies of emotion regulation allow individuals to control time, intensity, nature and expression of emotional responses to environmental stimuli. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is involved in the cognitive control of the selection of semantic content. We hypothesized that it might also be involved in the regulation of emotional feelings and expressions. We applied continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over LIFG or a control site before a newly-developed ecological regulation task that required participants to produce storytelling of pictures with negative or neutral valence to either a peer (unregulated condition) or a child (regulated condition). Linguistic, expressive, and physiological responses were analyzed in order to assess the effects of LIFG-cTBS on emotion regulation. Results showed that the emotion regulation context modulated the emotional content of narrative productions, but not the physiologic orienting response or the early expressive behavior to negative stimuli. Furthermore, LIFG-cTBS disrupted the text-level structuring of negative picture storytelling and the early cardiac and muscular response to negative pictures; however, it did not affect the contextual emotional regulation of storytelling. These results may suggest that LIFG is involved in the initial detection of the affective arousal of emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus as an indicator of hemispheric dominance for language in brain tumor patients: a comparison with Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian W; Brennan, Nicole M Petrovich; Izzo, Giana; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-05-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) can assess language lateralization in brain tumor patients; however, this can be limited if the primary language area-Broca's area (BA)-is affected by the tumor. We hypothesized that the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) can be used as a clinical indicator of hemispheric dominance for language during presurgical workup. Fifty-two right-handed subjects with solitary left-hemispheric primary brain tumors were retrospectively studied. Subjects performed a verbal fluency task during fMRI. The MFG was compared to BA for fMRI voxel activation, language laterality index (LI), and the effect of tumor grade on the LI. Language fMRI (verbal fluency) activated more voxels in MFG than in BA (MFG = 315, BA = 216, p hemispheric MFG and BA were positively correlated (r = 0.69, p hemispheric dominance for language using a measure of verbal fluency and may be an adjunct measure in the clinical determination of language laterality for presurgical planning.

  9. Unique and shared areas of cognitive function in children with intractable frontal or temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicole; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2018-03-01

    Previous findings have been mixed in terms of identifying a distinct pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The current study investigated the neuropsychological similarities and differences across these two pediatric medically intractable localization-related epilepsies. Thirty-eight children with FLE, 20 children with TLE, and 40 healthy children (HC) participated in this study. A comprehensive battery of standardized tests assessed five neuropsychological domains including intelligence, language, memory, executive function, and motor function. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distill our neuropsychological measures into latent components to compare between groups. Principal component analysis extracted 5 latent components: executive function (F1), verbal semantics (F2), motor (F3), nonverbal cognition/impulsivity (F4), and verbal cognition/attention (F5). The group with FLE differed from the HC group on F1, F2, F4, and F5, and had worse performance than the group with TLE on F1; the group with TLE had lower performance relative to the HC group on F2. Our findings suggest that, in comparison with neurotypically developing children, children with medically intractable FLE have more widespread neuropsychological impairments than do children with TLE. The differences between the two patient groups were greatest for the factor score most clearly related to executive function. The results provide mixed support for the concept of specificity in neuropsychological dysfunction among different subtypes of localization-related medically intractable childhood epilepsies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The anatomy of the human medial forebrain bundle: Ventral tegmental area connections to reward-associated subcortical and frontal lobe regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Arnd Coenen

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite their importance in reward, motivation, and learning there is only sparse anatomical knowledge about the human medial forebrain bundle (MFB and the connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. A thorough anatomical and microstructural description of the reward related PFC/OFC regions and their connection to the VTA - the superolateral branch of the MFB (slMFB - is however mandatory to enable an interpretation of distinct therapeutic effects from different interventional treatment modalities in neuropsychiatric disorders (DBS, TMS etc.. This work aims at a normative description of the human MFB (and more detailed the slMFB anatomy with respect to distant prefrontal connections and microstructural features. Methods and material: Healthy subjects (n = 55; mean age ± SD, 40 ± 10 years; 32 females underwent high resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion tensor imaging. Connectivity of the VTA and the resulting slMFB were investigated on the group level using a global tractography approach. The Desikan/Killiany parceling (8 segments of the prefrontal cortex was used to describe sub-segments of the MFB. A qualitative overlap with Brodmann areas was additionally described. Additionally, a pure visual analysis was performed comparing local and global tracking approaches for their ability to fully visualize the slMFB. Results: The MFB could be robustly described both in the present sample as well as in additional control analyses in data from the human connectome project. Most VTA- connections reached the superior frontal gyrus, the middel frontal gyrus and the lateral orbitofrontal region corresponding to Brodmann areas 10, 9, 8, 11, and 11m. The projections to these regions comprised 97% (right and 98% (left of the total relative fiber counts of the slMFB. Discussion: The anatomical description of the human MFB shows far reaching connectivity of VTA to reward-related subcortical and

  11. Borders of left gastric lymph node area in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Guo Yesong; Li Jianzhong; Wang Yufen; Feng Chunwei; Lv Hong; Fei Wenlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and define the distribution of left gastric lymph nodes. Methods: From Jan. 2004 to Apr. 2005, silver clips were set around the root of the left gastric artery in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma, X-ray films at 0 degree and 90 degree simulator gantry in the radio- therapeutic position were taken. Then, the data of the superior, lower, left, right, anterior and posterior bor- der in each patient was recorded. With SAS 8.02 software, data of minimum area which covered the left gastric lymph node in different incidences were obtained. Results: According to the analysis of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smimov, Cramervon Mises and Anderson-Darling tests, each border' was of normal distribution, with equal frequency in the male and female, despite the actual results in different genders. Pearson Correlation Coefficients analysis did not suggest a significant relationship between the border and height, weight and size of vertebrae, which formed the minimum area covering the left gastric area at frequency of 100%, 95%, 90% and 85%, which were drawn out through the calculation. Conclusions: Aiming at completely identifying the normal distribution of the left gastric lymph node, more patients are required to be in the pool. For the time being, location in the left gastric area can be obtained from details of the results in the present study. (authors)

  12. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  13. The role of the left Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in reading words and pseudowords

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, S.; Alter, K.; Ischebeck, A.; Amunts, K.; Eickhoff, S.; Mohlberg, H.; Zilles, K.; von Cramon, D.; Friederici, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the influence of two task (lexical decision, LDT; phonological decision, PDT) on activation in Broca's region (left Brodmann's areas [BA] 44 and 45) during the processing of visually presented words and pseudowords. Reaction times were longer for pseudowords than words in LDT but did not differ in PDT. By combining the fMRI data with cytoarchitectonic anatomical probability maps, we demonstrated that the left BA 44 an...

  14. Phytoplankton variability and community structure in relation to hydrographic features in the NE Aegean frontal area (NE Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagaria, A.; Mandalakis, M.; Mara, P.; Frangoulis, C.; Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Pitta, P.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Tsiola, A.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    The structure of phytoplankton community in the salinity-stratified Northeastern Aegean frontal area adjacent to the Dardanelles Straits was investigated on a seasonal basis (autumn, spring and summer) and in relation to circulating water masses: the modified Black Sea Water (BSW) and the Levantine Water (LW). By employing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the analysis of phytoplankton pigments in conjunction with conventional cell counting methodologies (i.e. inverted light microscopy, flow cytometry) and primary production measurements, a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative characterization of phytoplankton community composition and its activity was conducted. Chlorophyll-a normalized production and estimated growth rates presented the highest values within the 'fresh' BSW mass during summer, though generally growth rates were low (production. Large cell organisms, and in particular diatoms, were closely associated with the surface BSW masses outflowing from the Straits. Our results showed that all phytoplankton size components were significant over time and space suggesting a rather multivorous food web functioning of the system.

  15. BODY POSTURES AND ASYMMETRIES IN FRONTAL AND TRANSVERSE PLANES IN THE TRUNK AREA IN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Barczyk-Pawelec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the body posture within the trunk area in table tennis players and to estimate the correlations between the specific body posture types, their asymmetries and table tennis practice (training experience. To evaluate body posture the photogrammetric method based on the Moiré phenomenon with equipment by CQ Electronic was applied. Tests of significance of difference and correlation were used to estimate the correlation of the observed asymmetries with the training experience. 40 table tennis players and 43 subjects not practising sports participated in the research. The analysis of the results revealed that table tennis players, unlike non-players, are characterized by kyphotic body posture. It probably results from a specific trunk, head and limb position during table tennis matches. Thus, many asymmetries in frontal and transverse planes were observed in the examined table tennis players. Perhaps table tennis, which is characterized by intensive and one-sided trunk muscle work during its performance, is in favour of creating asymmetries. The majority of subjects did not reveal any statistically significant correlations between the observed body posture types, their asymmetries and training experience. However, it was observed that training experience is significantly related to the considerable asymmetry of the inclination angle of shoulder line (KLB. It may result from the negative influence of very intensive, one-sided work and constant work of the shoulder girdle muscles of the playing limb with negligence of exercises of the second limb.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of the Fetal Right and Left Ventricular Fractional Area Change Using Speckle Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Greggory R; Klas, Berthold; Satou, Gary; Sklansky, Mark

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fractional area change (FAC) of the right and left ventricles in normal fetal hearts between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation using speckle-tracking software. The 4-chamber view of the fetal heart was obtained in 200 control fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The FAC was computed from the ventricular areas [((end-diastolic area) - (end-systolic area)/(end-diastolic area)) x 100] for the right and left ventricles and regressed against 7 independent biometric and age variables. The FAC was correlated with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) [((end-diastolic longitudinal length) - (end-systolic longitudinal length) /(end-diastolic longitudinal length)) x 100] obtained from the mid ventricular basal-apical lengths of the right and left ventricular chambers and the transverse fractional shortening (TFS) [((end-diastolic transverse length) - (end-systolic transverse length)/(end-diastolic transverse length)) x 100] from three transverse positions (base, mid, apical) located within each ventricular chamber. To evaluate potential clinical utility, the FAC, LFS, and TFS results were examined in 9 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). Regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between the FAC and the biometric and age independent variables (R 2 = 0.13 - 0.15). The FAC was significantly correlated with the LFS (R 2 =0.18 to 0.28) and TFS (R 2 = 0.13 to 0.33). The 9 fetuses with CHD illustrated the interrelationship between the FAC, LFS, and TFS when identifying abnormal ventricular function. This study reports results from measuring the FAC of the right and left ventricles, and demonstrates a correlation with longitudinal fractional shortening (LFS) and transverse fractional shortening (TFS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Task-based and resting-state fMRI reveal compensatory network changes following damage to left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Glyn P; Thompson, Hannah E; Hymers, Mark; Millman, Rebecca E; Rodd, Jennifer M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network. We examined neural activity while participants listened to spoken sentences that varied in their levels of lexical ambiguity and during rest. We found group differences in two regions thought to be good candidates for functional compensation: ventral anterior temporal lobe (vATL), which is strongly implicated in comprehension, and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which is hypothesized to work together with left inferior prefrontal cortex to support controlled aspects of semantic retrieval. The patients recruited both of these sites more than controls in response to meaningful sentences. Subsequent analysis identified that, in control participants, the recruitment of pMTG to ambiguous sentences was inversely related to functional coupling between pMTG and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) at rest, while the patients showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, stronger connectivity between pMTG and aSTG in patients was associated with better performance on a test of verbal semantic association, suggesting that this temporal lobe connection supports comprehension in the face of damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex. These results characterize network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits and converge with studies of healthy participants in providing evidence for a distributed system underpinning semantic control that

  18. The role of left supplementary motor area in grip force scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier White

    Full Text Available Skilled tool use and object manipulation critically relies on the ability to scale anticipatorily the grip force (GF in relation to object dynamics. This predictive behaviour entails that the nervous system is able to store, and then select, the appropriate internal representation of common object dynamics, allowing GF to be applied in parallel with the arm motor commands. Although psychophysical studies have provided strong evidence supporting the existence of internal representations of object dynamics, known as "internal models", their neural correlates are still debated. Because functional neuroimaging studies have repeatedly designated the supplementary motor area (SMA as a possible candidate involved in internal model implementation, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to interfere with the normal functioning of left or right SMA in healthy participants performing a grip-lift task with either hand. TMS applied over the left, but not right, SMA yielded an increase in both GF and GF rate, irrespective of the hand used to perform the task, and only when TMS was delivered 130-180 ms before the fingers contacted the object. We also found that both left and right SMA rTMS led to a decrease in preload phase durations for contralateral hand movements. The present study suggests that left SMA is a crucial node in the network processing the internal representation of object dynamics although further experiments are required to rule out that TMS does not affect the GF gain. The present finding also further substantiates the left hemisphere dominance in scaling GF.

  19. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Effect of myocardial viability in the infarct area on regional left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Usui, Mikio; Nagai, Yoshikazu

    1990-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), regional LVEF of infarct myocardium, and the viability of the myocardium due to the development of collaterals in the infarct area. Each was evaluated by exercise thallium-201 myocardial SPECT, multigated blood pool scintigraphy and coronary angiography. A total of 68 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 23 normal persons were studied. The patients were found to have septal defect on exercise thallium images. According to the appearance of redistribution (RD) on delayed images, the patients were classified as having positive RD (n=42, 62%) or negative RD (n=26, 38%). The global LVEF was compared with regional LVEF of the basal, middle and apical areas within septum, as calculated by multigated blood pool scintigraphy. There was no significant difference in global LVEF between the groups of positive and negative RD patients. However, regional LVEF of the basal and middle areas was significantly larger in the group of positive RD than the group of negative RD. Collaterals were significantly observed in the group of positive RD, as compared with the group of negative RD (53% vs 25%). It was more frequent in cases of higher degree of stenosis. In the group of negative RD, none of the patients had collaterals when coronary stenosis was 90% or less. Redistribution may reflect myocardial viability. Myocardial viability within the infarct area had favorable influences on the regional left ventricular function. Therefore, not only global but also regional left ventricular function is necessary for better understanding of pathophysiology of myocardial infarction.(N.K.)

  1. Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome caused by a disconnection between the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Ibáñez-Plágaro, Francisco Javier; Valle-Folgueral, José Manuel; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso

    2012-11-01

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare type of suprabulbar palsy characterized by an automatic-voluntary dissociation of the orofacial musculature. Here, the authors report an original case of FCMS that occurred intraoperatively while resecting the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. This 25-year-old right-handed man with an incidentally diagnosed right frontotemporoinsular tumor underwent surgery using an asleep-awake-asleep technique with direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation and a transopercular approach to the insula. While resecting the anterior part of the pars opercularis the patient suffered sudden anarthria and bilateral facial weakness. He was unable to speak or show his teeth on command, but he was able to voluntarily move his upper and lower limbs. This syndrome lasted for 8 days. Postoperative diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed that connections of the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus with the frontal aslant tract (FAT) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) were damaged. This case supplies evidence for localizing the structural substrate of FCMS. It was possible, for the first time in the literature, to accurately correlate the occurrence of FCMS to the resection of connections between the FAT and AF, and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. The FAT has been recently described, but it may be an important connection to mediate supplementary motor area control of orofacial movement. The present case also contributes to our knowledge of complication avoidance in operculoinsular surgery. A transopercular approach to insuloopercular gliomas can generate FCMS, especially in cases of previous contralateral lesions. The prognosis is favorable, but the patient should be informed of this particular hazard, and the surgeon should anticipate the surgical strategy in case the syndrome occurs intraoperatively in an awake patient.

  2. Usefulness of Epicardial Area in the Short Axis to Identify Elevated Left Ventricular Mass in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jesse K; Cohen, Beth E; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Shaw, Richard E; Schiller, Nelson B

    2018-06-15

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms suffer from measurement variability that can lead to misclassification of patients with LV hypertrophy as normal, or vice versa. Among the 4 echocardiographic measurements required by the 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms, epicardial and endocardial area have the lowest interobserver variation and could be used to corroborate LV mass calculations. We sought cut-off values that are able to discriminate between elevated and normal LV mass based on endocardial or epicardial area alone. Using data from 664 men enrolled in the Mind Your Heart Study, we calculated the correlation of LV mass index with epicardial area and endocardial area. We then used receiver operator characteristic curves to identify epicardial and endocardial area cut-points that could discriminate subjects with normal LV mass and LV hypertrophy. LV mass index was more strongly correlated with epicardial area compared with endocardial area, r = 0.70 versus r = 0.27, respectively. Epicardial area had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (p versus 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.71). An epicardial area cut-point of ≥38.0 cm 2 corresponded to a sensitivity of 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for detecting LV hypertrophy. In conclusion, epicardial area showed promise as a method of rapid screening for LV hypertrophy and could be used to validate formal LV mass calculations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  4. The roles of the Q (q) wave in lead I and QRS frontal axis for diagnosing loss of left ventricular capture during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Yuan; Su, Yan-Gang; Bai, Jin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing-Feng; Qin, Sheng-Mei; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Loss of left ventricular (LV) capture may lead to deterioration of heart failure in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Recognition of loss of LV capture in time is important in clinical practice. A total of 422 electrocardiograms were acquired and analyzed from 53 CRT patients at 8 different pacing settings (LV only, right ventricle [RV] only, biventricular [BV] pacing with LV preactivation of 60, 40, 20, and 0 milliseconds and RV preactivation of 20 and 40 milliseconds). A modified Ammann algorithm by adding a third step-presence of Q (q, or QS) wave-to the original 2-step Ammann algorithm and a QRS axis shift method were devised to identify the loss of LV capture. The accuracy of modified Ammann algorithm was significantly higher than that of Ammann algorithm (78.9% vs. 69.1%, P capture. The LV preactivation, or simultaneous BV activation and LV lead positioned in nonposterior or noninferior wall can increase the diagnostic power of the modified Ammann algorithm and QRS axis shift method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simple area-based measurement for multidetector computed tomography to predict left ventricular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlett, Christopher L.; Kwait, Dylan C.; Mahabadi, Amir A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Measures of left ventricular (LV) mass and dimensions are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality. We determined whether an axial area-based method by computed tomography (CT) provides an accurate estimate of LV mass and volume. A total of 45 subjects (49% female, 56.0 ± 12 years) with a wide range of LV geometry underwent contrast-enhanced 64-slice CT. LV mass and volume were derived from 3D data. 2D images were analysed to determine LV area, the direct transverse cardiac diameter (dTCD) and the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). Furthermore, feasibility was confirmed in 100 Framingham Offspring Cohort subjects. 2D measures of LV area, dTCD and CTR were 47.3 ± 8 cm 2 , 14.7 ± 1.5 cm and 0.54 ± 0.05, respectively. 3D-derived LV volume (end-diastolic) and mass were 148.9 ± 45 cm 3 and 124.2 ± 34 g, respectively. Excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement were shown for 2D LV area measurements (both intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.99, p 0.27). Compared with traditionally used CTR, LV size can be accurately predicted based on a simple and highly reproducible axial LV area-based measurement. (orig.)

  6. Effect of weight and frontal area of external telemetry packages on the kinematics, activity levels and swimming performance of small-bodied sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, I A; Suski, C D; Mandelman, J W; Brooks, E J

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to observe the effects of submerged weight and frontal cross-sectional area of external telemetry packages on the kinematics, activity levels and swimming performance of small-bodied juvenile sharks, using lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris (60-80 cm total length, L T ) as a model species. Juveniles were observed free-swimming in a mesocosm untagged and with small and large external accelerometer packages that increased frontal cross-sectional area of the animals and their submerged weight. Despite adhering to widely used standards for tag mass, the presence of an external telemetry package altered swimming kinematics, activity levels and swimming performance of juvenile N. brevirostris relative to untagged individuals, suggesting that tag mass is not a suitable standalone metric of device suitability. Changes in swimming performance could not be detected from tail-beat frequency, which suggests that tail-beat frequency is an unsuitable standalone metric of swimming performance for small N. brevirostris. Lastly, sharks experienced treatment-specific changes in activity level and swimming kinematics from morning to afternoon observation. Therefore, the presence of external telemetry packages altered the kinematics, activity levels and swimming performance of small young-of-the-year N. brevirostris and these data may therefore be relevant to other similar-sized juveniles of other shark species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Spatial Relation Between Left Atrial Anatomical Contact Areas and Circular Activation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Hori, Yuichi; Anjo, Naofumi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Komatsu, Takaaki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Fukui, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Taguchi, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Atrial low-voltage zones (LVZs) may be related to maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). The influence of left atrial (LA) contact areas (CoAs) on reentrant or rotor-like sources maintaining AF has not been investigated. Forty patients with persistent AF (PsAF) were analyzed. Three representative CoA regions in the LA (ascending aorta: anterior wall; descending aorta: left inferior pulmonary vein; and vertebrae: posterior wall) were visualized by enhanced CT. Using circular catheters, the LVZs (80% of the mean AF cycle length. A pivot was defined as the core of the localized circular activation. Anterior (39/40 patients, 98%), left pulmonary vein antrum (27/40, 68%), and posterior (19/40, 48%) CoAs were identified, and 80% (68/85) of those sites were overlapped by or close (<3 mm) to LVZs. Thirty-six (90%) patients demonstrated circular activation (3.1±1.7 sites/patients) along with significantly higher organized dominant frequencies (6.3 ± 0.5 Hz, regularity-index: 0.26 [0.23-0.41]) within the LA, and the average electrogram amplitude of those pivots was 0.30 mV (0.18-0.52). Of those sites, 55% (66/120) were located at or close to CoA regions. Catheter ablation including of LVZs neighboring CoAs terminated AF in 9 (23%) patients. External anatomical structures contacting the LA may be related to unique conduction properties in diseased myocardium necessary for PsAF maintenance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K

    1995-01-01

    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Electroencephalographic (eeg coherence between visual and motor areas of the left and the right brain hemisphere while performing visuomotor task with the right and the left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral limb movements are based on the activation of contralateral primary motor cortex and the bilateral activation of premotor cortices. Performance of a visuomotor task requires a visuomotor integration between motor and visual cortical areas. The functional integration (»binding« of different brain areas, is probably mediated by the synchronous neuronal oscillatory activity, which can be determined by electroencephalographic (EEG coherence analysis. We introduced a new method of coherence analysis and compared coherence and power spectra in the left and right hemisphere for the right vs. left hand visuomotor task, hypothesizing that the increase in coherence and decrease in power spectra while performing the task would be greater in the contralateral hemisphere.Methods: We analyzed 6 healthy subjects and recorded their electroencephalogram during visuomotor task with the right or the left hand. For data analysis, a special Matlab computer programme was designed. The results were statistically analysed by a two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction.Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in coherence (p < 0.05 for the visuomotor task compared to control tasks in alpha (8–13 Hz in beta 1 (13–20 Hz frequency bands between visual and motor electrodes. There were no significant differences in coherence nor power spectra depending on the hand used. The changes of coherence and power spectra between both hemispheres were symmetrical.Conclusions: In previous studies, a specific increase of coherence and decrease of power spectra for the visuomotor task was found, but we found no conclusive asymmetries when performing the task with right vs. left hand. This could be explained in a way that increases in coherence and decreases of power spectra reflect symmetrical activation and cooperation between more complex visual and motor brain areas.

  10. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: Evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG, as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller grey matter (GM volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  11. Increased opacity of left pericardiac area on chest radiograph : correlation with CT findings and its frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwak, Jin Young; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sam Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of extrapericardial fat in the left cardiac border, and with regard to left extrapericardial fat, to correlate chest radiographs with CT scans. This study involved 132 consecutive patients who underwent chest PA and lateral radiographs, and chest CT scans. According to the results of chest PA radiograph, patients were divided into three groups: those with a clear left cardiac border; those with an indistinct left cardiac border; and those with an indistinct left cardiac border with increased density; cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph, the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs was evaluated. On the basis of the results of CT scanning, patients were classified into four groups according to the amount of left extrapericardial fat : negative, minimum, moderate, and maximum. Left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, was correlated with the conspicuity of left cardiac border seen on PA radiograph and the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph. The conspicuousness of the left cardiac border, as seen on PA chest radiograph, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, and was related to the amount of left extrapericardial fat. Increased density of the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat on CT, but the absence of increased density on lateral radiograph corresponds to the absence or a minimal amount of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are key regions for phonological decisions, whereas angular gyrus (ANG) and anterior IFG (aIFG) are associated with semantics. However, it is less clear whether the functional contribution of one area changes in the presen...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandrino, F.; Sardanelli, F.; Molinari, G.; Masperone, M.A.; Smeraldi, A.; Odaglia, G.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  14. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Jonides, J

    1999-03-12

    The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working memory includes two components: short-term storage (on the order of seconds) and executive processes that operate on the contents of storage. Recently, these two components have been investigated in functional neuroimaging studies. Studies of storage indicate that different frontal regions are activated for different kinds of information: storage for verbal materials activates Broca's area and left-hemisphere supplementary and premotor areas; storage of spatial information activates the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management. Both processes activate the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  16. Hemispheric Dominance for Stereognosis in a Patient With an Infarct of the Left Postcentral Sensory Hand Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    The concept of left hemispheric dominance for praxis, speech, and language has been one of the pillars of neurology since the mid-19th century. In 1906, Hermann Oppenheim reported a patient with bilateral stereoagnosia (astereognosis) caused by a left parietal lobe tumor and proposed that the left hemisphere was also dominant for stereognosis. Surprisingly, few cases of bilateral stereoagnosia caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion have been documented in the literature since then. Here we report a 75-year-old right-handed man who developed bilateral stereoagnosia after suffering a small infarct in the crown of the left postcentral gyrus. He could not recognize objects with either hand, but retained the ability to localize stimuli applied to the palm of his left (ipsilesional) hand. He was severely disabled in ordinary activities requiring the use of his hands. The lesion corresponded to Brodmann area 1, where probabilistic anatomic, functional, and electrophysiologic studies have located one of the multiple somatosensory representations of the hand. The lesion was in a strategic position to interrupt both the processing of afferent tactile information issuing from the primary somatosensory cortex (areas 3a and 3b) and the forward higher-order processing in area 2, the secondary sensory cortex, and the contralateral area 1. The lesion also deprived the motor hand area of its afferent regulation from the sensory hand area (grasping), while leaving intact the visuomotor projections from the occipital cortex (reaching). Our patient supports Oppenheim's proposal that the left postcentral gyrus of some individuals is dominant for stereognosis.

