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Sample records for left empty negative

  1. Velocity encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance to assess left atrial appendage emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muellerleile Kai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of impaired left atrial appendage (LAA function identifies patients who are prone to thrombus formation in the LAA and therefore being at high risk for subsequent cardioembolic stroke. LAA function is typically assessed by measurements of LAA emptying velocities using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in clinical routine. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of assessing LAA emptying by velocity encoded (VENC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods This study included 30 patients with sinus rhythm (n = 18 or atrial fibrillation (n = 12. VENC-CMR velocity measurements were performed perpendicular to the orifice of the LAA. Peak velocities were measured of passive diastolic LAA emptying (e-wave in all patients. Peak velocities of active, late-diastolic LAA emptying (a-wave were assessed in patients with sinus rhythm. Correlation and agreement was analyzed between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of e- and a-wave peak velocities. Results A significant correlation and good agreement was found between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of maximal e-wave velocities (r = 0.61, P  Conclusions The assessment of active and passive LAA emptying by VENC-CMR is feasible. Further evaluation is required of potential future clinical applications such as risk stratification for cardioembolic stroke.

  2. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging techniques for the assessment of active left atrial emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellerleile, Kai; Steven, Daniel; Sultan, Arian; Drewitz, Imke; Hoffmann, Boris; Lueker, Jakob; Willems, Stephan; Rostock, Thomas [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Cardiology, Electrophysiology, Center for Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael; Adam, Gerhard; Lund, Gunnar K. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Saring, Dennis [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Informatics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    There is currently no agreement on the best method of assessing active left atrial (LA) emptying. This study evaluated the relative merits of cine- and velocity encoded (VENC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of active LA emptying. Total LA emptying volume (TLAEV) and active LA stroke volume (ALASV) were assessed in 107 consecutive patients using cine-MRI and transmitral flow measurements by VENC-MRI. The fraction of active LA emptying (ALAEF) was calculated as the ratio of ALASV to TLAEV. LA and left ventricular (LV) output were calculated by multiplying TLAEV and LV stroke volume by heart rate, respectively. Intra- and inter-observer variances were significantly larger for cine-MRI than for VENC-MRI measurements of ALASV (24.7 mL{sup 2} vs. 3.7 mL{sup 2} and 57.7 mL{sup 2} vs. 4.2 mL{sup 2}; P < 0.0001). Biplane cine-MRI underestimated TLAEV (mean difference -57 {+-} 32 %; P < 0.0001) and ALASV (mean difference -24 {+-} 51 %; P < 0.0001) but overestimated ALAEF (mean difference 31 {+-} 54 %, P < 0.0001) compared with VENC-MRI. There was significantly better agreement between LV output and LA output measured by VENC-MRI compared with LA output measured by cine-MRI (mean difference 0.30 {+-} 1.12 L/min vs. -2.05 {+-} 1.44 L/min; P < 0.0001). VENC-MRI is the more appropriate method of assessing active LA emptying and its use should be favoured. (orig.)

  3. Normal left ventricular emptying in coronary artery disease at rest: analysis by radiographic and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, B.S.; Makler, P.T.; Bove, A.A.; Spann, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The volume ejected early in systole has been proposed as an indicator of abnormal left ventricular function that is present at rest in patients with coronary artery disease with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion. The volume ejected in systole was examined by calculating the percent change in ventricular volume using both computer-assisted analysis of biplane radiographic ventriculograms at 60 frames/s and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculograms. Ventricular emptying was examined with radiographic ventriculography in 33 normal patients and 23 patients with coronary artery disease and normal ejection fraction. Eight normal subjects and six patients with coronary artery disease had both radiographic ventriculography and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. In all patients, there was excellent correlation between the radiographic and radionuclide ventricular emptying curves (r . 0.971). There were no difference in the ventricular emptying curves of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease whether volumes were measured by radiographic or equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. It is concluded that the resting ventricular emptying curves are identical in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease who have a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion

  4. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and left ventricular (LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER, satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S', early (E' and late (A' mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s and lateral (l walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. Results This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's and lateral wall (S'l, the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l, the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's and lateral wall (A'l increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. Conclusions This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may

  5. Integrity, behavior and proposal of CARA fuel irradiation with empty negative coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Armando C.; Brasnarof, Daniel O.; Demarco, Gustavo L.; Agueda, Horacio C.

    2007-01-01

    The main issues of the CARA fuel, CVN version, are its negative void reactivity coefficient and an extraction burnup of ∼20000 MWd/ton U. The analysis of the fuel rod behaviour, under the irradiation conditions of the Embalse, Atucha I and II NPPs, are the key to recognize their demanding under operation, to review the classic issues of the PHWR fuels and to prepare a programme of experimental irradiations in order to demonstrate the CARA concept, to assess the fuel integrity, to improve the performance and the enhancement of the safety margins. (author) [es

  6. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  8. Diagnostic value of transient dilatation of the left ventricle in negative dipyridamole-thallium imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hiromi; Doi, Y.L.; Yonezawa, Yoshihiro; Chikamori, Taishiro; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Ozawa, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a transient dilatation of the left ventricle during dipyridamole-thallium imaging (DTI) for detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with negative DTI results, 81 consecutive patients were studied. Twenty one patients (26%) had CAD and 60 patients had normal coronary anatomy (NCA). The initial/delayed ratio of the left ventricular dimension, which was measured as the distance between the 2 peaks of a count profile curve on a 45deg left anterior oblique planar image, was defined as the dilatation ratio (DR) of the left ventricle. Patients with CAD had a higher incidence of chest pain after dipyridamole infusion (35 vs 13%; p 1.03) when it was greater than the mean +2 standard deviations of the DR in NCA patients. Seventy-six percent of CAD patients had an abnormal DR. A stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that an abnormal DR alone had the same ability to predict CAD (sensitivity 76%, specificity 98%, chi-square 80.9, p 1.03) is a highly specific marker for detecting CAD, even in patients with negative dipyridamole-thallium imaging. (author)

  9. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  10. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques appear to be the current method of choice for determining the rate and pattern of gastric emptying. Isotopic methods are quantitative, noninvasive in that they do not require intubation, may be used with solid meals for greater sensitivity, present a low radiation burden to the patient compared to the burden of radiographic techniques, and are suitable and acceptable to the patient for repetitive studies. By comparison, other methods are either invasive, nonquantitative, or nonphysiologic. Of the radionuclide methods currently available, the solid meals (either liver or egg) are best, and dual liquid-solid studies offer additional physiologic data. It is now known that gastric emptying abnormalities may result from common disorders such as diabetes mellitus or gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, may be caused by a variety of medications, may follow gastric surgery, or may result from less well understood disorders, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. By helping to clarify these gastric emptying abnormalities, the physician's ability to treat disorders of gastric emptying with diet, medication, and surgery is enhanced in accuracy and precision. Using these newer radionuclide techniques will permit both the clinician and the investigator a better understanding than was previously possible of gastric physiology in both health and disease

  11. Classic identity negative priming involves accessing semantic representations in the left anterior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie; Eastburn, Mathew; Pringle, Alan; Lorenz, Lina

    2006-10-15

    Classic identity negative priming (NP) refers to the finding that when an object is ignored, subsequent naming responses to it are slower than when it has not been previously ignored (Tipper, S.P., 1985. The negative priming effect: inhibitory priming by ignored objects. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 37A, 571-590). It is unclear whether this phenomenon arises due to the involvement of abstract semantic representations that the ignored object accesses automatically. Contemporary connectionist models propose a key role for the anterior temporal cortex in the representation of abstract semantic knowledge (e.g., McClelland, J.L., Rogers, T.T., 2003. The parallel distributed processing approach to semantic cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 310-322), suggesting that this region should be involved during performance of the classic identity NP task if it involves semantic access. Using high-field (4 T) event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we observed increased BOLD responses in the left anterolateral temporal cortex including the temporal pole that was directly related to the magnitude of each individual's NP effect, supporting a semantic locus. Additional signal increases were observed in the supplementary eye fields (SEF) and left inferior parietal lobule (IPL).

  12. Intraduodenal conjugated bile salts exert negative feedback control on gall bladder emptying in the fasting state without affecting cholecystokinin release or antroduodenal motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooteghem, N A M; Moschetta, A; Rehfeld, J F; Samsom, M; van Erpecum, K J; van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Intraduodenal bile salts exert negative feedback control on postprandial gall bladder emptying. Aims: We wished to examine whether a similar control mechanism occurs in the fasting state. Methods: Intraduodenal bile salt depletion was achieved by 12 g of cholestyramine. Thereafter, in study A (seven subjects), the effects on gall bladder volume (by ultrasound) and antroduodenal motility of intraduodenal infusions of taurocholate egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine micelles were assessed. In study B (nine subjects), the effects on gall bladder volume of infusing mixed micelles composed of taurocholate (100 mM) and low (26 mM) or high (68 mM) amounts of egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine, or low amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine were determined. Results: Cholestyramine induced strong and prolonged gall bladder contraction without cholecystokinin release. In study A, micellar infusions increased gall bladder volume without affecting migrating motor complex cycle length. In study B, intraduodenal infusion induced strong increases in gall bladder volume in the case of taurocholate micelles containing low amounts of egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine, moderate increases in micelles containing low amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine but no change in micelles containing high amounts of egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine, in all cases without altered plasma cholecystokinin levels. Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was significantly higher after infusion of egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine compared with infusion of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine containing micelles. Intermixed micellar-vesicular bile salt concentrations (responsible for detergent effects) were higher in egg yolk-phosphatidylcholine than in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine containing model biles and if lyso-phosphatidylcholine was included. Conclusions: Intraduodenal bile salts exert negative feedback on fasting gall bladder volume. The modulating effects of various phospholipids may relate to their effects on

  13. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  14. Aortopathy in adults with tetralogy of Fallot has a negative impact on the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Murakami, Tomoaki; Kawamatsu, Naoto; Niwa, Koichiro

    2017-02-01

    Aortic pressure wave reflection is significantly elevated in patients with congenital heart disease, even in children. Excessive aortic pressure wave reflection provokes cardiovascular events. To assess the influences of the enhanced pressure wave reflection on the left ventricle (LV) in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Prospectively, 51 consecutive adults with repaired TOF (35.5±11.6yrs., 25 males) were enrolled and non-invasively assessed the pressure wave reflection using HEM 9000AI. A surrogate maker of the aortic pressure wave reflection, radial augmentation index (rAI) was calculated as reflection wave divided by ejection wave. We also evaluated LV function using echocardiography and magnetic resonance images. Patients were divided into two groups: group A with rAI≧1SD and group B with rAI<1SD. The mean rAI in repaired TOF was 76.9±14.3%. In group A, indexed ascending aortic diameter, LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), LV global circumferential strain (GCS), LV early diastolic strain rate (SR), LV E/A, LV e' were significantly higher than them in group B. The indexed ascending aortic diameter significantly correlated with rAI (r=0.31, P<0.05). On univariate logistic analysis, body surface area, indexed ascending aortic diameter, GLS, GCS, early diastolic SR, LV E/A, LV mass index and creatinine were predictive factors of rAI≧1SD. On multivariate logistic analysis, LV E/A was the most significant predictive factor of rAI≧1SD (Odds ratio 0.044, 95%CI 0.002-0.98 and P<0.05). Aortic pressure wave reflection in adults with repaired TOF has a negative impact on LV function, particularly on diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Empty Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's landing site, the Columbia Memorial Station, at Gusev Crater, Mars. This spectacular view may encapsulate Spirit's entire journey, from lander to its possible final destination toward the east hills. On its way, the rover will travel 250 meters (820 feet) northeast to a large crater approximately 200 meters (660 feet) across, the ridge of which can be seen to the left of this image. To the right are the east hills, about 3 kilometers (2 miles) away from the lander. The picture was taken on the 16th martian day, or sol, of the mission (Jan. 18/19, 2004). A portion of Spirit's solar panels appear in the foreground. Data from the panoramic camera's green, blue and infrared filters were combined to create this approximate true color image.

  16. Resonance Frequency and Bandwidth of the Negative/Positive n Mode of a Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the analytic expression for the positive/negative nth-mode resonance frequency of an N unit cell composite right-/left-handed (CRLH transmission line is derived. To explain the resonance mechanism of the nth mode, especially for the negative mode, the current distribution of the N unit cell CRLH transmission line is investigated with a circuit simulation. Results show that both positive and negative nth resonance modes have n times current variations, but their phase difference is 180° as expected. Moreover, the positive nth resonance occurs at a high frequency, whereas the negative nth resonance transpires at a low frequency, thus indicating that the negative resonance mode can be utilized for a small resonator. The correlation between the slope of the dispersion curve and the bandwidth is also observed. In sum, the balanced condition of the CRLH transmission line provides a broader bandwidth than the unbalanced condition.

  17. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, ...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....

  18. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  19. Hour Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty? Future Time Perspective and Preoccupation with Negative Events Across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the “here and now.” Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a US national adult life-span sample (N= 3,933, 18-93 yrs), we found that a two-factor model of future time perspective (focus on future opportunities; focus on limited time) fit the data better than a one-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full—they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty—they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time. This pattern held even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared to men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as two dimensions are discussed. PMID:27267222

  20. Top-down regulation of left temporal cortex by hypnotic amusia for rhythm: a pilot study on mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Ermani, Mario; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Saladini, Marina; Zanette, Gastone; Casiglia, Edoardo; Spiegel, David

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of hypnotically induced amusia for rhythm (a condition in which individuals are unable to recognize melodies or rhythms) on mismatch negativity (MMN), 5 highly (HH) and 5 poorly (LH) hypnotizable nonmusician volunteers underwent MMN recording before and during a hypnotic suggestion for amusia. MMN amplitude was recorded using a 19-channel montage and then processed using the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localize its sources. MMN amplitude was significantly decreased during hypnotic amusia (p < .04) only in HH, where the LORETA maps of MMN showed a decreased source amplitude in the left temporal lobe, suggesting a hypnotic top-down regulation of activity of these areas and that these changes can be assessed by neurophysiological investigations.

  1. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  2. Emptiness and Fullness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    examines how diagnoses of emptiness operate in a range of very different domains in contemporary China: In the ostensibly meritocratic exam system and the rhetoric of officials, in underground churches, housing bubbles, and nationalist fantasies, in bodies possessed by spirits and evaluations of jade...

  3. Benign emptying of the postpneumonectomy space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Robert E; Reznik, Scott I; DaSilva, Marcelo C; Sugarbaker, David J; Whyte, Richard I; Donahue, Dean M; Hoang, Chuong D; Smythe, W Roy; Shrager, Joseph B

    2011-09-01

    A fall in the postpneumonectomy fluid level is considered a sign of bronchopleural fistula (BPF) requiring surgical intervention. We have discovered however that in rare asymptomatic patients, this event may not require aggressive surgical treatment. After seeing a case of benign emptying of the postpneumonectomy space (BEPS), we surveyed 28 surgeons to determine its incidence and characteristics. Forty-four cases of BEPS were reported by 23 survey respondents. Among 7 fully documented cases from 4 institutions, we defined the following criteria: the patient must be asymptomatic (no fever, white cell count elevation, or fluid expectoration), negative culture results if fluid sampled (patient not receiving antibiotics), no BPF at bronchoscopy or ventilation scintigraphy scan (or both), and recovery without drainage, or retrospective assessment that the intervention was unnecessary. BEPS occurred between 5 days and 152 days after pneumonectomy (6 cases right pneumonectomy and 1 case left pneumonectomy). Four patients underwent no treatment, 1 patient underwent thoracoscopic exploration (sterile) and closure after antibiotic irrigation, 1 patient underwent thoracoscopic exploration alone, and 1 patient underwent open window thoracostomy (sterile) with eventual closure. In all 7 patients (except the patient who underwent the open window procedure) the space refilled within 8 weeks; no patient experienced a subsequent empyema/BPF. Four patients who met the initial criteria for BEPS went on to experience empyema. The incidence of BEPS appears related to pneumonectomy volume, particularly extrapleural pneumonectomy. Using surgeon volume assumptions, the incidence of BEPS is 0.65%. To our knowledge, BEPS is a previously unreported occurrence. We hypothesize that it results from postoperative intrapleural pressure shifts, with or without a microscopic BPF, that drive fluid out of the pleural space while failing to cause contamination. Awareness of BEPS' existence may allow

  4. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  5. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The pilot model used by the ATLAS production system has been in use for many years. The model has proven to be a success with many advantages over push models. However one of the negative side-effects of using a pilot model is the presence of 'empty pilots' running on sites which consume a small amount of walltime and not running a useful payload job. The impact on a site can be significant with previous studies showing a total 0.5% walltime usage with no benefit to either the site or to ATLAS. Another impact is the number of empty pilots being processed by a site's Compute Element and batch system which can be 5% of the total number of pilots being handled. In this paper we review the latest statistics using both ATLAS and site data and highlight edge cases where the number of empty pilots dominate. We also study the effect of tuning the pilot factories to reduce the number of empty pilots.

  6. The impact of students with left-behind experiences on childhood: The relationship between negative life events and depression among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Zhao, Sheng-Yu; Pan, Xuan-Ying; Liao, Chuan-Jing

    2018-02-01

    The number of left-behind children in rural China has increased dramatically over the last decade. It is reported that about 21.88% of child population with an estimated number of 61 million are left-behind children whose parents leave them to work in cities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the impacts of left-behind experience (LBE) on college students' depression and other influencing factors. This study discusses the mediation effect of self-esteem together with psychological resilience on college students with depression and negative life events of left-behind. The study also discusses the regulation effect of LBE. A total of 788 college students were selected from three universities in Sichuan and Chongqing (367 with LBEs, 421 without LBEs). Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Resilience Scale of Chinese Adolescent (RSCA) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure the negative life events, self-esteem, psychological resilience and depression, respectively. Bootstrap program was used to test the mediation effect, and multiple-group analysis was used to examine the regulation effect for LBE. Scores of ASLEC for the college students with LBEs were higher than those without LBEs (8.59 ± 3.57) vs (7.06 ± 3.38), p college students with LBEs ( r = .21 to .29, p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience between negative life events and depression was significant (mediating effect = .08, .13, .07; p college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience on negative life events had strong mediation effect on depression. The test of Bootstrap showed that the mediation effect of self-esteem and psychological resilience was significant (95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.04-0.76]). The LBE had regulation effect on college students' self-esteem and psychological resilience. (The constraint model fitting degree of variation is Δχ 2  = 2

  7. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional stroop study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, J.W.; van Kampen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional

  8. Neural control of left ventricular contractility in the dog heart: synaptic interactions of negative inotropic vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Dickerson, L W; Gray, A L; Lauenstein, J M; Blinder, K J; Newsome, J T; Rodak, D J; Fleming, T J; Gatti, P J; Gillis, R A

    1998-08-17

    Recent physiological evidence indicates that vagal postganglionic control of left ventricular contractility is mediated by neurons found in a ventricular epicardial fat pad ganglion. In the dog this region has been referred to as the cranial medial ventricular (CMV) ganglion [J.L. Ardell, Structure and function of mammalian intrinsic cardiac neurons, in: J.A. Armour, J.L. Ardell (Eds.). Neurocardiology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994, pp. 95-114; B.X. Yuan, J.L. Ardell, D.A. Hopkins, A.M. Losier, J.A. Armour, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system, Anat. Rec., 239 (1994) 75-87]. Since activation of the vagal neuronal input to the CMV ganglion reduces left ventricular contractility without influencing cardiac rate or AV conduction, this ganglion contains a functionally selective pool of negative inotropic parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. In the present report we have defined the light microscopic distribution of preganglionic negative inotropic neurons in the CNS which are retrogradely labeled from the CMV ganglion. Some tissues were also processed for the simultaneous immunocytochemical visualization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH: a marker for catecholaminergic neurons) and examined with both light microscopic and electron microscopic methods. Histochemically visualized neurons were observed in a long slender column in the ventrolateral nucleus ambiguus (NA-VL). The greatest number of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed just rostral to the level of the area postrema. TH perikarya and dendrites were commonly observed interspersed with vagal motoneurons in the NA-VL. TH nerve terminals formed axo-dendritic synapses upon negative inotropic vagal motoneurons, however the origin of these terminals remains to be determined. We conclude that synaptic interactions exist which would permit the parasympathetic preganglionic vagal control of left ventricular contractility to be modulated monosynaptically by

  9. Empty sella syndrome presenting as panhypopituitarism in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Jahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Empty Sella refers to the absence or relative absence of the pituitary gland on radiologic imaging of the Sella turcica. This is usually an incidental finding, and as few as 10% patients presents with Hypopituitarism. The authors report a 13.5-year-old boy who presei1ted with short stature and absence of signs of pubertal onset. Hormonal assay showed panhypopi­tuitarism. X-ray left wrist joint showed delayed bone age and finally MRl of the brain revealed empty Sella. Growth hormone replacement therapy was started to increase the height. The boy is now on regular follow up to monitor response to treatment.

  10. Peak negative myocardial velocity gradient in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison with transmitral flow velocity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Uematsu, M; Shimizu, H; Nakamura, K; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    1998-11-01

    We sought to assess the clinical significance of peak negative myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Peak systolic MVG has been shown useful for the quantitative assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities, but limited data exist regarding the diastolic MVG as an indicator of LV diastolic function. Peak negative MVG was obtained from M-mode tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in 43 subjects with or without impairment of systolic and diastolic performance: 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with normal systolic performance and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and was compared with standard Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. In a subgroup of 30 patients, effects of preload increase on these indices were assessed by performing passive leg lifting. In an additional 11 patients with congestive heart failure at the initial examination, the measurements were repeated after 26+/-16 days of volume-reducing therapy. Peak negative MVG was significantly depressed both in HHD (-3.9+/-1.3/s, p indices failed to distinguish DCM from normal due to the pseudonormalization. Transmitral flow velocity indices were significantly altered (peak early/late diastolic filling velocity [E/A]=1.1+/-0.5 to 1.5+/-0.7, p indicator of LV diastolic function that is less affected by preload alterations than the transmitral flow velocity indices, and thereby could be used for the follow-up of patients with nonischemic LV dysfunction presenting congestive heart failure.

  11. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhé, Henricus G; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H

    2014-02-28

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of amygdala activation by negative facial expressions in MDD patients. We treated fifteen MDD patients (22-55 years) with paroxetine 20-50mg/day. After 6 and 12 weeks, we quantified (1) clinical response (≥50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), (2) SERT occupancy in both amygdala measured by repeated [123I]β-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (3) amygdala activation when viewing fearful and angry (negative) faces with repeated functional MRI scans. Response rates were 4/15 and 9/15 at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Attenuation of left amygdala activation was associated with amygdala SERT occupancy (P=0.006) and response (P=0.015). This association may provide a rationale for decreased limbic activity seen during treatment of MDD. It might also explain the rapid decrease in negative attentional bias and amygdala activation caused by SSRIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf; Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B 12 deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T 1/2 ). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B 12 deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B 12 levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B 12 replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T 1/2 in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83±48.80 min, 90.00±17.29 min and 74.55±8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T 1/2 between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P 12 treatment (P 1/2 was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T 1/2 and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B 12 level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T 1/2 was prolonged in patients with vitamin B 12 deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B 12 replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B 12 deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B 12 does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies. (orig.)