  17. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  18. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  19. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary adult encephalocele with abscess formation of calcified frontal sinus mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ok-Jun; Park, Young Seok

    2016-07-01

    Although encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality, secondary encephalocele is extremely rare and can cause fatal complications. Here, we report a case of secondary encephalocele caused by frontal sinus wall defect due to chronic sinusitis, which was completely removed by cranialization with autologous bone graft. A 50-year-old man with a 10-year history of chronic sinusitis visited our hospital due to suddenly altered mentality characterized by stupor. Computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged left frontal sinus with sinusitis. The frontal sinus cavity was calcified, and the left frontal lobe had herniated into the cavity accompanied by yellow pus. A large dural defect was also found around the frontal sinus area. After removal of the abscess and some of the frontal lobe, frontal skull base repair by cranialization was performed using autologous bone graft. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), necessitating treatment with antibiotics. After the operation, the mental status of the patient improved and no CSF leakage was observed. In addition to correct diagnosis and early treatment including antibiotics, the surgical repair of defects is needed in patients with secondary encephalocele to prevent further episodes of meningitis. Surgical correction of frontal sinus encephalocele can be achieved through bifrontal craniotomy or endoscopic transnasal repair. If a patient has CSF leakage, open craniotomy may facilitate repair of the dural defect and allow for cranialization of the sinus. Removal of dysplastic herniated brain tissue and cranialization of the frontal sinus may be a good option for treating secondary encephalocele and its associated complications, including meningitis, abscess formation, and infarction of the herniated brain parenchyma.

  1. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Left atrial low-voltage areas predict atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Shota; Ohashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Aki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2018-04-15

    Association between the presence of left atrial low-voltage areas and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been shown mainly in persistent AF patients. We sought to compare the AF recurrence rate in paroxysmal AF patients with and without left atrial low-voltage areas. This prospective observational study included 147 consecutive patients undergoing initial ablation for paroxysmal AF. Voltage mapping was performed after PVI during sinus rhythm, and low-voltage areas were defined as regions where bipolar peak-to-peak voltage was low-voltage areas after PVI were observed in 22 (15%) patients. Patients with low-voltage areas were significantly older (72±6 vs. 66±10, plow-voltage areas than without (36% vs. 6%, pLow-voltage areas were independently associated with AF recurrence even after adjustment for the other related factors (Hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.16 to 16.0, p=0.001). The presence of left atrial low-voltage areas after PVI predicts AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF as well as in patients with persistent AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of neurodegeneration between right and left hippocampus area in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezo Nahavandi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed different manifestations of depression after UCMS. It showed that UCMS could lead to mental depression. This study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. In fact, UCMS resulted in depression. The study showed that the right hippocampus was more sensitive to stress than the left hippocampus. Therefore, the main function of the right hemisphere, which is adaptation to the new environment, is disturbed more.

  4. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, C E; Beems, T; Rotteveel, J J

    2004-12-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teenage patients presenting with headache after an ENT infection and on physical examination mild dysmetric function of the upper limbs and slight disequilibrium, due to right-sided frontal lobe abscesses. After neurosurgical and antibiotic therapy the symptoms were relieved. The frontal origin of ataxia should be considered in children presenting with a "cerebellar syndrome". Frontal gait disorders consist of a clinical pattern of different gait disorders. The syndrome has been mentioned in the literature under different names. Our patients show signs compatible with the term frontal disequilibrium, a clinical pattern of frontal gait disorder. This assumes walking problems characterized by loss of control of motor planning, leading to imbalance. Remarkably, frontal ataxia may mimic developmental delay as demonstrated in the first case and may be the leading mild symptom in extensive frontal lobe damage as demonstrated by the two other cases. We suppose that frontal ataxia is the result of a disturbance in the cerebellar-frontal circuitries and an impairment of executive and planning functions of the basal ganglia-frontal lobe circuitry.

  5. The Prognosis of Influence of The Oder River Waters Dammed by Malczyce Barrage on Left Bank Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalfen Mieczysław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The finalisation of the construction of the Malczyce barrage is planned for 2015. Damming of the river will cause a change in the water and ground conditions in the adjoining areas. The paper analyses the influence of the water level in the Oder River dammed by the barrage on groundwater table level in the left bank valley.

  6. Delusional misidentifications and duplications: right brain lesions, left brain delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2009-01-06

    When the delusional misidentification syndromes reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndromes result from neurologic disease, lesions are usually bifrontal and/or right hemispheric. The related disorders of confabulation and anosognosis share overlapping mechanisms and anatomic pathology. A dual mechanism is postulated for the delusional misidentification syndromes: negative effects from right hemisphere and frontal lobe dysfunction as well as positive effects from release (i.e., overactivity) of preserved left hemisphere areas. Negative effects of right hemisphere injury impair self-monitoring, ego boundaries, and attaching emotional valence and familiarity to stimuli. The unchecked left hemisphere unleashes a creative narrator from the monitoring of self, memory, and reality by the frontal and right hemisphere areas, leading to excessive and false explanations. Further, the left hemisphere's cognitive style of categorization, often into dual categories, leads it to invent a duplicate or impostor to resolve conflicting information. Delusions result from right hemisphere lesions. But it is the left hemisphere that is deluded.

  7. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  8. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teen...

  9. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, C.E.; Beems, T.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial

  10. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  11. Early and late changes in the distal forelimb representation of the supplementary motor area after injury to frontal motor areas in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner-Janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Hoover, Erica; Stowe, Ann M; Frost, Shawn B; Plautz, Erik J; Nudo, Randolph J

    2008-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies in stroke survivors have suggested that adaptive plasticity occurs following stroke. However, the complex temporal dynamics of neural reorganization after injury make the interpretation of functional imaging studies equivocal. In the present study in adult squirrel monkeys, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) techniques were used to monitor changes in representational maps of the distal forelimb in the supplementary motor area (SMA) after a unilateral ischemic infarct of primary motor (M1) and premotor distal forelimb representations (DFLs). In each animal, ICMS maps were derived at early (3 wk) and late (13 wk) postinfarct stages. Lesions resulted in severe deficits in motor abilities on a reach and retrieval task. Limited behavioral recovery occurred and plateaued at 3 wk postinfarct. At both early and late postinfarct stages, distal forelimb movements could still be evoked by ICMS in SMA at low current levels. However, the size of the SMA DFL changed after the infarct. In particular, wrist-forearm representations enlarged significantly between early and late stages, attaining a size substantially larger than the preinfarct area. At the late postinfarct stage, the expansion in the SMA DFL area was directly proportional to the absolute size of the lesion. The motor performance scores were positively correlated to the absolute size of the SMA DFL at the late postinfarct stage. Together, these data suggest that, at least in squirrel monkeys, descending output from M1 and dorsal and ventral premotor cortices is not necessary for SMA representations to be maintained and that SMA motor output maps undergo delayed increases in representational area after damage to other motor areas. Finally, the role of SMA in recovery of function after such lesions remains unclear because behavioral recovery appears to precede neurophysiological map changes.

  12. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synchronous retinotopic frontal-temporal activity during long-term memory for spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-05-12

    Early visual areas in occipital cortex are known to be retinotopic. Recently, retinotopic maps have been reported in frontal and parietal cortex during spatial attention and working memory. The present event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study determined whether spatial long-term memory was associated with retinotopic activity in frontal and parietal regions, and assessed whether retinotopic activity in these higher level control regions was synchronous with retinotopic activity in lower level visual sensory regions. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented at fixation and participants classified each shape as old and previously on the "left", old and previously on the "right", or "new". Retinotopic effects were manifested by accurate memory for items previously presented on the left producing activity in the right hemisphere and accurate memory for items previously presented on the right producing activity in the left hemisphere. Retinotopic ERP activity was observed in frontal regions and visual sensory (occipital and temporal) regions. In frontal cortex, retinotopic fMRI activity was localized to the frontal eye fields. There were no significant ERP or fMRI retinotopic memory effects in parietal regions. The present long-term memory retinotopic effects complement previous spatial attention and working memory findings (and suggest retinotopic activity in parietal cortex may require an external peripheral stimulus). Furthermore, ERP cross-correlogram analysis revealed that retinotopic activations in frontal and temporal regions were synchronous, indicating that these regions interact during retrieval of spatial information. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of the left auditory areas in chord discrimination in music experts as demonstrated by MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Sannemann, Christian; Noyranen, Maiju; Salonen, Johanna; Pihko, Elina

    2011-08-01

    The brain basis behind musical competence in its various forms is not yet known. To determine the pattern of hemispheric lateralization during sound-change discrimination, we recorded the magnetic counterpart of the electrical mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses in professional musicians, musical participants (with high scores in the musicality tests but without professional training in music) and non-musicians. While watching a silenced video, they were presented with short sounds with frequency and duration deviants and C major chords with C minor chords as deviants. MMNm to chord deviants was stronger in both musicians and musical participants than in non-musicians, particularly in their left hemisphere. No group differences were obtained in the MMNm strength in the right hemisphere in any of the conditions or in the left hemisphere in the case of frequency or duration deviants. Thus, in addition to professional training in music, musical aptitude (combined with lower-level musical training) is also reflected in brain functioning related to sound discrimination. The present magnetoencephalographic evidence therefore indicates that the sound discrimination abilities may be differentially distributed in the brain in musically competent and naïve participants, especially in a musical context established by chord stimuli: the higher forms of musical competence engage both auditory cortices in an integrative manner. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Area Promotes Implicit Motor Learning in a Golf Putting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Frank F; Yeung, Andrew Y; Poolton, Jamie M; Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Gilberto K K; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Implicit motor learning is characterized by low dependence on working memory and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. However, current paradigms for implicit motor learning are based on behavioral interventions that are often task-specific and limited when applied in practice. To investigate whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area during motor learning suppressed working memory activity and reduced explicit verbal-analytical involvement in movement control, thereby promoting implicit motor learning. Twenty-seven healthy individuals practiced a golf putting task during a Training Phase while receiving either real cathodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC area or sham stimulation. Their performance was assessed during a Test phase on another day. Verbal working memory capacity was assessed before and after the Training Phase, and before the Test Phase. Compared to sham stimulation, real stimulation suppressed verbal working memory activity after the Training Phase, but enhanced golf putting performance during the Training Phase and the Test Phase, especially when participants were required to multi-task. Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may foster implicit motor learning and performance in complex real-life motor tasks that occur during sports, surgery or motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy on detection of ischemic area with exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takuji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-four patients with single left anterior descending artery disease having effort angina (group A: 40 patients with hypertrophic hypertension, group B: 10 patients with hypertrophic hypertension, group C: 14 patients with non-hypertrophic hypertension) were assessed to determine the influence of hypertensive left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy on detection of ischemic area. The criterion of hypertrophy by two-dimensional echocardiography was >12 mm in the wall thickness of interventricular septal or posterior wall. Population in Group B might show low detectability in ischemic area by 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy (positive thallium rate 60%, defect score 2.7±3.6), and high lung thallium uptake and high frequence of ECG positive among three groups. In semiquantitative analysis, the washout rate of the posterolateral wall and %RD (delayed %uptake-initial %uptake) of the septal wall in patients with Group B were lowest among three groups. However, the washout rate in the septal wall against the posterior wall, and the initial %uptake and the delayed %uptake of the septal wall were not significantly different among three groups. We could conclude that the decreased washout rate in nonischemic area with hypertensive LV hypertrophy might make the ischemic area masked. (author)

  17. Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in sustained attention may lead to action slips in everyday life as irrelevant action sequences are inappropriately triggered internally or by the environment. While deficits in sustained attention have been associated with damage to the frontal lobes of the brain, little is known about the role of the frontal lobes in the Elevator Counting subtest of the Test of Everyday Attention. In the current study, 55 frontal patients subdivided into medial, orbital and lateral subgroups, 18 patients with posterior lesions and 82 healthy controls performed the Elevator Counting task. The results revealed that patients with medial and left lateral prefrontal lesions were significantly impaired on the task compared to healthy controls. Research suggests that patients with medial lesions are susceptible to competition from task irrelevant schema; whereas the left lateral group in the current study may fail to keep track of the tones already presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radionuclide angiocardiography. Improved diagnosis and quantitation of left-to-right shunts using area ratio techniques in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, P.O.; Jost, R.G.; Strauss, A.W.; Boonvisut, S.; Markham, J.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of several reported methods for detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts by radionuclides was performed in 50 children. Count ratio (C2/C1) techniques were compared with the exponential extrapolation and gamma function area ratio techniques. C2/C1 ratios accurately detected shunts and could reliably separate shunts from normals, but there was a high rate of false positives in children with valvular heart disease. The area ratio methods provided more accurate shunt quantitation and a better separation of patients with valvular heart disease than did the C2/C1 ratio. The gamma function method showed a higher correlation with oximetry than the exponential method, but the difference was not statistically significant. For accurate shunt quantitation and a reliable separation of patients with valvular heart disease from those with shunts, area ratio calculations are preferable to the C2/C1 ratio

  19. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  20. Regulatory behavior and frontal activity: Considering the role of revised-BIS in relative right frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Neal, Lauren B; Threadgill, A Hunter

    2018-01-01

    Essential to human behavior are three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and a regulatory system governing the two motivational systems. Decades of research has linked approach motivation with greater relative left frontal-cortical asymmetry. Other research has linked avoidance motivation with greater relative right frontal-cortical asymmetry. However, past work linking withdrawal motivation with greater relative right frontal asymmetry has been mixed. The current article reviews evidence suggesting that activation of the regulatory system (revised Behavioral Inhibition System [r-BIS]) may be more strongly related to greater relative right frontal asymmetry than withdrawal motivation. Specifically, research suggests that greater activation of the r-BIS is associated with greater relative right frontal activity, and reduced r-BIS activation is associated with reduced right frontal activity (greater relative left frontal activity). We review evidence examining trait and state frontal activity using EEG, source localization, lesion studies, neuronal stimulation, and fMRI supporting the idea that r-BIS may be the core personality system related to greater relative right frontal activity. In addition, the current review seeks to disentangle avoidance motivation and r-BIS as substrates of relative right frontal asymmetry. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  2. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior.

  3. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Ong, Elsie Li Chen

    2018-01-01

    It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior. PMID:29593586

  4. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  5. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  6. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  7. Comparison of left and right ventricular volume measurement using the Simpson's method and the area length method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, Klaus; Schuster, Antonius; Fruehwald, Julia; Mair, Michael; Burger, Ralph; Toepker, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ventricular volume measurement using a volumetric approach in the three standard cardiac planes and ventricular volume estimation by a geometrical model, the Area-Length method (ALM). Materials and methods: Fifty-six healthy volunteers were examined (27 males, 29 females) on a 1.5 T MR-unit with ECG-triggered steady state free precision (SSFP) Cine-MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Multiple slices in standardized planes including the short-axis view (sa), 4-chamber view (4ch), left and right 2-chamber views (2ch) were used to cover the whole heart. End-systolic and end-diastolic ventricular volumes (EDV, ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated with Simpson's rule in all planes and with ALM in the 2ch and 4ch planes. Global function parameters measured in the sa plane were compared with those obtained in the other imaging planes. Results: A very good correlation is observed when comparing functional parameters calculated with Simpson's rule in all imaging planes: for instance, the mean EDV/ESV of the left and right ventricle of the female population group measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: left ventricle EDV/ESV 114.3/44.4, 120.9/46.5, and 117.7/45.3 ml; right ventricle EDV/ESV 106.6/46.0, 101.2/41.1, and 103.5/43.0 ml. Functional parameters of the left ventricle calculated with ALM in 2ch and 4ch correlate to parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule in the range of 5-10%: for instance, the EDV/ESV of the left ventricle of the male population group measured in the sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 160.3/63.5, 163.1/59.0, and 167.0/65.7 ml. Functional parameters of the right ventricle measured with ALM in 4ch are 40-50% lower and calculated in 2ch almost double as high as compared with the parameters obtained in sa with Simpson's rule: for instance, male right ventricular EDV/ESV measured in sa, 4ch, and 2ch: 153.4/68.1, 97.5/34.5, and 280.2/123.2 ml. The EF correlates for all imaging planes measured with the Simpson's rule

  8. Controversies over the mechanisms underlying the crucial role of the left fronto-parietal areas in the representation of tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomo-clinical and neuroimaging data show that the left fronto-parietal areas play an important role in representing tools. As manipulation is an important source of knowledge about tools, it has been assumed that motor activity explains the link between tool knowledge and the left fronto-parietal areas. However, controversies exist over the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. According to a strong version of the ‘embodied cognition theory’, activation of a tool concept necessarily involves re-enactment of the corresponding kind of action. Impairment of the ability to use tools should, therefore, lead to impairment of tool knowledge. Both the ‘domains of knowledge hypothesis’ and the ‘sensory-motor model of conceptual knowledge’ refute the strong version of the ‘embodied cognition hypothesis’ but acknowledge that manipulation and other action schemata play an important role in our knowledge of tools. The basic difference between these two models is that the former is based on an innatist model and the latter holds that the brain’s organization of categories is experience dependent. Data supporting and arguing against each of these models are briefly reviewed. In particular, the following lines of research, which argue against the innate nature of the brain’s categorical organization, are discussed: (1 the observation that in patients with category-specific disorders the semantic impairment does not respect the boundaries between biological entities and artefact items; (2 data showing that experience-driven neuroplasticity in musicians is not confined to alterations of perceptual and motor maps but also leads to the establishment of higher-level semantic representations for musical instruments; (3 results of experiments using previously unfamiliar materials showing that the history of our sensory-motor experience with an object significantly affects its neural representation.

  9. USGS environmental characterization of flood sediments left in the New Orleans area after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005--Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Lovelace, John K.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Demas, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The flooding in the greater New Orleans area that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in September, 2005, left behind accumulations of sediments up to many centimeters thick on streets, lawns, parking lots, and other flat surfaces. These flood sediment deposits have been the focus of extensive study by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) due to concerns that the sediments may contain elevated levels of heavy metals, organic contaminants, and microbes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is characterizing a limited number of flood sediment samples that were collected on September 15-16 and October 6-7, 2005, from the greater New Orleans area by personnel from the USGS Louisiana Water Science Center in Baton Rouge. Small samples (< 3 pints each) of wet to dry flood sediment were collected from 11 localities around downtown New Orleans on September 15, 2005, and two large samples (40 pints each) of wet flood sediment were collected from the Chalmette area on September 16. Twelve additional samples (8-10 pints each) were collected from New Orleans, Slidell, Rigolets, and Violet on October 6 and 7. The USGS characterization studies of these flood sediments are designed to produce data and interpretations regarding how the sediments and any contained contaminants may respond to environmental processes. This information will be of use to cleanup managers and DoI/USGS scientists assessing environmental impacts of the hurricanes and subsequent cleanup activities.

  10. Letters persistence after physical offset: visual word form area and left planum temporale. An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Francesco; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Macaluso, Emiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2013-06-01

    Iconic memory is a high-capacity low-duration visual memory store that allows the persistence of a visual stimulus after its offset. The categorical nature of this store has been extensively debated. This study provides functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for brain regions underlying the persistence of postcategorical representations of visual stimuli. In a partial report paradigm, subjects matched a cued row of a 3 × 3 array of letters (postcategorical stimuli) or false fonts (precategorical stimuli) with a subsequent triplet of stimuli. The cued row was indicated by two visual flankers presented at the onset (physical stimulus readout) or after the offset of the array (iconic memory readout). The left planum temporale showed a greater modulation of the source of readout (iconic memory vs. physical stimulus) when letters were presented compared to false fonts. This is a multimodal brain region responsible for matching incoming acoustic and visual patterns with acoustic pattern templates. These findings suggest that letters persist after their physical offset in an abstract postcategorical representation. A targeted region of interest analysis revealed a similar pattern of activation in the Visual Word Form Area. These results suggest that multiple higher-order visual areas mediate iconic memory for postcategorical stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study on the development of frontal sinuses by morphometric analysis of the skull - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.13334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Peixoto Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal sinuses are cranial areas of clinical, forensic and pathology importance whose development mechanisms are still poorly defined. Nasal airflow and brain development are two of the main theories. Current analysis debates whether they are the real determinants of frontal sinuses growth, which may be proved by the skull’s morphometric analysis. Four groups of measures related to the external cranial architecture, the pyriform aperture, orbital cavities and frontal sinuses were defined. Thirty-three skulls of individuals, mean age 68 years, from the Laboratory of Anatomy of the Academic Centre of Victoria – UFPE – Brazil, were used. Statistical analysis showed total agenesis of the frontal sinus in 18.2% of the skulls. There was significant correlation between the development of the right frontal sinus and the pyriform aperture, and between the left frontal sinus and two cranial measurements (p ≤ 0.05. Significant differences between mean of pyriform aperture areas of the skulls with or without sinuses were also reported (p ≤ 0.01. Results supported the fact that there was a modulation activity by nasal aeration and brain formation in the development of frontal sinuses.

  12. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619

  14. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  15. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  16. Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Pattern as an Aid in Personal Identification and Determination of Gender: A Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kavita; Nahar, Prashant; Singh, Mohit Pal; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-01-01

    Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification. A total of 80 individuals, 40 males and 40 females, between the age ranges of 18-30 years were selected. The selected individuals had their Posterio Anterior (PA) cephalogram performed after taking their informed consent. Right and left areas and the maximum height and width of the frontal sinus were determined and septum patterns were evaluated and both patterns were also combined and compared. The radiographs were taken on Xtropan 2000 OPG X-ray machine with cephalography attachment and KODAK CR 7400 digital radiography system. Mean and SD values of the greatest height and width of frontal sinus in male and female patients were thus evaluated. The mean values of the frontal sinus were greater in males and the left area was larger than the right area, based on student's t-test at the 5% level of significance. The combination of Frontal Sinus Patterns and Nasal Septum Patterns (FP+NSP) were assessed and found that there were nine classifiable patterns in 26 (32.5%) individuals (12 males and 14 females), each of which had common representations in more than one individual. Besides these patterns, there were unique unclassifiable patterns in 54 (67.5%) individuals. The present study supports the use of radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions, frontal sinus patterns, nasal septum deviations and the combination FP+NSP patterns for personal identification and gender determination in

  17. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  18. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.

  19. Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Peng, Long; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Li-Xue; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yi; Rao, Li

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnosis value of four-dimensional echocardiography area strain (AS) combined with exercise stress echocardiography to evaluate left ventricular regional systolic function in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis. Based on treadmill exercise load status, two-dimensional conventional echocardiography and four-dimensional echocardiography area strain were performed on patients suspected coronary artery disease before coronary angiogram. Thirty patients (case group) with mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (stenosis Four-dimensional echocardiography area strain combined with exercise stress echocardiography could sensitively find left ventricular regional systolic function abnormality in patients with mild single vessel coronary artery stenosis, and locate stenosis coronary artery accordingly. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The statistical neuroanatomy of frontal networks in the macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B Averbeck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We were interested in gaining insight into the functional properties of frontal networks based upon their anatomical inputs. We took a neuroinformatics approach, carrying out maximum likelihood hierarchical cluster analysis on 25 frontal cortical areas based upon their anatomical connections, with 68 input areas representing exterosensory, chemosensory, motor, limbic, and other frontal inputs. The analysis revealed a set of statistically robust clusters. We used these clusters to divide the frontal areas into 5 groups, including ventral-lateral, ventral-medial, dorsal-medial, dorsal-lateral, and caudal-orbital groups. Each of these groups was defined by a unique set of inputs. This organization provides insight into the differential roles of each group of areas and suggests a gradient by which orbital and ventral-medial areas may be responsible for decision-making processes based on emotion and primary reinforcers, and lateral frontal areas are more involved in integrating affective and rational information into a common framework.