  13. Left Atrial Function in Patients with Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragata, Claudia da Silva; Matsumoto, Afonso Y; Ramires, Felix J A; Fernandes, Fabio; Buck, Paula de Cássia; Salemi, Vera Maria C; Nastari, Luciano; Mady, Charles; Ianni, Barbara Maria

    2015-07-01

    Chagas disease is a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and information about left atrial (LA) function in this disease still lacks. To assess the different LA functions (reservoir, conduit and pump functions) and their correlation with the echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions. 10 control subjects (CG), and patients with Chagas disease as follows: 26 with the indeterminate form (GI); 30 with ECG alterations (GII); and 19 with LV dysfunction (GIII). All patients underwent M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Reservoir function (Total Emptying Fraction: TEF): (p <0.0001), lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.003), GI (p <0.001) and GII (p <0.001). Conduit function (Passive Emptying Fraction: PEF): (p = 0.004), lower in GIII (GIII and CG, p = 0.06; GI and GII, p = 0.06; and GII and GIII, p = 0.07). Pump function (Active Emptying Fraction: AEF): (p = 0.0001), lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.05), GI (p<0.0001) and GII (p = 0.002). There was a negative correlation of E/e' (average) with the reservoir and pump functions (TEF and AEF), and a positive correlation of e' (average) with s' wave (both septal and lateral walls) and the reservoir, conduit and pump LA functions. An impairment of LA functions in Chagas cardiomyopathy was observed.

  14. Left Atrial Function in Patients with Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia da Silva Fragata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chagas disease is a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and information about left atrial (LA function in this disease still lacks. Objective: To assess the different LA functions (reservoir, conduit and pump functions and their correlation with the echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV systolic and diastolic functions. Methods: 10 control subjects (CG, and patients with Chagas disease as follows: 26 with the indeterminate form (GI; 30 with ECG alterations (GII; and 19 with LV dysfunction (GIII. All patients underwent M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: Reservoir function (Total Emptying Fraction: TEF: (p <0.0001, lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.003, GI (p <0.001 and GII (p <0.001. Conduit function (Passive Emptying Fraction: PEF: (p = 0.004, lower in GIII (GIII and CG, p = 0.06; GI and GII, p = 0.06; and GII and GIII, p = 0.07. Pump function (Active Emptying Fraction: AEF: (p = 0.0001, lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.05, GI (p<0.0001 and GII (p = 0.002. There was a negative correlation of E/e’ average with the reservoir and pump functions (TEF and AEF, and a positive correlation of e’ average with s’ wave (both septal and lateral walls and the reservoir, conduit and pump LA functions. Conclusion: An impairment of LA functions in Chagas cardiomyopathy was observed.

  15. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and oesophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and oesophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and oesophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, oesophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and oesophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and oesophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight

  16. Automated analysis of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, A.; Frey, D.; Spicer, K.; Spivey, M.; Buckles, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors devised a novel method to automate the analysis of nuclear gastric emptying studies. Many previous methods have been used to measure gastric emptying but, are cumbersome and require continuing interference by the operator to use. Two specific problems that occur are related to patient movement between images and changes in the location of the radioactive material within the stomach. Their method can be used with either dual or single phase studies. For dual phase studies the authors use In-111 labeled water and Tc-99MSC (Sulfur Colloid) labeled scrambled eggs. For single phase studies either the liquid or solid phase material is used

  17. Left atrial volume and function in patients following ST elevation myocardial infarction and the association with clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Engstrøm, Thomas; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2013-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) transfers blood to the left ventricle in a complex manner. LA function is characterized by passive emptying (LA passive fraction), active emptying (LA ejection fraction), and total emptying (LA fractional change). Despite this complexity, the clinical relevance of the LA is b...

  18. Increased infarct wall thickness by a bio-inert material is insufficient to prevent negative left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboli A Rane

    Full Text Available Several injectable materials have been shown to preserve or improve cardiac function as well as prevent or slow left ventricular (LV remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI. However, it is unclear as to whether it is the structural support or the bioactivity of these polymers that lead to beneficial effects. Herein, we examine how passive structural enhancement of the LV wall by an increase in wall thickness affects cardiac function post-MI using a bio-inert, non-degradable synthetic polymer in an effort to better understand the mechanisms by which injectable materials affect LV remodeling.Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG gels of storage modulus G' = 0.5±0.1 kPa were injected and polymerized in situ one week after total occlusion of the left coronary artery in female Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 7±1 day(s post-MI as a baseline and again post-injection 49±4 days after MI. Infarct wall thickness was statistically increased in PEG gel injected vs. control animals (p<0.01. However, animals in the polymer and control groups showed decreases in cardiac function in terms of end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and ejection fraction compared to baseline (p<0.01. The cellular response to injection was also similar in both groups.The results of this study demonstrate that passive structural reinforcement alone was insufficient to prevent post-MI remodeling, suggesting that bioactivity and/or cell infiltration due to degradation of injectable materials are likely playing a key role in the preservation of cardiac function, thus providing a deeper understanding of the influencing properties of biomaterials necessary to prevent post-MI negative remodeling.

  19. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...

  20. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  1. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  2. Beyond Emptiness: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halla Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book, Jae-Seong Lee argues that not only Eastern thoughts but also Western philosophy lead us to transcend our ordinary, binary, reflexive thought and become one with the truth, namely, Emptiness, or the true self. But this aspect has not been thoroughly considered in Western metaphysics. After considering Heidegger’s failure to get to the bottom of transcendence through his “Dasein,” Lee looks to the French postmodern ethicists, in particular, Levinas, in this regard. Just like the Mahayana Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna did almost two thousand years earlier, Lee suggests that Levinas too may have hit upon the insight that genuine subjectivity can be reached through an openness to the Other as the wholly exterior. Throughout the entire book, Jae-Seong Lee shows a strong interest in postmodern ethics, Daoism, Buddhism, theology, and literature, but in the end, he concludes that Buddhist philosophy, with its focus on Emptiness, would be the best approach to a merging of Eastern and Western Ways of thinking in our search for the ultimate and absolute. Finally, Lee suggests that the general philosophical theory he introduces and develops actually works for literary works including the Book of Job, Count Dracula and Frankenstein.

  3. Empty Container Management in Cyclic Shipping Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Ping Song; Jing-Xin Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the empty container management problem in a cyclic shipping route. The objective is to seek the optimal empty container repositioning policy in a dynamic and stochastic situation by minimising the expected total costs consisting of inventory holding costs, demand lost-sale costs, lifting-on and lifting-off charges, and container transportation costs. A three-phase threshold control policy is developed to reposition empty containers in cyclic routes. The threshold values a...

  4. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  5. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C......-acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25...

  6. Gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Yang Xiaochuan; Kuang Anren; Li Lixia; Ouyang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric emptying rate was investigated. Results of endoscopy, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring were also evaluated. Methods: 15 patients were evaluated with endoscopy, pH monitoring and radionuclide gastric emptying. The results were compared with that of 17 control subjects. Correlations of gastric emptying rate and esophagitis, 24-hour pH monitoring between GERD patients and control subjects were also analyzed. Results: Liquid gastric emptying rate of GERD patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at 15 and 30 min (P 0.05), but there exhibited a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score (r=0.643, P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate a delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying in GERD patients. There is a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of GERD

  7. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... and empty seeds by the flotation method. It is quite important not to damage the seed embryo and con- sequently seed germination ability during or after the flotation treatment by these liquids that have different densities. On the other hand, when Crimean pine seeds are left in water, the seeds generally ...

  8. Negative refraction index of the quantum lossy left-handed transmission lines affected by the displaced squeezed Fock state and dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-Cai; Wei, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Qi-Xuan

    2017-05-01

    Quantum lossy left-handed transmission lines (LHTLs) are central to the miniaturized application in microwave band. This work discusses the NRI of the quantized lossy LHTLs in the presence of the resistance and the conductance in a displaced squeezed Fock state (DSFS). And the results show some novel specific quantum characteristics of NRI caused by the DSFS and dissipation, which may be significant for its miniaturized application in a suit of novel microwave devices.

  9. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  10. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated......, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering......), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and insulin. There was no peptide YY (PYY) response. Area under the curve of gastric emptying was positively correlated with integrated secretion of GIP (r=0.786) in orlistat and was negatively correlated with integrated plasma response of GLP-1 (r=-0.75) in control experiments...

  11. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  12. Effect of Bilateral Prefrontal rTMS on Left Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with Predominant Negative Symptoms : An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; van de Poel-Mustafayeva, Aida T.; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S. M.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) may improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanism. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in the levels of glutamate and glutamine (Glx,

  13. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  14. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  15. An Operational Model for Empty Container Management

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Olivo; Paola Zuddas; Massimo Di Francesco; Antonio Manca

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a mathematical programming approach for empty container management. Since directional imbalances in trade activities result in a surplus or shortage of empty containers in ports and depots, their management can be thought of as a min cost flow problem whose arcs represent services routes, inventory links and decisions concerning the time and place to lease containers from external sources. We adopt an hourly time-step in a dynamic network and, although this time-period gen...

  16. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  17. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  18. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  19. Ventricular emptying performance in patients with tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kan; Maeda, Hisato; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tsunao; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Matsuda, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of emptying patterns between left and right ventricles (LV, RV) was performed with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TF). Using global time-activity curves, the phase and amplitude at the first-harmonic component of Fourier series were calculated and emptying patterns of both ventricles were evaluated by phase difference {D(phase)=RV phase minus LV phase} and RV/LV amplitude ratio {R(amp)}. In 20 patients with normal cardiac function, D(phase) was minimal (mean 2.0±6.6 degrees) and R(amp) was less than 1.0 (mean 0.60±0.19). In 11 patients with TF, D(phase) was significantly larger than normal, with a mean value of 24.3±10.0 degrees (p<0.01) and became greater in a reversed proportion to the ratio of the pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow (p<0.01). In all but one cases with TF, R(amp) was greater than 1.0 with a mean value of 1.4±0.4, significantly larger than normal (p<0.001). Furthermore, using time-activity curves approximated by terms up to the 3rd-harmonic component, the temporal difference in emptying patterns between both ventricles was investigated. In TF cases, the time from end-diastole to minimum count (T2) was significantly larger in RV than in LV (p<0.001). The elongated T2 interval of RV seemed to play an important role in producing RV phase lag. Thus, this non-invasive method is valuable for pathophysiologic investigation of patients with TF and can be of help in estimating the severity of their disease. (author)

  20. Analysis of empty ATLAS pilot jobs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00006364; The ATLAS collaboration; Dal Pra, S.; Di Girolamo, A.; Forti, A.; Templon, J.; Vamvakopoulos, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis we quantify the wallclock time used by short empty pilot jobs on a number of WLCG compute resources. Pilot factory logs and site batch logs are used to provide independent accounts of the usage. Results show a wide variation of wallclock time used by short jobs depending on the site and queue, and changing with time. For a reference dataset of all jobs in August 2016, the fraction of wallclock time used by empty jobs per studied site ranged from 0.1% to 0.8%. The variation in wallclock usage may be explained by different workloads for each resource with a greater fraction when the workload is low. Aside from the wall time used by empty pilots, we also looked at how many pilots were empty as a fraction of all pilots sent. Binning the August dataset into days, empty fractions between 2% and 90% were observed.  The higher fractions correlate well with periods of few actual payloads being sent to the site.

  1. Revisiting the Balazs thought experiment in the case of a left-handed material: electromagnetic-pulse-induced displacement of a dispersive, dissipative negative-index slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kenneth J; Lezec, Henri J

    2012-04-23

    We propose a set of postulates to describe the mechanical interaction between a plane-wave electromagnetic pulse and a dispersive, dissipative slab having a refractive index of arbitrary sign. The postulates include the Abraham electromagnetic momentum density, a generalized Lorentz force law, and a model for absorption-driven mass transfer from the pulse to the medium. These opto-mechanical mechanisms are incorporated into a one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain algorithm that solves Maxwell's equations and calculates the instantaneous force densities exerted by the pulse onto the slab, the momentum-per-unit-area of the pulse and slab, and the trajectories of the slab and system center-of-mass. We show that the postulates are consistent with conservation of global energy, momentum, and center-of-mass velocity at all times, even for cases in which the refractive index of the slab is negative or zero. Consistency between the set of postulates and well-established conservation laws reinforces the Abraham momentum density as the one true electromagnetic momentum density and enables, for the first time, identification of the correct form of the electromagnetic mass density distribution and development of an explicit model for mass transfer due to absorption, for the most general case of a ponderable medium that is both dispersive and dissipative. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  2. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric emptying disorders. Clinical usefulness of radionuclide measurements of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Broderick, W.C.; Van Dyke, D.; Way, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms thought to be due to a gastric motility disorder. Sixty-six percent had had a previous operation on the stomach, and 21 percent had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Based on clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings, 48 patients were thought to have gastroparesis, 3 were thought to have dumping, and 2 had no diagnosis. Measurement of gastric emptying of solids showed that gastric emptying was normal in 12 patients, rapid in 15 patients, and slow in 26 patients. Further evaluation showed that half of the patients with normal gastric emptying, and one third of those with rapid gastric emptying had other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that responded well to surgery. Of those patients with dumping, diet modification was effective in 40 percent, and half of those who did not respond to dietary manipulations did well after reoperation. Nineteen patients with delayed gastric emptying were treated with metoclopramide. Sixty percent of those without previous gastric surgery responded, whereas only 25 percent of those with previous gastric surgery had good results. The rate of gastric emptying improved following reoperation in 9 (90 percent) of 10 patients with delayed gastric emptying (4 who had not responded to metoclopramide). Gastric emptying was measured again in 15 patients after treatment. The changes after treatment paralleled the clinical response. These studies indicate that gastroparesis cannot be reliably diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and standard tests. Gastric emptying studies are essential to diagnose and treat patients thought to have gastric motility disorders, and to evaluate the results of therapy

  4. Pouch emptying of solid foods after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    To obtain information on possible determinants of weight loss after horizontal gastroplasty, pouch emptying was prospectively investigated in 27 morbidly obese patients. A scintigraphic method was used. Examinations were carried out every 6 months until 2 years after surgery. Pouch emptying...... was described by means of delay, time until half emptying, mean transit time, and emptying rate. The measures all showed a significant (p less than 0.05) acceleration of pouch emptying during the first 6 months after gastroplasty. Thereafter pouch emptying was unaltered. No significant association could...

  5. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage, gender, and age. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2014;19:376. April 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/empty-nest-syndrome/art-20047165 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  6. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  7. Assessment of Gastric Emptying in Patients with Autoimmune Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container storage. Empty barrels, kegs, bottles, other containers, or other supplies stored in the brewery will be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container storage...

  9. Left atrial strain: a new predictor of thrombotic risk and successful electrical cardioversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left atrial deformation (LAD parameters are new markers of atrial structural remodelling that seem to be affected in atrial fibrillation (AF and atrial flutter (AFL. This study aimed to determine whether LAD can identify patients with a higher risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful electrical cardioversion (ECV. Methods: Retrospective study including 56 patients with AF or AFL undergoing ECV, with previous transthoracic (TTE and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE studies. Echocardiographic parameters analysed were as follows: left ventricle function, left atrium (LA dimensions, LAD parameters (positive and negative strain peaks, left atrial appendage (LAA filling and emptying velocities and the presence of thrombi. Strain values were analysed according to thrombotic risk and success of ECV. Results: Lower mean values of peak-positive strain (PPS in patients with prothrombotic velocities (<25 cm/s and a higher incidence of thrombi in LAA were observed compared with those with normal velocities. Multivariate analysis revealed PPS normalised by LA maximum volume indexed by body surface area (BSA to be associated with prothrombotic risk (odds ratio 0.000 (95% CI: 0.000–0.243, P 0.017, regardless of CHADs2VASC score. Peak-negative strain normalised by LA volumes indexed by BSA were associated with unsuccessful ECV. Conclusions: Atrial deformation parameters identify AF and AFL patients with a high risk of thrombosis and unsuccessful ECV. Therefore, these new parameters should be included in anticoagulation management and rhythm vs rate control strategies.

  10. National Survey of Radionuclide Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A House

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was mailed to all institutions in Canada licensed to use radiopharmaceuticals. Questions addressed meal type; mode of preparation; and means, ranges and SD of emptying times. Seventy-eight per cent of 222 facilities responded, including all 55 teaching centres. Eighty-five per cent of teaching and 56% of nonteaching centres perform solid phase gastric emptying studies (GES. The majority use 99mTc sulphur colloid (Tc-SC added to eggs before cooking as the standard meal. Twenty-five per cent of teaching and 21% of nonteaching centres perform liquid phase GES. Most use a watery solution of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Gastric emptying for solid phase GES, expressed as time for 50% emptying (mean t½, varied from 42 to 105 mins for centres using the Tc-SC egg meal. Twenty-eight per cent of teaching centres used ±2 SD to define their normal range, 26% used ±1 SD, 6% used ±1.5 SD, and 40% did not know the number of SD used. Twenty per cent of non-teaching centres used ±2 SD, 12% used ±1 SD and 68% did not know how many SD were used. For liquid phase GES, mean t½ varied from 20 to 60 mins. Eighteen per cent of centres used healthy volunteers to establish or validate normal ranges. There is substantial variability among the normal ranges for radionuclide solid and liquid phase GES in both teaching and nonteaching centres across Canada. A minority of facilities have established or validated their own normal ranges in healthy volunteers. There is a need for a more standardized protocol and range of normal, with internal validation by each institution.

  11. Gastric emptying in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Muenci; Yamac, Kadri; Acar, Kadir; Haznedar, Rauf [Department of Hematology, Gazi Medical School (Turkey); Cingi, Elif; Kitapci, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi Medical School (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times (T{sub 1/2}). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B{sub 12} levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83{+-}48.80 min, 90.00{+-}17.29 min and 74.55{+-}8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant (P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B{sub 12} treatment (P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B{sub 12} level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T{sub 1/2} was prolonged in patients with vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B{sub 12} replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon

  12. Effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    1994-06-01

    In this prospective, clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients were established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy: group 1--healthy people; group 2--patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis; group 3--patients with no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy; group 4--patients with dyspepsia after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulphur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in groups 2 (P 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy, has a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  13. Delay in gallbladder emptying during the perimenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petroianu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study has ascribed an important role in gallbladder motility and emptying to the perimenopausal period. To assess the effect of this period on gallbladder emptying and cholelithogenesis, 25 women in the perimenopausal period without gallbladder disease were submitted to cholangiography and two ultrasound exams. The time for gallbladder emptying and the presence of cholelithiasis were assessed. All patients presented a delay in gallbladder emptying with no relationship to the pre- or postmenopausal period. This finding was not related to lithogenesis. Gallbladder emptying time is longer during the perimenopausal period.

  14. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  15. Controlled emptying with whole-area dischargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Franke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While emptying complex bulk solids apparatuses and silos, the discharger at container bottom can significantly affect the energy demand of the process and the product quality. At practice, a variety of discharge devices has been developed which differ in the closing mechanism and the design of their fixed inserts. Experimental studies with wheat have shown that some whole-area dischargers cause a distinctive flow profile. Due to their design, these systems offer an unexploited potential to locally influence the bulk solids motion and to realize a controlled emptying. Based on a prototype, a new type of discharge device has been developed at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy e.V. (ATB. First results show that fixed baffles at the walls lead to a decelerated emptying at the sides of the discharge device. On the other hand, a complete renunciation of these installations results in a significant acceleration in the same regions. In future, it is intended to locally control the bulk solids movement by using an optimized design of the fixed inserts of the closing mechanism. Furthermore, it is intended to investigate how the drying process in mixed-flow grain dryers can be influenced and homogenized by using the newly developed discharge device.

  16. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed

  17. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements obtained via two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the left atrium and time-left atrial area curve analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Lim, Sue Yee; Tamura, Yu; Kumara, Wickramasekara Rajapakshage Bandula; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs by means of 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography with time-left atrial area curve analysis and to assess repeatability and reproducibility of obtained measurements. 6 healthy Beagles. Each dog underwent echocardiography twice on different days (3 nonconsecutive examinations/d). Images were analyzed with offline software; area of the left atrium was automatically calculated in each frame throughout the cardiac cycle to derive time-left atrial area curves. Variables used to assess left atrial phasic function (total, passive, and active emptying area and emptying fractions and mean active and total emptying rates) were calculated. Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and a manual tracing method was assessed with modified Bland-Altman analysis. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were determined. Mean ± SD total, passive, and active emptying fractions of the left atrium were 49.8 ± 3.5%, 277 ± 4.0%, and 30.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. Mean ± SD total and active emptying rates were 16.0 ± 2.5 cm(2)/s and 25.1 ± 4.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were canine patients.

  18. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  19. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with 111 In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated

  20. Schizophernia and empty sella - casual or correlated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix-Ramos, R. J.; Ezequiel, U.; Capote, E.; Mendoza, M.; Garcia, M.

    2011-01-01

    A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last followup visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male mono zygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuro anatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia. (authors)

  1. Minimum convex partitions and maximum empty polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dumitrescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a set of n points in Rd. A Steiner convex partition is a tiling of conv(S with empty convex bodies. For every integer d, we show that S admits a Steiner convex partition with at most ⌈(n-1/d⌉ tiles. This bound is the best possible for points in general position in the plane, and it is the best possible apart from constant factors in every fixed dimension d≥3. We also give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a minimum Steiner convex partition of a planar point set in general position.Establishing a tight lower bound for the maximum volume of a tile in a Steiner convex partition of any n points in the unit cube is equivalent to a famous problem of Danzer and Rogers. It is conjectured that the volume of the largest tile is ω(1/n. Here we give a (1-\\epsilon-approximation algorithm for computing the maximum volume of an empty convex body amidst n given points in the d-dimensional unit box [0,1]d.

  2. Empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, C.D.; Fugere, J.

    1977-01-01

    All empty space-times admitting a one-parameter group of motions and in which the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is (partially) separable are obtained. Several different cases of such empty space-times exist and the Riemann tensor is found to be either type D or N. The results presented here complete the search for empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. (author)

  3. Measurement of gastric emptying by intragastric gamma scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbert, C H; Mathis, C; Bobillier, E; Laplace, J P; Horowitz, M

    1997-09-01

    Gastric emptying is usually measured in animals and humans by dilution/sampling or external scintigraphy. These methods are either time consuming or require expensive equipment. The capacity of a miniature gamma counter positioned in the stomach to measure emptying of liquid and solid meals was evaluated. In eight conscious pigs fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulae, gastric emptying of saline (500 mL), dextrose (20%, 500 mL), porridge (300 g) and scrambled eggs (300 g), all labelled with 3.5 MBq 99mTC, was evaluated. When positioned in the antrum the probe was unable to quantify gastric emptying. In contrast, measurements of the fractional emptying of saline over 4-min periods by the probe positioned in the corpus and quantification of radioactivity in the duodenal effluent correlated closely (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Gastric emptying (50% emptying time) of saline and both solid meals measured by the probe was not significantly different from quantification of the duodenal effluent volume. No difference was observed also for the dextrose meal but only while gastric acid secretion was suppressed by omeprazole. We conclude that an intragastric gamma counter permits measurement of gastric emptying of homogeneous meals provided meal stimulation of gastric secretion was not extensive. This was possible probably by monitoring emptying from the proximal stomach.

  4. Emptiness and Work: a Meaning-Making Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendassolli, Pedro F

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to put forward the foundation for building a theory of meaning-making based on emptiness. The theoretical perspective underlying the discussion is the cultural psychology of semiotic mediation. According to this perspective, meaning-making is the result of the process through witch human beings use signs to build their relationship with their environment. Three topics unfold in the paper. First, emptiness is defined as a potential absence. Second, the paper identifies the two ways in which emptiness enters into the meaning-making process, either fostering it or, to the contrary, blocking it. When it fosters meaning construction, emptiness acts as a catalytic factor, that is, as a reservoir of possibilities, in the sense of a future-oriented set of new meanings to be built by the agent. However, when emptiness plays the role of a blocking or anti-catalytic factor, emptiness become a hyper-generalized sign, i.e., an empty meaning. Third, this paper illustrates the applicability of these theoretical reflections on emptiness through the example of work. Specifically, both the burnout and the so-called "placardisation" phenomena are analyzed in terms of the anti-catalytic factors at play in work, which lead to feeling it as empty.