  1. Vestibular-related frontal cortical areas and their roles in smooth-pursuit eye movements: representation of neck velocity, neck-vestibular interactions and memory-based smooth-pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuro eFukushima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Smooth-pursuit eye movements are voluntary responses to small slow-moving objects in the fronto-parallel plane. They evolved in primates, who possess high-acuity foveae, to ensure clear vision about the moving target. The primate frontal cortex contains two smooth-pursuit related areas; the caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF and the supplementary eye fields (SEF. Both areas receive vestibular inputs. We review functional differences between the two areas in smooth-pursuit. Most FEF pursuit neurons signal pursuit parameters such as eye velocity and gaze-velocity, and are involved in cancelling the vestibulo-ocular reflex by linear addition of vestibular and smooth-pursuit responses. In contrast, gaze-velocity signals are rarely represented in the SEF. Most FEF pursuit neurons receive neck velocity inputs, while discharge modulation during pursuit and trunk-on-head rotation adds linearly. Linear addition also occurs between neck velocity responses and vestibular responses during head-on-trunk rotation in a task-dependent manner. During cross-axis pursuit-vestibular interactions, vestibular signals effectively initiate predictive pursuit eye movements. Most FEF pursuit neurons discharge during the interaction training after the onset of pursuit eye velocity, making their involvement unlikely in the initial stages of generating predictive pursuit. Comparison of representative signals in the two areas and the results of chemical inactivation during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task indicate they have different roles; the SEF plans smooth-pursuit including working memory of motion-direction, whereas the caudal FEF generates motor commands for pursuit eye movements. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were asked to perform this task, since impaired smooth-pursuit and visual working memory deficit during cognitive tasks have been reported in most patients. Preliminary results suggested specific roles of the basal ganglia in memory

  2. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  3. Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-05-26

    This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with interindividual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and covariation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its covariation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users.

  4. Frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgi, S; Loo, K K; Mizuike, C

    2010-02-01

    This study was to measure changes in frontal brain activation in young children during picture book reading with their mothers. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 15 young Japanese children (eight girls and seven boys, mean age 23.1 +/- 3.4). Two experimental tasks were presented as follows: Task 1 (picture book reading with their mothers); Task 2 (viewing of book-on-video). Duration of task stimulus was 180-sec and the 60-sec interval was filled. Brain activation was measured using an optical topography system. Significant increases in oxy-Hb were observed in both right and left frontal areas in response to Task 1 compared with Task 2. There were significant correlations between child's brain activity and mothers' and children's verbal-nonverbal behaviours. There was greater frontal lobe activation in children when they were engaged in a picture book reading task with their mothers, as opposed to passive viewing of a videotape in which the story was read to them. Social and verbal engagement of the mother in reading picture books with her young child may mediate frontal brain activity in the child.

  5. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  6. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    reciprocal to Mesolimbic dopamine activity (mood). The study aims to explore interpersonal differences in coping associated with neural properties. Method: Neuroeconomic literature search of how neural centers of Rc2/L shape risk attitude2 or coping. Results: General risk attitude is a right skewed...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  7. [A case of combined sensation disturbance and clumsiness of the left hand caused by an infarction localized to brodmann areas 1 and 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutoku, Yumiko; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2007-04-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of numbness and clumsiness of the left hand. On physical examination 23 days after the onset of cerebral infarction, she showed no apparent muscle weakness. Although her elementary somatosensory function was mostly intact with a minimal joint position sensation disturbance, she showed disturbances in tactile recognition, two-point discrimination, and weight perception. She also had difficulty in discrete finger movement of her left hand, especially when her eyes were closed. Brain MRI disclosed a small infarction localized to Brodmann areas 1 and 2 in the right postcentral gyrus. In the left median nerve short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (s-SEPs), the N20 potential was normally evoked. This finding also indicated that the area 3b was preserved. The sensory symptoms observed in this patient were compatible with the hierarchical somatosensory processing model in the postcentral gyrus proposed by Iwamura et al, in which the elementary sensation recognized in area 3 is transferred to areas 1 and 2, and then processed to discriminative sensation. The disturbed discrete finger movement in this patient probably resulted from impaired tactile recognition which could be compensated for by visual information.

  8. Left insular cortex and left SFG underlie prismatic adaptation effects on time perception: evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Barbara; Frassinetti, Francesca; Ditye, Thomas; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Costantini, Marcello; Walsh, Vincent

    2014-05-15

    Prismatic adaptation (PA) has been shown to affect left-to-right spatial representations of temporal durations. A leftward aftereffect usually distorts time representation toward an underestimation, while rightward aftereffect usually results in an overestimation of temporal durations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms that underlie PA effects on time perception. Additionally, we investigated whether the effect of PA on time is transient or stable and, in the case of stability, which cortical areas are responsible of its maintenance. Functional brain images were acquired while participants (n=17) performed a time reproduction task and a control-task before, immediately after and 30 min after PA inducing a leftward aftereffect, administered outside the scanner. The leftward aftereffect induced an underestimation of time intervals that lasted for at least 30 min. The left anterior insula and the left superior frontal gyrus showed increased functional activation immediately after versus before PA in the time versus the control-task, suggesting these brain areas to be involved in the executive spatial manipulation of the representation of time. The left middle frontal gyrus showed an increase of activation after 30 min with respect to before PA. This suggests that this brain region may play a key role in the maintenance of the PA effect over time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Visual Word Form Area remains in the dominant hemisphere for language in late-onset left occipital lobe epilepsies: A postsurgery analysis of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ricardo; Nunes, Rita Gouveia; Simões, Mário Rodrigues; Secca, Mário Forjaz; Leal, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Automatic recognition of words from letter strings is a critical processing step in reading that is lateralized to the left-hemisphere middle fusiform gyrus in the so-called Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). Surgical lesions in this location can lead to irreversible alexia. Very early left hemispheric lesions can lead to transfer of the VWFA to the nondominant hemisphere, but it is currently unknown if this capability is preserved in epilepsies developing after reading acquisition. In this study, we aimed to determine the lateralization of the VWFA in late-onset left inferior occipital lobe epilepsies and also the effect of surgical disconnection from the adjacent secondary visual areas. Two patients with focal epilepsies with onset near the VWFA underwent to surgery for epilepsy, with sparing of this area. Neuropsychology evaluations were performed before and after surgery, as well as quantitative evaluation of the speed of word reading. Comparison of the surgical localization of the lesion, with the BOLD activation associated with the contrast of words-strings, was performed, as well as a study of the associated main white fiber pathways using diffusion-weighted imaging. Neither of the patients developed alexia after surgery (similar word reading speed before and after surgery) despite the fact that the inferior occipital surgical lesions reached the neighborhood (less than 1cm) of the VWFA. Surgeries partly disconnected the VWFA from left secondary visual areas, suggesting that pathways connecting to the posterior visual ventral stream were severely affected but did not induce alexia. The anterior and superior limits of the resection suggest that the critical connection between the VWFA and the Wernicke's Angular Gyrus cortex was not affected, which is supported by the detection of this tract with probabilistic tractography. Left occipital lobe epilepsies developing after reading acquisition did not produce atypical localizations of the VWFA, even with foci in the

  10. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R

    2010-09-01

    A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital

  11. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of oxidation heat of the coal left in the mined-out area of a longwall face: Modelling using the fluent software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraba B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial CFD software program, Fluent, was used to study oxidation processes in the longwall mined-out (gob area. A three-dimensional model of the gob area with an advancing coal face has been developed. For the model, typical oxidation behavior of a bituminous coal from the Ostrava-Karviná District was incorporated as resulted from laboratory investigations. The longwall gob area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall face district. Detailed measurements in the district then enabled re-verification of the model outputs with actual data in situ. The main attention was paid to modelling the effect of grain size of the coal left in the mined-out area on the oxidation heat and gases evolution. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of an 'optimal' zone for intense development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area.

  13. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  14. Posterior paralimbic and frontal metabolite impairments in asymptomatic hypertension with different treatment outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Santos, J.M.; Fuentes, L.J.; Vidal, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in elderly persons. We studied asymptomatic hypertensive subjects using brain magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy to evaluate metabolite impairments before the appearance of symptoms in patients with different treatment outcomes. In all, 14 healthy controls and 37 asymptomatic hypertensive patients (17 controlled and 20 resistant) underwent brain structural MR and MR spectroscopy of the posterior paralimbic (PPL) area and left frontal white matter. Ischemic burden (IB), global cortical atrophy and microbleeds were analyzed with visual scales. Metabolite ratios involving N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myoinositol (ml) were computed. Ultrasound measurements, including intima-media thickness, plaques and hemodynamic ratios, were obtained. Intergroup differences in IB, atrophy and metabolite ratios, and the atrophy and IB relationship were assessed with parametric and nonparametric statistical tests. In addition, the impacts of demographic, analytic and clinical factors, ischemia and atrophy, and ultrasound measurements on metabolite ratios were assessed. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. Higher atrophy scores presented with higher total or frontal IB (P<0.05). However, there was no intergroup difference in atrophy and IB. PPL ml/Cr was increased in resistant hypertension (P<0.021), whereas frontal NAA/Cr (P<0.007) showed opposite trends between controlled (increased ratios) and resistant (decreased ratios) hypertension. Unlike PPL ml/Cr, frontal NAA/Cr showed significant correlations with the lipid profile and ultrasound measurements. PPL ml/Cr increases in resistant hypertension, and frontal NAA/Cr diverges between controlled and resistant hypertension before physical and neuropsychological symptoms appear. (author)

  15. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  16. Gelastic seizures and the anteromesial frontal lobe: a case report and review of intracranial EEG recording and electrocortical stimulation case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Bingaman, William; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    Symptomatogenic areas for ictal laughter have been described in the frontal and temporal lobes. Within the frontal lobe, gelastic seizures have been recorded from the cingulate gyrus. Electrocortical stimulation of the cingulate gyrus as well as the superior frontal gyrus induced laughter. We describe a patient whose gelastic seizures were associated with electrographic ictal activity in the mesial aspect of the right anterior frontal gyrus. The symptomatogenic area for ictal laughter in the frontal lobe may reside in the superior frontal gyrus.

  17. A Postmortem Study of Frontal and Temporal Gyri Thickness and Cell Number in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Apo, Erick; García-Sierra, Adrián; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Soto-Abraham, Virgilia; Mondragón-Maya, Alejandra; Velasco-Vales, Verónica; Pescatello, Linda S

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare cortex thickness and neuronal cell density in postmortem brain tissue from people with overweight or obesity and normal weight. The cortex thickness and neuron density of eight donors with overweight or obesity (mean = 31.6 kg/m 2 ; SD = 4.35; n = 8; 6 male) and eight donors with normal weight (mean = 21.8 kg/m 2 ; SD = 1.5; n = 8; 5 male) were compared. All participants were Mexican and lived in Mexico City. Randomly selected thickness measures of different cortex areas from the frontal and temporal lobes were analyzed based on high-resolution real-size photographs. A histological analysis of systematic-random fields was used to quantify the number of neurons in postmortem left and right of the first, second, and third gyri of frontal and temporal lobe brain samples. No statistical difference was found in cortical thickness between donors with overweight or obesity and individuals with normal weight. A smaller number of neurons was found among the donors with overweight or obesity than the donors with normal weight at different frontal and temporal areas. A lower density of neurons is associated with overweight or obesity. The morphological basis for structural brain changes in obesity requires further investigation. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Why do patients with neurodegenerative frontal syndrome fail to answer: 'In what way are an orange and a banana alike?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Valabrègue, Romain; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Garcin, Béatrice; Volle, Emmanuelle; Le Ber, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2015-02-01

    in the frontal-basal-ganglion network. Two types of errors were observed in frontal patients. The most frequent was discriminating instead of grouping items ('linking deficit'). Patients also linked items on a concrete instead of an abstract basis ('abstraction deficit'). Linking and abstraction deficits were related to partially different areas: the linking deficit to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal gyrus and both inferior parietal lobules and the abstraction deficit to the head of the caudate nuclei and the left superior frontal gyrus. These data suggest that verbal concept formation requires the integrity of the prefrontal-basal-ganglion functional network. In addition, it can be divided into two distinct cognitive processes, which are underlain by two partially different neural networks. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  20. Origami by frontal photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  1. Left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 processes syntactic gender violations in determiner phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan; van Ermingen, Muna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-10-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies make contradictory predictions about the involvement of left Brodmann's area (BA) 44 in processing local syntactic violations in determiner phrases (DPs). Some studies suggest a role for BA 44 in detecting local syntactic violations, whereas others attribute this function to the left premotor cortex. Therefore, the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether left-cytoarchitectonic BA 44 was activated when German DPs involving syntactic gender violations were compared with correct DPs (correct: 'der Baum'-the[masculine] tree[masculine]; violated: 'das Baum'--the[neuter] tree[masculine]). Grammaticality judgements were made for both visual and auditory DPs to be able to generalize the results across modalities. Grammaticality judgements involved, among others, left BA 44 and left BA 6 in the premotor cortex for visual and auditory stimuli. Most importantly, activation in left BA 44 was consistently higher for violated than for correct DPs. This finding was behaviourally corroborated by longer reaction times for violated versus correct DPs. Additional brain regions, showing the same effect, included left premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, right middle and superior frontal cortex, and left cerebellum. Based on earlier findings from the literature, the results indicate the involvement of left BA 44 in processing local syntactic violations when these include morphological features, whereas left premotor cortex seems crucial for the detection of local word category violations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  4. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  5. The Western Borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde (based on materials of sites located on the left bank of the lower Sura river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribov Nikolay N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of medieval settlements Kurmysh-4 and Murzitsyy-1, located on the left bank of the Sura river in Nizhny Novgorod oblast. The sites were discovered and surveyed in 2007-2009. These are large unfortified settlements, founded in the border area between the Russian lands and the Bulgar Ulus in the 14th century. According to written sources, the Lower Sura river area belonged to the Nizhny Novgorod princes at the time. The sites reveal a number of urban features, such as a large area, multiethnic population, traces of varied craft and trade activities. The data obtained during the preliminary investigation of these sites make it possible to add new features regarding the specificity of populating the Western borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus in the Golden Horde period.

  6. The role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotion-related phenomena: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Gable, Philip A; Peterson, Carly K

    2010-07-01

    Conceptual and empirical approaches to the study of the role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotional processes are reviewed. Although early research suggested that greater left than right frontal cortical activity was associated with positive affect, more recent research, primarily on anger, suggests that greater left than right frontal cortical activity is associated with approach motivation, which can be positive (e.g., enthusiasm) or negative in valence (e.g., anger). In addition to reviewing this research on anger, research on guilt, bipolar disorder, and various types of positive affect is reviewed with relation to their association with asymmetric frontal cortical activity. The reviewed research not only contributes to a more complete understanding of the emotive functions of asymmetric frontal cortical activity, but it also points to the importance of considering motivational direction as separate from affective valence in psychological models of emotional space. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Issues in localization of brain function: The case of lateralized frontal cortex in cognition, emotion, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A; Crocker, Laura D; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Infantolino, Zachary P; Heller, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The appeal of simple, sweeping portraits of large-scale brain mechanisms relevant to psychological phenomena competes with a rich, complex research base. As a prominent example, two views of frontal brain organization have emphasized dichotomous lateralization as a function of either emotional valence (positive/negative) or approach/avoidance motivation. Compelling findings support each. The literature has struggled to choose between them for three decades, without success. Both views are proving untenable as comprehensive models. Evidence of other frontal lateralizations, involving distinctions among dimensions of depression and anxiety, make a dichotomous view even more problematic. Recent evidence indicates that positive valence and approach motivation are associated with different areas in the left-hemisphere. Findings that appear contradictory at the level of frontal lobes as the units of analysis can be accommodated because hemodynamic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies suggest considerable functional differentiation, in specialization and activation, of subregions of frontal cortex, including their connectivity to each other and to other regions. Such findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of functional localization that accommodates aspects of multiple theoretical perspectives.

  8. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, D.; Lithgow, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  10. [Study on the psychological-health status and its relationship with social capital among left behind children in rural area, Macheng, Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang; Yang, Senbei; Xu, Yanghuan; Xie, Shu; Liu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of mental health among left-behind children in rural area and to explore its relationship with social capital. A sample of 1 031 left behind children, aged 10-18 years, was randomly selected from six schools of two townships in Macheng city of Hubei province where large number of rural parents were working in the urban area. Data from a cross-sectional survey was collected among the sampled students from primary, middle and high schools, using self-designed questionnaires which targeting the 'left-behind' condition and social capital Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students (MMHI-60). Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in mental health among different groups. Spearman correlation and logistical regression analysis were applied to assess the relationship between social capital and mental health. The prevalence of mental problems was 54.12%. Results from linear χ² test indicated that the detection rates of mental problems were parallel with the monthly pocket money and the reduction in the frequency of contacting migrant father/mother (P < 0.01). Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were senior(OR = 2.410-2.682, P < 0.001), and who reported not caring about their parents (OR = 2.048-2.420, P < 0.001)were at increased risks for mental health problems. After controlling the demographic characteristics and conditions of staying relevant factors, family social capital(OR = 0.845, 95%CI:0.801-0.891), neighborhood social capital (OR = 0.867, 95%CI:0.826-0.910)and school social capital(OR = 0.893, 95%CI:0.863-0.923) were all associated with declined risks of mental health problems, in which the family social capital was the most important one. The prevalence of mental health problems was high among the left-behind children in rural area. Much attention should be paid to assist these children in improving their mental health status. One promising approach appeared to be

  11. Frontal lobe epilepsy may present as myoclonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Doe; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2010-04-01

    We describe a patient with seizures arising from right anterior-inferior frontal lobe presenting as myoclonic epilepsy. A 19-year-old man had experienced frequent paroxysmal bilateral myoclonic jerks involving his upper arms, shoulders, neck, and upper trunk since the age of 10. His baseline EEG showed intermittent right frontal spikes, and his ictal EEG showed rhythmic sharp theta discharges in the same area. MRI revealed cortical dysplasia in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and ictal-interictal SPECT analysis by SPM showed increased signal abnormality in this region. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed defects in fasciculi in the same area. These findings suggest that frontal lobe epilepsy should be considered in some patients with myoclonic seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional segregation of the inferior frontal gyrus for syntactic processes: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuji; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Honda, Manabu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 normal volunteers to determine whether there is separate representation of syntactic, semantic, and verbal working memory processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus (GFi). We compared a sentence comprehension task with a short-term memory maintenance task to identify syntactic and semantic processing regions. To investigate the effects of syntactic and verbal working memory load while minimizing the differences in semantic processes, we used comprehension tasks with garden-path (GP) sentences, which require re-parsing, and non-garden-path (NGP) sentences. Compared with the short-term memory task, sentence comprehension activated the left GFi, including Brodmann areas (BAs) 44, 45, and 47, and the left superior temporal gyrus. In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum. In the left GFi, verbal working memory activity was located more dorsally (BA 44/45), semantic processing was located more ventrally (BA 47), and syntactic processing was located in between (BA 45). These findings indicate a close relationship between semantic and syntactic processes, and suggest that BA 45 might link verbal working memory and semantic processing via syntactic unification processes.

  13. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Huang Lianjun; Fan Zhanming; Zhang Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type Ⅰ endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with

  14. [Left lateral gaze paresis due to subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Takamori, M

    1998-03-01

    We report a case of transient left lateral gaze paresis due to a hemorrhagic lesion restricted in the right precentral gyrus. A 74-year-old female experienced a sudden clumsiness of the left upper extremity. A neurological examination revealed a left central facial paresis, distal dominant muscle weakness in the left upper limb and left lateral gaze paresis. There were no other focal neurological signs. Laboratory data were all normal. Brain CTs and MRIs demonstrated a subcortical hematoma in the right precentral gyrus. The neurological symptoms and signs disappeared over seven days. A recent physiological study suggested that the human frontal eye field (FEF) is located in the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 8) and the precentral gyrus around the precentral sulcus. More recent studies stressed the role of the precentral sulcus and the precentral gyrus. Our case supports those physiological findings. The hematoma affected both the FEF and its underlying white matter in our case. We assume the lateral gaze paresis is attributable to the disruption of the fibers from the FEF. It is likely that fibers for motor control of the face, upper extremity, and lateral gaze lie adjacently in the subcortical area.

  15. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  16. Comparison of determinations of left atrial volume by the biplane area-length and Simpson's methods using 64-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Yasuhiro; Ehara, Shoichi; Okuyama, Takuhiro

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that left atrial (LA) size is an important predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as atrial fibrillation, stroke, and congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in results of quantification of LA volume by the area-length and Simpson's methods using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). The study population consisted of 51 patients with sinus rhythm (sinus group) and 20 patients with atrial fibrillation (af group) clinically indicated for MSCT angiography for evaluation of coronary arteries. Maximum LA volume, obtained at end-systole from the phase immediately preceding mitral valve opening, was measured using the area-length and Simpson's methods. In the sinus group, the mean LA volumes, indexed to body surface area, were 48.4±17.9 ml/m 2 with the area-length method and 48.3±17.0 ml/m 2 with the Simpson's method. In the af group, the mean indexed LA volumes with the area-length method and the Simposon's method were 91.5±47.5 ml/m 2 and 90.3±45.9 ml/m 2 , respectively. LA volumes calculated by the area-length method exhibited a strong linear relationship and agreement with those calculated using Simpson's method in both the groups (sinus group: r=0.99, P<0.0001, af group: r=0.99, P<0.0001). The area-length method is a simple and reproducible means of assessment of LA volume. Standardization of LA volume assessment using MSCT is important for serial follow-up and meaningful communication of results of testing among institutions and physicians. (author)

  17. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  18. Awake surgery for WHO Grade II gliomas within "noneloquent" areas in the left dominant hemisphere: toward a "supratotal" resection. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Yordanka N; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that an extensive resection (total or subtotal) may significantly increase the overall survival in patients with WHO Grade II gliomas (low-grade gliomas [LGGs]). Yet, recent data have shown that conventional MR imaging underestimates the spatial extent of LGG, since tumor cells were found up to 20 mm around MR imaging abnormalities. Thus, it was hypothesized that an extended resection with a margin beyond MR imaging-defined abnormalities-a "supratotal" resection-might improve the outcome of LGG. However, because of the frequent location of LGG within "eloquent" brain areas, it is often difficult to achieve such a supratotal resection. This could nevertheless be possible when LGGs involve "noneloquent" areas, even in the left dominant hemisphere. The authors report on their use of awake electrical mapping to tailor the resection according to functional boundaries, that is, to pursue the resection beyond MR imaging-defined abnormalities, until corticosubcortical eloquent structures are encountered. Their aim was to apply this reliable surgical technique to LGGs located not within eloquent areas but distant from eloquent areas, to take a margin around the LGG visible on MR imaging while preserving brain function. Fifteen right-handed patients with a total of 17 tumors underwent resection of WHO Grade II gliomas involving nonfunctional areas within the left dominant hemisphere. In all patients, seizures were the initial manifestation of the tumors. Awake surgery with intraoperative electrostimulation was performed in all cases. The resection was continued until the surgeon reached cortical and subcortical areas crucial for brain function, especially language, as defined by the intrasurgical electrical mapping. The extent of resection was evaluated on postoperative FLAIR-weighted MR images. Despite transient neurological worsening in 60% of cases, all patients recovered and returned to a normal life. Seizure control was obtained in all patients

  19. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  20. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  1. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  2. Right lower limb apraxia in a patient with left supplementary motor area infarction: intactness of the corticospinal tract confirmed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Cheol Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a 50-year-old female patient with left supplementary motor area infarction who presented right lower limb apraxia and investigated the possible causes using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The patient was able to walk and climb stairs spontaneously without any assistance at 3 weeks after onset. However, she was unable to intentionally move her right lower limb although she understood what she supposed to do. The motor evoked potential evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation from the right lower limb was within the normal range, indicating that the corticospinal tract innervating the right lower limb was uninjured. Thus, we thought that her motor dysfunction was not induced by motor weakness, and confirmed her symptoms as apraxia. In addition, these results also suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation is helpful for diagnosing apraxia.

  3. Comparison of peak flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract and effective orifice area indexed to body surface area in Golden Retriever puppies to predict development of subaortic stenosis in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javard, Romain; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Côté, Etienne; Beauchamp, Guy; Pibarot, Philippe

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of Doppler-derived peak flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT Vmax) and effective orifice area indexed to body surface area (EOAi) in puppies to predict development of subaortic stenosis (SAS) in the same dogs as adults. Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. 38 Golden Retrievers. Cardiac auscultation and echocardiography were performed on 2- to 6-month-old puppies, then repeated at 12 to 18 months. Subaortic stenosis was diagnosed when LVOT Vmax was ≥ 2.3 m/s in adult dogs with left basilar systolic murmurs. All puppies with EOAi 2.3 m/s in puppyhood was 63% sensitive and 100% specific for SAS in adulthood. In puppies, LVOT Vmax was more strongly associated with a future diagnosis of SAS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.89) than was EOAi (AUC, 0.80). In puppies, the combination of LVOT Vmax and EOAi yielded slightly higher sensitivity (69%) and specificity (100%) for adult SAS than did LVOT Vmax alone. In unaffected and affected dogs, LVOT Vmax increased significantly from puppyhood to adulthood but EOAi did not. In Golden Retriever puppies, LVOT Vmax > 2.3 m/s and EOAi < 1.46 cm(2)/m(2) were both associated with a diagnosis of SAS at adulthood. The combination of these 2 criteria may result in higher sensitivity for SAS screening. Unlike LVOT Vmax, EOAi did not change during growth in either unaffected Golden Retrievers or those with SAS.