  5. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  6. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  7. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  8. Gastric emptying and postprandial symptoms after Billroth II resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Pasma, F. G.; Oei, H. Y.; Wittebol, P.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying was studied in 18 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients after Billroth II (BII) resection (without vagotomy) and the possible relationships between emptying and postprandial symptoms in these patients were assessed. The BII patients were compared with 20 nonoperated patients who

  9. The effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    In this clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients are established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy. 1. group: healthy people, 2. group: patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis, 3. group: patients who have no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy, 4. group: patients whose dyspepsia is continued after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulfur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in second (p 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy have a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  10. Erythromycin accelerates solid emptying at the expense of gastric sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Sanders, S L; Gu, Y G; Doty, J E

    1994-01-01

    Erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying by inducing antral contractions similar to phase III of interdigestive MMC. These powerful contractions are capable of forcing coin-sized indigestibles out of the stomach. In contrast, fed motility is associated with submaximal contractions that fragment (trituration) and propel solids while retaining large (> 0.5 mm) pieces for further size reduction (gastric sieving). In this study, using dogs with duodenal fistulas, we tested the hypothesis that erythromycin-induced acceleration of gastric emptying resulted in the passage of inadequately triturated (> 0.05 mm) chunks of solids into the duodenum. We found that gastric emptying was accelerated by erythromycin (vs 0.15 M NaCl control, P 0.5-mm fraction was much greater (P solids were emptied as large chunks virtually unchanged from the swallowed pieces. We conclude that erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying at the expense of gastric sieving.

  11. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  12. [Serum levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor in women with empty sella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysiek, J A; Milewicz, T; Opiła, J

    1998-01-01

    Serum basal fasting IGF-I, hGH, insulin, prolactin and gonadotropins as well as estradiol and SHBG levels were evaluated in: 15 women with the empty sella turcica syndrome [1A], 14 women with the empty sella and pituitary microadenoma[1B], 6 ones with normal CT scan [2A] and 20 subjects with CT signs of pituitary microadenoma [2B]. There were no differences in age of the women. Both mean body mass and body mass index were the highest in group 1A. The lowest mean serum IGF-I, LH, estradiol, SHBG and the highest insulin levels were found in group 1A. Serum IGF-I level correlated negatively with age in all but 1A group. An inverse hGH/age as well as positive hGH/IGF-I correlation found in group 2A was impaired either by presence of the empty sella or microadenoma. IGF-I/insulin correlation did not occur in all but 1A group. Normally existing reverse estradiol/age correlation became positive in group 1A and vanished in patients microadenoma. Serum IGF-I level correlated negatively with gonadotropins in patients with CT signs of microadenoma.

  13. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  14. Gastric Emptying in Patients with Diabetes: Gastric Emptying Time, Retention Rate and Effect of Cisapride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Chun; Choi, Chung Il; Gwak, Dong Suck; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Bo Wan; Chung, Jun Mo

    1992-01-01

    Gastic emptying scan in diabetic patients is widely used to assess the degree of motility disturbance and the symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain and early gastric fullness which we can't find anatomic lesion by fiberoscopic or barium study. In order to determine the relationship among diabetic gastropathy, neropathy, retinopathy and disease duration, gastric emptying scan using 99m Tc-tin colloid labeled scramble egg in hamburger was performed in 10 healthy male controls and 50 diabetic patients which were subdivided to no neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy groups according to the degree of diabetic neuropathy and no retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy groups according to the degree of diabetic retinopathy. After medication of cisapride for 2 weeks, we observed the presence of improvement of gastric motility in diabetics. The results were as following: 1) In controls, gastric emptying time (GET1/2) was 75 ± 13.6 min and 2 hour gastric retension rate(GRR2) was 32 ± 11.1%. 2) In diabetics, GET/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours and GRR2 was 58 ± 23.1%. According to degree of neuropathy, GET1/2 was prolonged more than 2 hours in all three groups and GRR2 was 54± 24.1% in no neuropathy group, 57 ± 24.3% in peripheral neuropathy group and 69 ± 24.6% in autonomic neuropathy group. According to degree of retinopathy, GET1/2 was 110 ± 23.4 min in no retinopathy group and prolonged more than 2 hours in other two groups and GRR2 was 45 ± 21.6% in no retinopathy group, 71 ± 19.7% in background retinopathy group and 73 ± 21.5% in proliferative retinopathy group. 3) After cisapride for 2 weeks, GET1/2 and GRR2 were improved as 90 ± 14.6 min and 40 ± 13.8% (initial GET1/2 and GRR2 were above 2 hours and 61 ± 15.4%). We can conclude from above findings that gastropathy in diabetic neuropathy suggesting main underlying factor in motility disorder. The degree of retinopathy and disease

  15. Empty sella syndrome - beyond being an incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Ghatnatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empty sella is characterized by the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella, which is often associated with some degree of flattening of the pituitary gland. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and hormonal profile in patients with empty sella. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and hormonal profile of the patients with an empty sella. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing a CT/MRI at our center, for various reasons but with the finding of the empty sella were included in this study. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Apart from routine tests, hormonal evaluation included serum thyroid stimulating hormone, T4, cortisol (8 am, prolactin, total testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, leutinizing hormone, and fasting Insulin like Growth factor 1 (IGF 1 were done. Results: A total of 34 patients, diagnosed radiologically to have empty sella, were evaluated and of them 24 had primary empty sella (PES and 10 had secondary empty sella (SES. In subjects with PES, 12 out of 24 (50% had endocrine dysfunction. The most common endocrine dysfunction noted was hyperprolactinemia, which was seen in 5 (20.8% patients and the most common hormonal deficiency was isolated GH deficiency seen in four patients (12.5%. Conclusion: The high incidence of endocrine abnormalities in patients with PES mandates that these patients should routinely be subjected to endocrine evaluation to detect these deficiencies early, and appropriate replacement instituted where necessary, thus ensuring them of a better quality of life.

  16. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbrenner, B; Pieramico, O; Brecht-Krauss, D; Baur, M; Malfertheiner, P

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese patients have different rates of solid and liquid gastric emptying compared to healthy controls. Twenty-four obese patients (7 males, 17 females) were investigated prior to dietary restriction. The patients had a weight excess above ideal weight ranging from 25% to 216% (mean weight 118.1 +/- 6.5 kg). The control group consisted of 8 healthy subjects (4 males, 4 females), within 10% of the ideal weight. The solid phase of the test meal consisted of 40 g bread, 30 g ham, 10 g margarine, and two scrambled eggs labeled with 99mTc. For the liquid phase, 200 ml orange juice was labeled with 201Tl. Three-minute counts of both tracers were taken for 106 min using a large field-of-view gamma camera. In obese patients, a significantly shortened lag phase for the emptying of solids was observed (27.0 +/- 3.3 versus 38.4 +/- 4.1 min; P < 0.05). Half-emptying time (105.9 +/- 6.7 versus 100.7 +/- 5.7 min), emptying rate (0.60 +/- 0.04 versus 0.71 +/- 0.07%/min), and total emptying of solids (49.4 +/- 3.6 versus 50.5 +/- 5.0%) were not different from controls. Obese subjects had a trend to slowed liquid emptying (half-time 82.7 +/- 4.8 versus 69.9 +/- 6.9 min; emptying rate 0.59 +/- 0.03 versus 0.65 +/- 0.03%/min; total emptying 59.8 +/- 2.9 versus 66.0 +/- 3.3%), but this was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between weight or body surface area and rate of solid or liquid gastric emptying.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Emptiness in psychological science and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is now one of the most popular sciences for young students. But whether academic production or professional practice, it is still in crisis. When we look together at two different approaches we realize the enormous amount of syncretism. They are not only two different approaches to the same science. They are more than that, they are different areas of knowledge, with very different practical implications. Discussion of psychology with the other sciences researching the same "objects" is nonexistent. So when it comes to practice, many of young psychologists leave the profession. This article is an invitation to colleagues for a "look inside" this interesting science that can make a significant contribution to human sciences and the better life of human beings in the 21st century. This call is supported by a re-reading of the text by Lev S. Vygotsky The historical meaning of the crisis in psychology written in 1927. The article is structured in four subtopics: the problem of general science (in Psychology, the problem of terminology, the problem of difficulty in recognizing the crisis and the problem of emptiness. Being a call, of course, it is not a complete and finished analysis. It is rather a desire that, engaging some colleagues, we can continue the dialogue with Vygotsky on this topic started by him ninety years ago.

  18. Radionuclide study of gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Humphries, L.; Castellanos, F.X.; De Land, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying, 20 patients with anorexia nervosa were given 150 μCi of Tc-99m triethylene tetraamine polystyrene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5-minute intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The GET results were divided into three categories: prolonged (10 patients); rapid (eight); and normal (two). Although all patients had symptoms of gastric dysfunction, only 50% had prolonged GET. This study allows the objective documentation of gastric emptying and the separation of patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide

  19. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA.......0, with GIP and placebo, respectively). The time pattern of gastric emptying was similar in the two groups (P = 0.98). Endogenous GIP secretion, as derived from the incremental area under the curve of plasma GIP concentrations in the placebo experiments, did not correlate to gastric half-emptying times (r(2...

  20. CT cisternography with Iopamidol in primary Empty-Sella syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, L.; Gergelchev, N.; Tonchev, Z.

    1993-01-01

    This is a discussion of the nature, etiology, classification, incidence rate, clinical and radiological characteristics of primary empty-sella syndrome. A detailed description is presented of three cases with clinical and neuroradiological signs of the syndrome, and one case suspected for intercellular arachnoid cyst. CT is a highly informative method for empty-sella demonstration. The basic symptoms are: equivalent cerebrospinal fluid density measured intracellularly, and positive 'infundibulum sing'. CT cisternography with Iopamidol is innocuous, reliable and comprehensive neuroradiological method for diagnosing or discarding primary empty-sella syndrome. 11 refs., 5 figs. (orig.)

  1. The hysterographic (empty bladder) view of the uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.; Gombergh, R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical improvements in transducer design permit a direct coronal view of the uterus (''hysterographic view'') to be obtained with the bladder empty as a valuable complement to the usual US study of the pelvis with the bladder distended. Good visualization of the uterine cavity and wall is possible in 95% of cases. More than 50 cases of endometrial and myometrial pathology (polyps, cancers, submucous fibroids) with abnormalities inapparent on standard US scans have hysterographic and/or pathologic proof confirming the empty-bladder US-based diagnosis. If tubal visualization is not necessary, empty-bladder US may often avoid hysterography. It is also the best way to demonstrate IUD position

  2. Malrotation discovered during routine radionuclide gastric emptying study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanlikaya, A.; Miller, J.H.; Williams, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    In infants with recurrent vomiting, and especially bilious vomiting, the algorithmic approaches is to perform conventional barium upper gastrointestinal radiography to rule out malrotation and midgut volvulus, which are surgical emergencies. However, children with protracted vomiting and failure to thrive are candidates for medical treatment. These children are often evaluated by radionuclide gastric emptying studies to assess gastric emptying. Three patients are presented in whom the radionclude gastric emptying study revealed the presence of a malrotation anomaly which had been undetected by antecedent barium gastrointestinal radiographic studies. (orig.)

  3. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  4. Simulation of empty container logistic management at depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Sek, Siaw-Ying Doreen; Chiew, Kang-Leng; Tiong, Wei-King

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the empty container management problem in a deficit regional area. Deficit area is the area having more export activities than the import activities, which always have a shortage of empty container. This environment has challenged the trading companies in the decision making in distributing the empty containers. A simulation model that fit to the environment is developed. Besides, a simple heuristic algorithm with some hard and soft constraints consideration are proposed to plan the logistic of empty container supply. Then, the feasible route with the minimum cost will be determined by applying the proposed heuristic algorithm. The heuristic algorithm can be divided into three main phases which are data sorting, data assigning and time window updating.

  5. The primary empty sella in children and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke

    1983-01-01

    The primary empty sella has been thought to be rare in children; only a few children have been described in the literature. The majority of such cases have been associated with congenital anomalies, optic atrophies, or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrheas. We now report four cases of the primary empty sella in children. Two of the patients(Case 1 and Case 3) were prepubescent and had primary generalized epilepsy, while Case 2 and Case 4 complained of attacks of vascular headache and peri-orbital pain respectively. None of them showed any clinical evidence of endocrine disturbance. Ophthalmological examination revealed no abnormalities. The association of the primary empty sella with such disorders as primary epilepsy, attacks of vascular headache, and peri-orbital pain were thought to be almost certainly coincidental; the possibility was suggested that the empty sella might be present in children as an anatomical variant or as an acquired process in a certain percentage of them. (author)

  6. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  7. Empty tracks optimization based on Z-Map model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Yan, Guangrong; Wang, Zaijun; Zang, Genao

    2017-12-01

    For parts with many features, there are more empty tracks during machining. If these tracks are not optimized, the machining efficiency will be seriously affected. In this paper, the characteristics of the empty tracks are studied in detail. Combining with the existing optimization algorithm, a new tracks optimization method based on Z-Map model is proposed. In this method, the tool tracks are divided into the unit processing section, and then the Z-Map model simulation technique is used to analyze the order constraint between the unit segments. The empty stroke optimization problem is transformed into the TSP with sequential constraints, and then through the genetic algorithm solves the established TSP problem. This kind of optimization method can not only optimize the simple structural parts, but also optimize the complex structural parts, so as to effectively plan the empty tracks and greatly improve the processing efficiency.

  8. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Brophy, C.M.; Egger, M.J.; Taylor, A.; Moore, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 μCi) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 μCi) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences

  9. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  10. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  11. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  12. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  13. Intravenous erythromycin dramatically accelerates gastric emptying in gastroparesis diabeticorum and normals and abolishes the emptying discrimination between solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Vantrappen, G.; Janssens, J.; Van Cutsem, E.; Peeters, T.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has recently been shown to have a motilin like effect on gastrointestinal muscle strips. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of erythromycin on patients with delayed gastric emptying and healthy subjects using the dual radionuclide technique. Twelve patients with gastroparesis diabeticorum and ten healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined using 99mTc-SC scrambled egg and 111In-DTPA in water. Following a baseline study and on a separate day, each patient and control received a 15-min i.v. perfusion of erythromycin starting at meal ingestion. Eleven out of the 12 patients were restudied after a 3-wk oral administration. In patients and controls, i.v. erythromycin dramatically accelerated gastric emptying of both solids and liquids which were emptied at the same rate. After chronic oral administration, solid and liquid emptying remained significantly accelerated. Erythromycin appears to be a very powerful gastrokinetic drug. Derived compounds with the gastrokinetic effect and without the antibiotic activity could be useful in dyspeptic patients with delayed gastric emptying

  14. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results

  15. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  16. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  17. Structure and dynamics of empty cages in xenon clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Fukazawa, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Nagashima, Kazushige; Kawamura, Katsuyuki

    2008-12-14

    We performed molecular dynamics calculations of xenon clathrate hydrate to investigate the effects of empty cages on the structure and dynamics of the surrounding lattice. The distinct structure and dynamics of the empty cages, and cages including Xe, which coexist in the lattice, were analyzed. The results show that the ellipsoidal tetrakaidecahedral cage shrinks along the minor (100) axis and expands along the major (100) axis due to the absence of Xe from the cage, whereas the dodecahedral cage shrinks isotropically. These distortions of the empty cages cause a reduction in the lattice constant and an enhancement of the thermal vibrations of the surrounding lattice. The vibrational density of states shows that the hydrogen bonds consisting of the tetrakaidecahedral cage are strengthened by the absence of Xe, whereas those of the dodecahedral cage are weakened. These results show differing mechanisms of guest-host interaction for the two types of cages including Xe. Repulsion is the dominant guest-host interaction for the dodecahedral cage, as proposed by previous studies. For the tetrakaidecahedral cage, however, attractive interaction is dominant along the major (100) axis, whereas repulsive interaction is dominant along the minor (100) axis. The present results suggest that a small number of empty cages can affect not only the local structures but also the macroscopic properties of the crystal. It is concluded that the distortions of the empty cages are one of the important factors governing the density and phase equilibrium of clathrate hydrates.

  18. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Debie, N C; Pauwels, S P

    1988-07-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using 99mTc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [111In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.

  19. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and (/sup 111/In)DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.

  20. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and [ 111 In]DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man

  1. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  2. Gastric emptying rate in the elderly: implications for drug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.A.; Triggs, E.J.; Cheung, M.; Broe, G.A.; Creasey, H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the aging process on gastric emptying was studied in 11 elderly subjects (mean age, 77) and in 7 young healthy volunteers (mean age, 26). Gastric emptying rates were assessed by a modified sequential scinti-scanning technique after administration of the nonabsorbable chelated radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DTPA. The rate of emptying, expressed as half-time (T 1/2e) in minutes, was significantly longer (p less than 0.001) in the elderly subjects (mean apparent T 1/2e . 123.23 min) compared to the young healthy volunteers (mean apparent T 1/2e . 49.69 min). Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with respect to the rate and extent of drug absorption in elderly persons

  3. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  4. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  5. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  6. Language Emptiness of Continuous-Time Parametric Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Bezdek, Peter; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Parametric timed automata extend the standard timed automata with the possibility to use parameters in the clock guards. In general, if the parameters are real-valued, the problem of language emptiness of such automata is undecidable even for various restricted subclasses. We thus focus on the case...... of these clocks is compared with (an arbitrary number of) parameters, we show that the parametric language emptiness is decidable. The undecidability result tightens the bounds of a previous result which assumed six parameters, while the decidability result extends the existing approaches that deal with discrete...

  7. Empty 4f states in TmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, P.; Grioni, M.

    1998-01-01

    The reflectivity of TmS single crystals has been measured between 2 meV and 12 eV at room temperature and at 6 K. Besides 3p 6 -5d interband transitions a plasma edge due to free carriers is observed. In the middle infrared (near 50 meV) two sharp lines are found which are interpreted as transitions from the Fermi level into empty crystal field split 4f 13 states. A Bremsstrahlen isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) measurement supports the assumption that the empty 4f 13 state is close to the Fermi energy. (orig.)

  8. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  9. Dynamic cholescintigraphy: induction and description of gallbladder emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, D B; Højgaard, L; Winkler, K

    1996-01-01

    seen in the six patients. The measurements of EF30 in healthy subjects scattered more widely around the mean compared to the mean EF and EFmax, which indicates poorer ability to separate normal from abnormal gallbladder emptying. Intravenous bolus injection of CCK-8 resulted in incomplete gallbladder...

  10. Development of pretreatment of empty fruit bunches for enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... carried out using the laboratory produced cellulase enzyme through bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by the fungal strain, ... billion gal of renewable fuels into gasoline by 2012, and by far, the most common ... empty fruit bunch (EFB) which are produced from the oil palm processing industries ...

  11. Effect of torrefaction on oil palm empty fruit bunch pelletization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pelletizing properties were determined using single pellet press and pellet stability was determined by compression testing. Pelletization of raw and torrified empty fruit bunch (EFB) from compression single pellet press (SPP) was investigated to quantify the energy consumption and pellet properties including moisture ...

  12. Emptiness formation probability of XX-chain in diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2004-01-01

    We study the distribution of emptiness formation probability of XX-model in the diffusion process. There exits a Gaussian decay as well as an exponential decay. The Gaussian decay is caused by the existence of zero point in the Fermi distribution function. The correlation length for each point of scaling factor varies up to the initial condition, monotonically or non-monotonically

  13. Effects of curcumin on the gastric emptying of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Brijesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Arora, Neetu; Kumar, Anil; Saxena, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol, is an active principle of the perennial herb Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric. Turmeric (CURCUMA LONGA L.) is a medicinal plant extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicine as a home remedy for various diseases including biliary diseases, cough, hepatic diseases, wound healing. However studies on the effect of curcumin on the gastric emptying are nearly nonexistent. It is hypothesized that curcumin may have an effect on gastric emptying. For this reason the present study was aimed to study the effect of curcumin on gastric emptying. Rats were divided into 5 groups (Group I - Group V), based on the time interval between administration of curcumin/vehicular fluid to administration of barium sulphate (Group I - 1 hr, Group II - 8 hrs, Group III - 16 hrs, Group IV - 24 hrs, Group V - 48 hrs). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, Group A (control) and Group B (experimental), containing 6 rats each. Rats in experimental group were administered curcumin intragastrically, in the dose of 1 gm/kg body weight, suspended in normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The controls were given vehicular fluid intragastrically, in volume equal to the experimental animals. It was observed that there was a decrease in the gastric emptying in all the experimental groups.

  14. A Survey of Empty Container Flow Balance in Turkish Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal ÖZDEMİR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Container transportation is the most preferred maritime commercial freight distribution in entire world except liquefied product transportation by tankers and bulk carriers. Totally 95% volume of general cargo is transported by container ships in the world due to fast, cheap and safe carrying potential of the goods transfer. Containerization has become recent phenomena in the field of maritime transportation and the quantity of goods transported by containers is increasing day by day as well as the total container number to use for the commercial activity. Due to very high mobility in the field of container transportation, port traffic estimation, availability of containers, storage, deposition and allocation of empty containers have become recent problems in maritime transportation area. In this study some major container ports of Turkey which are stand for 80 % of total container operations are analyzed to seek for empty container balance. After detailed statistical evaluation of national container transportation figures for Haydarpaşa, Kumport, İzmir, Mardaş, Marport and Mersin, several interviews and discussions have been made with port authorities and governing departments. As a result, it is observed that there is no empty container accumulation problem in the examined ports except Haydarpaşa and Kumport. Based on general statistics, Turkish container ports currently do not suffer from empty container problem as overall container circulation close to equilibrium but the problem has a potential to create a risk on developing international trade of Turkey.

  15. Association between postprandial symptoms and gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgerhart, Jan S.; van Rutte, Pim W. J.; Edelbroek, Michela A. L.; Wyndaele, Dirk N. J.; Smulders, Johannes F.; van de Meeberg, Paul C.; Siersema, Peter D.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric procedure. However, postprandial symptoms can compromise its beneficial effect. It is not known if a changed gastric emptying and these symptoms are related. This study aimed to assess the association between postprandial symptoms and

  16. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence on nanotube diameter, wall thickness and dispersion interactions. Malay Rana ... The thickness of the nanotube wall, however, is found to have only minor effects on the density profiles, hydrogen bond network and the wetting characteristics. This indicates ...

  17. Gastric emptying in adults treated for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jörgensen, E; Hansen, L P

    1989-01-01

    The gastric emptying rate was scintigraphically determined in 6 women and 26 men who had undergone medical or surgical treatment for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis a median of 29 years previously. Dyspeptic complaints were reported by four of the seven medically treated and nine of the 25...

  18. Gongronema Latifolium delays gastric emptying of semi-solid meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate sonographically the effect of Gongronema latifolium on gastric emptying of semi-solid meals in diabetic dogs. Twenty-five alloxan-induced diabetic dogs were randomly allotted into five groups of five dogs each in a randomised placebo-controlled study. These are placebo, prokinetic ...

  19. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  20. The Effect on Moderate Altitude UPON Human Gastric Emptying Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-03-01

    physiological aliment . The emptying time, therefore, of a mixture of barium and food may perhaps differ somewhat from that of food alone. Determination of the...eliminated; they are more valuable in exposing the film and, also, less dangerous bio - logically. Only absorbed rays are harmful. By these means it

  1. Rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups I and II served as the control (non-pregnant rats)fed normal rat chow and essentially carbohydrate diet respectively, while Groups III and IV served as test animals(pregnant rats) fed essentially carbohydrate diet in early and late gestation periods respectively. Gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates were ...

  2. Filled and empty states of carbon nanotubes in water: Dependence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. We have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing a narrow carbon nanotube as a solute to investigate the filling and emptying of the nanotube and also the modifica- tions of the density and hydrogen bond distributions of water inside and also in the vicinity of the outer surfaces of ...