  4. Dissociable contribution of the parietal and frontal cortex to coding movement direction and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDavare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To reach for an object, we must convert its spatial location into an appropriate motor command, merging movement direction and amplitude. In humans, it has been suggested that this visuo-motor transformation occurs in a dorsomedial parieto-frontal pathway, although the causal contribution of the areas constituting the reaching circuit remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the function of either the medial intraparietal area (mIPS or dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, in each hemisphere. The task consisted in performing step-tracking movements with the right wrist towards targets located in different directions and eccentricities; the targets were either visible for the whole trial (Target-ON or flashed for 200 ms (Target-OFF. Left and right mIPS disruption led to errors in the initial direction of movements performed towards contralateral targets. These errors were corrected online in the Target-ON condition but when the target was flashed for 200 ms, mIPS TMS manifested as a larger endpoint spreading. In contrast, left PMd virtual lesions led to higher acceleration and velocity peaks - two parameters typically used to probe the planned movement amplitude - irrespective of the target position, hemifield and presentation condition; in the Target-OFF condition, left PMd TMS induced overshooting and increased the endpoint dispersion along the axis of the target direction. These results indicate that left PMd intervenes in coding amplitude during movement preparation. The critical TMS timings leading to errors in direction and amplitude were different, namely 160-100 ms before movement onset for mIPS and 100-40 ms for left PMd. TMS applied over right PMd had no significant effect. These results indicate that, during motor preparation, direction and amplitude of goal-directed movements are processed by different cortical areas, at distinct timings, and according to a specific hemispheric

  5. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  6. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment with a GLP-1R agonist over four weeks promotes weight loss-moderated changes in frontal-striatal brain structures in individuals with mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Zugman, Andre; Ahmed, Juhie

    2017-01-01

    regions (e.g. RR: 1.011, p=0.049 in the left rostral middle frontal area). Changes in regional volumes were associated with improvement in executive function (e.g. r=0.698, p=0.003 for the right superior frontal area). Adjunctive liraglutide results in clinically significant weight loss......, with corresponding improvement in cognitive function; changes in cognitive function were partially moderated by changes in brain morphometry, underscoring the interrelationship between weight and brain structure/function.......Cognitive deficits are a core feature across psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that metabolic pathways are highly relevant for the substrates and phenomenology of the cognitive domain. Herein, we aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1R agonist, on brain structural...

  8. Evaluation of Left Ventricle Function by Regional Fractional Area Change (RFAC) in a Mouse Model of Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Valsartan Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Laura; Colazzo, Francesca; Fontana, Lucia; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Piacentini, Luca; Bono, Elisa; Milano, Giuseppina; Paleari, Serena; Palermo, Annamaria; Guerrini, Uliano; Tremoli, Elena; Sironi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aim Left ventricle (LV) regional fractional area change (RFAC) measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the non-invasive localization and quantification of the degree of myocardial infarction (MI), and could be applied to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological or regenerative therapies. Here we investigate the ability of RFAC to identify regional dysfunction and discriminate the effect of pharmacological treatment with valsartan, a selective antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, in a model of MI. Methods and Results C57BL/6N mice, undergoing coronary artery ligation, were divided into two groups: untreated (MI) or treated with valsartan (MI+Val). Sham-operated mice were used as a control. Cardiac dimensions and function were assessed at baseline, 24 hours, 1 and 4 weeks post surgery by CMR and echocardiography. At sacrifice histology and whole-genome gene expression profiling were performed. RFAC was able to detect significant differences between treatment groups whereas the global ejection fraction was not. RFAC showed greater loss of regional contraction in remote non-infarcted myocardium in MI group than in MI+Val group. Consistently, in the same region MI+Val mice showed reduced myocyte hypertrophy, fibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis and modulation of target genes; in addition, left atrium volumes, appendage length and duct contraction were preserved. Conclusion In this study, RFAC effectively estimated the degree of systolic dysfunction and discriminated the regions preserved by pharmacological treatment. RFAC index is a promising tool to monitor changes in LV contraction and to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic regimens in clinical settings. PMID:26291973

  9. Frontal assessment battery and frontal atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Miyata, Jun; Obi, Tomokazu; Kubota, Manabu; Yoshizumi, Miho; Yamazaki, Kinya; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Murai, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. Materials and Methods Twenty?four ALS patients with a Mini?Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score ...

  10. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deceptive but Not Honest Manipulative Actions Are Associated with Increased Interaction between Middle and Inferior Frontal gyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Kireev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is believed to be responsible for execution of deceptive behavior and its involvement is associated with greater cognitive efforts. It is also generally assumed that deception is associated with the inhibition of default honest actions. However, the precise neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. The present study was aimed to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the underlying functional integration within the prefrontal cortex during the task which requires that subjects to deliberately mislead an opponent through the sequential execution of deceptive and honest claims. To address this issue, we performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis, which allows for statistical assessment of changes in functional relationships between active brain areas in changing psychological contexts. As a result the whole brain PPI-analysis established that both manipulative honest and deceptive claiming were associated with an increase in connectivity between the left middle frontal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ. Taking into account the role played by rTPJ in processes associated with the theory of mind the revealed data can reflect possible influence of socio-cognitive context on the process of selecting manipulative claiming regardless their honest or deceptive nature. Direct comparison between deceptive and honest claims revealed pattern enhancement of coupling between the left middle frontal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. This finding provided evidence that the execution of deception relies to a greater extent on higher-order hierarchically-organized brain mechanisms of executive control required to select between two competing deceptive or honest task sets.

  12. Frontal Brain Asymmetry in Depression with Comorbid Anxiety: A Neuropsychological Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Brady D.; Sarapas, Casey; Robison-Andrew, E. Jenna; Altman, Sarah E.; Campbell, Miranda L.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2012-01-01

    The approach-withdrawal model posits that depression and anxiety are associated with a relative right asymmetry in frontal brain activity. Most studies have tested this model using measures of cortical brain activity such as electroencephalography. However, neuropsychological tasks that differentially employ left vs. right frontal cortical regions can also be used to test hypotheses from the model. In two independent samples (Study 1 and 2), the present study investigated the performance of c...

  13. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation.

  14. Frontal recurrence of medulloblastoma five years after excision and craniospinal irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka Y

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas were originally classified under gliomas of the cerebellum until Bailey and Cushing in 1925 named these tumors as medulloblastoma. At present these tumors are classified under primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Surgical excision followed by craniospinal irradiation is the treatment of choice. A 13-year-old-girl operated for posterior fossa medulloblastoma 5 years ago presented with history of headache and vomiting on and off for 4 days in late August 2008. The MRI showed left frontal tumor which on excision was reported as medulloblastoma. Even after optimal treatment reports of recurrence abound in literature. The most common location is in the posterior fossa, followed by spinal, supratentorial, and uncommonly, systemic metastases. We conclude that medulloblastomas are highly aggressive tumor with high local recurrences if the initial excision is incomplete and that recurrence in the supratentorial area although uncommon is still a possibility. This mandates regular follow up of these children till adulthood to catch early recurrences and metastatic disease.

  15. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez Y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    CA patient showed a greater activation of these cortical areas than the TCMA patient, but these changes did not result in normal performance. Repetition of word triplet lists activated bilateral perisylvian cortices in both patients, but activation in the CA patient with very poor performance was restricted to small frontal and posterior temporal foci bilaterally. These findings suggest that dissociated repetition deficits in our cases are probably reliant on flexible interactions between left dorsal stream (spared segments, short tracts remains) and left ventral stream and on gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream.

  16. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zlatan; Stojanović, Sanja Vukadinović

    2015-09-01

    Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD) were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024). A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman's r = -0.297; p = 0.001). Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017). Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001). The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  17. Frontal and temporal volumes in Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Wu, Keng Nei; Gurbani, Suresh; Sankar, Raman; Shields, W Donald

    2009-11-01

    This study compared frontotemporal brain volumes in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. It also examined the association of these volumes with seizure, demographic, perinatal, intelligence quotient (IQ), and psychopathology variables. Twenty-six children with CAE, aged 7.5-11.8 years, and 37 children without epilepsy underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 1.5 Tesla. Tissue was segmented, and total brain, frontal lobe, frontal parcellations, and temporal lobe volumes were computed. All children had IQ testing and structured psychiatric interviews. Parents provided seizure, perinatal, and behavioral information on each child. The CAE group had significantly smaller gray matter volumes of the left orbital frontal gyrus as well as both left and right temporal lobes compared to the age- and gender-matched children without epilepsy. In the CAE group these volumes were related to age, gender, ethnicity, and pregnancy complications but not to seizure, IQ, and psychopathology variables. In the group of children without epilepsy, however, the volumes were related to IQ. These findings suggest that CAE impacts brain development in regions implicated in behavior, cognition, and language. In addition to supporting the cortical focus theory of CAE, these findings also imply that CAE is not a benign disorder.

  18. Issues in Localization of brain function: The case of lateralized frontal cortex in cognition, emotion, and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of simple, sweeping portraits of large-scale brain mechanisms relevant to psychological phenomena competes with a rich, complex research base. As a prominent example, two views of frontal brain organization have emphasized dichotomous lateralization as a function of either emotional valence (positive/negative or approach/avoidance motivation. Compelling findings support each. The literature has struggled to choose between them for three decades, without success. Both views are proving untenable as comprehensive models. Recent evidence indicates that positive valence and approach motivation are associated with different areas in the left hemisphere. Evidence of other frontal lateralizations, involving distinctions among dimensions of depression and anxiety, make a dichotomous view even more problematic. Hemodynamic and electromagnetic neuroimaging studies suggest considerable functional differentiation, in specialization and activation, of subregions of frontal cortex, including their connectivity to each other and to other regions. Such findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of functional localization that accommodates aspects of multiple theoretical perspectives.

  19. Comparison of left ventricular outflow geometry and aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis by 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Takeji; Shiota, Maiko; Izumo, Masaki; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Siegel, Robert J; Shiota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    The present study sought to elucidate the geometry of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) in patients with aortic stenosis and its effect on the accuracy of the continuity equation-based aortic valve area (AVA) estimation. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) provides high-resolution images of LVOT in patients with aortic stenosis. Thus, AVA is derived reliably with the continuity equation. Forty patients with aortic stenosis who underwent 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE), 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE), and RT3D-TEE were studied. In 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE, the LVOT areas were calculated as π × (LVOT dimension/2)(2). In RT3D-TEE, the LVOT areas and ellipticity ([diameter of the anteroposterior axis]/[diameter of the medial-lateral axis]) were evaluated by planimetry. The AVA is then determined using planimetry and the continuity equation method. LVOT shape was found to be elliptical (ellipticity of 0.80 ± 0.08). Accordingly, the LVOT areas measured by 2D-TTE (median 3.7 cm(2), interquartile range 3.1 to 4.1) and 2D-TEE (median 3.7 cm(2), interquartile range 3.1 to 4.0) were smaller than those by 3D-TEE (median 4.6 cm(2), interquartile range 3.9 to 5.3; p interquartile range 0.79 to 1.3, p interquartile range 0.64 to 0.94) and 2D-TEE (median 0.76 cm(2), interquartile range 0.62 to 0.95). Additionally, the continuity equation-based AVA by RT3D-TEE was consistent with the planimetry method. In conclusion, RT3D-TEE might allow more accurate evaluation of the elliptical LVOT geometry and continuity equation-based AVA in patients with aortic stenosis than 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dysconnection of right parietal and frontal cortex in neglect syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A lesion to the right hemisphere of the brain often leads to perceptual neglect of the left side of the sensorium. The fact that lesions to different cortical regions lead to the same symptoms points to neglect as a dysconnection syndrome that may result from the dysconnection of a distributed...... network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...... connectivity in the left hemisphere when stimuli appeared on their right. Crucially, this parieto-frontal feedback connectivity was aggravated in patients with more severe symptoms. In contrast, patients and controls did not show differences in the local connectivity within regions. These findings suggest...

  1. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  2. Bilateral generic working memory circuit requires left-lateralized addition for verbal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Manaan Kar; Mackay, Clare E; Harmer, Catherine J; Crow, Timothy J

    2008-06-01

    According to the Baddeley-Hitch model, phonological and visuospatial representations are separable components of working memory (WM) linked by a central executive. The traditional view that the separation reflects the relative contribution of the 2 hemispheres (verbal WM--left; spatial WM--right) has been challenged by the position that a common bilateral frontoparietal network subserves both domains. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is a generic WM circuit that recruits additional specialized regions for verbal and spatial processing. We designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to elicit activation in the WM circuit for verbal and spatial information using identical stimuli and applied this in 33 healthy controls. We detected left-lateralized quantitative differences in the left frontal and temporal lobe for verbal > spatial WM but no areas of activation for spatial > verbal WM. We speculate that spatial WM is analogous to a "generic" bilateral frontoparietal WM circuit we inherited from our great ape ancestors that evolved, by recruitment of additional left-lateralized frontal and temporal regions, to accommodate language.

  3. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  4. Left ventricular mass regression is independent of gradient drop and effective orifice area after aortic valve replacement with a porcine bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádaba, Justo Rafael; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Bogaert, Jan; Harringer, Wolfgang; Gerosa, Gino

    2012-11-01

    The question of whether left ventricular mass (LVM) regression following aortic valve replacement (AVR) is affected by the prosthesis indexed effective orifice area (IEOA) and transprosthetic gradient has not been fully elucidated. Data from a prospective, core-laboratory-reviewed echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was used to determine if the degree of LVM regression following AVR with two types of porcine bioprosthesis in patients suffering from predominant aortic valve stenosis (AS) was related to the prosthesis IEOA and transprosthetic gradient. Over a two-year period, 149 patients enrolled at eight centers received either an Epic or an Epic Supra aortic bioprosthesis (St. Jude Medical, MN, USA). Preoperative valve dysfunction was pure AS in 54 patients (36%) and mixed valve disease (primarily stenosis) in 95 patients (64%). LVM was determined preoperatively and at six months postoperatively, using MRI. The prosthesis IEOA and transprosthetic gradient were calculated at six months by means of echocardiography. Data were available for 111 patients at both enrolment and six months postoperatively. The LVM at enrolment and at follow up was 154.96 +/- 42.50 g and 114.83 +/- 29.20 g, respectively (p regression methods, showed LVM regression to be independent of the mean systolic pressure gradient, peak systolic pressure and prosthesis IEOA at six months (p = 0.53, 0.43, and 0.15, respectively). At six months after AVR with a porcine bioprosthesis to treat AS, there was a significant LVM regression that was independent of the prosthesis IEOA and the mean systolic pressure gradient and peak systolic pressure.

  5. Functional impairment of the frontal lobe in methamphetamine dependent patients detected on FDG-PET and WCST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Tae; Kwon, Do Hoon [Bugok National Hostipal, Changnyeong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Woo; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daeug (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    There are mounting evidences from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to support the view that patients with substance dependence have abnormalities in prefrontal cortex. However, functional deficits in prefrontal cortex has not been adequately studied in methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether methamphetamine dependent patients have metabolic abnormalities and executive dysfunction. Twenty-one abstinent methamphetamine dependent patients who were hospitalized in Bugok National Hospital underwent resting FDG-PET, after which they completed computerized versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Brain PET images were obtained 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. Significant differences of glucose metabolism were estimated for every voxel using t-statistics on SPM2 implemented in Matlab between methamphetamine dependent patients and age-matched normal controls. FDG-PET revealed significant hypometabolism in the left inferior frontal white matter (Talairach coordinates (x, y, z): -34, 7, 31) in methamphetamine dependent patients compared to the normal controls (uncorrect p<0.001, t>3.39). The nearest gray matter region was the left inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9). Methamphetamine dependent patients completed significantly fewer categories (3.662.19) and made more perseveration errors (22.0411.94) and total errors (44.5719.70) on the WCST compared to the normal controls (p<0.01). These data suggest that patients with methamphetamine dependence have functional impairments in prefrontal cortex.

  6. Functional impairment of the frontal lobe in methamphetamine dependent patients detected on FDG-PET and WCST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Tae; Kwon, Do Hoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2007-01-01

    There are mounting evidences from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to support the view that patients with substance dependence have abnormalities in prefrontal cortex. However, functional deficits in prefrontal cortex has not been adequately studied in methamphetamine dependence. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether methamphetamine dependent patients have metabolic abnormalities and executive dysfunction. Twenty-one abstinent methamphetamine dependent patients who were hospitalized in Bugok National Hospital underwent resting FDG-PET, after which they completed computerized versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Brain PET images were obtained 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG. Significant differences of glucose metabolism were estimated for every voxel using t-statistics on SPM2 implemented in Matlab between methamphetamine dependent patients and age-matched normal controls. FDG-PET revealed significant hypometabolism in the left inferior frontal white matter (Talairach coordinates (x, y, z): -34, 7, 31) in methamphetamine dependent patients compared to the normal controls (uncorrect p 3.39). The nearest gray matter region was the left inferior frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9). Methamphetamine dependent patients completed significantly fewer categories (3.662.19) and made more perseveration errors (22.0411.94) and total errors (44.5719.70) on the WCST compared to the normal controls (p<0.01). These data suggest that patients with methamphetamine dependence have functional impairments in prefrontal cortex

  7. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  8. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  9. Frontal alpha asymmetry in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Rosa; Riesel, Anja; Klawohn, Julia; Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Representation of cognitive reappraisal goals in frontal gamma oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35-55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  11. Two different trichoscopic patterns of mid-frontal scalp in patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and clinical features of androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rakowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia with progressive frontotemporal hairline recession. In some cases, hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp, similar to female pattern hair loss, may be observed. Objective. Assessment of the trichoscopic pattern of mid-frontal scalp hair loss in patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia. Material and methods. The retrospective analysis included 31 women diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia and hair loss in the mid-frontal scalp and 36 women diagnosed with female pattern hair loss. Results . In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia two different trichoscopic patterns in the mid-frontal scalp were identified. In 68% of patients (21/31 we observed a diffuse fibrotic pattern. It was characterized by irregular arrangement of follicular units with small areas with loss of follicular units, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs, normal hair shaft thickness and presence of mild perifollicular scaling. The androgenetic alopecia pattern was present in 32% of patients (10/31. It was characterized by hair shaft thickness diversity (20% or more, a percentage of vellus hairs higher than 10%, presence of yellow dots, an increased percentage of follicular units with one hair and a decreased percentage of follicular units with three hairs. Conclusions. In patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia and coexisting mid-frontal scalp hair loss, we identified two different patterns of this area in trichoscopy: the diffuse fibrotic pattern (more common and the androgenetic alopecia pattern. This observation may have therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  12. Optimal Placement of Cerebral Oximeter Monitors to Avoid the Frontal Sinus as Determined by Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alexander J; Hatem, Muhammed A; Yee, Kevin; Grocott, Hilary P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the optimal location to place cerebral oximeter optodes to avoid the frontal sinus, using the orbit of the skull as a landmark. Retrospective observational study. Academic hospital. Fifty adult patients with previously acquired computed tomography angiography scans of the head. The distance between the superior orbit of the skull and the most superior edge of the frontal sinus was measured using imaging software. The mean (SD) frontal sinus height was 16.4 (7.2) mm. There was a nonsignificant trend toward larger frontal sinus height in men compared with women (p = 0.12). Age, height, and body surface area did not correlate with frontal sinus height. Head circumference was positively correlated (r = 0.32; p = 0.03) to frontal sinus height, with a low level of predictability based on linear regression (R(2) = 0.10; p = 0.02). Placing cerebral oximeter optodes>3 cm from the superior rim of the orbit will avoid the frontal sinus in>98% of patients. Predicting the frontal sinus height based on common patient variables is difficult. Additional studies are required to evaluate the recommended height in pediatric populations and patients of various ethnic backgrounds. The clinical relevance of avoiding the frontal sinus also needs to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The classification of frontal sinus pneumatization patterns by CT-based volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel Aslier, Nesibe Gül; Karabay, Nuri; Zeybek, Gülşah; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Kiray, Amaç; Sütay, Semih; Ecevit, Mustafa Cenk

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to define the classification of frontal sinus pneumatization patterns according to three-dimensional volume measurements. Datasets of 148 sides of 74 dry skulls were generated by the computerized tomography-based volumetry to measure frontal sinus volumes. The cutoff points for frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were tested by ROC curve analysis and the validity of the diagnostic points was measured. The overall frequencies were 4.1, 14.2, 37.2 and 44.5 % for frontal sinus aplasia, hypoplasia, medium size and hyperplasia, respectively. The aplasia was bilateral in all three skulls. Hypoplasia was seen 76 % at the right side and hyperplasia was seen 56 % at the left side. The cutoff points for diagnosing frontal sinus hypoplasia and hyperplasia were '1131.25 mm(3)' (95.2 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity) and '3328.50 mm(3)' (88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity), respectively. The findings provided in the present study, which define frontal sinus pneumatization patterns by CT-based volumetry, proved that two opposite sides of the frontal sinuses are asymmetric and three-dimensional classification should be developed by CT-based volumetry, because two-dimensional evaluations lack depth measurement.

  14. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus

  15. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  16. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  17. [Influences of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health in a three-gorge area county].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Li, Jianqiao; Liu, Qin; Wang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of life event and coping style on left-behind middle school student mental health. 1405 left-behind middle school students were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling method and investigated with Middle School Student Mental Health Scale (MSSMHS), Multidimensional Life Events Rating Questionnaire for Middle School Students (MLERQ) and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ). The mental health detection rate of left-behind middle school students was 26.33%. Life event have significant influence on mental health (F = 447.624, P = 0.000). The main effect for negative coping style on mental health was significant (F = 263.669, P = 0.000). Positive coping style have effect on mental health but the main effect was not significant (F = 2.436, P = 0.119). The interaction effect of life event and negative coping style was significant (F = 23.173, P = 0.000). Life event and coping style has a certain effect on left-behind middle school student mental health, but its mechanism is complicated and still uncertain.

  18. Inferior Frontal Sensitivity to Common Speech Sounds Is Amplified by Increasing Word Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Kenneth I., Jr.; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Keren, Noam I.; Harris, Kelly C.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) exhibits increased responsiveness when people listen to words composed of speech sounds that frequently co-occur in the English language (Vaden, Piquado, & Hickok, 2011), termed high phonotactic frequency (Vitevitch & Luce, 1998). The current experiment aimed to further characterize the relation of…

  19. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  20. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  1. Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Parental Rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, R.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tops, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts

  2. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

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    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  3. Frontal-posterior coherence and cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Jessica I; Kuti, Julia; Brown, Jessica; Mahon, Jessica R; Gayda-Chelder, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The reliable measurement of brain health and cognitive function is essential in mitigating the negative effects associated with cognitive decline through early and accurate diagnosis of change. The present research explored the relationship between EEG coherence for electrodes within frontal and posterior regions, as well as coherence between frontal and posterior electrodes and performance on standard neuropsychological measures of memory and executive function. EEG coherence for eyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was calculated for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Participants (N=66; mean age=67.15years) had their resting-state EEGs recorded and completed a neuropsychological battery that assessed memory and executive function, two cognitive domains that are significantly affected during aging. A positive relationship was observed between coherence within the frontal region and performance on measures of memory and executive function for delta and beta frequency bands. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed for coherence between frontal and posterior electrode pairs, particularly within the theta frequency band, and performance on Digit Span Sequencing, a measure of working memory. The present research supports a more substantial link between EEG coherence, rather than spectral power, and cognitive function. Continued study in this area may enable EEG to be applied broadly as a diagnostic measure of cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  5. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  6. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulations of central nervous system during surgery of gliomas near eloquent areas

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    WANG Wei-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report our experiences of direct cortical stimulation in surgery of gliomas located in eloquent areas. Methods Clinical data of 157 patients with gliomas underwent awake craniotomy with the direct electrical stimulation for functional mapping of the eloquent areas were analysed retrospectively. Results Negative cortical stimulation was found in 4 patients, and positive cortical stimulation was achieved in 153 patients (97.45% . Four hundred and ninty -six cortical sites in 139 patients were detected for motor response by direct electrical stimulation, 70 sites in 21 patients for sensory, 112 sites in 91 patients for language (such as counting and naming. The positive areas of counting disturbance were mainly seen at the lower part of left precentral gyri operculum of left inferior frontal gyri, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyri, posterior part of left middle frontal gyri, and posterior part of left superior frontal gyri. Postoperative MRI showed 92 patients (58.60% achieved total resection, 55 cases (35.03% subtotal and 10 cases (6.37% partial. One hundred and ten patients (70.06% were diagnosed as having low grade glimas, including 71 cases of astrocytoma, 26 cases of oligodendroglioma, and 13 cases of mixed astro ? oligodendroglioma, 47 patients (29.94% were high grade gliomas, including 19 cases of glioblastoma, 15 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, and 13 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. After operation 53 patients (33.76% occurred transient postoperative paralysis, 39 patients (24.84% transient language disturbance and 4 patients (2.55% permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation is a reliable, precise and safety method for functional mapping of the eloquent areas. This technique allows us to achieve 'maximal safety resection' in glioma surgery.

  7. Measuring the volume of frontal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lu; Liu Peifang; Ye Zhaoxiang; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of frontal lobe in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Two hundred Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., age range from 18 to 30, age range from 31 to 40, age range from 41 to 50, age range from 51 to 60, and age range from 61 to 70. Each group contained 20 males and 20 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three- dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. We used the manual method to trace the region of interest and measured the left and right frontal lobe volumes separately. All the data were analyzed with SPSS (version 13.0). The sex differences in the frontal lobe volumes were analyzed by independent-samples t test, and the side differences were analyzed by paired-samples t test. Correlation and regression analysis was used between the age and the frontal lobe volumes. Results: In 200 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, the total frontal lobe volumes was (563±73) cm 3 . For male, the volumes of the left and the right frontal lobe were (288±42) cm 3 and (292±41) cm 3 , respectively. The volumes of the left and right frontal lobe in 100 women were (273±30)cm 3 and (274±30) cm 3 respectively. The differences of sex (t=3.334, P 0.05). There were negative correlations between the frontal lobe volumes and age in men and women (r=-0.586, -0.498, P< 0.01). Conclusions: The total frontal lobe volume of men was larger than that of women. The volume of the right frontal lobe was larger than the left frontal lobe in men, and the asymmetries didn't exist in women. The total frontal lobe volumes were both shrinking with age in men and women, which was more rapid in men than in women. (authors)

  8. Frontal alpha asymmetry predicts inhibitory processing in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alissa J; Kinzel, Chantelle; Salgari, Giulia C; Loo, Sandra K

    2017-07-28

    Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors. ADHD youth (ADHD: n = 25) and healthy, typically developing controls (TD: n = 25) underwent an electroencephalography (EEG) recording while completing a go/no-go task-a commonly used test measuring behavioral inhibition. In addition, advanced signal processing for source localization estimated the location of signal generators underlying frontal alpha asymmetry (FA) during correct and incorrect trials. This is the first study in ADHD to demonstrate that the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may be responsible for generating frontal alpha. During failed inhibition trials, ADHD youth displayed greater FA than TD youth. In addition, within the ADHD group, frontal asymmetry during later processing stages (i.e., 400-800ms after stimulus) predicted a higher number of commission errors throughout the task. These results suggest that frontal alpha asymmetry may be a specific biomarker of cognitive disinhibition among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CE verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia: a comparison with frontal lobe lesion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce K; Patrick, Regan E; Stuss, Donald T; Gillingham, Susan; Zipursky, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ)-related verbal memory impairment is hypothesized to be mediated, in part, by frontal lobe (FTL) dysfunction. However, little research has contrasted the performance of SCZ patients with that of patients exhibiting circumscribed frontal lesions. The current study compared verbal episodic memory in patients with SCZ and focal FTL lesions (left frontal, LF; right frontal, RF; and bi-frontal, BF) on a four-trial list learning task consisting of three lists of varying semantic organizational structure. Each dependent variable was examined at two levels: scores collapsed across all four trials and learning scores (i.e., trial 4-trial 1). Performance deficits were observed in each patient group across most dependent measures at both levels. Regarding patient group differences, SCZ patients outperformed LF/BF patients (i.e., either learning scores or scores collapsed across trial) on free recall, primacy, primary memory, secondary memory, and subjective organization, whereas they only outperformed RF patients on the semantically blocked list on recency and primary memory. Collectively, these results indicate that the pattern of memory performance is largely similar between patients with SCZ and those with RF lesions. These data support tentative arguments that verbal episodic memory deficits in SCZ may be mediated by frontal dysfunction in the right hemisphere.

  10. Autobiographical memory of the recent past following frontal cortex or temporal lobe excisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.

  11. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  12. South-east frontier of the Russian Empire and the processes on the division of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of the XIX century

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    Alexey I. Kortunov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the issue related to the peculiarities of formation of the south-east frontier of the Russian Empire and with the process on separation of the border areas of the Orenburg line (in particular of the Ural River left bank area between Kirghiz-Kaysaks and Ural Cossacks in the second half of XIX century. The author pays particular attention to the problem of the resolution of disputes between the Ural Cossacks and Kirghiz-Kaysaks by local and central authorities.

  13. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  14. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

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    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  15. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R; O'Shea, Andrew M; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance ( N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function.

  16. Corpus callosum lipoma with frontal encephalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, A.; Rao, V.R.K.; Ravi Mandalam, K.; Gupta, A.K.; Kumar, S.; Joseph, S.; Unni, M.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomographic and plain X-ray observations in a patient with corpus callosum lipoma associated with frontal encephalocele are reported. The rarity of the lesion and the specific diagnostic criteria on CT are emphasised. (orig.)

  17. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kopp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility, commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice—the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  18. Learning of serial digits leads to frontal activation in functional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Hakki Muammer; Karakaş, Sirel

    2006-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that performance on the serial digit learning test (SDLT) is dependent upon the mesial temporal lobes, which are responsible for learning and its consolidation. However, an effective SDLT performance is also dependent upon sequencing, temporal ordering, and the utilization of mnemonic strategies. All of these processes are among the functions of the frontal lobes; in spite of this, the relationship between SDLT performance and the frontal lobes has not been demonstrated with previously used mapping techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of the brain that are activated by SDLT performance. Ten healthy, right handed volunteers (mean age, 20.1 years; SD: 3.3) who had 12 years of education were studied with a 1.0 T MR imaging scanner. BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) contrast and a modified SDLT were used. Activated loci were automatically mapped using a proportional grid. In learning, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right (80%) and the left hemispheres (50%). In recall, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right hemisphere (60%). Activations were observed in 2.5+/-0.97 Talairach volumes in learning, whereas they encompassed 1.7+/-0.95 volumes in recall. The difference between both phases (learning and recall) regarding total activated volume was significant (p SDLT performance was not related to learning or to recall, but to a function that is common to both of these cognitive processes. A candidate for this common factor may be the executive functions, which also include serial position processing and temporal ordering.

  19. No inherent left and right side in human 'mental number line': evidence from right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Merola, Sheila; Ottaviani, Teresa; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Bueti, Domenica; Rossetti, Yves; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2012-08-01

    Spatial reasoning has a relevant role in mathematics and helps daily computational activities. It is widely assumed that in cultures with left-to-right reading, numbers are organized along the mental equivalent of a ruler, the mental number line, with small magnitudes located to the left of larger ones. Patients with right brain damage can disregard smaller numbers while mentally setting the midpoint of number intervals. This has been interpreted as a sign of spatial neglect for numbers on the left side of the mental number line and taken as a strong argument for the intrinsic left-to-right organization of the mental number line. Here, we put forward the understanding of this cognitive disability by discovering that patients with right brain damage disregard smaller numbers both when these are mapped on the left side of the mental number line and on the right side of an imagined clock face. This shows that the right hemisphere supports the representation of small numerical magnitudes independently from their mapping on the left or the right side of a spatial-mental layout. In addition, the study of the anatomical correlates through voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and the mapping of lesion peaks on the diffusion tensor imaging-based reconstruction of white matter pathways showed that the rightward bias in the imagined clock-face was correlated with lesions of high-level middle temporal visual areas that code stimuli in object-centred spatial coordinates, i.e. stimuli that, like a clock face, have an inherent left and right side. In contrast, bias towards higher numbers on the mental number line was linked to white matter damage in the frontal component of the parietal-frontal number network. These anatomical findings show that the human brain does not represent the mental number line as an object with an inherent left and right side. We conclude that the bias towards higher numbers in the mental bisection of number intervals does not depend on left side spatial

  20. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  1. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2014-11-01

    Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  4. Aberrant connectivity of areas for decoding degraded speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Sommer, Iris E; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychotic experience. Various mechanisms including misattribution of inner speech and imbalance between bottom-up and top-down factors in auditory perception potentially due to aberrant connectivity between frontal and temporo-parietal areas have been suggested to underlie AVH. Experimental evidence for disturbed connectivity of networks sustaining auditory-verbal processing is, however, sparse. We compared functional resting-state connectivity in 49 psychotic patients with frequent AVH and 49 matched controls. The analysis was seeded from the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), thalamus, angular gyrus (AG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as these regions are implicated in extracting meaning from impoverished speech-like sounds. Aberrant connectivity was found for all seeds. Decreased connectivity was observed between the left MTG and its right homotope, between the left AG and the surrounding inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and the left inferior temporal gyrus, between the left thalamus and the right cerebellum, as well as between the left IFG and left IPC, and dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC). Increased connectivity was observed between the left IFG and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left insula and between the left thalamus and the left fusiform gyrus/hippocampus. The predisposition to experience AVH might result from decoupling between the speech production system (IFG, insula and SMA) and the self-monitoring system (DLPFC, VLPFC, IPC) leading to misattribution of inner speech. Furthermore, decreased connectivity between nodes involved in speech processing (AG, MTG) and other regions implicated in auditory processing might reflect aberrant top-down influences in AVH.

  5. The threshold for conscious report: Signal loss and response bias in visual and frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Bram; Dagnino, Bruno; Vartak, Devavrat; Safaai, Houman; Panzeri, Stefano; Dehaene, Stanislas; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2018-05-04

    Why are some visual stimuli consciously detected, whereas others remain subliminal? We investigated the fate of weak visual stimuli in the visual and frontal cortex of awake monkeys trained to report stimulus presence. Reported stimuli were associated with strong sustained activity in the frontal cortex, and frontal activity was weaker and quickly decayed for unreported stimuli. Information about weak stimuli could be lost at successive stages en route from the visual to the frontal cortex, and these propagation failures were confirmed through microstimulation of area V1. Fluctuations in response bias and sensitivity during perception of identical stimuli were traced back to prestimulus brain-state markers. A model in which stimuli become consciously reportable when they elicit a nonlinear ignition process in higher cortical areas explained our results. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

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    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract.

  7. The findings of Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in the patients with left anterior thalamic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Jeong, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The thalamus has multiple connections with areas of the cerebral cortex involved in arousal and cognition. Thalamic damage has been reported to be associated with variable neuropsychological dysfunctions and dementia. This study evaluates the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by using SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and examining the neuropsychological abnormalities of 4 patients with anterior thalamic infarctions. Four patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions and eleven normal controls were evaluated. K-MMSE and the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery were performed within 2 days after stroke. The normalized SPECT data of 4 patients were compared to those of 11 controls for the detection of areas with decreased rCBF by SPM analysis. All 4 patients showed anterograde amnesia in their verbal memory, which was not improved by recognition. Dysexecutive features were occasionally present, such as decreased word fluency and impaired Stroop test results. SPM analysis revealed decreased rCBF in the left supra marginal gyrus, the superior temporal gyrus, the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, the medial dorsal and anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. The changes of rCBF in patients with left anterior thalamic infarctions may be due to the remote suppression on metabolism by the interruption of the cortico-subcortical circuit, which connects the anterior thalamic nucleus and various cortical areas. The executive dysfunction and dysnomia may be caused by the left dorsolateral frontal dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical circuit. Anterograde amnesia with storage deficit may be caused by the disruption of mamillothalamic tract

  8. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  9. Functional connectivity profile of the human inferior frontal junction: involvement in a cognitive control network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundermann Benedikt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human inferior frontal junction area (IFJ is critically involved in three main component processes of cognitive control (working memory, task switching and inhibitory control. As it overlaps with several areas in established anatomical labeling schemes, it is considered to be underreported as a functionally distinct location in the neuroimaging literature. While recent studies explicitly focused on the IFJ's anatomical organization and functional role as a single brain area, it is usually not explicitly denominated in studies on cognitive networks. However based on few analyses in small datasets constrained by specific a priori assumptions on its functional specialization, the IFJ has been postulated to be part of a cognitive control network. Goal of this meta-analysis was to establish the IFJ’s connectivity profile on a high formal level of evidence by aggregating published implicit knowledge about its co-activations. We applied meta-analytical connectivity modeling (MACM based on the activation likelihood estimation (ALE method without specific assumptions regarding functional specialization on 180 (reporting left IFJ activity and 131 (right IFJ published functional neuroimaging experiments derived from the BrainMap database. This method is based on coordinates in stereotaxic space, not on anatomical descriptors. Results The IFJ is significantly co-activated with areas in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, medial frontal gyrus / pre-SMA, posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal junction / cerebellum, thalamus and putamen as well as language and motor areas. Results are corroborated by an independent resting-state fMRI analysis. Conclusions These results support the assumption that the IFJ is part of a previously described cognitive control network. They also highlight the involvement of subcortical structures in this system. A direct line is drawn from works on the functional

  10. Eye contact with neutral and smiling faces: effects on frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Pönkänen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we have shown that seeing another person live with a direct vs. averted gaze results in greater relative left-sided frontal asymmetry in the electroencephalography (EEG, associated with approach motivation, and in enhanced skin conductance responses indicating autonomic arousal. In our studies, however, the stimulus persons had a neutral expression. In real-life social interaction, eye contact is often associated with a smile, which is another signal of the sender’s approach-related motivation. A smile could therefore enhance the affective-motivational responses to eye contact. In the present study, we investigated whether the facial expression (neutral vs. smile would modulate the frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal to seeing a direct vs. an averted gaze in faces presented live through a liquid crystal shutter. The results showed that the skin conductance responses were greater for the direct than the averted gaze and that the effect of gaze direction was more pronounced for a smiling than a neutral face. However, the frontal EEG asymmetry results revealed a more complex pattern. Participants whose responses to seeing the other person were overall indicative of leftward frontal activity (indicative of approach showed greater relative left-sided asymmetry for the direct vs. averted gaze, whereas participants whose responses were overall indicative of rightward frontal activity (indicative of avoidance showed greater relative right-sided asymmetry to direct vs. averted gaze. The other person’s facial expression did not have an effect on the frontal EEG asymmetry. These findings may reflect that another’s direct gaze, as compared to their smile, has a more dominant role in regulating perceivers’ approach motivation.

  11. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  13. Approach and withdrawal motivation in schizophrenia: an examination of frontal brain asymmetric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Mathis, Ian; Miller, Gregory A; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational disturbances are common in schizophrenia, their neurophysiological and psychological basis is poorly understood. This electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the well-established motivational direction model of asymmetric frontal brain activity in schizophrenia. According to this model, relative left frontal activity in the resting EEG reflects enhanced approach motivation tendencies, whereas relative right frontal activity reflects enhanced withdrawal motivation tendencies. Twenty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls completed resting EEG assessments of frontal asymmetry in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz), as well as a self-report measure of behavioral activation and inhibition system (BIS/BAS) sensitivity. Patients showed an atypical pattern of differences from controls. On the EEG measure patients failed to show the left lateralized activity that was present in controls, suggesting diminished approach motivation. On the self-report measure, patients reported higher BIS sensitivity than controls, which is typically interpreted as heightened withdrawal motivation. EEG asymmetry scores did not significantly correlate with BIS/BAS scores or with clinical symptom ratings among patients. The overall pattern suggests a motivational disturbance in schizophrenia characterized by elements of both diminished approach and elevated withdrawal tendencies.

  14. Contrasting losses and gains increases the predictability of behavior by frontal EEG asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telpaz, Ariel; Yechiam, Eldad

    2014-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry measured at rest using EEG is considered a stable marker of approach-avoidance behaviors and risk taking. We examined whether without salient cues of attention in the form of losses, predictability is reduced. Fifty-seven participants performed an experiential decision task in a gain-only, loss-only, and mixed (gains and losses) condition. Increased risk taking on the part of individuals with relatively high left frontal activation, as denoted by the Alpha band, was only observed in the task involving both gains and losses. Event-related potential analysis sheds light on the processes leading to this pattern. Left-frontal dominant individuals had increased fronto-central P300 activation following risky compared to safe outcomes, while right-frontal dominant individuals did not show a P300 difference following safe and risky outcomes. This interaction also only emerged when losses were contrasted with gains. The findings highlight the sensitivity of behavioral predictability to cues of valence. PMID:24817845

  15. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  16. Effects of Level of Retrieval Success on Recall-Related Frontal and Medial Temporal Lobe Activations

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    Daniela Montaldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain dedicated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to compare the neuroactivation produced by the cued recall of response words in a set of studied word pairs with that produced by the cued retrieval of words semantically related to unstudied stimulus words. Six of the 12 subjects scanned were extensively trained so as to have good memory of the studied pairs and the remaining six were minimally trained so as to have poor memory. When comparing episodic with semantic retrieval, the well-trained subjects showed significant left medial temporal lobe activation, which was also significantly greater than that shown by the poorly trained subjects, who failed to show significant medial temporal lobe activation. In contrast, the poorly trained subjects showed significant bilateral frontal lobe activation, which was significantly greater than that shown by the well-trained subjects who failed to show significant frontal lobe activation. The frontal activations occurred mainly in the dorsolateral region, but extended into the ventrolateral and, to a lesser extent, the frontal polar regions. It is argued that whereas the medial temporal lobe activation increased as the proportion of response words successfully recalled increased, the bilateral frontal lobe activation increased in proportion to retrieval effort, which was greater when learning had been less good.

  17. The effect of focal cortical frontal and posterior lesions on recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Vessela; Gao, Fuqiang; Black, Sandra E; Schwartz, Michael L; Kovacevic, Natasha; Alexander, Michael P; Levine, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recognition memory can be subdivided into two processes: recollection (a contextually rich memory) and familiarity (a sense that an item is old). The brain network supporting recognition encompasses frontal, parietal and medial temporal regions. Which specific regions within the frontal lobe are critical for recollection vs. familiarity, however, are unknown; past studies of focal lesion patients have yielded conflicting results. We examined patients with focal lesions confined to medial polar (MP), right dorsal frontal (RDF), right frontotemporal (RFT), left dorsal frontal (LDF), temporal, and parietal regions and matched controls. A series of words and their humorous definitions were presented either auditorily or visually to all participants. Recall, recognition, and source memory were tested at 30 min and 24 h delay, along with "remember/know" judgments for recognized items. The MP, RDF, temporal and parietal groups were impaired on subjectively reported recollection; their intact recognition performance was supported by familiarity. None of the groups were impaired on cued recall, recognition familiarity or source memory. These findings suggest that the MP and RDF regions, along with parietal and temporal regions, are necessary for subjectively-reported recollection, while the LDF and right frontal ventral regions, as those affected in the RTF group, are not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Right Posterior Inferior Frontal Gyrus Contributes to Phonological Word Decisions in the Healthy Brain: Evidence from Dual-Site TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J.; Baumgaertner, Annette; Geiss, Gesine; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we used online transcranial magnetic stimulation…

  19. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2006-05-15

    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  20. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  1. Injury risk functions for frontal oblique collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andricevic, Nino; Junge, Mirko; Krampe, Jonas

    2018-03-09

    The objective of this article was the construction of injury risk functions (IRFs) for front row occupants in oblique frontal crashes and a comparison to IRF of nonoblique frontal crashes from the same data set. Crashes of modern vehicles from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) were used as the basis for the construction of a logistic injury risk model. Static deformation, measured via displaced voxels on the postcrash vehicles, was used to calculate the energy dissipated in the crash. This measure of accident severity was termed objective equivalent speed (oEES) because it does not depend on the accident reconstruction and thus eliminates reconstruction biases like impact direction and vehicle model year. Imputation from property damage cases was used to describe underrepresented low-severity crashes-a known shortcoming of GIDAS. Binary logistic regression was used to relate the stimuli (oEES) to the binary outcome variable (injured or not injured). IRFs for the oblique frontal impact and nonoblique frontal impact were computed for the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ and 3+ levels for adults (18-64 years). For a given stimulus, the probability of injury for a belted driver was higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique frontal crashes. For the 25% injury risk at MAIS 2+ level, the corresponding stimulus for oblique crashes was 40 km/h but it was 64 km/h for nonoblique frontal crashes. The risk of obtaining MAIS 2+ injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in nonoblique crashes. In the real world, most MAIS 2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30 to 60 km/h.

  2. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  3. The effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Bora, Aydin; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Etli, Yasin; Gumus, Orhan; Keskin, Siddik

    2017-01-01

    To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CTscans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane. Volumes were calculated using the Hospital Information Management Systems and Image Archiving and Management Systemprogram. The Statistical Package of the Social Science version 13 was used for statistical analyses.  Results: We determined differences in the frontal sinus measurements of different age groups in a Turkish adult population. Frontal sinus dimensions were usually higher in females and lower in males after 40-49 years of age than their younger counterparts, but the measurements were lower in females and higher in males in 70≤ years of age group than 60-69 years of age. Left frontal sinus was dominant in young age groups but right frontal sinus was dominant in groups 40-49 years of age or older.  Conclusion: We observed crossing of the measurements between the different age groups, which we could not find clear explanations. The results of such studies may affect forensic identification from frontal sinus measurements.

  4. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  5. Let's inhibit our excitement: the relationships between Stroop, behavioral disinhibition, and the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Lara H; Laluz, Victor; Jang, Jung; Ketelle, Robin; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-09-01

    The Stroop (Stroop, 1935) is a frequently used neuropsychological test, with poor performance typically interpreted as indicative of disinhibition and frontal lobe damage. This study tested those interpretations by examining relationships between Stroop performance, behavioral disinhibition, and frontal lobe atrophy. Participants were 112 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, recruited through UCSF's Memory and Aging Center. Participants received comprehensive dementia evaluations including structural MRI, neuropsychological testing, and informant interviews. Freesurfer, a semiautomated parcellation program, was used to analyze 1.5T MRI scans. Behavioral disinhibition was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (Cummings, 1997; Cummings et al., 1994) Disinhibition Scale. The sample (n = 112) mean age was 65.40 (SD = 8.60) years, education was 16.64 (SD = 2.54) years, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein et al., 1975) was 26.63 (SD = 3.32). Hierarchical linear regressions were used for data analysis. Controlling for age, MMSE, and color naming, Stroop performance was not significantly associated with disinhibition (β = 0.01, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .29). Hierarchical regressions controlling for age, MMSE, color naming, intracranial volume, and temporal and parietal lobes, examined whether left or right hemisphere regions predict Stroop performance. Bilaterally, parietal lobe atrophy best predicted poorer Stroop (left: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002; right: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002). Of frontal regions, only dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy predicted poorer Stroop (β = 0.001, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .03); left and right anterior cingulate cortex atrophy predicted better Stroop (left: β = -0.003, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02; right: β = -0.004, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02). These findings suggest Stroop performance is a poor measure of behavioral disinhibition and frontal lobe atrophy even among a relatively high-risk population

  6. Retinopathy after low dose irradiation for an intracranial tumor of the frontal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaas, T.; Thorud, E.; Jetne, V.; Conradi, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    A 32-year-old man underwent an operation for an oligodendroglioma of the left frontal lobe. Postoperatively he was irradiated to a target dose of 54 Gy. One year later hedeveloped bilateral retinopathy quite similar to diabetic retinopathy. There were no clinical or biochemical signs of diabetes or hematological disease. The calcultated maximum dose to the retina was 11 Gy. This is to our knowledge the lowest retinal dose of ionizing radiation reported to produce retinopathy. (author)

  7. Bilateral frontal activation associated with cutaneous stimulation of elixir field: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Yu Leung; Yeung, David K W; Lam, Wan

    2006-01-01

    Elixir Field, or Dan Tian, is the area where energy is stored and nourished in the body according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Although Dan Tian stimulation is a major concept in Qigong healing and has been practiced for thousands of years, and while there are some recent empirical evidence of its effect, its neurophysiological basis remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain activations associated with external stimulation of the lower Elixir Field in ten normal subjects, and compared the results with the stimulation of their right hands. While right-hand stimulation resulted in left postcentral gyrus activation, stimulation of the lower Elixir Field resulted in bilateral activations including the medial and superior frontal gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, insula, and cingulate gyrus. These findings suggest that stimulation of the Elixir Field is not only associated with activation of the sensory motor cortex but also with cortical regions that mediate planning, attention, and memory.