  3. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers in healthy dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, F.J.; Guilford, W.G.; Robertson, I.D.; Jones, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    The gastric emptying of 1.5 mm diameter (small) and 5.0 mm diameter (large) radiopaque markers (BIPS) was assessed in 20 dogs. The markers were fed to the dogs in a test meal and abdominal radiographs were made hourly thereafter. Studies were repeated three times in each dog. The variation between two veterinarians interpreting the radiographs was low. The sex, age and day of the study did not have a significant effect on the lag phase or the time taken to empty 25%, 50% and 75% of the markers (T25, T50 and T75 respectively). There was a weak but significant positive correlation between the body weight and T50. There was no significant difference in gastric emptying parameters between the large and small markers.The mean gastric emptying versus time curve of the small markers on day one was chosen to represent the reference curve for healthy dogs. The lag phase of the small markers on day one was 2.45 ± 2.04 hours, the T25 was 4.85 ± 2.15 hours, the T50 was 6.05 ± 2.99 hours and the T75 was 8.32 ± 2.72 hours (mean ± SD)

  4. Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility. DESIGN AND METHODS...

  5. 5 Ways to Avoid Filling Up on Empty Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    It's easy to get overwhelmed by our busy lives and grab food on the go that doesn’t provide the nourishment our bodies need. Pretty much anything you would call “junk food” is an empty-calorie culprit.

  6. Killing vectors in empty space algebraically special metrics. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, A.

    1976-01-01

    Empty space algebraically special metrics possessing an expanding degenerate principal null vector and Killing vectors are investigated. Attention is centered on that class of Killing vector (called nonpreferred) which is necessarily spacelike in the asymptotic region. A detailed analysis of the relationship between the Petrov--Penrose classification and these Killing vectors is carried out

  7. Gastric emptying of liquids in rats dehydrated by water deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baracat E.C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric emptying of liquids was investigated in male Wistar rats (8 to 10 weeks old, 210-300 g dehydrated by water deprivation. In this model of dehydration, weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density were significantly higher in the dehydrated animals than in the control groups after 48 and 72 h of water deprivation (P<0.05. Three test meals (saline (N = 10, water (N = 10 and a WHO rehydrating solution containing in one liter 90 mEq sodium, 20 mEq potassium, 80 mEq chloride and 30 mEq citrate (N = 10 were used to study gastric emptying following water deprivation for 24, 48 and 72 h. After 72 h, gastric emptying of the water (39.4% retention and rehydrating solution (49.2% retention test meals was significantly retarded compared to the corresponding control groups (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney test. The 72-h period of deprivation was used to study the recovery from dehydration, and water was supplied for 60 or 120 min after 67 h of deprivation. Body weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density tended to return to normal when water was offered for 120 min. In the animals supplied with water for 60 min, there was a recovery in the gastric emptying of water while the gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was still retarded (53.1% retention; P<0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test. In the group supplied with water for 120 min, the gastric emptying of the rehydrating (51.7% retention and gluco-saline (46.0% retention solutions tended to be retarded (P = 0.04, Kruskal-Wallis test. In this model of dehydration caused by water deprivation, with little alteration in the body electrolyte content, gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was retarded after rehydration with water. We conclude that the mechanisms whereby receptors in the duodenal mucosa can modify gastric motility are altered during dehydration caused by water deprivation

  8. Normalised radionuclide measures of left ventricular diastolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.J.; Southee, A.E.; Bautovich, G.J.; Freedman, B.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Rossleigh, M.A.; Hutton, B.F.; Morris, J.G.; Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular diastolic function is being increasingly recognised in patients with clinical heart failure and normal systolic function. A simple routine radionuclide measure of diastolic function would therefore be useful. To establish, the relationship of peak diastolic filling rate (normalized for either end diastolic volume, stroke volume, or peak systolic emptying rate), and heart rate, age, and left ventricular ejection fraction was studied in 64 subjects with normal cardiovascular systems using routine gated heart pool studies. The peak filling rate when normalized to end diastolic volume correlated significantly with heart rate, age and left ventricular ejection fraction, whereas normalization to stroke volume correlated significantly to heart rate and age but not to left ventricular ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized for peak systolic emptying rate correlated with age only. Multiple regression equations were determined for each of the normalized peak filling rates in order to establish normal ranges for each parameter. When using peak filling rate normalized for end diastolic volume or stroke volume, appropriate allowance must be made for heart rate, age and ejection fraction. Peak filling rate normalized to peak ejection rate is a heart rate independent parameter which allows the performance of the patient's ventricle in diastole to be compared with its systolic function. It may be used in patients with normal systolic function to serially follow diastolic function, or if age corrected to screen for diastolic dysfunction. (orig.)

  9. Post-Soviet emptiness (Vladimir Makanin and Viktor Pelevin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emptiness is a key word in several post-Soviet Russian novels of the late 1990s. One can find it as well in Vladimir Makanin's “Underground” as in two novels written by Viktor Pelevin, “Generation ‘P’” and “Chapaev and Emptiness”. After the fall of Soviet power Pelevin's cynical hero from “Generation ‘P’” changes from literature into advertising business, and in his novel “Chapaev and Emptiness” the legendary Soviet Civil War hero Chapaev transforms into a preacher of quasi-Buddhist nothingness. Makanin's hero, the writer Petrovich, renounces of his profession in order to work as a watchman in shelters for the homeless. His self-abasement is in accordance with the tradition of kenoticism (derived from the Greek word kenós = empty which played an important part in the history of Russian religious and cultural life. Criticizing the hypermoralism of classical Russian literature Makanin outlines a new image of the writer which is opposed to the Russian literary myth but still propagates moral and religious values. Pelevin's novels which reflect the relativism of postmodern poetics focus on another issue – the blurring of the difference between reality and illusion. In “Generation ‘P’”, mass media and advertising produce deceitful simulacra of reality and in “Chapaev and Emptiness” the deconstruction of Soviet mythology assumes the shape of a nightmare. Unsurprisingly, among the imagery of emptiness Malevich's famous “Black Square” including its numerous equivalents as black holes or all sorts of empty spaces is rather frequent in the three novels. Emptiness may be considered to be a characteristic trait of the atmosphere of the 1990s when Russians felt to live in a cultural vacuum somewhere between state economy and unbridled capitalism, between Soviet order and “post-slave” (Makanin chaos.

  10. EmptyHeaded: A Relational Engine for Graph Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Christopher R; Tu, Susan; Olukotun, Kunle; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of high-performance graph processing engines: low- and high-level engines. Low-level engines (Galois, PowerGraph, Snap) provide optimized data structures and computation models but require users to write low-level imperative code, hence ensuring that efficiency is the burden of the user. In high-level engines, users write in query languages like datalog (SociaLite) or SQL (Grail). High-level engines are easier to use but are orders of magnitude slower than the low-level graph engines. We present EmptyHeaded, a high-level engine that supports a rich datalog-like query language and achieves performance comparable to that of low-level engines. At the core of EmptyHeaded's design is a new class of join algorithms that satisfy strong theoretical guarantees but have thus far not achieved performance comparable to that of specialized graph processing engines. To achieve high performance, EmptyHeaded introduces a new join engine architecture, including a novel query optimizer and data layouts that leverage single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallelism. With this architecture, EmptyHeaded outperforms high-level approaches by up to three orders of magnitude on graph pattern queries, PageRank, and Single-Source Shortest Paths (SSSP) and is an order of magnitude faster than many low-level baselines. We validate that EmptyHeaded competes with the best-of-breed low-level engine (Galois), achieving comparable performance on PageRank and at most 3× worse performance on SSSP.

  11. Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of patchy colloids with distinct numbers and types of patches: the empty fluid regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Daniel; Tavares, José Maria; da Gama, Margarida M Telo

    2011-03-14

    We investigate the effect of distinct bonding energies on the onset of criticality of low functionality fluid mixtures. We focus on mixtures of particles with two and three patches as this includes the mixture where "empty" fluids were originally reported. In addition to the number of patches, the species differ in the type of patches or bonding sites. For simplicity, we consider that the patches on each species are identical: one species has three patches of type A and the other has two patches of type B. We have found a rich phase behavior with closed miscibility gaps, liquid-liquid demixing, and negative azeotropes. Liquid-liquid demixing was found to pre-empt the "empty" fluid regime, of these mixtures, when the AB bonds are weaker than the AA or BB bonds. By contrast, mixtures in this class exhibit "empty" fluid behavior when the AB bonds are stronger than at least one of the other two. Mixtures with bonding energies ε(BB) = ε(AB) and ε(AA) < ε(BB), were found to exhibit an unusual negative azeotrope.

  12. Obesity, overeating, and rapid gastric emptying in rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, J P; Booth, D A

    1986-02-07

    Measurements confirm the quantitative theoretical prediction that the autonomic nonendocrine abnormality of rapid daytime gastric emptying is the major primary cause of the obesity resulting from ventromedial hypothalamic lesions in rats. Therapy for obesity could include slowing of stomach emptying.

  13. [Evaluation of the empty bladder stress test in supine position as a marker of severity and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribillaga, Leandro; Ledesma, Marta; Bengió, Rubén G; Montedoro, Ariel; Pisano, Florencia; Orellana, Sergio; García Önto, Hernán; Bengió, Rubén H

    2016-06-01

    To assess the association between empty bladder stress test and objective and subjective measures of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) severity. Prospective, analytic and descriptive study of females with diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence referred for urodynamics study. Every patient underwent medical history (including number of daily pads) and physical examination, ISIQ-SF and short IIQ-7 questionnaires, and full urodynamic study, including the measurment of the abdominal leak pressure point (ALPP). Positive empty stress test was defined as stress urine leak on physical exam after uroflowmetry evacuation and in absence of significant post-void residual. To evaluate the relationship between empty bladder stress test and each one of the stress urinary incontinence severity measures, Stundent's t test was performed, considering a 〈0.05 value statistically significant. 107 patients were studied in the final analysis; of them 49 had empty bladder stress test (+) and 58 (-). Patients with positive test wet a greater number of protectors per day (3.9 vs 2.8; p 0.013), higher ICIQSF score (15.04 vs 12.22; p 0.0007), higher IIQ-7 score (52.2 vs 37.5; p 0.0049) and lower urodynamics ALPP (73 cm H2O vs 91 cm H2O; p 0.0002). Patients with SUI and positive empty bladder stress test had a strong association with the objective and subjective perception of urine incontinence severity with a negative impact in patients quality of life.

  14. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  15. Biologic gastric emptying time using Tc-99m TETA polystyrene resin in various clinical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Choy, Y.C.; Domstad, P.A.; Beihn, R.; Coupal, J.; Yonts, S.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-04-01

    In 82 subjects 82 gastric emptying studies using Tc-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin were retrospectively evaluated. All six patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy (GE) had delayed biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) that responded well to metoclopramide (MP) injection. In 11 diabetics without GE, only two had prolonged BGET with good response to MP. All 11 patients with gastric outlet obstruction also had prolonged BGET, but no significant response to MP was found in 6 studies. Five of 7 patients with active gastric ulcer had delayed BGET. Three of ten patients with previous Billroth I or II operation had accelerated BGET, and 3 of 9 patients with previous vagotomy had delayed BGET with good response to MP. Markedly prolonged BGET with significant response to MP was also observed in 3 patients with disordered gastric motility. Delayed BGET was found in one patient with bile reflux gastritis and in 2 of 6 patients with reflux esophagitis. No prolongation of BGET was observed in 7 symptomatic patients whose radiographic and endoscopic examinations were negative. BGET studies with this agent appear to be reliable and very helpful in the management of patients with gastric symptoms and for obtaining an objective measurement of the response to therapy.

  16. Biologic gastric emptying time using Tc-99m TETA polystyrene resin in various clinical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Choy, Y.C.; Domstad, P.A.; Beihn, R.; Coupal, J.; Yonts, S.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    In 82 subjects 82 gastric emptying studies using Tc-99m triethylene tetramine polystyrene resin were retrospectively evaluated. All six patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy (GE) had delayed biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) that responded well to metoclopramide (MP) injection. In 11 diabetics without GE, only two had prolonged BGET with good response to MP. All 11 patients with gastric outlet obstruction also had prolonged BGET, but no significant response to MP was found in 6 studies. Five of 7 patients with active gastric ulcer had delayed BGET. Three of ten patients with previous Billroth I or II operation had accelerated BGET, and 3 of 9 patients with previous vagotomy had delayed BGET with good response to MP. Markedly prolonged BGET with significant response to MP was also observed in 3 patients with disordered gastric motility. Delayed BGET was found in one patient with bile reflux gastritis and in 2 of 6 patients with reflux esophagitis. No prolongation of BGET was observed in 7 symptomatic patients whose radiographic and endoscopic examinations were negative. BGET studies with this agent appear to be reliable and very helpful in the management of patients with gastric symptoms and for obtaining an objective measurement of the response to therapy. (orig.)

  17. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  18. Pulse Packet Stochastic Model for Gastric Emptying in the Fasted State: A Physiological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-03-05

    Fasted-state gastrointestinal (GI) fluid transit is typically represented as a first-order, deterministic process (averaged and viewed as a continuous approximation). It is, however, most likely a discrete process involving fluid packets interrupted by variable time periods of little to no fluid emptying. In this report we present a physiologically based pulsed-packet gastric fluid emptying model and evaluate it with respect to recent gastrointestinal fluid volume emptying results, published gastric emptying of various dosage forms, and gastric fluid emptying as a function of GI motility. We develop the mathematical model for gastric emptying of discrete volumes emptied during intermittent pulse times of variable lengths, defined as a function of gastric motility utilizing a Poisson point process with motility-dependent intensity. We compare the simulations with observed gastric emptying results. The discrete pulse-packet gastric volumetric emptying model is a more physiologically realistic mathematical model for gastric emptying and it accounts well for the average observed emptying rates and, importantly, encompasses the variability of of observed volume and dosage form emptying rates.

  19. Technetium-99m labelled bran: a new agent for measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, S.; Grime, J.S.; Little, W.; Patten, M.; Gulliford, P.; Critchley, M.; Bennett, R.; Shields, R. (Royal Liverpool Hospital (UK))

    1983-05-01

    Bran was labelled with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, ingested as part of a normal meal and used to measure gastric emptying in 15 normal subjects and in 15 patients with ulcerative colitis. There was no significant difference between the gastric emptying curves of the normal subjects and the patients, suggesting that rapid gastric emptying does not contribute to diarrhoea in ulcerative colitis.

  20. Intentional Right Atrial Exit and Carbon Dioxide Insufflation to Facilitate Subxiphoid Needle Entry Into the Empty Pericardial Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Adam B.; Rogers, Toby; Paone, Gaetano; Flynn, Shawn E.; Guerrero, Mayra E.; O’Neill, William W.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test whether a microcatheter can safely be advanced across the right atrial appendage to access the pericardium and then withdrawn despite subsequent high-intensity anticoagulation. We also tested whether transatrial pericardial insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2) would enhance the safety of subxiphoid needle access to the empty pericardium by separating the heart from the anterior pericardium. BACKGROUND Subxiphoid needle access to the empty pericardium, required for left atrial suture ligation and epicardial ablation for rhythm disorders, risks myocardial or coronary laceration. METHODS A catheter from the femoral vein engaged the right atrial appendage for angiographic confirmation of position. Through that catheter, the back end of a 0.014- or 0.018-inch guidewire crossed the right atrial wall to enter the pericardium and delivered a 2.4-F microcatheter. CO2 1 to 2 ml/kg was insufflated into the pericardium immediately before subxiphoid needle access under lateral projection fluoroscopy. Thirteen patients undergoing subxiphoid suture ligation of the left atrial appendage consented to participate in this research protocol. RESULTS Right atrial exit succeeded in 11 subjects (85%) and failed uneventfully in 2 subjects. CO2 insufflation of 96 ± 22 ml achieved 12 ± 4 mm separation of the anterior pericardium from the myocardial wall, allowed rapid and successful subxiphoid anterior needle and guidewire entry in all 11 subjects, and did not have any evident hemodynamic effects. The immediate pericardial aspirate was serous in all but 1 subject. CONCLUSIONS We report the first human intentional transatrial exit procedure. Transatrial microcatheter access to the pericardium can be achieved safely. Pericardial insufflation with CO2 makes subxiphoid access to the empty pericardium rapid and safe. Although our clinical experience to date remains small, with further experience, this approach may prevent the life

  1. Disparities in prevalence and risk indicators of loneliness between rural empty nest and non-empty nest older adults in Chizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pan; Jin, Yu; Sun, Hongmin; Tang, Zhenhai; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Qinghe; Huang, Fen

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the disparities in prevalence and risk factors of loneliness between rural empty nest and non-empty nest older adults in Chizhou, China. A sample of 730 participants (381 empty nest older adults and 349 non-empty nest older adults) were surveyed using the University of California at Los Angeles-Loneliness Scale, the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Social Support Rate Scale, the Perceived Social Support from Family Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire abbreviated version. The present study showed that the mean level of loneliness did significantly differ between empty nest older adults and non-empty nest older adults (41.52 ± 6.98 vs 39.46 ± 7.38). Empty nesters had significantly higher GDS scores; by contrast, they received lower objective, subjective and family support. Family support, objective support and social interaction were associated significantly with loneliness, which was more pronounced in empty nest older adults, excluding subjective support and psychological domain. The GDS scores (β = 0.237, P loneliness in empty nest older adults. Loneliness obviously prevails among empty nest older adults than non-empty nest older adults. Depressive symptoms showed a stronger risk of empty nest older adults being lonely. Family support was suggested as a protective factor for loneliness in both groups. These findings should be considered when developing intervention strategies to reduce loneliness. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. The gestalt of emptiness/receptivity: Christian spirituality and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, J V

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on Christian Spirituality and Object Relations theory as one among many possible integrations of a religious tradition and a theory of psychotherapy. Develops an epistemology of gestalt as a method for understanding the Christian myth. Specifies emptiness/receptivity as an inclusive gestalt-first, of the divinity (following Philippians 2:6-11), then of humanity (integrating Object Relations with Paul's great hymn). Amplifies the Christ gestalt in the practice of pastoral psychotherapy.

  3. Empty sky : 9/11 and performing regenerative violence

    OpenAIRE

    Genna, Raimondo

    2010-01-01

    "Empty Sky: 9/11 and Performing Regenerative Violence" explores theatrical depictions of violence and trauma following the events of 11 September 2001 and their relationships to American myth and identity. In the aftermath of the terrorist attack of 9/11, many in the media, from politicians and pundits to journalists and fictional characters in popular television, discussed the epistemological rupture of the event, stating that the world had changed forever and that everything was now differe...

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri accelerates gastric emptying and improves regurgitation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Bisceglia, Massimo; Filannino, Antonia; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2011-04-01

    Young infants are frequently affected by uncomplicated regurgitation that may persist despite dietetic and conservative interventions. On this basis, we studied the putative effects of probiotics on the frequency of regurgitation and gastric emptying time in infants with functional gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Forty-two infants with regurgitation were randomized to assume Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 1 × 10(8) CFU per day and placebo for 30 days. The episodes of regurgitation were recorded by the parents each day. Gastric emptying time was recorded using real-time ultrasound at baseline and at the end of the study. Twenty-one infants without regurgitation were enroled to compare anthropometric and physiological parameters before the intervention diet. Thirty-four infants completed the study (19 infants receiving probiotics and 15 placebo).At baseline, the whole group of infants was similar to the control group as regards anthropometric and physiological data. The median fasting antral area was significantly reduced, (P = 0·01) the delta in gastric emptying rate was significantly increased (P = 0·01) and the median episodes per day of regurgitation was reduced (, P probiotic group compared to the placebo group. In the whole group, the frequency of regurgitation and the basal antral area showed a positive correlation (r = 0·53, P = 0·004). In infants with functional GER, L. reuteri DSM 17938 reduce gastric distension and accelerate gastric emptying. In addition, this probiotic strain seems to diminish the frequency of regurgitation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  5. Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Houat, Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Costa, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice.METHODS:Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume,...

  6. Transitory powder flow dynamics during emptying of a continuous mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Ammarcha , Chawki; Gatumel , Cendrine; Dirion , Jean-Louis; Cabassud , Michel; Mizonov , Vadim; Berthiaux , Henri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the emptying process of a continuous powder mixer, from both experimental and modelling points of view. The apparatus used in this work is a pilot scale commercial mixer Gericke GCM500, for which a specific experimental protocol has been developed to determine the hold up in the mixer and the real outflow. We demonstrate that the dynamics of the process is governed by the rotational speed of the stirrer, as it fixes characteristic values of th...

  7. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  8. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  9. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [/sup 99m/Tc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET

  10. Evaluation of gastric emptying function in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, P; Picard, M; Déry, R; Giguère, A; Picard, D; Morais, J; Plourde, V; Boivin, M

    1997-11-01

    In this retrospective analysis, we compared different methods to evaluate gastric emptying function, aiming to improve the sensitivity and the clinical availability of our diagnostic testing. In the first study, we compared, in 72 patients clinically suspected of gastroparesis, the emptying of a meal containing two solid nutrients with different disintegration rates: 111In-labeled scrambled eggs and 99Tc-labeled liver cubes. Gastric emptying of 111In-labeled egg was delayed in 12 of our patients and the evacuation of the 99Tc-labeled liver was prolonged in 19 patients. The choice of the nutrient was not important for the identification of diabetic gastroparesis (43% vs 57%; NS), but it was determinant in the case of patients suspected of idiopathic gastroparesis (12% were positive with the egg and 25% with the liver; P egg as a radiolabeled tracer in order to improve the sensitivity of the test for detection of gastroparesis; and (2) the radiological detection of radiopaque markers is a reliable and convenient method for the detection of gastroparesis in clinical practice. It is possibly more sensitive than scintigraphy.

  11. The menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, Naoko; Kobori, Ayase; Sekime, Ayako; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that ingestion of 60 mL of red wine or vodka prior to the ingestion of a pancake significantly inhibited the gastric emptying of the pancake in male subjects, but not in female subjects, and that the retention times of wine and vodka were significantly longer than those of the congener of red wine and mineral water in male subjects, whereas in female subjects the retention times of these four drinks did not differ significantly from one another. We hypothesized that the menstrual cycle may influence the gastric emptying of alcohol beverages. Here, we determined and compared the retention times of vodka and water in the stomach during the luteal phase and the follicular phase. Ten female healthy volunteers were studied. They recorded their basal body temperatures every day, and participated in the following experiments: each volunteer drank mineral water or vodka containing 14% alcohol (60 mL) during the low-temperature (follicular) phase as well as during the high-temperature (luteal) phase. The retention time of vodka was significantly longer than that of mineral water during the follicular phase, but no significant differences between the retention times of the two drinks were observed during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  12. Effect of bethanechol or erythromycin on gastric emptying in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringger, N C; Lester, G D; Neuwirth, L; Merritt, A M; Vetro, T; Harrison, J

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the prokinetic effect of bethanechol and erythromycin in the upper gastrointestinal tract of healthy horses by measuring the gastric emptying (GE) rate of a radioactive meal. 4 healthy adult horses. After food was withheld for 12 hours, horses were given 370 MBq of 99mTc-labeled sulfur colloid incorporated into egg albumen and 37 MBq of 111In-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid in 120 ml of water via nasogastric intubation. Intravenously administered treatments were 0.9% NaCl solution, erythromycin (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or bethanechol (0.25 mg/kg). All drugs were given in 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution. Dual-phase scintigraphic images were obtained by use of a gamma camera. The best-fit function was determined for each study, and the resultant curves were then analyzed by use of least squares nonlinear regression. Two variables, time to 50% emptying of the stomach (T-50) and slope of the emptying curve, were derived from the calculated power exponential equation. Treatment had a significant (P horses and may have value for use as prokinetic agents in certain gastrointestinal tract diseases.