  8. Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-Amazonian inebriant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Romero, Sergio; Grasa, Eva; Mena, Esther; Carrió, Ignasi; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychoactive plant tea which contains the serotonergic psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors that render DMT orally active. Previous investigations with ayahuasca have highlighted a psychotropic effect profile characterized by enhanced introspective attention, with individuals reporting altered somatic perceptions and intense emotional modifications, frequently accompanied by visual imagery. Despite recent advances in the study of ayahuasca pharmacology, the neural correlates of acute ayahuasca intoxication remain largely unknown. To investigate the effects of ayahuasca administration on regional cerebral blood flow. Fifteen male volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received a single oral dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca equivalent to 1.0 mg DMT/kg body weight and a placebo in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured 100-110 min after drug administration by means of single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Ayahuasca administration led to significant activation of frontal and paralimbic brain regions. Increased blood perfusion was observed bilaterally in the anterior insula, with greater intensity in the right hemisphere, and in the anterior cingulate/frontomedial cortex of the right hemisphere, areas previously implicated in somatic awareness, subjective feeling states, and emotional arousal. Additional increases were observed in the left amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus, a structure also involved in emotional arousal. The present results suggest that ayahuasca interacts with neural systems that are central to interoception and emotional processing and point to a modulatory role of serotonergic neurotransmission in these processes.

  9. Interrelations between motivational stance, cortical excitability, and the frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry of emotion: A Transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Weijer, A.D. de; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Morgan, B.E.; Honk, E.J. van

    2008-01-01

    everal electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for the frontal asymmetry of emotion. In this model the motivation to approach is lateralized to the left, whereas the motivation to avoidance is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The aim of the present experiment was to seek evidence for

  10. Functional resting-state connectivity of the human motor network: differences between right- and left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Handedness is associated with differences in activation levels in various motor tasks performed with the dominant or non-dominant hand. Here we tested whether handedness is reflected in the functional architecture of the motor system even in the absence of an overt motor task. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated 18 right- and 18 left-handers. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps of the primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsolateral premotor cortex (PMd), pre-SMA, inferior frontal junction and motor putamen were compared between right- and left-handers. We further used a multivariate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier to reveal the specificity of brain regions for classifying handedness based on individual resting-state maps. Using left M1 as seed region, functional connectivity analysis revealed stronger interhemispheric functional connectivity between left M1 and right PMd in right-handers as compared to left-handers. This connectivity cluster contributed to the individual classification of right- and left-handers with 86.2% accuracy. Consistently, also seeding from right PMd yielded a similar handedness-dependent effect in left M1, albeit with lower classification accuracy (78.1%). Control analyses of the other resting-state networks including the speech and the visual network revealed no significant differences in functional connectivity related to handedness. In conclusion, our data revealed an intrinsically higher functional connectivity in right-handers. These results may help to explain that hand preference is more lateralized in right-handers than in left-handers. Furthermore, enhanced functional connectivity between left M1 and right PMd may serve as an individual marker of handedness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common variants at 1p36 are associated with superior frontal gyrus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, R; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, F; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Fukunaga, M; Nemoto, K; Takahashi, T; Tochigi, M; Onitsuka, T; Yamasue, H; Matsuo, K; Iidaka, T; Iwata, N; Suzuki, M; Takeda, M; Kasai, K; Ozaki, N

    2014-10-21

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG), an area of the brain frequently found to have reduced gray matter in patients with schizophrenia, is involved in self-awareness and emotion, which are impaired in schizophrenia. However, no genome-wide association studies of SFG volume have investigated in patients with schizophrenia. To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SFG volumes, we demonstrated a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gray matter volumes in the right or left SFG of 158 patients with schizophrenia and 378 healthy subjects. We attempted to bioinformatically ascertain the potential effects of the top hit polymorphism on the expression levels of genes at the genome-wide region. We found associations between five variants on 1p36.12 and the right SFG volume at a widely used benchmark for genome-wide significance (P5.0 × 10(-8)); however, the rs4654899 polymorphism was identified as the locus with the second strongest association with the volume of the left SFG (P=1.5 × 10(-6)). In silico analyses revealed a proxy SNP of rs4654899 had effect on gene expression of two genes, HP1BP3 lying 3' to EIF4G3 (P=7.8 × 10(-6)) and CAPN14 at 2p (P=6.3 × 10(-6)), which are expressed in moderate-to-high levels throughout the adult human SFG. These results contribute to understand genetic architecture of a brain structure possibly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. The Patagonian scallop fishing grounds in shelf break frontal areas: the non assessed benthic fraction Bancos de pesca de vieira patagónica en áreas del frente de talud: fracción bentónica no evaluada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Picard dredge was used to sample the benthic community in shelf break frontal areas off Argentina in order to detect species that could be sensitive to fishing activities but are not usually caught during the annual monitoring of Patagonian scallop and associated fauna. The present results show at least 62 taxa not reported previously as components of the benthos in the scallop grounds that are potentially subjected to trawling disturbance.En este trabajo se utilizó una rastra Picard para muestrear la comunidad bentónica en áreas del frente de talud, Argentina, para detectar especies que serían sensibles a la actividad pesquera pero no son capturadas usualmente durante los monitoreos anuales de vieira patagónica y fauna asociada. Los resultados muestran que al menos 62 taxa, no reportados previamente como componentes del bentos en los bancos de vieira, están potencialmente sujetos a perturbaciones por el arrastre.

  13. Is the frontal dysexecutive syndrome due to a working memory deficit? Evidence from patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Martine; Dujardin, Kathy; Hénon, Hilde; Godefroy, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Although frontal dysexecutive disorders are frequently considered to be due to working memory deficit, this has not been systematically examined and very little evidence is available for impairment of working memory in frontal damage. The objective of this study was to examine the components of working memory, their anatomy and the relations with executive functions in patients with stroke involving the frontal or posterior cortex. The study population consisted of 29 patients (frontal: n=17; posterior: n=12) and 29 matched controls. Phonological loop (letter and word spans, phonological store; rehearsal process), visuospatial sketchpad (visuospatial span) and the central executive (working memory span, dual task and updating process) were examined. The group comparison analysis showed impairment in the frontal group of: (i) verbal spans (Pdeficit of the rehearsal process (P=0.006); (iii) visuospatial span (P=0.04); (iv) working memory span (P=0.001) that disappeared after controlling for verbal span and (v) running memory (P=0.05) unrelated to updating conditions. The clinical anatomical correlation study showed that impairment of the central executive depended on frontal and posterior lesion. Cognitive dysexecutive disorders were observed in 11/20 patients with central executive deficit and an inverse dissociation was observed in two patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that cognitive dysexecutive disorders had the highest ability to discriminate frontal lesions (area under curve=0.844, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.95; P=0.0001; central executive impairment: area under curve=0.732, 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.82; P=0.006). This study reveals that frontal lesions induce mild impairment of short-term memory associated with a deficit of the rehearsal process supporting the role of the frontal lobe in this process; the central executive depends on lesions in the frontal lobe and posterior regions accounting for its low frequency

  14. Auditory verbal hallucinations predominantly activate the right inferior frontal area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Blom, Jan-Dirk; Willems, Anne; Kushan, Leila; Slotema, Karin; Boks, Marco P. M.; Daalman, Kirstin; Hoek, Hans W.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is largely unknown. Several functional imaging studies have measured cerebral activation during these hallucinations, but sample sizes were relatively small (one to eight subjects) and findings inconsistent. In this study cerebral

  15. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right

  16. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  17. Enhancing motor network activity using real-time functional MRI neurofeedback of left premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Ferreira Marins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a technique of potential therapeutic relevance that allows individuals to be aware of their own neurophysiological responses and to voluntarily modulate the activity of specific brain regions, such as the premotor cortex (PMC, important for motor recovery after brain injury. We investigated (i whether healthy human volunteers are able to up-regulate the activity of the left PMC during a right hand finger tapping motor imagery (MI task while receiving continuous fMRI-neurofeedback, and (ii whether successful modulation of brain activity influenced non-targeted motor control regions. During the MI task, participants of the neurofeedback group (NFB received ongoing visual feedback representing the level of fMRI responses within their left PMC. Control (CTL group participants were shown similar visual stimuli, but these were non-contingent on brain activity. Both groups showed equivalent levels of behavioral ratings on arousal and motor imagery, before and during the fMRI protocol. In the NFB, but not in CLT group, brain activation during the last run compared to the first run revealed increased activation in the left PMC. In addition, the NFB group showed increased activation in motor control regions extending beyond the left PMC target area, including the supplementary motor area, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Moreover, in the last run, the NFB group showed stronger activation in the left PMC/inferior frontal gyrus when compared to the CTL group. Our results indicate that modulation of PMC and associated motor control areas can be achieved during a single neurofeedback-fMRI session. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MI-based neurofeedback training, with direct implications for rehabilitation strategies in severe brain disorders, such as stroke.

  18. Re-evaluation of lung to thorax transverse area ratio immediately before birth in predicting postnatal short-term outcomes of fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Saki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yuka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Miyoshi, Kina; Nagata, Kouji; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the lung-to-thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) immediately before birth is of diagnostic value for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in cases of isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of fetal isolated left-sided CDH managed at our institution between April 2008 and July 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on LTR immediately before birth, using a cut-off value of 0.08. We compared the proportions of subjects within the two groups who survived until discharge using Fisher's exact test. Further, using Spearman's rank correlation, we assessed whether LTR was correlated with length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supplemental oxygen. Twenty-nine subjects were included (five with LTR < 0.08, and 24 with LTR ≥ 0.08). The proportion of subjects surviving until discharge was 40% (2/5) for patients with LTR < 0.08, as compared with 96% (23/24) for those with LTR ≥ 0.08. LTR measured immediately before birth was negatively correlated with the postnatal length of stay (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, rs = -0.486), and the duration of supplemental oxygen (rs = -0.537). Further, the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with a lower LTR value. LTR immediately before birth is useful for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In particular, patients with prenatal LTR value less than 0.08 are at increased risk of postnatal death. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  20. Study on cerebral activation areas during repetition with functional MRI in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yohju

    2009-01-01

    For cerebral activation of speech areas in functional MRI (f-MRI) study, the usefulness of an optical microphone, which made it possible to perform task repetition at real time during scanning, was examined. Subjects were 25 healthy adults (mean age, 27.1±5.6 years), who consisted of 15 right-handed and 10 left-handed or ambidextrous persons. Tasks comprised repetition of monosyllables, non-words, words and sentences. The repetition tasks were covertly performed during scanning of f-MRI by using an optical microphone. In both the right-handed and non-right-handed groups, activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (sensory speech area) were most frequently observed during all of the tasks. In the right-handed group, activations in the left inferior frontal (motor speech area) and superior temporal gyri were significantly more often observed than those in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. From an assessment of the laterality index (LI), left-side dominant activation was frequently seen in most of the cerebral regions including sensory and motor speech areas, although right-side and bilateral dominant activations were observed in a few cases. In both groups, activations in regions associated with sensory speech were significantly more often seen than those in regions associated with motor speech. The present predominant activations in regions involved in sensory speech indicate that the optical microphone is useful in f-MRI studies using task repetition. (author)

  1. [Trauma induced left maxillary sinus dislocation of eyeball--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Liu, Cuiping; Cui, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Patient male, 27 year old. Left facial and head trauma for 6 hours, due to motor vehicle accident. Patient state of mind was clear at arrival to hospital. Body temperature: 36C; Pulse: 80 Time/Minute; Breath: 20 Time/Minute; Blood pressure: 120/80 mm Hg. An irregular, horizontal laceration at arch of left eyebrow, approximately 8-10 cm. A laceration on left wing of nose skin, approximately 1 cm. A laceration also under lower eyelid skin of right eye, approximately 2 cm. Left blepharedema and enophthalmos. Orbital and nasal sinuses CT indications:contusion and laceration of the left frontal lobe of brain; fracture of the left orbital frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid bone, left nasal, maxillary sinus and zygoma with soft tissue contusion and laceration; the left eyeball and optic nerve sunk into the maxillary sinus (See figure 1). (1) Multiple orbital fractures; (2) Left maxillary sinus dislocation of eyeball; (3) The left frontal lobe contusion and laceration of brain.

  2. Preservation of Frontal Sinus Anatomy and Outflow Tract Following Frontal Trauma with Dural Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wei Ming Kwek, MBBS, MRCS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Our case report describes a young male mechanic who was hit in his face by a spring while repairing a car, resulting in traumatic injury to the frontal sinus, with fractures of both the anterior and the posterior tables with dural defect and cerebrospinal fluid leak. Current guidelines recommend that comminuted and/or displaced fractures of the posterior table of the frontal sinus with dural defects should be either cranialized or obliterated. In this patient, instead of cranializing or obliterating the frontal sinus, we managed to preserve the frontal sinus anatomy and its outflow tract using a combined open bicoronal and nasoendoscopic approach. This avoids the long-term complications associated with cranialization or obliteration including mucocele formation and frontocutaneous fistula.

  3. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  4. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields during saccadic eye movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Takagi, Mineo; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated activity-induced signal intensity changes in the human cerebral cortex during horizontal saccadic eye movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast method. Compared with central fixation, significant signal increases were observed bilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) during saccadic conditions. The location of the activated area was consistent with that of previously reported frontal eye fields (FEF). These results suggest that fMRI has potential merit for the study of cortical control of eye movements in humans. (author)

  6. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk of future meningitis. The frontal ... Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a ... sinus. The wound is closed in two layers ... He had noted displacement of his right eye.

  7. Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: a possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2003-12-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of musical structure were investigated using functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) and a unique stimulus manipulation involving scrambled music. The experiment compared brain responses while participants listened to classical music and scrambled versions of that same music. Specifically, the scrambled versions disrupted musical structure while holding low-level musical attributes constant, including the psychoacoustic features of the music such as pitch, loudness, and timbre. Comparing music to its scrambled counterpart, we found focal activation in the pars orbitalis region (Brodmann Area 47) of the left inferior frontal cortex, a region that has been previously closely associated with the processing of linguistic structure in spoken and signed language, and its right hemisphere homologue. We speculate that this particular region of inferior frontal cortex may be more generally responsible for processing fine-structured stimuli that evolve over time, not merely those that are linguistic.

  8. Frontal lobe epilepsy and EEG: Neurophysiological approach

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    La epilepsia del lóbulo frontal es la segunda más frecuente en la mayoría de las series publicadas, después de la epilepsia temporal. Sus características clínicas y electroencefalográficas son muy variadas, lo que hace de su diagnóstico y tratamiento un reto en la práctica clínica. Las crisis frontales suelen aparecen en "clusters", con frecuencia generalizan y el aspecto electroencefalográfico de la actividad intercrítica y crítica suele ser difícil de interpretar por la gran difusión que su...

  9. Confabulation and memory impairments following frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have provided considerable evidence for frontal lobe involvement in memory processing. Memory impairments arc also frequently reported in patients with frontal lobe lesions. However detailed anatomical localisation is rare, making integration of lesion and imaging findings difficult. An investigation of the functional and anatomical contributions of the frontal lobes to memory was conducted in 42 patients with frontal lobe lesions, examining memory processes identified in...

  10. Intraparenchymal schwannoma of the frontal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogaonkar M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A 45 year old woman with bifrontal headaches and progressive diminution in vision over 6 months was found to have bilateral papilloedema. CT scan showed large right frontal lesion with surrounding oedema. Right basal frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to excise the multinodular, intraparenchymatous tumor. Hispathology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Post-operative course was uneventful with disappearance of pre-operative signs and symptoms.

  11. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subregions of the human superior frontal gyrus and their connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qin, Wen; Liu, Huaigui; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-09-01

    The superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is located at the superior part of the prefrontal cortex and is involved in a variety of functions, suggesting the existence of functional subregions. However, parcellation schemes of the human SFG and the connection patterns of each subregion remain unclear. We firstly parcellated the human SFG into the anteromedial (SFGam), dorsolateral (SFGdl), and posterior (SFGp) subregions based on diffusion tensor tractography. The SFGam was anatomically connected with the anterior and mid-cingulate cortices, which are critical nodes of the cognitive control network and the default mode network (DMN). The SFGdl was connected with the middle and inferior frontal gyri, which are involved in the cognitive execution network. The SFGp was connected with the precentral gyrus, caudate, thalamus, and frontal operculum, which are nodes of the motor control network. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis further revealed that the SFGam was mainly correlated with the cognitive control network and the DMN; the SFGdl was correlated with the cognitive execution network and the DMN; and the SFGp was correlated with the sensorimotor-related brain regions. The SFGam and SFGdl were further parcellated into three and two subclusters that are well corresponding to Brodmann areas. These findings suggest that the human SFG consists of multiple dissociable subregions that have distinct connection patterns and that these subregions are involved in different functional networks and serve different functions. These results may improve our understanding on the functional complexity of the SFG and provide us an approach to investigate the SFG at the subregional level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  16. The frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions and their diagnostic relevance for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Chester, Serana K; Laluz, Victor; Bostrom, Alan; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2012-09-01

    On tests of design fluency, an examinee draws as many different designs as possible in a specified time limit while avoiding repetition. The neuroanatomical substrates and diagnostic group differences of design fluency repetition errors and total correct scores were examined in 110 individuals diagnosed with dementia, 53 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 37 neurologically healthy controls. The errors correlated significantly with volumes in the right and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right and left superior frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right striatum, but did not correlate with volumes in any parietal or temporal lobe regions. Regression analyses indicated that the lateral OFC may be particularly crucial for preventing these errors, even after excluding patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the analysis. Total correct correlated more diffusely with volumes in the right and left frontal and parietal cortex, the right temporal cortex, and the right striatum and thalamus. Patients diagnosed with bvFTD made significantly more repetition errors than patients diagnosed with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal syndrome. In contrast, total correct design scores did not differentiate the dementia patients. These results highlight the frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions. In addition, the results indicate that the propensity to make these errors supports the diagnosis of bvFTD. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-11).

  17. Virtual endoscopy and 3D volume rendering in the management of frontal sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belina, Stanko; Cuk, Viseslav; Klapan, Ivica

    2009-12-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are commonly caused by traffic accidents, assaults, industrial accidents and gunshot wounds. Classical roentgenography has high proportion of false negative findings in cases of FSF and is not particularly useful in examining the severity of damage to the frontal sinus posterior table and the nasofrontal duct region. High resolution computed tomography was inavoidable during the management of such patients but it may produce large quantity of 2D images. Postprocessing of datasets acquired by high resolution computer tomography from patients with severe head trauma may offer a valuable additional help in diagnostics and surgery planning. We performed virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3D volume rendering (3DVR) on high resolution CT data acquired from a 54-year-old man with with both anterior and posterior frontal sinus wall fracture in order to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data acquisition was done by Siemens Somatom Emotion scanner and postprocessing was performed with Syngo 2006G software. VE and 3DVR were performed in a man who suffered blunt trauma to his forehead and nose in an traffic accident. Left frontal sinus anterior wall fracture without dislocation and fracture of tabula interna with dislocation were found. 3D position and orientation of fracture lines were shown in by 3D rendering software. We concluded that VE and 3DVR can clearly display the anatomic structure of the paranasal sinuses and nasopharyngeal cavity, revealing damage to the sinus wall caused by a fracture and its relationship to surrounding anatomical structures.

  18. Frontal cortical asymmetry may partially mediate the influence of social power on anger expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When irritated by other people, powerful people usually tend to express their anger explicitly and directly, whereas people in less powerful positions are more likely not to show their feelings freely. The neural mechanism behind power and its influence on expression tendency has been scarcely explored. This study recorded frontal EEG activity at rest and frontal EEG activation while participants were engaged in a writing task describing an anger-eliciting event, in which they were irritated by people with higher or lower social power. Participants’ anger levels and expression inclination levels were self-reported on nine-point visual analog Likert scales, and also rated by independent raters based on the essays they had written. The results showed that high social power was indeed associated with greater anger expression tendency and greater left frontal activation than low social power. This is in line with the approach-inhibition theory of power. The mid-frontal asymmetric activation served as a partial mediator between social power and expression inclination. This effect may relate to the functions of the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of information integration and evaluation and the control of motivation direction, as reported by previous studies.

  19. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism.

  20. Frontal and parietal cortical interactions with distributed visual representations during selective attention and action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2013-10-16

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity.

  1. Frontal and Parietal Cortical Interactions with Distributed Visual Representations during Selective Attention and Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Rodella, Claudia; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo; Pellicciari, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task ( n -back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials). A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  3. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  4. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  5. How Left Inferior Frontal Cortex Participates in Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Swinney, David; Walenski, Matthew; Zurif, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    We report on three experiments that provide a real-time processing perspective on the poor comprehension of Broca's aphasic patients for non-canonically structured sentences. In the first experiment we presented sentences (via a Cross Modal Lexical Priming (CMLP) paradigm) to Broca's patients at a normal rate of speech. Unlike the pattern found…

  6. Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Risk Taking Interact to Predict Left-Frontal EEG Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Chelsea L.; Goldstein, Kim E.; LaBelle, Denise R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) hypersensitivity theory of bipolar disorder (BD; Alloy & Abramson, 2010; Depue & Iacono, 1989) suggests that hyperreactivity in the BAS results in the extreme fluctuations of mood characteristic of BD. In addition to risk conferred by BAS hypersensitivity, cognitive and personality variables may play a role in determining risk. We evaluated relationships among BAS sensitivity, risk taking, and an electrophysiological correlate of approach motivation, relat...

  7. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we...... used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phonological or semantic word judgements on the same set of auditorily and visually presented words while......IFG impaired reaction times and accuracy of phonological but not semantic decisions for visually and auditorily presented words. TMS over left, right or bilateral pIFG disrupted phonological processing to a similar degree. In a follow-up experiment, the intensity threshold for delaying phonological judgements...

  8. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  9. Visual perception and frontal lobe in intellectual disabilities: a study with evoked potentials and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruata, J; Caro-Martínez, E; Martínez Pérez, L; Borja, M

    2010-12-01

    Perception disorders are frequently observed in persons with intellectual disability (ID) and their influence on cognition has been discussed. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanisms behind these alterations by analysing the visual event related potentials early component, the N1 wave, which is related to perception alterations in several pathologies. Additionally, the relationship between N1 and neuropsychological visual tests was studied with the aim to understand its functional significance in ID persons. A group of 69 subjects, with etiologically heterogeneous mild ID, performed an odd-ball task of active discrimination of geometric figures. N1a (frontal) and N1b (post-occipital) waves were obtained from the evoked potentials. They also performed several neuropsychological tests. Only component N1a, produced by the target stimulus, showed significant correlations with the visual integration, visual semantic association, visual analogical reasoning tests, Perceptual Reasoning Index (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition) and intelligence quotient. The systematic correlations, produced by the target stimulus in perceptual abilities tasks, with the N1a (frontal) and not with N1b (posterior), suggest that the visual perception process involves frontal participation. These correlations support the idea that the N1a and N1b are not equivalent. The relationship between frontal functions and early stages of visual perception is revised and discussed, as well as the frontal contribution with the neuropsychological tests used. A possible relationship between the frontal activity dysfunction in ID and perceptive problems is suggested. Perceptive alteration observed in persons with ID could indeed be because of altered sensory areas, but also to a failure in the frontal participation of perceptive processes conceived as elaborations inside reverberant circuits of perception-action. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability

  10. Dissociated Crossed Speech Areas in a Tumour Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Mauler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca’s area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere. The outcome of the Wada test and the intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulation mapping were congruent with this finding. After tumour removal, language area function was fully preserved. Upon the occurrence of brain tumours with a risk of impaired speech function, the rare dissociate crossed speech areas disposition may gain a clinically relevant meaning by allowing for more extended tumour removal. Hence, for its identification, diagnostics which take into account both brain hemispheres, such as fMRI, are recommended.

  11. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  12. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  13. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  14. 47-year-old man with left leg numbness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Saad, Ali G; Kesari, Santosh

    2013-03-01

    A 47-year-old white male with a history of uveitis, hypercalcemia and nephrolithiasis presented with acute onset partial seizure. On exam he had decreased sensation to light touch on his left lower extremity. A Brain MRI revealed a right frontal mass, which was initially thought to be a metastatic lesion or a primary brain tumor. However, biopsy of the lesion revealed it to be a non-caseating granulomatous lesion consistent with neurosarcoidosis.

  15. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: una enfermedad en auge

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana-Sancho, A. de; Piris-García, X.; Valle-García, N.; Hierro-Cámara, M.

    2016-01-01

    La alopecia frontal fibrosante (AFF) es un tipo de alopecia cicatricial cuya incidencia está aumentando de forma significativa en nuestro país. Se caracteriza por un retroceso en la línea de implantación del pelo a nivel frontotemporal que afecta mayoritariamente a mujeres postmenopaúsicas, con un impacto negativo en su calidad de vida. Se asocia a menopausia precoz en un 14% de los casos y a hipotiroidismo en un 15%. Con respecto al tratamiento, son los inhibidores de la 5alfa-reductasa, los...