  13. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  14. Left atrial volume index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Dahl, Jordi S; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease.......To determine the prognostic importance of left atrial (LA) dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and no history of cardiovascular disease....

  15. Left atrial and left atrial appendage function in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, T; Erdei, Tamás; Dénes, M; Kardos, A; Földesi, C; Földesi, A; Temesvári, A; Temesvári, M; Lengyel, M

    2011-06-01

    In patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) little information is available about left atrial (LA)function, and there is less information about LA appendage (LAA) function, and about their relations. 46 patients were selected for catheter ablation (CA) because of nonvalvular PAF.Transthoracic, tissue Doppler and transoesophageal echocardiography was performed before CA. LA volumes and volume index (LAVI) were calculated. LA function was assessed by LA filling fraction (LAFF), LA emptying fraction (LAEF), systolic fraction of pulmonary venous flow (PVSF) and late diastolic velocities of mitral annulus(Aa,, A5at) LAA function was assessed by peak LAA emptying flow velocity (PLAAEFV). Diastolic dysfunction(DD) was also assessed. Dilated LAVI in 32, LA dysfunction in 20, DD with elevated LV filling pressure in 19 patients was found. Aa,at and Aa,p correlated with LAFF (r:0.53; p<0.001 and r:0.43; p<0.05), LAEF (r:0.51;p<0.001 and r:0.63; p<0.001), PVSF (r:0.49; p<0.001 and r:0.46; p<0.005) and PLAAEFV (r:0.58; p<0.001 and r:0.45; p<0.01). In PAF patients Aa velocity is useful to assess LA function and correlates positively with other TTE derived LA functional parameters and LAA function by TEE derived PLAAEFV.

  16. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  17. A tale of gastric layering and sieving : Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    BACKGROUND: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  18. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  19. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  20. Gastric Emptying Time in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Ho Jong; Choo, Kil Yeon; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Jae Myung; Won, Chong Hyun; Park, Gwun Taek; Kim, Seoung Wok

    1992-01-01

    Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are one of the most frequent symptoms in viral hepatitis patients. These may be due to poorly detoxified substances by dysfunctioned hepatocytes or by gastritis, but the pathophysiology is not totally understood. The symptoms interfere with adequate nutrient intake and are managed by metaclopramide, which accelerates gastric emptying. Thus delayed gastric emptying may well be a contributing factor to such symptoms. To determine such a relationship, we measured gastric emptying time in 11 normal subjects, 9 acute (AVH), and 12 chronic B viral hepatitis (CVH) patients. All were males with a mean age of 23 years. An egg was labeled with 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid, fried, then eaten between 2 slices of bread with 100 cc of water. Anterior and posterior images were taken at 20 minute intervals over a 2 hour period. A geometric mean of activity pertaining to the gastric region was measured, and T 1 /2 was calculated from the time activity curve. T 1 /2 for normal the group was 57.8 ± 6.3 minutes while that for the AVH and CVH group was 58.2 ± 8.2 (p=0.40) and 64.1 ± 10.5 (p=0.09), respectively. There was 1 AVH patient and 4 CVH patients with prolonged T 1 /2. Anorexia and nausea was seen in 71% and 46% of the patients, respectively. 80% and 60% of the patients with prolonged T 1 /2 had anorexia and nausea, respectively.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  2. Filling the Empty Space: Women and Latin American Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten F. Nigro

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Latin American women have begun to appropriate and fill a space once empty of their presence. This essay looks at the work of four such women, (Diana Raznovich and Cristina Escofet of Argentina, Raquel Araujo of Mexico and the Peruvian Sara Joffre, to see how they give substance and voice to their particular concerns. In the process, this essay focusses on: 1 the notion of gender as performance; 2 the feminist deconstruction of narrative; 3 the female body in theatrical space; and 4 new, postmodern ways of doing feminist political theatre.

  3. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  4. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... sniper with an Armourlite assault rifle in Ireland. He had received a single bullet injury to the left ... His history negated any cardiovascular impairment, angina or limitation in effort tolerance. He plays ... In view of the patient's age, history and the cardiovascular findings, we would like to postulate that the ...

  5. Ventricular emptying performance in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; Assessment with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan; Maeda, Hisato; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tsunao; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Matsuda, Akira (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Comparison of emptying patterns between left and right ventricles (LV, RV) was performed with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TF). Using global time-activity curves, the phase and amplitude at the first-harmonic component of Fourier series were calculated and emptying patterns of both ventricles were evaluated by phase difference {l brace}D(phase)=RV phase minus LV phase{r brace} and RV/LV amplitude ratio {l brace}R(amp){r brace}. In 20 patients with normal cardiac function, D(phase) was minimal (mean 2.0{plus minus}6.6 degrees) and R(amp) was less than 1.0 (mean 0.60{plus minus}0.19). In 11 patients with TF, D(phase) was significantly larger than normal, with a mean value of 24.3{plus minus}10.0 degrees (p<0.01) and became greater in a reversed proportion to the ratio of the pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow (p<0.01). In all but one cases with TF, R(amp) was greater than 1.0 with a mean value of 1.4{plus minus}0.4, significantly larger than normal (p<0.001). Furthermore, using time-activity curves approximated by terms up to the 3rd-harmonic component, the temporal difference in emptying patterns between both ventricles was investigated. In TF cases, the time from end-diastole to minimum count (T2) was significantly larger in RV than in LV (p<0.001). The elongated T2 interval of RV seemed to play an important role in producing RV phase lag. Thus, this non-invasive method is valuable for pathophysiologic investigation of patients with TF and can be of help in estimating the severity of their disease. (author).

  6. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  7. Evaluation of P-Listed Pharmaceutical Residues in Empty ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), some pharmaceuticals are considered acute hazardous wastes because their sole active pharmaceutical ingredients are P-listed commercial chemical products (40 CFR 261.33). Hospitals and other healthcare facilities have struggled with RCRA's empty container requirements when it comes to disposing of visually empty warfarin and nicotine containers, and this issue is in need of investigation. For example, nicotine gums, patches and lozenges are hazardous wastes because nicotine and its salts are listed as P075, and Coumadin (also known as warfarin) is hazardous because warfarin and its salts are listed as P001 (when warfarin is present at concentrations greater than 0.3%). Therefore, when unused nicotine-based smoking cessation products (e.g., patches, gum and lozenges) and Coumadin are discarded, they are acute hazardous wastes and must be managed in accordance with all applicable RCRA regulations. Furthermore, due to additional management requirements for P-listed wastes, any acute hazardous water residues remaining in containers (and therefore the container itself) must be managed as hazardous unless the container has been rendered

  8. Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Houat, Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Costa, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3 in the normal group, 847 mm3 in total fasting group and 997 mm3 in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (pgastrointestinal tract and the degree of distension of the stomach, there was no difference between the groups that underwent total or partial fasting (p>0.05). Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice.

  9. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  10. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis

  11. Approximate Range Emptiness in Constant Time and Optimal Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    {Bloom filters} from single point queries to any interval length L. Setting the false positive rate to ε/L and performing L queries, Bloom filters yield a solution to this problem with space O(nlg(L/ε)) bits, false positive probability bounded by ε for intervals of length up to L, using query time O......(Llg(L/ε)). Our first contribution is to show that the space/error trade-off cannot be improved asymptotically: Any data structure for answering approximate range emptiness queries on intervals of length up to L with false positive probability ε, must use space Ω(nlg(L/ε))−O(n) bits. On the positive side we show...... that the query time can be improved greatly, to constant time, while matching our space lower bound up to a lower order additive term. This result is achieved through a succinct data structure for (non-approximate 1d) range emptiness/reporting queries, which may be of independent interest....

  12. An integrated container management model for optimizing slot allocation plan and empty container repositioning

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-hui Chang; Lawrence W Lan; Mee Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes an integrated container management model to jointly optimize slot allocation plan for loaded containers and reposition for empty containers in a shipping network. The proposed model employs linear programming to formulate loaded and empty container shipping problems in a bi-level structure. In upper level the loaded container slot allocation plan aims to maximize operational profits for each service route; whereas in lower level the reposition of empty containers aims to...

  13. Effect of size and density on canine gastric emptying of nondigestible solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Dressman, J.; Fink, A.; Amidon, G.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the food-containing canine stomach retains large, nondigestible spheres until all food has emptied; but it is not known whether there is a threshold size or a gradation of sizes that will empty along with food. Further, nothing is known of the effects of such parameters as density, shape, and surface energy on the emptying of nondigestible particles of any given size. To answer these questions 6 dogs with chronic duodenal fistulas were studied. Radiolabeled food and spheres were collected from the fistulas to compare the rate of gastric emptying of the spheres with that of the food. After a standard test meal of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver, steak, and water, diverted chyme was collected over a stack of sieves in 30-min fractions over 5 postcibal hours. The percent of fed spheres and fed /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver in each collection was counted, and liquid chyme was returned to the distal duodenum. Spheres with a density of 1 emptied progressively faster as sphere diameters were decreased from 5 to 1 mm; but 0.015-mm spheres emptied at about the same rate as those with diameters of 1 mm. Emptying of the spheres became similar to emptying of the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled liver at about 1.6 mm. Spheres with densities less than 1 or greater than 1 emptied more slowly than spheres of the same size with a density of 1, whereas paper squares emptied the same way as spheres of comparable size and density. Surface energy did not affect emptying. The findings indicated that both sphere size and density affect their emptying in the presence of food

  14. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  15. [Recurrent left atrial myxoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martínez, Francisco L; Lagomasino Hidalgo, Alvaro; Mirabal Rodríguez, Roger; López Bermúdez, Félix H; López Bernal, Omaida J

    2003-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Mixomas are the most common among them; 75% are located in the left atrium, 20% in the right atrium, and the rest in the ventricles. The seldom appear in atrio-ventricular valves. Recidivant mixoma are also rare, appearing in 1-5% of all patients that have undergone surgical treatment of a mixoma. In this paper we present our experience with a female patient, who 8 years after having been operated of a left atrial mixoma, began with symptoms of mild heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed recurrence of the tumor, and was therefore subjected to a second open-heart surgery from which she recovered without complications.

  16. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  17. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M; Smith, H J; Simon, T R

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. Although most of the liquid component of the meal, labeled with 111In, emptied during the first hour (as assessed simultaneously by radionuclide scintigraphy), few radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach during the first 2 h after the meal. Most markers emptied during the fourth postprandial hour, and all 10 markers had emptied by 6 h in 45 of 46 experiments. In contrast, not all of the solid radiopaque markers emptied from the stomach by 6 h in 16 of 26 experiments in patients with diabetes mellitus (p less than 0.001 vs. healthy controls). In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 = 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 = 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of

  18. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  19. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  20. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  1. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  2. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed......Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate...... in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately...

  3. Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sellappah, Varsheta; Trinh, Thanh Hoai; Hassan, Suhaimi; Tanoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-11-01

    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  5. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  6. The Empty Niche -notes for an Idea of Man-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leongómez Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis in this essay is the idea that, having entered into a new era marked by the use of nuclear energy and the detonation of the atomic bombs in 1945 in Japan, the human species went into an evolutionary crisis which -among other expressions- takes shape as an identity crisis whose main evidence is the absence of an Idea of Man. So to fill this empty niche -the compass without which every education attempt proves vain- it is necessary to search for possible connections between the various theories and knowledge facts directly addressing the structure of human consciousness: linguistic sign and conditioned reflex, perception and relativity theory, evolution and complexity.

  7. Phaseguides: a paradigm shift in microfluidic priming and emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto, Paul; Podszun, Susann; Meyer, Philipp; Hermann, Carsten; Manz, Andreas; Urban, Gerald A

    2011-05-07

    Phaseguide technology gives complete control over filling and emptying of any type of microfluidic structures, independent of the chamber and channel geometry. The technique is based on a step-wise advancement of the liquid-air interface using the meniscus pinning effect. In this paper, the main effects and parameters underlying the phaseguiding principle are discussed and a demonstration is given of its potential for dead angle filling, spatially controlled phaseguide overflow and sequential phaseguide overflow, all accumulating in a passive valving approach. Phaseguides represent a new direction in microfluidic design thinking that will prove a leap forward towards more simple, flexible and reliable microfluidic systems. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Home automation and simulation of presence in empty environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Israel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their humble beginnings at the dawn of the 20th Century until contemporary age, automation and control systems have grown exponentially in both complexity and importance. Its relevance on human activities, be they mundane tasks or crucial processes, is self-evident. Among its many utilities, automated systems acquire a noble mission when put in service to protect life and property from aggressors of any kind. This paper discusses how home automation components can be utilized to implement an alternative domestic security strategy that consists in simulating the presence of an individual in an empty environment in the absence of its owner in order dissuade potential trespassing criminals, once they would feel highly discouraged to carry the criminal act should they believe the property is occupied.

  9. Reproducibility of peak filling and peak emptying rate determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of biventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Christoffer; Vejlstrup, Niels; Carlsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) diastolic stiffness may be independent contributors to disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The aims of this study are to assess reproducibility of peak emptying rate (PER) and early diastolic peak filling rate (PFR) for both.......01]) and in the LV (PAH = 209 mL/m2/s, controls = 311 mL/m2/s [p sample size of ... with stroke volume (all four: p sample sizes for trials of therapies targeting diastolic dysfunction to increase survival....

  10. Pituitary Adenoma Recurrence Suspected on Central Hyperthyroidism Despite Empty Sella and Confirmed by 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthé, Mathieu; Sarfati, Julie; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Montravers, Françoise

    2017-06-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are very rare tumors, known to present overexpression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and which may consequently demonstrate abnormal uptake on Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT. A 67-year-old woman with a history of operated pituitary macroadenoma presented with symptoms of hyperthyroidism including a large goiter. Her serum thyroid hormone levels were in favor of central hyperthyroidism. Pituitary MRI depicted an empty sella but visualized an ambiguous lesion centered on the left sphenoidal sinus. Complementary Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT finally demonstrated intense uptake by the sphenoidal lesion, confirming recurrence of the pituitary adenoma.

  11. Hydroxynortriptyline of Empty Fruit Bunches Fibre using Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreen, F.M.Z.; Sarani Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches fibre (EFBF) via chemical modification and hydroxynortriptyline method using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The first stage was the modification of EFB fibre using NaOH and isopropanol. The next stage was the preparation of hydroxypropylated-empty fruit bunches fibre (HP-EFBF), using different molecular weight of PEG (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000). The characterisation involved in this study were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), determination of kinetic activation energy (E a ), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) and weight increment of the HP-EFB fibre. SEM results showed the surface of HP-EFBF swelled and craters formed along the surface of the fibre. IR spectrum also showed OH stretching band in EFB without treatment is 3402 cm -1 , but after hydroxynortriptyline process, the OH stretching band in HP-EFBF (10000, 8000 and 6000) slightly shifted to 3392, 3384 and 3370 cm -1 , respectively. TGA showed the thermal stability of HP-EFBF 6,000 was lower than HP-EFBF 8,000 and 10,000. After chemical modification, the activation energy, E a increased from 32.4 to 51.9 kJ/ mol more than EFB without treatment, 12.5 kJ/ mol. XRD showed that diffraction peak (002) shifted to the smaller 2θ angle and the peaks (101, 10I) disappeared after hydroxynortriptyline process. Crystallinity index, of EFB without treatment decreased from 27 % to 25 % after chemical modification. The higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the greater the weight increment of the HP-EFBF. (author)

  12. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  13. Definition of a gastric emptying abnormality in patients with anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.W.; Grill, B.B.; Lange, R.; Planky, M.; Glass, E.E.; Greenfeld, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal symptoms may be prominent in anorexia nervosa. This study is an investigation of the gastric emptying of solid and liquid meal components in 16 female patients who met accepted psychiatric diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with those of gastric emptying studies in 10 normal females of ideal body weight, 13 normal persons (12 males), and six patients with weight loss secondary to Crohn's disease with no psychiatric symptoms. A dual-isotope technique using chicken liver intracellularly labeled with technetium-/sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc) bound to sulfur colloid as the solid-phase marker, and indium- 111 ( 111 In) -labeled water as the liquid-phase marker was used. In 13 of the 16 anorexia nervosa patients (80%), gastric emptying of solids was slower than the range in the two groups of normal subjects, and mean gastric emptying was significantly slower than in the weight-loss patients. Liquid emptying (water) in anorexia nervosa was normal and similar to the control groups studied. In 11 of the anorexia nervosa patients with delayed gastric emptying, intramuscular metoclopramide, 10 mg, significantly accelerated the mean gastric emptying from 60 through 120 min after the meal. The authors conclude that these data are consistent with an antral motility disturbance, either primary or secondary; and metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, accelerates (delayed) gastric emptying

  14. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  15. Pre- and post-operative gastric emptying studies in gastroplasty patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Dual isotope gastric emptying studies were performed pre- and post-operatively on 16 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty. Pre-operative 50 g and 900 g meals of beef stew contained Tc-99m labeled liver to monitor the solid-phase of emptying and orange juice with In-111 DTPA to follow the liquid phase. Identical 50 g meals were given post-operatively at 3 months to 12 patients and at 12 months to 9 patients for comparison of gastric emptying and evaluation of the surgical intervention. Total stomach emptying studies at 3 and 12 months did not significantly differ from pre-operative studies, however, the 50 g pouch emptied solids (21 min) and liquids (18 min) significantly faster (p<0.05) than the post-operative total stomach and pre-operative studies. In summary, pre-operative gastric emptying in the obese patients was not different from a control group. Post-op there was no difference in total stomach emptying compared to pre-op studies, however, pouch emptying was significantly more rapid as compared to the pre-operative studies

  16. Influences of breast milk composition on gastric emptying in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Simmer, Karen N; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific biochemical and energy concentrations influence gastric emptying of unfortified and fortified mother's own milk (MOM) in stable preterm infants, and whether gastric emptying differs between feeds of unfortified MOM and feeds fortified with S-26 or FM 85 human milk fortifier (HMF) when infants are fed the same volume under similar conditions. Influences of infant gestation, age, and weight, and feed characteristics were also explored. Stomach volumes of 25 paired unfortified and fortified MOM feeds were monitored prefeed and postfeed delivery and at 30-minute intervals thereafter. For each feed, MOM samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of total protein, casein, whey, carbohydrate, lactose, fat, and energy. Fortified feed compositions were calculated by adding fortifier biochemical and energy concentrations to unfortified MOM concentrations. Ultrasound images were used to calculate infant stomach volumes. Statistical comparisons were made of paired stomach volume measurements. Higher feed concentrations of casein were associated with faster gastric emptying during feed delivery (P = 0.007). When compared with unfortified MOM, S-26 fortified feeds emptied similarly, whereas FM 85 fortified feeds emptied more slowly both during feed delivery and during the postprandial period (P = 0.002, position compared with that in prone (P = 0.001). Breast milk composition influences gastric emptying in stable preterm infants, with feeds of higher casein concentration emptying faster during feeding than otherwise equivalent feeds, and FM 85 fortified MOM emptying more slowly than unfortified MOM.

  17. Relationship between gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspeptic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pallotta, N; Pezzotti, P; Calabrese, E; Baccini, F; Corazziari, E

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Delayed gastric emptying and an enlarged fasting gastric antrum are common findings in functional dyspepsia but their relationship with gastrointestinal (GI), and the frequently associated extra-GI symptoms remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between GI and extra-GI symptoms, fasting antral volume and delayed gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.

  18. 14 CFR 29.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 29.29 Section 29.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  19. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast; (2...

  20. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be...

  1. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be...

  2. The Theory of Empty Categories and the Pro-drop Parameter in Modern Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaki-Warburton, Irene

    1987-01-01

    Examines the theory of empty categories in a Government and Binding analysis of Modern Greek syntax. No empty subject category is found and so the pro-drop parameter is a misnomer here. Further support for the correlation between parametric variation and inflexional or morphological properties of a language is presented. (Author/LMO)

  3. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive...

  4. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion i...

  5. Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laarman, Alfons; Olesen, Mads Chr.; Dalsgaard, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the multi-core model checking of timed automata (TA) with respect to liveness properties, by investigating checking of TA Büchi emptiness under the very coarse inclusion abstraction or zone subsumption, an open problem in this field. We show that in general Büchi emptiness...

  6. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M. L.; Bennink, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of

  7. Isotropic three-dimensional left-handed meta-materials

    OpenAIRE

    Koschny, Th.; Zhang, L.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate three-dimensional left-handed and related meta-materials based on a fully symmetric multi-gap single-ring SRR design and crossing continuous wires. We demonstrate isotropic transmission properties of a SRR-only meta-material and the corresponding left-handed material which possesses a negative effective index of refraction due to simultaneously negative effective permeability and permittivity. Minor deviations from complete isotropy are due to the finite thickness of the meta-m...

  8. Scattering Forces within a Left-Handed Photonic Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Angeleene S; Sukhov, Sergey V; Dogariu, Aristide; Shalin, Alexander S

    2017-01-23

    Electromagnetic waves are known to exert optical forces on particles through radiation pressure. It was hypothesized previously that electromagnetic waves inside left-handed metamaterials produce negative radiation pressure. Here we numerically examine optical forces inside left-handed photonic crystals demonstrating negative refraction and reversed phase propagation. We demonstrate that even though the direction of force might not follow the flow of energy, the positive radiation pressure is maintained inside photonic crystals.

  9. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  10. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy.

  11. Gastric emptying of solid radiopaque markers: studies in healthy subjects and diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Smith, H.J.; Simon, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a radiologic method for assessing gastric emptying of an indigestible solid in humans and to apply this technique to the evaluation of patients with diabetes mellitus. Thirty healthy subjects ingested 10 solid radiopaque markers (small pieces of nasogastric tubing) together with a standard meal (donuts and 7-Up). Radiographs of the upper abdomen were obtained hourly for up to 6 h until all markers had emptied from the stomach. In some experiments, 99mTc-labeled scrambled eggs were added to the meal so that emptying of this digestible solid, assessed by scintigraphy, could be compared with emptying of liquids and solid radiopaque markers. In healthy subjects, the digestible solid emptied more slowly than the liquid (t 1/2 . 154 +/- 11 min vs. 30 +/- 3 min, p less than 0.001), but emptying of digestible solid was significantly faster than the emptying of the indigestible solid radiopaque markers. In diabetics, emptying rates for the digestible solid and liquid were close to normal (t 1/2 . 178 +/- 5 min and 40 +/- 3 min, respectively), whereas indigestible solid markers were retained in the stomach 6 h after the meal in 50% of the patients. Radiopaque markers proved to be a simple method for measuring gastric emptying of indigestible solids in humans. Using this technique, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had a high incidence of abnormally slow gastric emptying of indigestible solids; the method may be a more sensitive indicator of gastric motor dysfunction than radionuclide scintigraphy

  12. Validation of gastric-emptying scintigraphy of solids and liquids in mice using dedicated animal pinhole scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Roelof J.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Symonds, Erin L.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Spijkerboer, Astrid L.; Benninga, Marc A.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2003-01-01

    Gastric emptying in small laboratory animals is a useful parameter to assess gastrointestinal motility for physiologic, pharmacologic, or other research purposes. In mice, phenol red recovery is considered the gold standard for determination of gastric emptying. However, this method requires

  13. Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Perceived as a Left Lung Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gocen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm is a rare complication of aneurysmectomy. We present a case of surgically-treated left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm which was diagnosed three years after coronary artery bypass grafting and left ventricular aneurysmectomy. The presenting symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and surgical repair are described. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 123-125

  14. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 ..mu..Ci/sup 99m/ Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide.

  15. Tc-99m labeled triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin gastric emptying studies in bulimia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Castellanos, F.X.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Humphries, L.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with bulimia, 20 patients (all women, ranging in age from 12 to 49 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms ingested 150-200 μCi 99m Tc-triethelene tetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and had scintigraphy in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to determine the gastric emptying time (GET). The results showed that the gastric emptying time was prolonged in 12 patients and decreased in 8. All 12 patients with prolonged emptying time were given 10 mg metoclopramide intravenously; 9 of these had a good response and 3 had no response. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, the results indicate that about 60% had delayed and 40% had rapid gastric emptying. The findings of two extremes of gastric emptying time remain to be explained, however, this enables (Albibi and McCullum 1983) objective documentation of gastric emptying as this technique (American Psychiatric Association 1980) can separate those patients with rapid GET from those with prolonged GET, who might benefit from metoclopramide. (orig.)

  16. Empty Container Management at Ports Considering Pollution, Repair Options, and Street-Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Sáinz Bernat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade imbalances make the management of empty containers within shipping networks an important economic and ecological problem. While import-dominated ports accumulate large amounts of empty containers, export-dominated ports need them as transport resources, requiring a repositioning transportation of empty containers on the sea and land side. Acknowledging the importance of the problem, plenty of respective literature has appeared. Since periodic review inventory management systems allow to model the inherent stochasticity of empty container transportation, they have emerged as a major solution approach in the domain. Nevertheless, existing approaches often omit crucial economic and ecological real world conditions determining the success of empty container management. Pollution, repair options, and street-turns are important aspects in this context. In this work, we present new stochastic review policies incorporating a realistic allocation scheme for empty container emissions, realistic maintenance, and repair options as well as street-turns. We analyze the optimality of the proposed polices and evaluate them in a simulation model with metaheuristic parameter search based on extensive real-world data from a major global shipping company operating in Latin America. Results provide insights for academics and practitioners about the economic and ecological impact of the distinct empty container management polices within a shipping network.

  17. Effects of viscosity and fluid outflow on postcibal gastric emptying of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J H; Gu, Y; Elashoff, J; Reedy, T; Dressman, J; Amidon, G

    1986-02-01

    It is known that the food-filled stomach retains large spheres or pieces of food, allowing the passage of food particles or of plastic spheres with diameters mainly below 2 mm. We have recently shown that spheres having densities greater or less than water emptied from the food-filled canine stomach more slowly than spheres of the same diameter with a density of 1. Thus, hydrodynamics seem to govern gastric emptying of spheres. The present studies were undertaken to determine how altering other hydrodynamic factors, viscosity and velocity of fluid outflow, might affect gastric sieving. Ten mongrel dogs were prepared with chronic duodenal fistulas, which allowed collecting and measuring of emptied spheres and food. The dogs were fed a standard meal of 75 g of steak plus 25 g of 99mTc-labeled chicken liver. Immediately afterward, 50 3.2-mm Teflon spheres were instilled into the stomachs along with 200- or 800-ml volumes of saline or saline plus guar (a viscous polysaccharide). Whether 200- or 800-ml volumes were instilled, the guar significantly sped the emptying of the spheres. Fluid outflow was twice as fast after the 800-ml instillates, but the faster outflow with the 800 ml of saline did not speed emptying of spheres. With the guar instillates, the faster outflow slightly sped the emptying of the spheres and significantly increased the diameter of emptied particles of 99mTc-labeled chicken liver. We conclude that meal viscosity significantly affects gastric sieving.

  18. “Appearance and the Supersensible World”: Emptiness of the Biopolitical Critique of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Svetlič

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes up for its subject the specific explanatory mechanism of biopolitical discourse. By drawing on two concepts from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s philosophy, it argues that this type of discourse creates no hermeneutical surplus. The first concept can be found in Phenomenology of Spirit, in the chapter “Force and Understanding: Appearance and the Supersensible World”, and the second in The Science of Logic in the chapter “Formal Ground”. It will be demonstrated that the biopolitical critique of power does not distinguish between explicandum and explicans – at its core, it enacts a tautology. It takes merely one moment out of a complex phenomenon under interpretation (this being a moment of negativity, which is in fact common to all phenomena. Then it takes this moment to be the regulative principle guiding the dynamics of the interpreted phenomenon. The problem of this method of explaining is not that it is wrong, but that it is always true. Tautology is an empty always-truth. From beginning to end of this paper, biopolitical discourse is understood from the perspective of trust in the State organism as a central State-building virtue of the democratic culture. Ultimately, the paper shows that biopolitics is just one way of taking oneself out of the thought of the world, which inevitably inhibits the ability of the State to provide for the basic needs of the population.

  19. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-12-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2+-12.8 min vs 45.1+-10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7+-24.6 vs 50.5+-17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1+-24.6 vs 43.5+-14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author).

  20. Measurement of gastric emptying using isotopic method in diabetes, simple obesity and anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomofuji, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Gastric emptying of technetium labeled liquid meal were studied in 46 non-insulin-dependent diabetics, 7 obese patients, 8 anorexia nervosa patients, and 21 normal subjects. All subjects underwent endoscopy and barium study, and none showed any lesion in upper gastrointestinal tract. T1/2, time at which 50% of meal remained, was used as an indicator of gastric emptying. Eight normal subjects have some epigastric discomforts, and have slightly slower gastric emptying than the remaining 13 subjects. But there was no significant difference in T1/2 between the both groups (53.2±12.8 min vs 45.1±10.9 min). Fourteen diabetics have some epigastric discomforts, and have significantly more slower gastric emptying than the remaining 32 diabetics (T1/2; 67.7±24.6 vs 50.5±17.4, p<0.02). The gastric emptying of 13 diabetics who have three major diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy), was significantly more slower than that of 15 diabetics without any complication (T1/2; 68.1±24.6 vs 43.5±14.8, p<0.005). The gastric emptying of simple obesity did not show a fixed pattern, but the emptying of anorexia nervosa was remarkably delayed. These findings indicate that diabetic gastroparesis is common in the presence of the three major complications, and the delayed gastric emptying is associated with post-prandial discomfort in diabetics and anorexia nervosa patients. The measurement of gastric emptying can be useful to evaluate the management and the treatment for diabetes and anorexia nervosa. (author)

  1. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  2. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  3. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  4. Delayed gastric emptying in children with chronic constipation and fecal impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, M.L.C.M.; Daher, S.F.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pinto, E.A.L.C.; Silva, J.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms such as nausea, fullness and early satiety in constipated children may be associated with delayed gastric emptying. Aim: To evaluate the gastric emptying in children with post-prandial upper abdominal symptoms. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying studies were performed in 12 children with functional constipation (mean age 9 years; mean duration of symptoms: 5.5 years), fecal impaction and soiling. In 12 of them the studies were performed only before fecal impaction removal and in 7 of them the study was repeated after impaction removal and recovery from constipation. After an overnight fast, the patients received 300 ml/m 2 of water added to 37 MBq of 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system with a low energy all purpose collimator. Images were acquired at 1 minute per frame for 30 minutes. When gastric emptying was delayed for more than 30 minutes, additional static images with 500,000 counts were performed for no more than 1 hour until a T1/2 was obtained. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed (21.4 ± 7 minutes; normal 12 ± 3 minutes) in 10/12 patients studied prior to fecal impaction removal. In the group of seven patients who repeated the study after fecal impaction removal, gastric emptying remained prolonged (22 ±7.9 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the gastric emptying time before and after fecal impaction removal (p 0,612; Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: The gastric emptying time of a liquid test meal was delayed in constipated children before and after fecal impaction removal. Maintenance of prolonged emptying time after impaction removal and recovery from constipation may indicate an alteration in gastrointestinal motility

  5. Visual bridging of empty gaps in the optic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, G; Ahlström, U

    1998-08-01

    This is a study of perception of bending motion and jointed rigid motions over large invisible segments of a bending line. In this project, we investigated the visual perception of changing form of lines, built up by a series of dots and presented under highly reduced pictorial conditions. The changing form was indicated by one or two moving and continuously changing visible fragments of the line. The most extreme condition studied was the perception of the bending of an initially vertical 24-dot line, visually represented only by the stationary base dot and the two moving dots at its top. In this experiment, nearly all subjects reported experiencing a smooth bending connection over the 21-dot empty gap. Three experiments are described and analyzed. The results suggest that the human visual system is astonishingly well adapted for derivation of relevant figural information from such severely reduced, continuously changing optical presentation. An explanation in terms of automatic sensory mechanisms related to the physiological receptive field effect is proposed.

  6. Bioplastic production from cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Cifriadi, A.; Panji, T.; Wibowo, Nendyo A.; Syamsu, K.

    2017-05-01

    Empty fruit bunch is available abundantly in Indonesia as side product of CPO production. EFB production in Indonesia reached 28.65 million tons in 2015. EFB consist of 36.67% cellulose, 13.50% hemicellulose and 31.16% lignin. By calculation, potential cellulose from EFB is 11.50 million tons. Cellulose could be utilized as source for bioplastic production. This research aims to develop bioplastic production based on cellulose from EFB and to increase added value of EFB. Cellulose fiber has no plastic properties. Molecular modification of cellulose, composite with plasticizer and compatibilizer is a key success for utilization of cellulose for bioplastic. Main steps of bioplastic production from EFB are: 1) isolation and purification of cellulose, 2) cellulose modification and 3) synthesis of bioplastic. Cellulose was isolated by sodium hydroxide methods and bleached using sodium hypochlorite. Purity of obtained cellulose was 97%. Cellulose yield could reach 30% depend on cellulose content of EFB. Cellulose side chain was oxidized to reduce hydroxyl group and increase the carboxyl group. Bioplastic synthesis used glycerol as plasticizer and cassava starch as matrix. This research was successfully producing bioplastic sheet by casting method. In future prospects, bioplastic from EFB cellulose can be developed as plastic bag and food packaging.

  7. Empty-full indicator for solids tanks and blenders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherk, F.T.; Gilbreth, J.M.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes a process for controlling the filling status of particulate solids in a tank, comprising passing pressurized gas from the pressurized gas source through the conduit means; sensing the gas pressure within the conduit means and at the pressure reference point and measuring the pressure differential with the pressure sensing means; feeding particulate solids into the vessel such than when the level of the particulate solids reaches the predetermined full level, the particulate solids will flow by gravity into the vertically opened upper end of the conduit means through to the vertically opened lower end of the conduit means, thereby causing a first change of gas pressure within the conduit means; terminating the feeding of the particulate solids into the vessel; dispersing particulate solids from the vessel such that when the level of the particulate solids drops below the predetermined empty level, substantially all of the particulate material within the conduit means will flow by gravity through the vertically opened lower end of the conduit means into the lower end portion of the vessel, thereby causing a second change of gas pressure within the conduit means; and terminating the dispersing of the particulate solids from the vessel.

  8. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Hamuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. Patients and Methods Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval ( n = 12, and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes ( n = 13. Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 ( P < 0.05 each. Conclusion Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval.

  9. Investigating hyperventilation syndrome in patients suffering from empty nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, David; Bequignon, Emilie; Zerah-Lancner, Francoise; Isabey, Daniel; Louis, Bruno; Adnot, Serge; Papon, Jean-François; Coste, André; Boyer, Laurent; Devars du Mayne, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS) following turbinate surgery often complain about breathing difficulties. We set out to determine if dyspnea in patients with ENS was associated with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). We hypothesized that lower airway symptoms in ENS could be explained by HVS. Observational prospective study. All consecutive patients referred to our center for ENS over 1 year were invited to participate. Patients completed the Nijmegen score and underwent a hyperventilation provocation test (HVPT) and arterial blood gas and cardiopulmonary tests. HVS was defined by a delayed return of the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the expired gas to baseline during HVPT. Patients with HVS were asked to complete the Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT)-16 questionnaire before and after a specific eight-session respiratory rehabilitation program. Twenty-two of the 29 patients referred for ENS during the study period were eligible for inclusion and underwent a complete workup. HVS was diagnosed in 17 of these patients (77.3%). In the five patients who completed the SNOT-16, the score was significantly lower after rehabilitation. This study suggests that HVS is frequent in patients with ENS, and that symptoms can be improved by respiratory rehabilitation. Pathophysiological links between ENS and HVS deserve to be further explored. 2b Laryngoscope, 127:1983-1988, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  11. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M.; Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M.; Esteban-Carretero, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  12. Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Shukri Mahmud; Wan Badrin Wan Hussin; Tajuddin Osman; Norihan Zainal; Abu Hassan Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  13. Primary empty sella and GH deficiency: prevalence and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Poggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary empty sella (PES is a particular anatomical condition characterized by the herniation of liquor within the sella turcica. The pathogenesis of this alteration, frequently observed in general population, is not yet completely understood. Recently reports demonstrated, in these patients, that hormonal pituitary dysfunctions, specially growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I axis ones, could be relevant. The aim of this paper is to evaluate GH/IGF-I axis in a group of adult patients affected by PES and to verify its clinical relevance. We studied a population of 28 patients with a diagnosis of PES. In each patient we performed a basal study of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal - pituitary axis and a dynamic evaluation of GH/IGF-I after GH-releasing hormone (GHRH plus arginine stimulation test. To evaluate the clinical significance of GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction we performed a metabolic and bone status evaluation in every patients. We found the presence of GH deficit in 11 patients (39.2 %. The group that displayed a GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction showed an impairment in metabolic profile and bone densitometry. This study confirms the necessity to screen the pituitary function in patients affected by PES and above all GH/IGF-I axis. Moreover the presence of GH deficiency could be clinically significant.

  14. Enteral nutrition prolongs delayed gastric emptying in patients after Whipple resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, M E; Friess, H; Sell, F; Ricken, L; Shrikhande, S; Kulli, C; Büchler, M W

    2000-07-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is one of the most frequent postoperative complications after Whipple resection. In the present study we evaluated the role of enteral nutrition in the development of delayed gastric emptying after Whipple resection. Between January 1996 and June 1998, 64 patients (30 female, 34 male) underwent a classic (n = 27) or pylorus-preserving (n = 37) Whipple resection. Two patients were excluded; 30 patients received enteral and 32 patients received no-enteral nutrition. Delayed gastric emptying occurred significantly more in patients with enteral (17 of 30, 57%) than in patients with no-enteral nutrition (5 of 32, 16%) (P nasogastric tube for a significantly (Pindications.

  15. Background does not significantly affect power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonderko, K.

    1987-01-01

    Using a procedure enabling the assessment of background radiation, research was done to elucidate the course of changes in background activity during gastric emptying measurements. Attention was focused on the changes in the shape of power-exponential fitted gastric emptying curves after correction for background was performed. The observed pattern of background counts allowed to explain the shifts of the parameters characterizing power-exponential curves connected with background correction. It was concluded that background had a negligible effect on the power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves. (author)

  16. Carcinoma of the so-called empty breast and its relation to the Wolfe's parenchymal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.; Eiter, H.; Taxer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoma in the ''empty breast'' in our experience is so common that we doubt Wolfe's conclusions in his classification of parenchymal patterns. Amongst patients over 60 years, almost 70% of carcinomas were situated in an ''empty'' parenchyma and they did not develop in a parechymal group above P1. Mammographically, the ''empty breast'' is the structureless fatty breast of older women after the menopause. Some authors believe that there is a lower incidence of carcinomas in this type of breast than in other types of parenchyma, such as those showing mastopathies. Our experience concerning carcinomas in involuted breasts is described. (orig.) [de

  17. Study on confirmation of Solid-Meal Lag Phase of Gastric Emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Chang Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Won, Jong Jin; Nah, Yong Ho

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of a lag phase of gastric emptying of solid meals. We studied solid phase gastric emptying in 26 normal subject using continuous data acquisition for 30 minutes. Each ingested a 300 g meal containing 99m Tc-labeled scrambled egg (solid 150 g, milk 150 ml). Lag phase was determined by 1) inspection of the gastric emptying curve 2) time to a 2% decrease in stomach activity 3) the time of visual appearance of duodenal activity on computer image. We concluded that solid meal lag phase exist.

  18. Relationships between oesophageal transit and solid and liquid gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, M.; Maddox, A.F.; Wishart, J.M.; Harding, P.E.; Chatterton, B.E.; Shearman, D.J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In 87 randomly selected diabetic patients (67 type 1, 20 type 2) and 25 control subjects, gastric emptying of digestible solid and liquid meals and oesophageal transit of a solid bolus were measured with scintigraphic techniques. Gastrointestinal symptoms, autonomic nerve function and glycaemic control were evaluated in the diabetic patients. Gastric emptying and oesophageal transit were slower (P 15 mmol/l. These results indicate that gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus should be assessed by liquid as well as by solid test meals and that oesophageal transit should not be used as a predictor of generalised diabetic gastroenteropathy. (orig.)

  19. Left ventricular systolic performance is improved in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Stefano; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Pisicchio, Cataldo; di Giacinto, Barbara; Guerra, Emanuele; Culasso, Franco; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    We sought to investigate the systolic time interval (STI) and efficiency of left ventricular (LV) contraction comparatively in elite athletes and healthy sedentary controls by means of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Four hundred and twenty-nine elite athletes, involved in skill (n = 41), power (n = 63), mixed (n = 167), and endurance (n = 158) disciplines and 98 sedentary controls, matched for age, underwent 3DE. By off-line analysis, we measured the absolute and relative (normalized by the R-R interval) timing of LV systolic emptying (STI and STI%) and the systolic flow velocity (SFV = stroke volume/STI). Both STI and STI% were shorter in athletes, regardless of the sport discipline, compared with controls (respectively, 324 ± 36 vs. 345 ± 33 ms, P athletes showed a significant reduction (by 50.4 ms; 95% confidence interval, from 57.7 to 43.1) in STI compared with untrained subjects. Finally, higher SFV were identified in skill (256 ± 60 mL/s; P athletes compared with controls (204 ± 50 mL/s). Elite athletes show a significant shortening of the systolic time duration in comparison with sedentary controls, in association with a significant increase in LV emptying velocity. This pattern characterizes the physiological LV adaptation of the athletes and may potentially be useful in differential diagnosis of the 'athlete heart'.

  20. Left atrial phasic function and mechanics in women with subclinical hypothyroidism: the effects of levothyroxine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Ilic, Sanja; Ivanovic, Branislava; Celic, Vera

    2014-11-01

    Left atrial (LA) mechanics has been poorly investigated in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT), and the effect of levothyroxine therapy on LA deformation and function is unknown. To investigate LA phasic function and mechanics assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and speckle tracking in women with SHT, and to estimate the influence of levothyroxine therapy on LA remodeling. We included 48 untreated women with SHT and 38 healthy control women of the same age. All the SHT patients received levothyroxine therapy and were followed for 1 year after euthyroid status was achieved. All the participants underwent laboratory analyses and complete 2DE examination. Left atrial total emptying fraction was significantly lower in the SHT patients at the baseline in comparison with the controls. LA passive emptying fraction gradually decreased from the controls, throughout the treated SHT patients, to the untreated SHT patients. LA active emptying fraction was lower in the controls than in the untreated and the treated SHT participants. 2DE LA longitudinal strain and systolic strain rate gradually decreased from the controls to the untreated SHT patients, whereas LA early diastolic strain rate significantly increased in the same direction. Late diastolic LA strain was lower in the controls than in the untreated and the treated SHT patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism significantly affects LA mechanics. Reservoir, conduit, and booster pump LA functions are all impacted by SHT. A 1-year levothyroxine therapy significantly improves, but does not completely restore LA phasic function and mechanics in the SHT patients. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... critics, and not least by feminists. The aim of this paper is to point out the position Freud took toward his patient. Dora stands out as the one case among Freud’s 5 great case stories that has a female protagonist, and reading the case it becomes clear that Freud stumbled because of an unresolved...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  2. Radionuclide gastric emptying time study for patients with cervical and thoracic esophageal cancer after resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Tang Jin; Wang Yonggang; Li Jiaxiu

    1994-01-01

    Semi-solid meal was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA and used as test meal given to patients orally. Gastric emptying time was measured in 70 patients after resection of esophageal cancer and 24 normal subjects. 70 patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) 14 cases with cervical esophageal cancer operated by using colon to replace the esophagus (CRE group). (2) 28 cases with cervical esophageal cancer operated by using stomach to replace the esophagus (SRE group). (3) 28 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer after resection only (TE group). The range of gastric emptying time of normal subjects was 53.9 +- 10.5%/60 minutes. The results showed that SRE group (28 pts) had a more rapid gastric emptying time than that of normal subjects. CRE group (14 pts) and TE group (28 pts) had slower gastric emptying time than that of normal subjects

  3. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  4. Application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qingxiang; Shi Jin; Rong Rong; Wang Hongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of gastric emptying imaging in the therapy of functional dyspepsia (FD) of Spleen deficiency and qi stagnation. Methods: 78 cases of patients with FD were divide into Chinese herbal medicine group (40 cases treated with Chinese herbal medicine of Decoction of invigorating spleen) and Western medicine group (38 cases treated with regulating qi and Domperidone). The gastric emptying imagings were carried out before and after treatment. Results: The gastric emptying imaging results showed that both traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine treatments had good curative effects (P<0.01), and the traditional Chinese Medicine was better than that of Wester medicine (P<0.05). Conclusion: Gastric emptying imaging is very useful in observation curative effect of FD treatment. (authors)

  5. Gastric emptying rate and chyme characteristics for cooked brown and white rice meals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Chang, Lucy Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    Rice structure is important to rice grain and starch breakdown during digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the gastric emptying and rice composition during gastric digestion of cooked brown and white medium-grain (Calrose variety) rice using the growing pig as a model for the adult human. Brown and white rice did not show significantly different gastric emptying rates of dry matter or starch, but brown rice had slower protein emptying (P pH was lower in the distal stomach compared to the proximal stomach (P gastric secretions observed after a brown or white rice meal may be related to the meal buffering capacity, and are accumulated in the distal stomach. The delayed rate of protein emptying in brown rice compared to white rice was most likely due to the accumulation of bran layers in the stomach. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of chyme viscosity and nutrient feedback mechanism on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Thomas E; Nimmegeers, Philippe; Telen, Dries; Fryer, Peter J; Van Impe, Jan; Bakalis, Serafim

    2017-11-02

    A comprehensive mathematical model of the digestive processes in humans could allow for better design of functional foods which may play a role in stemming the prevalence of food related diseases around the world. This work presents a mathematical model for a nutrient based feedback mechanism controlling gastric emptying, which has been identified in vivo by numerous researchers. The model also takes into account the viscosity of nutrient meals upon gastric secretions and emptying. The results show that modelling the nutrient feedback mechanism as an on/off system, with an initial emptying rate dependent upon the secretion rate (which is a function of the gastric chyme viscosity) provides a good fit to the trends of emptying rate for liquid meals of low and high nutrient content with varying viscosity.

  7. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  8. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Penninckx, F; Siegel, J A; Vandenborre, P; Van Cutsem, E; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V; De Roo, M

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  9. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying

  10. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively......This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...

  11. Left Atrial Structure and Function in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A RELAX Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique A Abbasi

    Full Text Available Given the emerging recognition of left atrial structure and function as an important marker of disease in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-pEF, we investigated the association between left atrial volume and function with markers of disease severity and cardiac structure in HF-pEF. We studied 100 patients enrolled in the PhosphdiesteRasE-5 Inhibition to Improve CLinical Status and EXercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX trial who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and blood collection before randomization. Maximal left atrial volume index (LAVi; N = 100, left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF; N = 99; including passive and active components (LAEFP, LAEFA; N = 80, 79, respectively were quantified by CMR. After adjustment for multiple testing, maximal LAVi was only associated with age (ρ = 0.39, transmitral filling patterns (medial E/e' ρ = 0.43, and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP; ρ = 0.65; all p<0.05. Lower LAEF was associated with older age, higher transmitral E/A ratio and higher NT-proBNP. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were not associated with left atrial structure or function. After adjustment for age, sex, transmitral E/A ratio, CMR LV mass, LV ejection fraction, and creatinine clearance, NT-proBNP remained associated with maximal LAVi (β = 0.028, p = 0.0007 and total LAEF (β = -0.033, p = 0.001. Passive and active LAEF were most strongly associated with age and NT-proBNP, but not gas exchange or other markers of ventricular structure or filling properties. Left atrial volume and emptying function are associated most strongly with NT-proBNP and diastolic filling properties, but not significantly with gas exchange, in HFpEF. Further research to explore the relevance of left atrial structure and function in HF-pEF is warranted.