  16. Effects of positive emotion, extraversion, and dopamine on cognitive stability-flexibility and frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The influence of positive emotions on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility has been suggested to (a) differ among various positive emotional/motivational states (e.g., of varying approach motivation intensity), and (b) be mediated by brain dopamine (DA). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (ASY) is considered an indicator of approach motivational states and may be modulated by DA. The personality trait of extraversion is strongly linked to positive emotions and is now thought to reflect DA-based individual differences in incentive/approach motivation. The present study independently manipulated positive emotion (high approach wanting-expectancy [WE] vs. low approach warmth-liking [WL]) and dopamine (placebo vs. DA D2 blocker sulpiride) to examine their effects on both cognitive stability-flexibility and emotion-related ASY changes. The results showed numerically lower stability-flexibility in WE versus WL under placebo and a complete reversal of this effect under the D2 blocker, no differentiation between WE and WL groups in terms of emotion-related ASY change, but an association between self-reported WE and WL and ASY changes toward left and right frontal cortical activity, respectively. Finally, extraversion was positively associated with both stability-flexibility and ASY changes toward left frontal cortical activity under placebo, and these associations were completely reversed under the D2 blocker. The results (a) support a dopaminergic basis for frontal EEG asymmetry, extraversion, and the modulating effect of positive emotions on stability-flexibility, and (b) extend previous reports of cognitive differences between introverts and extraverts. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation as a Neural Marker of Successful Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus—a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  18. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation as a neural marker of successful lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Kwantes, Peter J; Mandel, David R; Bouak, Fethi; Nakashima, Ann; Smith, Ingrid; Lam, Quan

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM) load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low) × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie) repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus-a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  19. Dissociating frontal regions that co-lateralize with different ventral occipitotemporal regions during word processing☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal sulcus (vOT) sustains strong interactions with the inferior frontal cortex during word processing. Consequently, activation in both regions co-lateralize towards the same hemisphere in healthy subjects. Because the determinants of lateralisation differ across posterior, middle and anterior vOT subregions, we investigated whether lateralisation in different inferior frontal regions would co-vary with lateralisation in the three different vOT subregions. A whole brain analysis found that, during semantic decisions on written words, laterality covaried in (1) posterior vOT and the precentral gyrus; (2) middle vOT and the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and supramarginal gyrus; and (3) anterior vOT and the pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus and thalamus. These findings increase the spatial resolution of our understanding of how vOT interacts with other brain areas during semantic categorisation on words. PMID:23728081

  20. Subcortical frontal lesions on MRI in patients with motor neurone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadou, E.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Varelas, P.; Papageorgiou, C. [Eginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [Department of Radiology, CT/MRI Unit, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens (Greece)

    1998-05-01

    MRI was performed in 32 patients with motor neurone disease (26 men and 6 women, aged 40-77 years) and in a control group of 21 subjects. Of the patients studied, 19 had definite and 11 probable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and two had progressive bulbar palsy. In 10 patients there were asymmetrical bilateral foci of increased signal intensity on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted images, confined to the white matter. Two patients had only cortical frontal atrophy and slightly increased ventricular size, whereas 20 had normal MRI. The focal lesions were not confined to corticospinal tracts, but were also observed in subcortical frontal areas. While the lesions along the corticospinal tracts correspond to pyramidal tract degeneration, the subcortical foci correlate with degeneration of the frontal bundles and indicate generalised involvement of the central nervous system. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  1. Subcortical frontal lesions on MRI in patients with motor neurone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreadou, E.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Varelas, P.; Papageorgiou, C.; Gouliamos, A.

    1998-01-01

    MRI was performed in 32 patients with motor neurone disease (26 men and 6 women, aged 40-77 years) and in a control group of 21 subjects. Of the patients studied, 19 had definite and 11 probable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and two had progressive bulbar palsy. In 10 patients there were asymmetrical bilateral foci of increased signal intensity on proton-density and T 2 -weighted images, confined to the white matter. Two patients had only cortical frontal atrophy and slightly increased ventricular size, whereas 20 had normal MRI. The focal lesions were not confined to corticospinal tracts, but were also observed in subcortical frontal areas. While the lesions along the corticospinal tracts correspond to pyramidal tract degeneration, the subcortical foci correlate with degeneration of the frontal bundles and indicate generalised involvement of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  2. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation.

  3. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  4. Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Gongora, Mariana; Alvarenga, Renato; Alonso, Luciano; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design). In each of the 4 treatments (Placebo—PL, TA, ET and TA+ET), electroencephalography (EEG) tests were conducted in order to analyze changes in absolute beta power (ABP) in the frontal lobe in 3 moments: baseline (before ingestion), peak (before exercise) and post-exercise. In the PL treatment, the frontal areas showed decrease in ABP after exercise. However, in the ET+TA treatment, ABP values were greater after exercise, except for Fp1. The ET treatment had no effect on the Superior Frontal Gyrus area (F3, Fz and F4) and ABP decreased after exercise in Fp1 and Fp2. In the TA treatment, ABP increased after exercise, while it decreased at the peak moment in most of the frontal regions, except for Fp1, F3 and Fz. We concluded that after a moderate intensity exercise, a decrease in cortical activity occurs in placebo treatment. Moreover, we found a inhibitory effect of TA on cortical activity before exercise and a increased in cortical activity after exercise. A small ET dose is not enough to alter ABP in all regions of the frontal cortex and, in combination with TA, it showed an increase in the frontal cortex activity at the post-exercise moment. PMID:29538445

  5. Better without (lateral) frontal cortex? Insight problems solved by frontal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Toraldo, Alessio; D'Agostini, Serena; Skrap, Miran

    2005-12-01

    A recently proposed theory on frontal lobe functions claims that the prefrontal cortex, particularly its dorso-lateral aspect, is crucial in defining a set of responses suitable for a particular task, and biasing these for selection. This activity is carried out for virtually any kind of non-routine tasks, without distinction of content. The aim of this study is to test the prediction of Frith's 'sculpting the response space' hypothesis by means of an 'insight' problem-solving task, namely the matchstick arithmetic task. Starting from Knoblich et al.'s interpretation for the failure of healthy controls to solve the matchstick problem, and Frith's theory on the role of dorsolateral frontal cortex, we derived the counterintuitive prediction that patients with focal damage to the lateral frontal cortex should perform better than a group of healthy participants on this rather difficult task. We administered the matchstick task to 35 patients (aged 26-65 years) with a single focal brain lesion as determined by a CT or an MRI scan, and to 23 healthy participants (aged 34-62 years). The findings seemed in line with theoretical predictions. While only 43% of healthy participants could solve the most difficult matchstick problems ('type C'), 82% of lateral frontal patients did so (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the combination of Frith's and Knoblich et al.'s theories was corroborated.

  6. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n...... = 567) underwent standard Doppler echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force was obtained from the mitral orifice area and Doppler mitral peak A velocity. Patients were divided into groups with normal or increased left atrial systolic force (>14.33 kdyn). Left atrial systolic force was high in 297...

  7. What is left behind when the lights go off? Comparing the abundance and composition of litter in urban areas with different intensity of nightlife use in Mar del Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Maria Eugenia; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo

    2014-08-01

    Nightlife activities represents an important source of urban litter; the latter often being left behind or abandoned in public places and streets. Mar del Plata is a very important city on the Atlantic coast of Argentina and is the main tourism destination in the South Atlantic region of South America. However, few studies on urban litter related to nightlife activities have been conducted in the area. Here we assessed (i) the abundance and composition of litter, and (ii) the spatial and temporal variations of its abundance, diversity, richness and evenness in urbanized areas with different intensity of nightlife activities from April 2008 to March 2009. An overall of 13,503 items were counted. Around 92% of the total litter was comprised by cigarette butts, papers and plastics. We found significant spatial differences in the abundance of litter between sampling sites, with the greatest amounts of litter at the Alem site followed by the Hipólito site (both with an intensive nightlife activity) compared with the Chauvin site (a quiet high-income neighborhood). The composition of litter of the Alem and the Hipólito sites was relatively similar and both sites differ with respect to the Chauvin site. Cigarette butts, papers, and plastics were the items that contributed most to the dissimilarity between sampling sites. The diversity of litter was the single community parameter that significantly differed from the other seasons. We discussed the potential effect of nightlife activities on the amounts and quality of urban litter in the city of Mar del Plata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  9. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  10. Measurements of the frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging scan. III. Analysis of sex differences with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao; Nakazawa, Shinpei

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether there is sex difference in the growth of the frontal and prefrontal lobes, we quantitatively measured the volume of these lobes by three dimensional (3-D) MRI in healthy 12 males (5 months to 39 years) and six females (1 year 11 months to 27 years). The left and right lobes were studied separately. The 3-D MRI data were acquired by the fast spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) sequence using a 1.5 T MR imager. The frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes were measured by the volume measurement function of the Workstation. In males, the left to right ratio (L/R ratio) of the frontal and prefrontal lobes increased with age. On the contrary, in females, L/R ratio of the frontal and prefrontal lobes showed no significant change with advancing age. These results highlighted sex-specific maturational changes of the frontal and prefrontal lobes and suggested that quantitative data on the frontal and prefrontal lobe are important in interpreting brain abnormalities in children with developmental disorders. (author)

  11. Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Marina; Rufener, Katharina S; Kuehne, Maria; Matzke, Mike; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential. Previous studies suggested a major role of structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal cortex including a frontal hypo-activation in fatigue pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated the neuromodulatory effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on objective measures of fatigue-related decrements in cognitive performance in MS patients. P300 during an auditory oddball task and simple reaction times in an alertness test were recorded at baseline, during and after stimulation. Compared to sham, anodal tDCS caused an increase in P300 amplitude that persisted after the end of stimulation and eliminated the fatigue-related increase in RT over the course of a testing session. Our findings demonstrate that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC can counteract performance decrements associated with fatigue thereby leading to an improvement in the patient's ability to cope with sustained cognitive demands. This provides causal evidence for the functional relevance of the left DLPFC in fatigue pathophysiology. The results indicate that tDCS-induced modulations of frontal activity can be an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of fatigue-related declines in cognitive performance in MS patients.

  12. Amygdala-frontal connectivity predicts internalizing symptom recovery among inpatient adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Patriquin, Michelle; Salas, Ramiro; Newlin, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kaylah; Baldwin, Philip; Fowler, Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of using biological measures to predict the trajectory of symptoms among adolescent psychiatric inpatients has important implications. This study aimed to examine emotion regulation ability (measured via self-report) and a hypothesized proxy in resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC] between the amygdala and frontal brain regions as baseline predictors of internalizing symptom recovery during inpatient care. 196 adolescents (61% female; Mage = 15.20; SD = 1.48) completed the Achenbach Brief Problem Monitor (BPM) each week during their inpatient care. RSFC (n = 45) and self-report data of emotion regulation (n = 196) were collected at baseline. The average internalizing symptom score at admission was high (α 0 = 66.52), exceeding the BPM's clinical cut off score of 65. On average, internalizing symptom scores declined significantly, by 0.40 points per week (p = 0.004). While self-reported emotion regulation was associated with admission levels of internalizing problems, it did not predict change in symptoms. RSFC between left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with the intercept-higher connectivity was associated with higher internalizing at admission-and the slope- higher connectivity was associated with a more positive slope (i.e., less decline in symptoms). RSFC between the right amygdala and the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly, positively correlated with the slope parameter. Results indicate the potential of biologically-based measures that can be developed further for personalized care in adolescent psychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. Lateralization of activated prefrontal cortex is important in determining the dominant hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karibe, Hiroshi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Shirane, Reizo; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    In patients with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas, lateralized activation of prefrontal cortex was assessed to determine language dominant hemisphere using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve patients presented with aphasias were studied. In all patients, either the left frontal operculum or left superior temporal gyri were adjacent to gliomas, suggesting all patients had left lateralization in hemispheric language dominance. Functional MRI was performed with a 1.5T scanner, with the sequence of gradient-echo type echo-planar imaging. As specific language tasks, verb, word, and capping generations were used. Using a cross-correlation analysis method, primary activation maps were generated using pixels with a correlation coefficient of >0.7. The lateralized activation of frontal operculum, superior temporal gyrus, and prefrontal cortex were assessed by calculating laterality index. Successful activation of frontal operculum was imaged in 11 of 12, in the superior temporal gyrus or prefrontal cortex. Three out of 11 cases had apparent activation lateralized in the right frontal operculum on fMRI, while 3 out of 12 cases showed activation in the superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, all cases had apparent activation lateralized to the left prefrontal cortex. Significant activation of true language area may not be obtained in some cases with gliomas adjacent to classical language areas. In such cases, lateralization of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex may reflect lateralization in the dominant hemisphere. These result suggest that the assessment of apparent activation of prefrontal cortex lateralization is useful to determine the language dominant hemisphere. (author)

  14. Frontal sinus asymmetry: Is it an effect of cranial asymmetry? X-ray analysis of 469 normal adult human frontal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kanat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is no study in the literature that investigates an asymmetric morphological feature of the frontal sinus (FS. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-nine consecutive direct X-rays of FSs were analyzed for the asymmetry between the right and left sides. When an asymmetry in the height and contour of the FS existed, this difference was quantified. Results: Of the 469 patients, X-rays of 402 patients (85.7%, there was an asymmetry between right and left sides of the FS. Of these 235 (50.1% were dominant on the left side, whereas 167 (35.6% were dominant on the right, the sinuses of remaining 67 patients (14.3% was symmetric. Statistical Analysis: The comparisons between parameters were performed using Wilkinson signed rank test. The relationship between handedness and sinus asymmetry was also examined by two proportions test. There is statistically significant difference between the dominance of left and right FS. Conclusions: Hemispheric dominance may have some effect (s of on sinus asymmetry of the human cranium. Surgeons sometimes enter the cranium through the FS and knowledge of asymmetric FS is important to minimize surgical complications.

  15. Selective activation of the superior frontal gyrus in task-switching: an event-related fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scatturin, Pietro; Menon, Enrica; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Gamberini, Luciano; Zorzi, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2008-08-15

    In the task-switching paradigm, reaction time is longer and accuracy is worse in switch trials relative to repetition trials. This so-called switch cost has been ascribed to the engagement of control processes required to alternate between distinct stimulus-response mapping rules. Neuroimaging studies have reported an enhanced activation of the human lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus during the task-switching paradigm. Whether neural activation in these regions is dissociable and associated with separable cognitive components of task switching has been a matter of recent debate. We used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure brain cortical activity in a task-switching paradigm designed to avoid task differences, order predictability, and frequency effects. The results showed a generalized bilateral activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus in both switch trials and repetition trials. To isolate the activity selectively associated with the task-switch, the overall activity recorded during repetition trials was subtracted from the activity recorded during switch trials. Following subtraction, the remaining activity was entirely confined to the left portion of the superior frontal gyrus. The present results suggest that factors associated with load and maintenance of distinct stimulus-response mapping rules in working memory are likely contributors to the activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex, whereas only activity in the left superior frontal gyrus can be linked unequivocally to switching between distinct cognitive tasks.

  16. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  17. Frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis surgery including frontal recess clearance and middle turbinectomy: A long-term analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhatar, Hakim; Khettab, Idir; Sultanik, Philippe; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre

    2018-08-01

    To determine the frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis (NP) surgery including frontal recess clearance (FRC) and middle turbinectomy (MT), to search for predictive factors and to analyse surgical management. Longitudinal analysis of 153 patients who consecutively underwent bilateral sphenoethmoidectomy with FRC and MT for NP with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. Decision of revision surgery was made in case of medically refractory chronic frontal sinusitis or frontal mucocele. Univariate and multivariate analysis incorporating clinical and radiological variables were performed. The frontal sinus revision rate was 6.5% (10/153). The mean time between the initial procedure and revision surgery was 3 years, 10 months. Osteitis around the frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) was associated with a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery (p=0.01). Asthma and aspirin intolerance did not increase the risk, as well as frontal sinus ostium diameter or residual frontoethmoid cells. Among revised patients, 60% required multiple procedures and 70% required frontal sinus ostium enlargement. Our long-term study reports that NP surgery including FRC and MT is associated with a low frontal sinus revision rate (6.5%). Patients developing osteitis around the FSOT have a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery. As mucosal damage can lead to osteitis, FSOT mucosa should be preserved during initial NP surgery. However, as multiple procedures are common among NP patients requiring frontal sinus revision, frontal sinus ostium enlargement should be considered during first revision in the hope of reducing the need of further revisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional impairments in patients with borderline personality disorders demonstrated by neurospect HMPAO Tc99 in basal conditions and under frontal activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Cristian; Mena G, Ismael; Correa, Maria del Pilar

    2000-01-01

    We study a sample of 18 patients in basal conditions and 31 patients with diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Criteria) during cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and assessing function/cerebral blood flow by means of HMPAO Tc 99m NeuroSPECT. The results of changes of cerebral blood flow are shown statistically in a parametric image expressing standard deviations above or below the means of a normative data base for the corresponding age of the patient. We consider only as having significance levels below 2 standard deviations of the normal means . Over this parametric map we project a matrix of Brodmann areas developed by our group in order to precisely localize the areas of abnormality observed. We express our results as percentages of the areas of Brodmann that demonstrates hypoperfusion and we compare the results in a population studied in basal conditions (n=18) and (n=31) during activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test. In our results we highlight, in order of importance areas of paradoxical hypoperfusion in conditions of activation versus basal measurements in anterior cyngulate gyrus (Area 24) in both hemispheres. This is followed in importance by Subgenual area (Area 25), area 40 and area 32 in the left hemisphere, and area 28 in the right hemisphere, then followed by area 28 and area 36 in the left hemisphere, area M* and area 44 in both hemispheres, and areas 32, 9 and 46 of Brodmann in the right hemisphere. We concluded that there is a dysfunctional correlation of frontal function in borderline personality disorder. Particularly noticeable is the lack of motivation when there are changes in plans and conduct, lack of pleasure and loss of the meaning of a task during the cortical stimulation. In particular, the Brodmann areas 24, 25 and 32, linked to motivation show a wider involvement when they are exposed to changes in planning and in coping strategies, as it happens during the Wisconsin Test

  19. Influence of trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral approach motivation systems on the LPP and frontal asymmetry to anger pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.

  20. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  1. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  2. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  3. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  4. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiated parietal connectivity of frontal regions for "what" and "where" memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottschy, C; Caspers, S; Roski, C; Reetz, K; Dogan, I; Schulz, J B; Zilles, K; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B

    2013-11-01

    In a previous meta-analysis across almost 200 neuroimaging experiments, working memory for object location showed significantly stronger convergence on the posterior superior frontal gyrus, whereas working memory for identity showed stronger convergence on the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (dorsal to, but overlapping with Brodmann's area BA 44). As similar locations have been discussed as part of a dorsal frontal-superior parietal reach system and an inferior frontal grasp system, the aim of the present study was to test whether the regions of working-memory related "what" and "where" processing show a similar distinction in parietal connectivity. The regions that were found in the previous meta-analysis were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modelling and task-independent resting state correlations. While the ventral seed showed significantly stronger connectivity with the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the dorsal seed showed stronger connectivity with the bilateral posterior inferior parietal and the medial superior parietal lobule. The observed connections of regions involved in memory for object location and identity thus clearly demonstrate a distinction into separate pathways that resemble the parietal connectivity patterns of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex in non-human primates and humans. It may hence be speculated that memory for a particular location and reaching towards it as well as object memory and finger positioning for manipulation may rely on shared neural systems. Moreover, the ensuing regions, in turn, featured differential connectivity with the bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate cortex, suggesting largely segregated bilateral connectivity pathways from the dorsal visual cortex via the superior and inferior parietal lobules to the dorsal posterior frontal cortex and from the ventral visual cortex via the IPS to the ventral posterior frontal cortex that may

  6. Conceptual control across modalities: graded specialisation for pictures and words in inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Teige, Catarina; Davey, James; Hymers, Mark; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Controlled semantic retrieval to words elicits co-activation of inferior frontal (IFG) and left posterior temporal cortex (pMTG), but research has not yet established (i) the distinct contributions of these regions or (ii) whether the same processes are recruited for non-verbal stimuli. Words have relatively flexible meanings – as a consequence, identifying the context that links two specific words is relatively demanding. In contrast, pictures are richer stimuli and their precise meaning is ...

  7. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  8. Atypical frontal-posterior synchronization of Theory of Mind regions in autism during mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Keller, Timothy A; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the functioning of the Theory of Mind (ToM) cortical network in autism during the viewing of animations that in some conditions entailed the attribution of a mental state to animated geometric figures. At the cortical level, mentalizing (attribution of metal states) is underpinned by the coordination and integration of the components of the ToM network, which include the medial frontal gyrus, the anterior paracingulate, and the right temporoparietal junction. The pivotal new finding was a functional underconnectivity (a lower degree of synchronization) in autism, especially in the connections between frontal and posterior areas during the attribution of mental states. In addition, the frontal ToM regions activated less in participants with autism relative to control participants. In the autism group, an independent psychometric assessment of ToM ability and the activation in the right temporoparietal junction were reliably correlated. The results together provide new evidence for the biological basis of atypical processing of ToM in autism, implicating the underconnectivity between frontal regions and more posterior areas.

  9. Reduced structural connectivity between sensorimotor and language areas in rolandic epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M H Besseling

    Full Text Available Rolandic epilepsy (RE is a childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal (rolandic spikes, that is increasingly associated with language impairment. In this study, we tested for a white matter (connectivity correlate, employing diffusion weighted MRI and language testing.Twenty-three children with RE and 23 matched controls (age: 8-14 years underwent structural (T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI (b = 1200 s/mm(2, 66 gradient directions at 3T, as well as neuropsychological language testing. Combining tractography and a cortical segmentation derived from the T1-scan, the rolandic tract were reconstructed (pre- and postcentral gyri, and tract fractional anisotropy (FA values were compared between patients and controls. Aberrant tracts were tested for correlations with language performance.Several reductions of tract FA were found in patients compared to controls, mostly in the left hemisphere; the most significant effects involved the left inferior frontal (p = 0.005 and supramarginal (p = 0.004 gyrus. In the patient group, lower tract FA values were correlated with lower language performance, among others for the connection between the left postcentral and inferior frontal gyrus (p = 0.043, R = 0.43.In RE, structural connectivity is reduced for several connections involving the rolandic regions, from which the epileptiform activity originates. Most of these aberrant tracts involve the left (typically language mediating hemisphere, notably the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area and the supramarginal gyrus (Wernicke's area. For the former, reduced language performance for lower tract FA was found in the patients. These findings provide a first microstructural white matter correlate for language impairment in RE.

  10. Frontal-insula gray matter deficits in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te

    2014-05-01

    This study is designed to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) deficits in patients with first-episode medication-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD). We enrolled 38 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 controls in this project. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV differences between two groups. Besides, the relationship between GMV of patients and the severity of clinical symptoms was estimated to confirm the role of GMV deficits in clinical symptoms. The correlation between total GMV and illness duration was also performed to elucidate the impacts of untreated duration on the GMV. We found that first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients had significant GMV deficits in bilateral superior frontal gyri, left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and left insula. The GMV of patient group was negatively correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and the illness duration. A pattern of GMV deficits in fronto-insula might represent the biomarker for first-episode medication-naïve MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Are personality traits of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy related to frontal lobe dysfunctions? A proton MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella M; Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-05-01

    Personality traits characterized by emotional instability and immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, hedonism, frequent and rapid mood changes, and indifference toward one's disease have been associated with patients who have juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Literature data demonstrate worse seizure control and more psychosocial dysfunctions among patients with JME who have those traits. In this controlled study we performed a correlation analysis of psychiatric scores with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) values across JME patients, aiming to verify the existence of a possible relation between frontal lobe dysfunction and the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in JME. Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PDs, 41 JME patients without any psychiatric disorder, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation and to a quantitative multivoxel MRS of thalamus; insula; cingulate gyrus; striatum; and frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Groups were homogeneous according to age, gender, and manual dominance. Psychiatric evaluation was performed through the Scheduled Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I and II (SCID I and II, respectively). A significant reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate over creatinine (NAA/Cr) ratio was observed mainly in the left frontal lobe in the JME and PD group. In addition, a significant increase in the glutamate-glutamine over creatinine GLX/Cr ratio was also observed in this referred region in the same group. These data support the hypothesis that PDs in JME could represent neuronal dysfunction and possibly a more severe form of this epileptic syndrome.

  13. Motivated malleability: Frontal cortical asymmetry predicts the susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuerch, Robert; Pfattheicher, Stefan

    2017-07-16

    Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction - that is, approach versus avoidance orientation - is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1). We posit that this reflects the role of a person's chronic avoidance orientation in socially adjusted behavior. This claim was strongly supported by additional survey investigations (Studies 2a, 2b, 2c), all of which consistently revealed that trait avoidance was positively linked to the susceptibility to social influence. The present contribution thus stresses the relevance of chronic avoidance orientation in social conformity, refining (yet not contradicting) the longstanding view that socially influenced behavior is motivated by approach-related goals. Moreover, our findings valuably underscore and extend our knowledge on the association between frontal cortical asymmetry and a variety of psychological variables.