  12. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel

  13. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati

    2015-04-01

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  14. Constipation is associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between constipation and the results of uroflowmetry with post-void residual urine (PVR) tests in healthy children. We enrolled healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years for evaluation of voiding and defecation function. A parent of children completed the questionnaire, and the children were asked to do uroflowmetry and PVR. Constipation is defined as defecation frequency ≤ 2 times/week or type 1-2 stool forms on Bristol stool scale. Uroflowmetry curve and PVR were eligible for analysis if voided volume was between 50 ml and expected capacity for age. Totally, 778 children (415 boys and 363 girls) with a mean age of 7.2 ± 2.2 years were eligible for analysis. The prevalence of constipation was 10.9% by low defecation frequency, and 28.4% by Bristol stool scale, respectively. Regarding the rate of constipation, there were no statistically significant differences between genders. Compared to children without low defecation frequency, constipated children had higher PVR (9.0 vs. 5.9 ml, P = 0.01), higher rate of PVR > 20 ml (17.7% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.01) and lower voiding efficiency (93.2% vs. 94.9%, P = 0.04). Compared to children without type 1-2 Bristol stool, constipated children did not have higher PVR (7.2 ml vs. 5.8 ml, P = 0.10), nor lower voiding efficiency (94.0% vs. 95.0%, P = 0.11). Urgency symptom score and rate of abnormal flow patterns were comparable between children with or without constipation. Constipation defined as low defecation frequency was associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M H; van Ierland-van Leeuwen, M L; Bennink, R J

    2006-08-01

    Accelerated gastric emptying of solids may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Orlistat, a potent lipase inhibitor, induces fat malabsorption and body weight loss but might accelerate gastric emptying as a result of suppressed CCK release. The aim was to investigate the role of fat restriction and lipase inhibition in CCK release and gastric emptying. A total of 28 patients (three male (M)/25 female (F); mean (s.d.) BMI 37.4(3.9) kg/m2) entering a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. CCK release and gastric emptying by scintigraphy at the start (T0), after 1 month of an energy- and fat-restricted diet and placebo (T1), and after 1 month (T2) and 1 year (T3) of randomization to placebo or 120 mg orlistat three times a day. One month of dieting and a weight loss of 2.3 kg (2.1% of initial weight) did not affect gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels remained unaltered. Placebo-treated subjects who continued the diet for 1 month demonstrated a borderline significant suppressed CCK secretion and a weight loss of 1.2 kg (1.0%) without an effect on gastric emptying. After 1 year, the CCK secretion recovered to or beyond values at the start. A significantly slower emptying of solids (17.6 (T3) versus 25.9 (T1)%/h) and a weight loss of 10.4 kg (9.9%) was observed. Subjects on 120 mg orlistat lost 2.5 kg (2.5%) after 1 month, and 9.8 kg (9.9%) after 1 year. Basal and postprandial CCK release decreased significantly after the first month of orlistat treatment but normalized after 1 year. Diet and lipase inhibition did not have any influence on gastric emptying. Energy and fat restriction of 1 month did not alter gastric emptying in the whole group. Continuation of the diet for 1 year resulted in a delayed gastric emptying of solids. Lipase inhibition did not result in a sustained depressed CCK release and the anticipated acceleration of gastric emptying did not occur.

  16. Optimization of empty container movements using street-turn: Application to Valencia hinterland

    OpenAIRE

    Furió, Salvador; Andrés Romano, Carlos; Adenso Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano Segura, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Empty maritime container logistics is one of the most relevant costs for shipping companies. In this paper two mathematical models (based on two different container movement patterns, i.e. with and without street-turns) were defined to optimize land empty container movements among shippers, consignees, terminals and depots, along with minimizing storage costs. One of the proposed optimization models was embedded in a simple Decision Support System (DSS) and then tested with real data, based o...

  17. Empty creditors and strong shareholders: The real effects of credit risk trading

    OpenAIRE

    Colonnello, Stefano; Efing, Matthias; Zucchi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Credit derivatives allow creditors to transfer debt cash flow rights to other market participants while retaining control rights. Theory predicts that this transfer can create empty creditors that do not fully internalize liquidation costs and liquidate borrowers excessively often. This empty creditor problem is concentrated in firms whose creditors would face powerful shareholders in distressed debt renegotiations. Consistent with this prediction, we show that (1) creditors buy more CDS prot...

  18. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  19. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  20. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  1. Gastric emptying 16 to 26 years after treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, F E; Bertus, M; Voth, E; Michalski, S; Lepsien, G

    1994-04-01

    Long-term follow-up was performed 16 to 26 years after conservative (group I, n = 18) and operative (group II, n = 38) treatment of 56 patients who had infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). The study encompassed the scintigraphic determination of gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids, an interview to obtain medical history and ascertain whether a current disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract was present, and a clinical examination. Gastric emptying rates were measured on two different days for solids and liquids. The standard solid meal consisted of two scrambled eggs, two slices of toast, and 20 g of margarine. The gastric emptying rate for liquids was measured using 300 mL of apple juice. The scrambled eggs and apple juice were each marked with 2.2 MBq technetium 99m-sulphur-colloid. Two control collectives were used in this study; one group (physicians) served to create a reference curve for gastric emptying, and the other group, with the same age and gender distributions as those of the patients, served to evaluate the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints, by means of a questionnaire. There was no significant rate difference for gastric emptying between the patients treated conservatively or surgically and the controls. No association could be construed between the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms or disorders and the gastric emptying rates for solids and liquids. The results presented here substantiate that clinically relevant disturbances of stomach motility after IHPS appear to be rare.

  2. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  3. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  4. A case of multiple coronary microfistulas to the left ventricle and apical myocardial hypertrophy coexisting with stable angina

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Bekir Serhat; Bilgin, Murat; Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin; Evrengul, Harun

    2013-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula consists of a communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, a great artery or the vena cava. It is the most common congenital anomaly that can affect coronary perfusion. However, coronary fistulas to one of the cardiac chambers and coexisting apical myocardial hypertophy are infrequent anomalies, and usually are found unexpectedly. Herein, we report a case in which all three major coronary arteries emptied into the left ventricle with apical hypertro...

  5. A case of multiple coronary microfistulas to the left ventricle and apical myocardial hypertrophy coexisting with stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir Serhat; Bilgin, Murat; Alihanoglu, Yusuf Izzettin; Evrengul, Harun

    2013-07-01

    A coronary artery fistula consists of a communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber, a great artery or the vena cava. It is the most common congenital anomaly that can affect coronary perfusion. However, coronary fistulas to one of the cardiac chambers and coexisting apical myocardial hypertophy are infrequent anomalies, and usually are found unexpectedly. Herein, we report a case in which all three major coronary arteries emptied into the left ventricle with apical hypertrophy, through multiple microfistulas.

  6. Nationwide standardisation and evaluation of scintigraphic gastric emptying: reference values and comparisons between subgroups in a multicentre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermansson, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Oestra Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lyrenaes, E. [Department of Medicine, Blekinge Hospital, Karlskrona (Sweden); Beckman, K.-W. [Hospital Physics, Oerebro Hospital (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    By means of a standardised procedure, reference values for scintigraphic gastric emptying were established. The influence of gender, age, menstrual cycle, body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits was also evaluated. Eight centres recruited 20 healthy subjects each. The meal consisted of a technetium-99m labelled omelet (1300 kJ) and of 150 ml unlabelled soft drink. Geometric means of frontal and dorsal acquisitions were utilised in a linear fit model for determination of the linear emptying rate, and by using the intercepts of the regression line with the 90% and 50% levels, the lag phase and half-emptying time, respectively, were defined. All individuals showed an initial lag phase and subsequent linear emptying. Because of a longer lag phase and a slower linear emptying rate, premenopausal women had a slower gastric emptying than postmenopausal women and men of all ages. The gastric emptying rate increased with age in the women, mainly due to a shortened lag phase, while the emptying rate remained almost unchanged with age in the males. There were no significant differences in results between the centres. The menstrual cycle, BMI and smoking habits did not affect emptying. In conclusion, the fact that the results showed a slower gastric emptying rate in younger women compared with older women and men indicates that it is necessary to use separate reference values for fertile females. (orig.)

  7. The assessment of left atrial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using an ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karikomi, Masahito (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Ultrafast computed tomography was performed in 22 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 8 normal subjects to evaluate left atrial function. The area-time curve of the left atrium was obtained from the long axial view and analyzed. The diminishing fraction of the left atrial area from passive atrial emptying to atrial diastasis in HCM was significantly less than that in normal subjects (17.4[+-]6.3% vs 23.0[+-]6.8%, p<0.05). The maximum area, filling fraction, time to peak diminishing rate, peak diminishing rate, time to 50% of peak diminishing rate, and diminishing fraction at the time of peak diminishing rate in HCM did not differ significantly from those in normal subjects. No indices differed between symptomatic patients with HCM and asymptomatic patients with HCM. In conclusion, the contraction of the left atrium is increased and a compensatory mechanism is at work in response to the impairment of left ventricular early diastolic filling, which does not affect the conduit function of the left atrium. It is suggested that the left atrial function in HCM may well be altered before symptom is present. (author).

  8. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  9. Effect of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Teyssen, S; Harder, H; Singer, M V

    2004-07-01

    There is a paucity of detailed and controlled studies on the action of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans. This study was designed to compare the effect of beer, red wine, whisky and their comparable pure ethanol solutions on gastric emptying in a controlled and randomized investigation. On separate days, 10 healthy, fasted subjects received the following solutions, in random order, through a gastric tube: 500 mL beer, red wine, comparable pure ethanol solutions (4% and 10% v/v), glucose (5.5% and 11.4% w/v) and water, 125 mL whisky and 40% (v/v) ethanol (both followed by 125 mL water) and 250 mL water. Gastric emptying of the test solutions was assessed using ultrasonography of the antrum. As measured by ultrasonography of the antrum, half emptying times of the ethanol solutions (4%, 10% and 40% v/v) were significantly (P beer (39.3 +/- 4.3 min) and red wine (72.6 +/- 7.6 min) were significantly longer than those of the corresponding ethanol concentrations, whereas whisky was emptied at nearly the same rate (26.4 +/- 5.9 min) as 40% (v/v) ethanol. Emptying of glucose 5.5% and 11.4% (w/v) was significantly and dose dependently slower (29.7 +/- 4.5 and 64.8 +/- 8.9 min) than water. 1) Pure ethanol in concentrations of 4%, 10% and 40% (v/v) inhibits gastric emptying. 2) The inhibitory effect of beer and red wine, but not of whisky, is stronger than that of their comparable ethanol concentrations. 3) Caloric content and non-alcoholic ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (beer and wine), but not in those produced by distillation (whisky), are most likely responsible for this effect.

  10. Gastric emptying after a new, more physiological anti-obesity operation: the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.R.; Johnston, D.; Barker, M.C.J.; Bury, R.F.; Boyce, J.; Sue-Ling, H. [Leeds General Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The Magenstrasse and Mill (M and M) procedure for obesity is designed to preserve normal gastric emptying mechanisms. The hypothesis investigated in this study was that gastric emptying would be normal after the M and M gastroplasty. Gastric emptying studies were performed using both liquid and solid test meals, in ten morbidly obese patients (MO group) and in 13 patients after the M and M procedure (MM group). Seven people of normal weight served as controls and were matched for age, sex and height to the M and M and MO groups. Three years after the M and M procedure, mean (SD) weight loss was 42 (19) kg, with a mean loss of excess weight of 58% (20%). Gastric emptying half-times (t{sub 1/2}) are expressed in minutes, as median values (25th and 75th percentiles). The t{sub 1/2} for solids was 97 (85-110) min in the control group, 140 (86-220) min in the MO group and 79 (46-150) min in the MM group. Median gastric emptying for solids was 0.7% (0.6%-0.8%) per minute in the control group, 0.5% (0.3%-0.8%) in the MO group and 0.9% (0.4%-1.4%) in the M and M group. There were no statistically significant differences in the emptying times of the three groups. It is concluded that the M and M procedure achieves acceptable weight loss, while preserving gastric emptying mechanisms and thus minimising possible side-effects such as vomiting, dumping and diarrhoea, which are common complications of gastric bypass procedures. (orig.)

  11. Myxoma of the Left Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, José; Delgado, Antonio; Alonso, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns a 69-year-old woman who presented with an asymptomatic myxoma in the left ventricle. The tumor was successfully excised. We provide a very brief review of 72 other published cases of surgically treated left ventricular myxoma. PMID:25120392

  12. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; O'Toole, M L; Katz, S E; Ginsburg, G S; Hiller, W D; Laird, R H

    1997-11-15

    Left ventricular wall thickness >1.3 cm, septal-to-posterior wall ratios > 1.5, diastolic left ventricular size >6.0 cm, and eccentric or concentric remodeling are rare in athletes. Values outside of these cutoffs in an athlete of any age probably represent a pathologic state.

  13. The Left-Handed Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Contrary to the beliefs of many, right-handedness is not a single factor existing in almost all people, with a few exceptions termed left-handed: neither extreme exists independently of the other. During the first 4 years of life there is a period of fluctuation between right and left-handed dominance. Statistics and findings vary in determining…

  14. Two Lefts in Latin America?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given.......In this working paper I list five researchers' categorizations of the Latin American left in power (april 2006) in a schematic form. The most important criteria for the categorizations are given....

  15. A Giant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat F. Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. Patients with left atrial myxomas generally present with mechanical obstruction of blood flow, systemic embolization, and constitutional symptoms. We present a case of an unusually large left atrial myxoma discovered incidentally in a patient with longstanding dyspnea being managed as bronchial asthma.

  16. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7min vs 4±2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3kca/min vs 1.7±0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3±13% rice and 6.7±1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  17. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medical Radiation; Burch, W. [Tetley Medical, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7min vs 4{+-}2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3kca/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3{+-}13% rice and 6.7{+-}1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  18. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  19. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  20. A comparison of the effects of tramadol and morphine on gastric emptying in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D B; Sutton, A; Prescott, L F; Murphy, M B

    1997-12-01

    In a previous study using an electrical bioimpedance technique and the paracetamol absorption test, we demonstrated that 0.09 mg.kg-1 of morphine delayed gastric emptying in healthy human volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether analgesic doses of tramadol would cause a delay in gastric emptying similar to conventional opioids. Using the same volunteers and techniques as in our previous study, placebo or tramadol (1 mg.kg-1) was given in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over placebo-controlled study. Gastric emptying was measured concurrently by a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and by the paracetamol absorption test. After the ingestion of 500 ml of deionised water plus paracetamol 1.5 g, the mean (SEM) time taken for gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) was recorded. No difference in gastric emptying rates (t0.5) between placebo, 7.7 (1 min), and tramadol, 9.5 (2 min), was noted. In our previous study, morphine prolonged t0.5 to 21 (3) min (p < 0.03). The maximum concentration and area under the curve of serum paracetamol concentrations following morphine were significantly different from placebo (p < 0.05) and tramadol (p < 0.05). We conclude that tramadol at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 does not delay gastric emptying in humans.

  1. Scale-space for empty catheter segmentation in PCI fluoroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchuwar, Ketan; Cousty, Jean; Vaillant, Régis; Najman, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we present a method for empty guiding catheter segmentation in fluoroscopic X-ray images. The guiding catheter, being a commonly visible landmark, its segmentation is an important and a difficult brick for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) procedure modeling. In number of clinical situations, the catheter is empty and appears as a low contrasted structure with two parallel and partially disconnected edges. To segment it, we work on the level-set scale-space of image, the min tree, to extract curve blobs. We then propose a novel structural scale-space, a hierarchy built on these curve blobs. The deep connected component, i.e. the cluster of curve blobs on this hierarchy, that maximizes the likelihood to be an empty catheter is retained as final segmentation. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm on a database of 1250 fluoroscopic images from 6 patients. As a result, we obtain very good qualitative and quantitative segmentation performance, with mean precision and recall of 80.48 and 63.04% respectively. We develop a novel structural scale-space to segment a structured object, the empty catheter, in challenging situations where the information content is very sparse in the images. Fully-automatic empty catheter segmentation in X-ray fluoroscopic images is an important and preliminary step in PCI procedure modeling, as it aids in tagging the arrival and removal location of other interventional tools.

  2. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Chatterton, B.E.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sansom, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  3. The gastrointestinal emptying and transit of radiolabelled oral dosage forms in the pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kirkwood, I.D.; Chatterton, B.E.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sansom, L.N. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: By developing an animal model, the costs and time as well as the number of human studies involved to assess new oral pharmaceutical dosage forms could be greatly reduced. To validate the pig as a suitable model, the solid, liquid and particle gastric emptying rates (both fed and fasting) are required The aims were to:- train the pigs to be scanned under a variety of conditions, design and manufacture scanning cages, develop a scintigraphic imaging method in the pig, design a suitable system for the oral delivery of an intact radiolabelled capsule, acquire images providing information on the anatomical position and in-vivo performance of the capsule, perform a series of gastric emptying studies. Liquid emptying data shows a 50% emptying time of 15 minutes in the pig (human 4-31 min). Solid emptying in the sedated pig is poor at 2 hours. In the unsedated pig the maximum time for a solid study has been 45 minutes. This study has provided some useful information regarding the gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs. The preliminary data indicates that the model has potential. In the future, a simultaneous scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of drug absorption will be performed

  4. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  5. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  6. Why are some people left-handed? An evolutionary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurens, V.; Raymond, M.; Faurie, C.

    2008-01-01

    Since prehistoric times, left-handed individuals have been ubiquitous in human populations, exhibiting geographical frequency variations. Evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the persistence of the handedness polymorphism. Left-handedness could be favoured by negative frequency-dependent selection. Data have suggested that left-handedness, as the rare hand preference, could represent an important strategic advantage in fighting interactions. However, the fact that left-handedness occurs at a low frequency indicates that some evolutionary costs could be associated with left-handedness. Overall, the evolutionary dynamics of this polymorphism are not fully understood. Here, we review the abundant literature available regarding the possible mechanisms and consequences of left-handedness. We point out that hand preference is heritable, and report how hand preference is influenced by genetic, hormonal, developmental and cultural factors. We review the available information on potential fitness costs and benefits acting as selective forces on the proportion of left-handers. Thus, evolutionary perspectives on the persistence of this polymorphism in humans are gathered for the first time, highlighting the necessity for an assessment of fitness differences between right- and left-handers. PMID:19064347

  7. Left Atrial Systolic and Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis: A Study Using Speckle Tracking and Conventional Echocardiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA function plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiac output, however, in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP, whether pericardial restriction and adhesion can lead to LA dysfunction, and the characteristics of LA function remain unclear. The aim of the study is to compare the left atrial (LA function of patients with CP to that of healthy study participants using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE and conventional echocardiography.Thirty patients with CP and 30 healthy volunteers (controls were enrolled in the study. The underlying cause of CP was viral pericarditis in 24 (80% patients and unknown in 6 (20% patients. The LA maximum volume (Vmax, LA minimal volume (Vmin, and LA volume before atrial contraction (Vpre-a were measured using biplane modified Simpson's method. The LA expansion index (LA reservoir function was determined as follows: ([LAVmax - LAVmin]/LAVmin ×100. The passive emptying index (LA conduit function was calculated as follows: ([LAVmax - LAVpre-a]/LAVmax ×100, and the active emptying index (booster pump function was calculated as follows: ([LAVpre-a - LAVmin]/LAVpre-a ×100. All the patients underwent two-dimensional STE. The LA global systolic strain (S, systolic strain rate (SrS, early diastolic strain rate (SrE and late diastolic strain rate (SrA were measured. The LA expansion index, passive emptying index, the active emptying index and the LA global S, SrS, SrE, SrA were found to be significantly lower in patients with CP than in the control participants (P <0.001. LA function was correlated with the early diastolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus (P <0.05.Although left ventricular systolic function was preserved in patients with CP, the LA reservoir, conduit, and booster functions were impaired. Pericardial restriction and impairment of the LA myocardium may play an important role in the reduction of LA function in patients with CP.

  8. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Naeslund, E.; Hellstroem, P.M.; Jacobsson, H.; Backman, L.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  9. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  10. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    .A periodic change of the impedance signal, the phasic 3 CPM signal, was observed after a meal in 24 of the infants. The median frequency was 3.03 CPM in 20 mature and 2.93 CPM in 4 preterminfants. In 9 infants a phasic 3 CPM signal was observed during fasting state. The median frequency was 2.9 CPM......  Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component...... time (T50) was calculated. For mature infants it was found to be 6.9 mins. For a second meal given within an hour after the first meal the half emptying time was 5.5 mins (p

  12. The Logistic of Empty Containers′ Return in the Liner-Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayachi Naima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Maritime Transport is a favoured tool regarding the universal exchanges because it has gone through several evolutions. Indeed, the containerization is considered as one of the most remarkable improvements in the shipping. The containers are rented by shipping companies. However, these companies meet an empty container availability problem at some ports of Maritime Transport Network (MTN to satisfy the demands of clients. The objective of this work is to solve the problem of the imbalance of the distribution of containers and look for empty containers at less cost to meet the demands of clients. As a result, the authors propose an application to represent the MTN, and provide a balanced distribution of containers. The work presented in this article is based on a heuristic method by neighbourhood. It allows the process of the clients' demands and transfers of full containers as well as the research of empty containers by optimizing the cost of theirs return.

  13. HIV-positive mothers with late adolescent/early adult children: "empty nest" concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In-depth interviews about the "empty nest" were conducted with 57 HIV-positive mothers of late adolescent/early adult children. Empty nest worries included the following: (a) identity loss, (b) loss of social support, (c) financial insecurity, (d) worsening of physical health, and (e) death/dying. Hopes included the following: (a) self-improvement, (a) change of life focus, (c) travel, (d) romantic partners, and (e) familial ties. Respondents' HIV/AIDS status colored their thoughts/feelings about the empty nest; some worries were specific to being HIV positive and would not occur for nonill mothers. Midlife HIV-positive women need health care/social service resources as they navigate health and social-psychological challenges to successful aging.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of computer-assisted electrocardiography in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Rodríguez-Picón, Blanca; Jerez-Valero, Miguel; Casares-Medrano, Julio; Akerström, Finn O; Calderon, Alberto; Barrios, Vivencio; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; González-Juanatey, José R; Coca, Antonio; Andrés, Josep; Ruiz-Baena, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy has important prognostic implications. Although electrocardiography is the technique most often recommended in the diagnosis of hypertrophy, its diagnostic accuracy is hampered in the presence of a left bundle branch block. In 1875 consecutive patients (56±16 years) undergoing studies to rule out heart disease and/or hypertension, 2-dimensional echocardiography and electrocardiography were performed simultaneously in an outpatient clinic. Digitized electrocardiograms were interpreted using an online computer-assisted platform (ELECTROPRES). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of standard electrocardiographic criteria and of some diagnostic algorithms for left ventricular hypertrophy were determined and compared with the findings in patients with neither left bundle branch block nor myocardial infarction. Left bundle branch block was present in 233 (12%) patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected more frequently in patients with left bundle branch block (60% vs 31%). In patients with left bundle branch block, sensitivities were low but similar to those observed in patients without it, and ranged from 6.4% to 70.9%, whereas specificities were high, ranging from 57.6% to 100%. Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 1.33 to 4.94, and negative likelihood ratios from 0.50 to 0.98. Diagnostic algorithms, voltage-duration products, and certain compound criteria had the best sensitivities. Left ventricular hypertrophy can be diagnosed in the presence of left bundle branch block with an accuracy at least similar to that observed in patients without this conduction defect. Computer-assisted interpretation of the electrocardiogram may be useful in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy as it enables the implementation of more accurate algorithms. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Burch, W.M.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%±0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%±0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%±0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7 min vs 4±2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7±0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.)