  14. Results of a pilot study on the involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception: an rTMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Vingerhoets, Guy; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background: The right hemisphere may play an important role in paralinguistic features such as the emotional melody in speech. The extent of this involvement however is unclear. Imaging studies have shown involvement of both left and right inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception. The

  15. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  16. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  17. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Listening to factually incorrect sentences activates classical language areas and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Lang, Simone; Birbaumer, Niels; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2011-12-07

    Neurophysiological underpinnings of the integration of information during sentence comprehension have been studied since 1980. However, little is known about integrative processes in sentences containing a word that is semantically congruent, but factually incompatible with the context. In this study, we aimed at investigating the differences between the brain regions involved in responses to factually correct and incorrect sentences. Eighteen healthy volunteers underwent functional MRI while listening passively to 40 correct and 40 incorrect sentences. The contrast between factually correct and incorrect sentence endings revealed large activation areas in the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, and smaller activations of these areas' homologs in the right hemisphere, in the thalamus, and Brodmann area 6.

  19. Impaired social cognition in patients with interictal epileptiform discharges in the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Jiang, Yubao; Hu, Panpan; Ma, Huijuan; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Patients with epilepsy frequently experience cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition. However, there is a lack of direct examinations of the affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in such patients. The neural correlates remain to be identified. The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairments in different aspects of social cognition including empathy, emotion recognition, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in patients with epilepsy. In addition, we further explored factors related to the impairments, highlighting the specific importance of the frontal region. After 24-hour EEG monitoring, 53 patients with epilepsy were administered a neuropsychological battery of tests for basic intelligence assessment and then were tested with the Interpersonal Reactive Index, the "Yoni" task, the Emotion Recognition Test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and other neuropsychological tests. The clinical variables potentially affecting the ability to accomplish these tests were taken into account. We divided the patients into those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges (group with frontal IEDs) and those with seizures originating outside the frontal or temporal lobes (group with extrafrontal IEDs). Sixty healthy individuals served as controls. The group with frontal IEDs achieved the most severe deficits in emotion recognition, ToM, and cognitive empathy, while affective empathy was intact. Moreover, the performance scores of empathy in the group with frontal IEDs were selectively correlated with their executive function scores, which are believed to be associated with orbitofrontal functioning. In contrast, patients with epilepsies not originating from the frontal or temporal lobes may also be at risk of impairments in social cognition, albeit to a lesser extent. The preliminary findings suggest that patients with epilepsy, especially those having frontal lobe interictal epileptiform discharges, have associated

  20. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  1. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  2. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  3. Postobductional extension along and within the Frontal Range of the Eastern Oman Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Frank; Scharf, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    extensionally reactivated by a branch fault of the Frontal Range Fault. Extension may be ductile (limestone mylonites), ductile and brittle (ooid deformation, boudinaged belemnite rostra, shear bands) or brittle. Extension is heterogeneously distributed within the Frontal Range. Extension is mainly related to orogenic/gravitational collapse of the Oman Mountains. Collapse may have been associated with isostatic rebound and rise of the two domes. In the western part of the study area, the Frontal Range Fault has a listric morphology. It is probably horizontal at a depth of 15 km below the Batinah coastal area. The fault seems to use the clay- and tuff-bearing Aruma Group as shear horizon. The depth of 15 km may coincide with the brittle-ductile transition of quartz- and feldspar-rich rocks. Close to this depth, the listric Batinah Coast Fault curves into the Frontal Range Fault. Extension along the Frontal Range and Batinah Coast faults probably reactivated preexisting late Cretaceous thrust faults during post-late Eocene time. The latter fault is likely mechanically related to the Wadi Kabir Fault via the Fanja Graben Fault and the Sunub fault segment. Listwaenite and serpentinite cluster preferably around the extensional faults. The Semail Gap probably functioned as a sinistral transform fault or fault zone during the Permian.

  4. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may

  5. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason; McCandliss, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective atten tion to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by ma nipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data- driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater re cruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings support the key role of selective attention to phonology in the development of literacy and motivate future research on the neural bases of the interaction between phonological

  6. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Jaeger, B.; Schmand, B.A.; Berg, L.H. van den; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Visser, M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  7. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  8. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  9. Mapping of the left-sided phrenic nerve course in patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Martin; Wutzler, Alexander; Parwani, Abdul S; Attanasio, Philipp; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been associated with left-sided phrenic nerve palsy. Knowledge of the individual left phrenic nerve course therefore is essential to prevent nerve injury. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an intraprocedural pace mapping and reconstruction of the left phrenic nerve course and to characterize which anatomical areas are affected. In patients undergoing left atrial catheter ablation, a three-dimensional map of the left atrial anatomical structures was created. The left-sided phrenic nerve course was determined by high-output pace mapping and reconstructed in the map. In this study, 40 patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardias were included. Left phrenic nerve capture was observed in 23 (57.5%) patients. Phrenic nerve was captured in 22 (55%) patients inside the left atrial appendage, in 22 (55%) in distal parts, in 21 (53%) in medial parts, and in two (5%) in ostial parts of the appendage. In three (7.5%) patients, capture was found in the distal coronary sinus and in one (2.5%) patient in the left atrium near the left atrial appendage ostium. Ablation target was changed due to direct spatial relationship to the phrenic nerve in three (7.5%) patients. No phrenic nerve palsy was observed. Left-sided phrenic nerve capture was found inside and around the left atrial appendage in the majority of patients and additionally in the distal coronary sinus. Phrenic nerve mapping and reconstruction can easily be performed and should be considered prior catheter ablations in potential affected areas. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The association between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in older men mediated by frontal lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Suwabe, Kazuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have shown that higher aerobic fitness is related to higher cognitive function and higher task-related prefrontal activation in older adults. However, a holistic picture of these factors has yet to be presented. As a typical age-related change of brain activation, less lateralized activity in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive tasks has been observed in various neuroimaging studies. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the relationship between aerobic fitness, cognitive function, and frontal lateralization. Sixty male older adults each performed a submaximal incremental exercise test to determine their oxygen intake (V·O2) at ventilatory threshold (VT) in order to index their aerobic fitness. They performed a color-word Stroop task while prefrontal activation was monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy. As an index of cognitive function, Stroop interference time was analyzed. Partial correlation analyses revealed significant correlations among higher VT, shorter Stroop interference time and greater left-lateralized dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation when adjusting for education. Moreover, mediation analyses showed that left-lateralized DLPFC activation significantly mediated the association between VT and Stroop interference time. These results suggest that higher aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive function via lateralized frontal activation in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DETERMINATION OF CLINICALLY RELEVANT DIFFERENCES IN FRONTAL PLANE HOP TESTS IN WOMEN'S COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL AND SOCCER PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Kelly; Hegedus, Eric J.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh‐Dung

    2017-01-01

    Background ACL injury prevention programs are less successful in female basketball players than in soccer players. Previous authors have identified anthropometric and biomechanical differences between the athletes and different sport‐specific demands, including a higher frequency of frontal plane activities in basketball. Current injury risk screening and preventive training practices do not place a strong emphasis on frontal plane activities. The medial and lateral triple hop for distance tests may be beneficial for use in the basketball population. Hypothesis/Purpose To 1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral triple hop tests in healthy female collegiate athletes, and 2) analyze differences in test scores between female basketball and soccer players. It was hypothesized that due to the frequent frontal plane demands of their sport, basketball players would exhibit greater performance during these frontal plane performance tests. Study Design Cross‐sectional. Methods Thirty‐two NCAA Division‐1 female athletes (20 soccer, 12 basketball) performed three trials each of a medial and lateral triple hop for distance test. Distances were normalized to height and mass in order to account for anthropometric differences. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to identify statistically significant main effects of sport (basketball vs. soccer), and side (right vs. left), and sport x side interactions. Results After accounting for anthropometric differences, soccer players exhibited significantly better performance than basketball players in the medial and lateral triple hop tests (p jumped farther on their left (400.3 ± 41.5 cm) than right (387.9 ± 43.4 cm) limbs, but no side differences were identified in the lateral triple hop. No significant side x sport interactions were identified. Conclusions Women's basketball players exhibit decreased performance of frontal plane hop tests when compared to women's soccer players. Additionally

  12. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  13. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Hohagen, Jesper; Paton, Bryan; Rickard, Nikki S

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for right frontal lobe dominance in spatial visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W; Lang, M; Kornhuber, A; Kornhuber, H H

    1986-02-01

    Slow negative potential shifts were recorded together with the error made in motor performance when two different groups of 14 students tracked visual stimuli with their right hand. Various visuomotor tasks were compared. A tracking task (T) in which subjects had to track the stimulus directly, showed no decrease of error in motor performance during the experiment. In a distorted tracking task (DT) a continuous horizontal distortion of the visual feedback had to be compensated. The additional demands of this task required visuomotor learning. Another learning condition was a mirrored-tracking task (horizontally inverted tracking, hIT), i.e. an elementary function, such as the concept of changing left and right was interposed between perception and action. In addition, subjects performed a no-tracking control task (NT) in which they started the visual stimulus without tracking it. A slow negative potential shift was associated with the visuomotor performance (TP: tracking potential). In the learning tasks (DT and hIT) this negativity was significantly enhanced over the anterior midline and in hIT frontally and precentrally over both hemispheres. Comparing hIT and T for every subject, the enhancement of the tracking potential in hIT was correlated with the success in motor learning in frontomedial and bilaterally in frontolateral recordings (r = 0.81-0.88). However, comparing DT and T, such a correlation was only found in frontomedial and right frontolateral electrodes (r = 0.5-0.61), but not at the left frontolateral electrode. These experiments are consistent with previous findings and give further neurophysiological evidence for frontal lobe activity in visuomotor learning. The hemispherical asymmetry is discussed in respect to hemispherical specialization (right frontal lobe dominance in spatial visuomotor learning).

  15. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  16. Origin of frontal lobe spikes in the early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Alberto J R; Ferreira, José C; Dias, Ana I; Calado, Eulália

    2008-09-01

    Early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) is a common and easily recognizable epilepsy. Interictal EEG spike activity is often multifocal but most frequently localized in the occipital lobes. The origin and clinical significance of the extra-occipital spikes remain poorly understood. Three patients with the PS and interictal EEG spikes with frontal lobe topography were studied using high-resolution EEG. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the spikes in components with distinct temporal dynamics. The components were mapped in the scalp with a spline-laplacian algorithm. The change in scalp potential topography from spike onset to peak, suggests the contribution of several intracranial generators, with different kinetics of activation and significant overlap. ICA was able to separate the major contributors to frontal spikes and consistently revealed an early activating group of components over the occipital areas in all the patients. The local origin of these early potentials was established by the spline-laplacian montage. Frontal spikes in PS are consistently associated with early and unilateral occipital lobe activation, suggesting a postero-anterior spike propagation. Frontal spikes in the PS represent a secondary activation triggered by occipital interictal discharges and do not represent an independent focus.

  17. Manipulation of the extrastriate frontal loop can resolve visual disability in blindsight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2012-12-01

    Patients with blindsight are not consciously aware of visual stimuli in the affected field of vision but retain nonconscious perception. This disability can be resolved if nonconsciously perceived information can be brought to their conscious awareness. It can be accomplished by manipulating neural network of visual awareness. To understand this network, we studied the pattern of cortical activity elicited during processing of visual stimuli with or without conscious awareness. The analysis indicated that a re-entrant signaling loop between the area V3A (located in the extrastriate cortex) and the frontal cortex is critical for processing conscious awareness. The loop is activated by visual signals relayed in the primary visual cortex, which is damaged in blindsight patients. Because of the damage, V3A-frontal loop is not activated and the signals are not processed for conscious awareness. These patients however continue to receive visual signals through the lateral geniculate nucleus. Since these signals do not activate the V3A-frontal loop, the stimuli are not consciously perceived. If visual input from the lateral geniculate nucleus is appropriately manipulated and made to activate the V3A-frontal loop, blindsight patients can regain conscious vision. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Intertemporal Decision Making After Brain Injury: Amount-Dependent Steeper Discounting after Frontal Cortex Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białaszek Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries to the frontal lobes are associated with many maladaptive forms of behavior. We investigated the association between brain damage and impulsivity, as measured by the rate of delay discounting (i.e., the extent to which future outcomes are devalued in time. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of steeper discounting of different amounts in a group of patients with frontal lobe damage. We used a delay discounting task in the form of a structured interview. A total of 117 participants were divided into five groups: three neurological groups and two groups without brain damage. Our analyses showed that patients with focal damage to the frontal lobes demonstrated steeper delay discounting than other participants. Other clinical groups demonstrated similar discounting rates. The data pattern related to the magnitude effect on the group level suggested that the magnitude effect is absent in the group of patients with damage to the frontal lobes; however, results were less consistent on an individual level. Amount-dependent discounting was observed in only two groups, the healthy control group and the neurological group with other cortical areas damaged.

  19. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation-the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex-would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure-the prefrontal gamma asymmetry-was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  20. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Ramsøy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing.

  1. Frontal Brain Asymmetry and Willingness to Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Maiken K.; Stahlhut, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to consumer choice. Subjects saw products and subsequently decided how much they were willing to pay for each product, while undergoing neuroimaging using electroencephalography. Our results demonstrate that prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma frequency band, and a trend in the beta frequency band that was recorded during product viewing was significantly related to subsequent WTP responses. Frontal asymmetry in the alpha band was not related to WTP decisions. Besides suggesting separate neuropsychological mechanisms of consumer choice, we find that one specific measure—the prefrontal gamma asymmetry—was most strongly related to WTP responses, and was most coupled to the actual decision phase. These findings are discussed in light of the psychology of WTP calculations, and in relation to the recent emergence of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. PMID:29662432

  2. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  3. Frontal EEG delta/alpha ratio and screening for post-stroke cognitive deficits: the power of four electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiger, Emma; Sheikh, Nabeel; Rowland, Tennille; Wong, Andrew; Read, Stephen; Finnigan, Simon

    2014-10-01

    This study analysed correlations between post-stroke, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) indices, and cognition-specific, functional outcome measures. Results were compared between QEEG indices calculated from the standard 19 versus 4 frontal (or 4 posterior) electrodes to assess the feasibility and efficacy of employing a reduced electrode montage. Resting-state EEG was recorded at the bedside within 62-101 h after onset of symptoms of middle cerebral artery, ischaemic stroke (confirmed radiologically). Relative power for delta, theta, alpha and beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR) and pairwise-derived brain symmetry index (pdBSI) were averaged; over all electrodes (global), over F3, F4, F7, F8 (frontal) and P3, P4, T5, T6 (posterior). The functional independence measure and functional assessment measure (FIM-FAM) was administered at mean 105 days post-stroke. Total (30 items) and cognition-specific (5 items) FIM-FAM scores were correlated with QEEG indices using Spearman's coefficient, with a Bonferroni correction. Twenty-five patients were recruited, 4 died within 3 months and 1 was lost to follow-up. Hence 20 cases (10 female; 9 left hemisphere; mean age 68 years, range 38-84) were analysed. Two QEEG indices demonstrated highly-significant correlations with cognitive outcomes: frontal DAR (ρ = -0.664, p ≤ 0.001) and global, relative alpha power (ρ = 0.67, p ≤ 0.001). After correction there were no other significant correlations. Alpha activity - particularly frontally - may index post-stroke attentional capacity, which appears to be a key determinant of functional and cognitive outcomes. Likewise frontal delta pathophysiology influences such outcomes. Pending further studies, DAR from 4 frontal electrodes may inform early screening for post-MCA stroke cognitive deficits, and thereby, clinical decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Frontal dysconnectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an atlas-based functional connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiaccio, Leah M; Coman, Ioana L; Thompson, Carlie A; Fremont, Wanda P; Antshel, Kevin M; Kates, Wendy R

    2018-01-20

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old. We mapped resting-state fMRI data onto 68 atlas-based regions of interest (ROIs) generated by the Desikan-Killany atlas in FreeSurfer, resulting in 2278 ROI-to-ROI connections for which we determined total linear temporal associations between each. Within the group with 22q11DS only, we further tested the association between prodromal symptoms of psychosis and FC. We observed that relative to controls, individuals with 22q11DS displayed increased FC in lobar networks involving the frontal-frontal, frontal-parietal, and frontal-occipital ROIs. In contrast, FC between ROIs in the parietal-temporal and occipital lobes was reduced in the 22q11DS group relative to healthy controls. Moreover, positive psychotic symptoms were positively associated with increased functional connections between the left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus, as well as reduced functional connectivity between the bilateral pericalcarine. Positive symptoms were negatively associated with increased functional connectivity between the right pericalcarine and right postcentral gyrus. Our results suggest that functional organization may be altered in 22q11DS, leading to disruption in connectivity between frontal and other lobar substructures, and potentially increasing risk for prodromal psychosis.

  5. Social modeling of eating mediated by mirror neuron activity: A causal model moderated by frontal asymmetry and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Laura; Davis, Ron

    2018-02-15

    The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded. Subsequent ad libitum chip consumption was quantified. A first- and second-stage dual moderation model revealed that frontal asymmetry and BMI moderated an indirect effect of model consumption on participants' food consumption as mediated by MNS activity at electrode site C3, a 3 b 3 =-0.718, SE=0.365, 95% CI [-1.632, -0.161]. Left frontal asymmetry was associated with greater mu activity and a positive association between model and participant chip consumption, while right frontal asymmetry was associated with less mu activity and a negative association between model and participant consumption. Across all levels of frontal asymmetry, the effect was only significant among those with a BMI at the 50th percentile or lower. Thus, among leaner individuals, the MNS was demonstrated to mediate social modeling of eating, as moderated by frontal asymmetry. These findings are integrated within the normative account of social modeling of eating. It is proposed that the normative framework may benefit from consideration of both conscious and unconscious operation of intake norms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  7. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  8. [Autopsy case of Lissauer's general paresis with rapidly progressive left hemiparesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Mari; Ando, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Makoto; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2009-06-01

    A 48-years-old man presented with slowly progressive bradykinesia, personality change and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis. On admission, he presented dementia, poor judgment, left hemiparesis. MRI revealed a widespread high intensity area in right hemisphere and MRA was almost normal. Serological tests of serum and CSF demonstrated high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. He was treated for syphilis with daily penicillin injections without improvement. He died of sepsis eight months after admission. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1,100 g and the right cerebral hemisphere was atrophic, especially in frontal base, temporal, parietal, angular, and posterior regions covered by thickened, fibrotic leptomeninges. Microscopically, chronic meningoencephalitis was observed. Severe neuronal loss with gliosis was seen in the right cerebral cortices. Scattered rod-shaped microglia and inflammatory cell infiltration were visible in the cerebral parenchyma. The dorsal column of the spinal cord was not involved and meningovascular syphilis was unclear. The distribution of the encephalitic lesions was well correlated with the clinical and neuroradiological findings. This was a rare autopsy case presenting Lissauer's general paresis, clinically manifesting as rapidly progressive stroke-like episode.

  9. Pathological generosity: an atypical impulse control disorder after a left subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Garcia, Rafael; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in socio-emotional behavior and conduct, which are characteristic symptoms of frontal lobe damage, have less often been described in patients with focal subcortical injuries. We report on a case of pathological generosity secondary to a left lenticulocapsular stroke with hypoperfusion of several anatomically intact cortical areas. A 49-year-old man developed excessive and persistent generosity as he recovered from a left lenticulocapsular hematoma. His symptoms resembled an impulse control disorder. (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT demonstrated hypoperfusion mostly in the ipsilateral striatum, dorsolateral, and orbitofrontal cortex. This case study adds pathological generosity to the range of behavioral changes that may result from discrete unilateral lesions of the lenticular nucleus and nearby pathways. In our particular case, post-stroke pathological generosity was not ascribable to disinhibition, apathy, mania, or depression. Because pathological generosity may lead to significant distress and financial burden upon patients and their families, it may warrant further consideration as a potential type of impulse control disorder.

  10. The left IPL represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel evan Elk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others’ object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g. hammer - nail. The availability of actor information (i.e. presenting a hand grasping the central object and the number of possible target objects (i.e. 0, 1 or 2 target objects were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON. Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL and the left premotor cortex (PMC increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other’s actions as well.

  11. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  12. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  13. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  14. Analisis Penyerapan Energi Crash Box Pola Origami pada Pengujian Frontal Impact Posisi Angular Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redi Bintarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the car, the body structure is designed in such a way so as to transfer and absorb energy. This serves to minimize the result of this accident related to kinetic energy. This needs a system to absorb the kinetic energy maximally, so as a result of a frontal collision events that can be reduced optimally and kinetic energy can be absorbed by a front body structure. Devices used for absorbing kinetic energy in the car is usually called a crash box, which is located between the main structure and bumper. Crash Box generally tubular thin shaped. It has been a lot of research about the crash box. In this study using crash box origami patterns and using methods taguchi orthogonal array L9 (34. AA7003-T7 aluminum material modeled as bilinear isotropic hardening, the loading method is Frontal Impact Frontal Angular Position with impact angles of 5, 15 and 30 degree by using the finite element software simulation methods. The simulation results showed that the crash box in the lowest possible energy absorption were happened at crash box with 5 degree, with 683 153 Joule energy absorbsion. The highest result was happened to crash box number 5 with the results of 3,140.778 Joule. Lowest absorption on impact of 15 degree and 30 degree were happened to crash box number 1 and number 3 with a value of 245 685 Joule and 174 845 Joule, while the highest absorption at mumber 3 with each value 1,708.521 Joule and 1,750.872 Joule.

  15. Broca's area network in language function.Broca's area network in language function: A pooling-data connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron eBernal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca's area based on language tasks. Methods. A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca's activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. Results. A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas and the right cerebellum. Conclusions. BA44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation and limitations of the results are discussed.

  16. Dorso-Lateral Frontal Cortex of the Ferret Encodes Perceptual Difficulty during Visual Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Charles Zhou; Chunxiu Yu; Kristin K. Sellers; Flavio Fröhlich

    2016-01-01

    Visual discrimination requires sensory processing followed by a perceptual decision. Despite a growing understanding of visual areas in this behavior, it is unclear what role top-down signals from prefrontal cortex play, in particular as a function of perceptual difficulty. To address this gap, we investigated how neurons in dorso-lateral frontal cortex (dl-FC) of freely-moving ferrets encode task variables in a two-alternative forced choice visual discrimination task with high- and low-contr...

  17. Multitasking in the frontal lobes: An exploration of the effects of stress on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Frontal lobe research has fractionated many of the higher-level processes associated with this area of the brain into specific aspects of executive functions. The current study furthers this investigation into the complex behaviour of multitasking and the modern impact of stress on these processes. A student sample of 41 participants (18 male, 23 female), were recruited and randomly assigned to either stressed or non-stressed groups. The experimental manipulation of stress was induced via a v...

  18. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  19. Attenuated frontal and sensory inputs to the basal ganglia in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Pujol, Jesus; Harrison, Ben J; Macià, Dídac; Batalla, Albert; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí; Deus, Joan; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2017-07-01

    Heavy cannabis use is associated with reduced motivation. The basal ganglia, central in the motivation system, have the brain's highest cannabinoid receptor density. The frontal lobe is functionally coupled to the basal ganglia via segregated frontal-subcortical circuits conveying information from internal, self-generated activity. The basal ganglia, however, receive additional influence from the sensory system to further modulate purposeful behaviors according to the context. We postulated that cannabis use would impact functional connectivity between the basal ganglia and both internal (frontal cortex) and external (sensory cortices) sources of influence. Resting-state functional connectivity was measured in 28 chronic cannabis users and 29 controls. Selected behavioral tests included reaction time, verbal fluency and exposition to affective pictures. Assessments were repeated after one month of abstinence. Cannabis exposure was associated with (1) attenuation of the positive correlation between the striatum and areas pertaining to the 'limbic' frontal-basal ganglia circuit, and (2) attenuation of the negative correlation between the striatum and the fusiform gyrus, which is critical in recognizing significant visual features. Connectivity alterations were associated with lower arousal in response to affective pictures. Functional connectivity changes had a tendency to normalize after abstinence. The results overall indicate that frontal and sensory inputs to the basal ganglia are attenuated after chronic exposure to cannabis. This effect is consistent with the common behavioral consequences of chronic cannabis use concerning diminished responsiveness to both internal and external motivation signals. Such an impairment of the fine-tuning in the motivation system notably reverts after abstinence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...... on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Subjects with lesions of the dorsolateral frontal convexity also showed memory problems, attentional slowing, and lower performance IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Restricted ventromedial frontal leukotomy should be discussed as a last-resort treatment for severe and refractory OCD...

  1. Alteraciones de memoria en daño cerebral frontal

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Rodríguez, Irene de la; Noreña, David de

    2007-01-01

    El córtex frontal está implicado en importantes procesos de memoria, pero tiene un papel diferente al de las estructuras temporales y diencefálicas mediales. Mientras que el daño en estas estructuras produce una grave amnesia anterógrada, en el daño frontal se manifiestan una serie de problemas y distorsiones concretas como las fabulaciones, la amnesia de la fuente, el déficit de memoria prospectiva o las alteraciones en el recuerdo libre. El lóbulo frontal no está implicado en el almacenamie...

  2. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  3. Accuracy of ECG indices for diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in people >65 years: results from the ActiFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Roman; Kunz, Katia; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Klenk, Jochen; Denkinger, Michael; Koenig, Wolfgang; Rothenbacher, Di