  16. Potent inhibitory effect of alcoholic beverages upon gastrointestinal passage of food and gallbladder emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Bożek, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Magdalena; Mgłosiek, Patrycja

    2013-12-01

    Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid 1485 kJ meal was followed by intake of 400 ml beer (4.7%vol), 200 ml red wine (13.7%vol) or 100 ml whisky (43.5%vol) or matching volumes of control fluids. Gastric myoelectrical activity and emptying, orocecal transit and gallbladder emptying was monitored noninvasively. Alcoholic beverages (beer, red wine, whisky) caused a significant slowdown of the gastric evacuation of the solid meal, the delay being the more potent, the greater was the concentration of ethanol. This inhibitory effect was not caused by interference with the gastric myoelectric activity. Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation (beer, red wine), at odds with the effect of their counterpartying aqueous ethanol solutions, did not elongate the orocecal transit of the solid food. Products of distillation-whisky and high proof ethanol solution--elicited a profound delay of the orocecal transit. Alcoholic beverages exerted an inhibitory effect upon the meal-stimulated gallbladder emptying, the magnitude of which increased in the order: beer → red wine → whisky. Alcoholic beverages exert an inhibitory effect upon the gastric emptying of a solid food and the meal-induced gallbladder emptying, whereas the effect upon the orocecal transit depends on the type of a beverage-whisky elicits a delay but beer or red wine are devoid of this effect.

  17. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  18. Use of technegas as a radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Jones, K.L. [School of Medical Radiation, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Burch, W.M. [John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory (Australia); Horowitz, M. [Department of Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    1999-08-01

    Many radiopharmaceuticals and test meals that are used to measure gastric emptying are less than optimal. A vegetable-based solid meal, such as rice, labelled with a radiopharmaceutical that also has the capacity to measure gastric emptying of liquids, is likely to be ideal. The role of Technegas as a radioisotopic marker to measure gastric emptying of rice and liquids was evaluated. Technegas-labelled rice was incubated in 0.9% saline, 1 M HCl and simulated gastric fluid (3.2 g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-3) to assess stability of the label. In eight healthy volunteers gastric emptying of two meals - 200 g rice (370 kcal) and 75 g dextrose dissolved in 300 ml water (300 kcal), both labelled with 20 MBq of Technegas - was measured scintigraphically. Over 4 h, the average label stability was 93.7%{+-}0.5% in 0.9% saline, 91.0%{+-}0.4% in 1 M HCl and 93.6%{+-}0.7% in simulated gastric juice. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7 min vs 4{+-}2 min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post-lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3 kcal/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2 kcal/min; P=0.2) between the two meals. We conclude that Technegas is a suitable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of gastric emptying of rice and nutrient-containing liquids. (orig.) With 2 figs., 16 refs.

  19. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  20. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianinsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw...

  1. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianingsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract- Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for no...

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Niedereichholz, U; Ettler, R

    1997-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying of liquid meals in type 2 diabetic patients. It was the aim of the present study to compare the action of physiological and pharmacological doses of intravenous GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(7-37) on gastric emptying...... a significant effect, 3) despite the known insulinotropic actions of GLP-1-(7-36) amide and -(7-37), the net effect of administering GLP-1 with a meal is no change or a reduction in meal-related insulin responses. These findings suggest a primarily inhibitory function for GLP-1 (ileal brake mechanisms)....

  3. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sildenafil is known to block phosphodiesterase type 5, which degrades nitric oxide-stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby relaxing smooth muscle cells in various organs. The effect of sildenafil on gastric motor function after a meal was investigated in healthy humans...... gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions. RESULTS: The area under the curve of gastric retention versus time of liquid or solid radiolabelled marker was not changed by sildenafil intake, nor was the postprandial frequency of antral contractions affected by sildenafil. CONCLUSION......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  4. Rescue human chorionic gonadotropin for false empty follicle syndrome: optimism for successful pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph O'Brien; Attaman, Jill Amanda; Styer, Aaron Kyle; Sabatini, Mary Elizabeth; Petrozza, John Christopher; Toth, Thomas Louis

    2012-08-01

    To describe two cases of successful pregnancy after a rescue course of hCG in the setting of false empty follicle syndrome. Case report. Academic medical center. Two patients undergoing ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval with failure to obtain oocytes during oocyte retrieval. Rescue course of hCG with second oocyte retrieval 35 hours later. Live birth. Two live-birth pregnancies. Live-birth pregnancies are a realistic possibility after administration of a rescue course of hCG and repeat oocyte retrieval in the setting of false empty follicle syndrome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Empty follicle syndrome after GnRHa triggering versus hCG triggering in COS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan C; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; Humaidan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG.......This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG....

  6. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Opioids delay gastric emptying, which in turn may increase the risk of vomiting and pulmonary aspiration. Naloxone reverses this opiate action on gastric emptying, but it is not known whether this effect in humans is mediated by central or peripheral opiate antagonism. The importance of peripheral opioid receptor antagonism in modulating opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying was evaluated using methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of the opiate antagonist naltrexone, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled study, 11 healthy volunteers were given either placebo (saline), 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine, or 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine plus 0.3 mg\\/kg methylnaltrexone on three separate occasions before ingesting 500 ml deionized water. The rate of gastric emptying was measured by two methods: a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and the acetaminophen absorption test. RESULTS: The epigastric bioimpedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect opioid-induced changes in the rate of gastric emptying. The mean +\\/- SD time taken for the gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) after placebo was 5.5 +\\/- 2.1 min. Morphine prolonged gastric emptying to (t0.5) of 21 +\\/- 9.0 min (P < 0.03). Methylnaltrexone given concomitantly with morphine reversed the morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying to a t0.5 of 7.4 +\\/- 3.0 (P < 0.04). Maximum concentrations and area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min of serum acetaminophen concentrations after morphine were significantly different from placebo and morphine administered concomitantly with methylnaltrexone (P < 0.05). No difference in maximum concentration or area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min was noted between placebo and methylnaltrexone coadministered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: The attenuation of morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying by methylnaltrexone suggests that the opioid effect is

  7. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomforde, G.M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies

  8. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  10. Dabigatran for left ventricular thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishkumar Kolekar

    2015-09-01

    Dabigatran is a reversible direct thrombin inhibitor and currently approved for the prevention of thromboembolic episodes in non-valvar atrial fibrillation. This case demonstrates possible thrombolytic properties of dabigatran in resolution of left ventricular thrombus.

  11. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  12. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  13. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Doustkami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  14. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Left-handedness in professional and amateur tennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available Negative frequency-dependent effects rather than innate predispositions may provide left-handers with an advantage in one-on-one fighting situations. Support mainly comes from cross-sectional studies which found significantly enhanced left-hander frequencies among elite athletes exclusively in interactive sports such as baseball, cricket, fencing and tennis. Since professional athletes' training regimes continuously improve, however, an important unsolved question is whether the left-handers' advantage in individual sports like tennis persists over time. To this end, we longitudinally tracked left-hander frequencies in year-end world rankings (men: 1973-2011, ladies: 1975-2011 and at Grand Slam tournaments (1968-2011 in male and female tennis professionals. Here we show that the positive impact of left-handed performance on high achievement in elite tennis was moderate and decreased in male professionals over time and was almost absent in female professionals. For both sexes, left-hander frequencies among year-end top 10 players linearly decreased over the period considered. Moreover, left-handedness was, however, no longer seems associated with higher probability of attaining high year-end world ranking position in male professionals. In contrast, cross-sectional data on left-hander frequencies in male and female amateur players suggest that a left-handers' advantage may still occur on lower performance levels. Collectively, our data is in accordance with the frequency-dependent hypothesis since reduced experience with left-handers in tennis is likely to be compensated by players' professionalism.

  16. Empty calories and phantom fullness: a randomized trial studying the relative effects of energy density and viscosity on gastric emptying determined by MRI and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul Am

    2016-07-01

    Stomach fullness is a determinant of satiety. Although both the viscosity and energy content have been shown to delay gastric emptying, their relative importance is not well understood. We compared the relative effects of and interactions between the viscosity and energy density on gastric emptying and perceived satiety. A total of 15 healthy men [mean ± SD age: 22.6 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.6 ± 1.8] participated in an experiment with a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design. Participants received dairy-based shakes (500 mL; 50% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and 30% fat) that differed in viscosity (thin and thick) and energy density [100 kcal (corresponding to 0.2 kcal/mL) compared with 500 kcal (corresponding to 1 kcal/mL)]. After ingestion, participants entered an MRI scanner where abdominal scans and oral appetite ratings on a 100-point scale were obtained every 10 min until 90 min after ingestion. From the scans, gastric content volumes were determined. Overall, the gastric emptying half-time (GE t50) was 54.7 ± 3.8 min. The thin 100-kcal shake had the lowest GE t50 of 26.5 ± 3.0 min, followed by the thick 100-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 41 ± 3.9 min and the thin 500-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 69.5 ± 5.9 min, and the thick 500-kcal shake had the highest GE t50 of 81.9 ± 8.3 min. With respect to appetite, the thick 100-kcal shake led to higher fullness (58 points at 40 min) than the thin 500-kcal shake (48 points at 40 min). Our results show that increasing the viscosity is less effective than increasing the energy density in slowing gastric emptying. However, the viscosity is more important to increase the perceived fullness. These results underscore the lack of the satiating efficiency of empty calories in quickly ingested drinks such as sodas. The increase in perceived fullness that is due solely to the increased viscosity, which is a phenomenon that we refer to as phantom fullness, may be useful in lowering energy intake. This trial was

  17. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  18. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  19. Structural characterization of an enantiopure hydroxo-bridged binuclear iron(III) complex with empty one-dimensional helical channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Akhtarul; Nethaji, Munirathinum; Ray, Manabendra

    2005-03-07

    A H-bond capable chiral tetradentate ligand, Fe3+, and acetate ion assembles into a hydroxo-bridged binuclear complex with the formula [FeIII2(mu-OH)(mu-OAc)(S-L)2] x 4H2O (1) where H2S-L = S-2-(2-hydroxy-benzylamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-propionic acid. The crystal of 1 contains right-handed one-dimensional (1D) helical channels with 7.3-9.8 A diameter. A similar reaction with a ligand having opposite chirality forms the complex with left-handed helical channels (1a). Heating the crystals of 1 at 95 degrees C under reduced pressure selectively removes three waters from the channel forming an enantiopure porous crystal with empty channels (solvent accessible voids 18% v/v). Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the imidazole N-H and phenolate oxygen in 1-2 forms a C6 symmetric helix with bridging hydroxo groups pointing inside the channels. All the H-bond capable atoms in the ligand along with one water molecule form an extended H-bonded network throughout the crystal. Exposing the empty channels of 2 to iodine vapor indicates partial filling of the channels with iodine. Crystal data for 1 x 4H2O include the following: hexagonal, P61, a = b = 13.164(3) A, c = 36.305 (11) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0387, wR2 = 0.0842. Crystal data for 1a x 2H2O include the following: hexagonal, P6(5), a = b = 13.151(4) A, c = 36.558(2) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0416, wR2 = 0.1190. Crystal data for 2 x H2O include the following: hexagonal, P61, a = b = 13.160(7) A, c = 36.559 (4) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0574, wR2 = 0.1423.

  20. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  1. The Colombian Left: A Paradoxical Past; A Promising Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bergquist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the paradoxical history of the left in Colombia: how and why one of the weakest lefts in Latin America brought about the strongest and most lasting Marxist insurrection in the hemisphere in the decades following the Cuban Revolution. The article argues that the terms of this paradox are related, that the historic weakness of the left partly explains the force and longevity of revolutionary guerrillas, and that said paradox helps clarify not only the failure of several attempts to achieve a negotiated settlement of the armed conflict, but also the negative vote in the October 2016 plebiscite. Finally, it envisions a more promising future for the country’s left, provided that a lasting peace is consolidated.

  2. The Empty Nest Syndrome in Midlife Families: A Multimethod Exploration of Parental Gender Differences and Cultural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores parental health and well-being in relation to "empty nest" transitions. Focus is placed on the purported empty nest syndrome (i.e., self-reported experiences of depression and emotional distress when children leave home) and variations by parental gender and cultural background. This study is primarily based on…

  3. Delayed gastric emptying of both the liquid and solid components of a meal in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, J S; Holdeman, K P; Dalrymple, G V; Harrison, K A; Quigley, E M

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in patients with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. We measured gastric emptying of both the liquid and solid components of a meal in 10 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease and portal hypertension, but free of ascites, and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In the patients with liver disease, relationships between emptying and liver function were examined. To measure gastric emptying, subjects consumed a test meal that consisted of scrambled eggs labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid and 4 oz of water labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (DTPA). Patients with liver disease and portal hypertension demonstrated delayed emptying of both the liquid (t1/2, min, mean +/- SE, patients vs. 69.4 +/- 19.4 vs. 31.4 +/- 1.8, p < 0.01) and solid (post-lag phase solid emptying: 141 +/- 32.9 vs. 69.8 +/- 4.6, p < 0.006) components of the meal. We could not identify any correlation between gastric emptying and tests of liver function. Gastric emptying is delayed in patients with liver disease and portal hypertension; this abnormal gastric motor function may contribute to the pathophysiology of foregut complaints in this patient population.

  4. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  5. Comments on: The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A Pigarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Stevens JE, Horowitz M, Deacon CF, Nauck M, Rayner CK, Jones KL. The effects of sitagliptin on gastric emptying in healthy humans - a randomised, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05198.x

  6. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  7. Association of preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction with delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Jasper J.; Eshuis, Wietse J.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is among the most common complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) and might demand postoperative nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction and DGE after PD in an

  8. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are secreted in parallel to the circulation after a meal. Intravenous (IV) GLP-1 has an inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, hunger and food intake in man. In rodents, central administration of GLP-2 increases satiety similar...

  9. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    . Thirteen healthy subjects (CON), 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 10 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 7 with diverticulitis (DIV) underwent a standardized (13)C-octanoic acid gastric emptying breath test. Plasma glucose, CCK, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured periodically...

  10. Socratic Knowledge, Christian Love, Confucian Virtue and Buddhist Emptiness: Guiding Principles for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    Socrates' view of knowledge, Jesus' conception of love, Confucius' idea of virtue and Buddha's path of emptiness provide valuable insights and guiding principles to help us achieve a well-rounded education. Each of these individuals caused a transformation in the individual and collective lives of their followers and their respective societies…

  11. Fate of oral neutralizing antacid and its effect on postprandial gastric secretion and emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, T B; Carlson, G L; Malagelada, J R; Duenes, J A; McCall, J T

    1979-11-01

    The fate and neutralizing efficiency of oral antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) as well as their effect on postprandial gastric function were quantified in 6 patients with duodenal ulcer disease. We employed a double-marker technique for measurement of gastric secretion and emptying and combined this with back-titration of the gastric samples and analysis of aluminum to trace the fate of antacid in the stomach and duodenum. These studies show that: (a) antacid therapy with aluminum and magnesium hydroxides significantly increases gastric secretion; (b) intragastric neutralization of gastric acid produces a significant and substantial decrease in net acid output (acid secreted minus acid neutralized), but the beneficial effects of neutralization are partially offset by incomplete intragastric formation of aluminum trichloride; (c) most but not all of the ingested antacid is utilized in acid neutralization in the stomach (average 78.6% in our 6 patients); and (d) antacid therapy does not modify the absolute rate of postprandial gastric emptying, but increases dilution of gastric contents, expanding the intragastric volume. Thus, the fractional gastric emptying rate declines, and this, in turn, should enhance antacid utilization by delaying its emptying.

  12. Impact of the reconstruction method on delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamandl, Dietmar; Sahora, Klaus; Prucker, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is of considerable concern in patients undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Prolonged hospital stay, increased cost, and decreased quality of life add on to interventions needed to treat DGE. This study was conducted to determine...

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  14. Value of petrosal sinus sampling: coexisting acromegaly, empty sella and meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarman, S. [Div. of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Istanbul Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Minareci, Oe. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Faculty of Istanbul Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-12-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of an intracranial meningioma and a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma is exceedingly rare, as is coexistence of an empty sella and acromegaly. We report all these rare entities in the same patient. We evaluated the role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling for lateralisation of an adenoma in this patient. (orig.)

  15. Oil palm empty-fruit bunch application effects on the earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of polyphenols at several stages of oil palm empty-fruit bunch (EFB) composting, the types of phenol compounds in several types of EFB composting processes and the effects of phenol compounds on EFB composting in an earthworm population were evaluated under field conditions. The amount of ...

  16. Gastric emptying time (GET) with Tc-99m-labeled semisolid meal in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Akira; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying in diabetic gastroenteropathy is of interest because of the gastric atony that may produce signs and symptoms of visceral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to present the result of GET measurements in diabetic patients. The correlation between GET and complications, fasting blood sugar (FBS), duration of disease, age, sex, and HbAlc was evaluated. Included in this study were 21 diabetic patients. Fourteen patients had diabetic complications such as peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. Following an overnight fast, semisolid test meal mixed with 200 uCi of Tc-99m Sn-colloid was ingested by the patients. In nine normal volunteers, the GET range previously established by this method in our institution was from 47 to 78 minutes (mean 62.5 +- 7.7). In the patients with diabetic complication, particulary with triopathy, GET was significantly prolonged compared to those of normal subjects and diabetic patients without complication. On the contrary, four out of seven patients without complications, showed rapid emptying than normal subjects. This rapid emptying may reveal the early stage of pathophysiological change in diabetics. No correlation between GET and FBS, duration of disease, age, sex and HbAlc was seen. This test of radiolabeled semisolid meal was found to provide a convenient, safe and effective diagnostic tool to examine gastric emptying function in diabetic patients. (author)

  17. Time empty and ketone body status in the early postpartum period of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, A; Reist, M; Blum, J W; Küpfer, U

    2003-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of ketone body status early postpartum on time empty in 74 multiparous dairy cows under field conditions. Animals were equally distributed across eight farms and were controlled by the same herd-fertility-monitoring programme. Cows were visited twice antepartum and six times postpartum at weekly intervals between 0530 and 0830 a.m. On these occasions, body condition scores and milk yields were measured, blood and milk samples were taken, cows were gynaecologically examined, and parameters of reproduction were recorded. Cows with a time empty of less or more than 80 days were classified as early and late conceiving cows (EC and LC, respectively). A time empty of 80 days results in calving-to-calving intervals of 1 year and classification based on this threshold value resulted in groups of equal size and equal distribution of EC and LC within farms. Ketone bodies measured were beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and acetoacetate and acetone in blood and milk. Blood and milk ketone body concentrations, as well as the ratios of acetoacetate and acetone to beta-hydroxybutyrate, over the first 6 weeks postpartum were higher in LC than in EC, whereas plasma glucose and non-esterified fatty acids and milk fat, protein and urea concentrations did not exhibit clear differences between groups. Ketone body concentrations were as good predictors of time empty as ketone body ratios and might have practical impact in herd-fertility-monitoring programmes.

  18. Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batakis, Nikos A.

    1981-04-01

    We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.

  19. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine [Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe] by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds ...

  20. Ivermectin treatment for massive orbital myiasis in an empty socket with concomitant scalp pediculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Puthran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of massive orbital myiasis following recent lid injury, occurring in the empty socket of an elderly lady, who had concurrent scalp pediculosis. The orbital myiasis was effectively treated with the broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, ivermectin, thus precluding the need for an exploratory surgery. Ivermectin was also effective in managing the concurrent scalp pediculosis.

  1. Solving the empty space problem in robot path planning by mathematical morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a morphological approach to path planning problems, in particular with respect to the empty­-space problem, that is, the question of finding the allowed states for an object, moving in a space with obstacles. Our approach is based upon a recent generalization of

  2. Exploring "Shunyata" (Emptiness) and the Cultivation of Mindfulness Practices: Educators Finding Their Zero-Point Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the conceptual framework of "shunyata" (emptiness), this article elucidates mindfulness practices and detachment from identity labels, offering a turn toward educators' and students' well-being. With a call for educators to consider a personal mindfulness practice prior to implementing techniques with children, the author…

  3. The effect of torrefaction on oil palm empty fruit bunch properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of torrefaction on oil palm empty fruit bunch properties using microwave irradiation. M.I. Ahmad, Z.I. Rizman, M.S.M. Rasat, Z.A.Z. Alauddin, S.N.M. Soid, M.S.A. Aziz, M. Mohamed, M.H.M. Amini, M.F.M. Amin ...

  4. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  5. Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows the performance of Trichoderma virens as an activator for conversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) into compost. EFB and POME are two abundant wastes produced by oil palm industries which keep accumulating. Since there is no proper way to dispose these wastes, ...

  6. Emptying the Nest: Launching Your Young Adult toward Success and Self-Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Brad E.

    2010-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world and challenging economy, young adults increasingly find themselves at a crossroads between financial and emotional dependence and autonomy. Drawing on Dr. Sachs' extensive clinical experience and his illuminating discussion of the latest psychological research, "Emptying the Nest" will support parents in their…

  7. Potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude oil polluted soil was investigated. Three levels (100 g, 200 g and 300 g) of ash treatments in 2 kg of soil were set up alongside a control (nil ash) after pollution with100 ml of crude oil. Composite soil samples were collected and analyzed at intervals of ...

  8. [Gastric emptying after oral contrast for abdominal tomography: report of six cases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fernando Antonio Nogueira da Cruz; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do

    2004-06-01

    Pulmonary injury due to gastric contents aspiration is a complication related to airway protective reflexes loss. Tomography imaging with digestive tract contrast requires special care for children below five years of age requiring general anesthesia or sedation to assure immobility during the procedure. General anesthesia induction or sedation after contrast ingestion may pose substantial risk for gastric contents bronchoaspiration, so contrast administration by gastric tube is often used after tracheal intubation, since time elapsed for emptying gastric contrast is unknown. This practice means increased anesthesia duration and leads to issues about the possibility of gastric emptying in less than one hour. Six patients submitted to abdominal tomography were evaluated concerning gastric emptying by tomographic slices in stomach topography to establish whether residual liquid contents remain in that organ after contrast administration. Participated in this study 6 children undergoing abdominal tomography. Two conscious children presented expressive gastric liquid residual 50 and 45 minutes, respectively, after oral contrast ingestion. Four anesthetized children have also presented gastric liquid residual 40-50 minutes after contrast administration through gastric tube. In two of them remarkable gastric liquid content remained even after stomach aspiration. In all studied cases, forty to fifty minutes were not enough for gastric emptying after contrast administration and even stomach aspiration trough gastric tube has resulted in significant residual liquid.

  9. Comparing the Use of the Empty Number Line in England and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to meet the needs of children's learning in arithmetic has led to an increased emphasis on the teaching of mental calculation strategies in England. This has included the adoption of didactical tools such as the empty number line (ENL) that was developed as part of the realistic mathematics movement in the Netherlands. It has been claimed…

  10. The effect of coffee on gastric emptying and oro-caecal transit time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Lo, B.; Samsom, M.; Akkermans, L. M.; Smout, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of coffee allegedly induces or aggravates gastrointestinal symptoms. In order to investigate the effect of coffee on gastrointestinal motility we studied the effect of coffee on gastric emptying and oro-caecal transit time. METHODS: In a randomised, controlled, cross-over

  11. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis.

  12. rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in pregnant rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... This study investigated the effect of essentially carbohydrate diet (cooked mashed yam) on gastric emptying and small intestinal motility rates in pregnancy. It involved 24 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 to 200gand randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I and II served as the control ...

  13. Prucalopride decreases esophageal acid exposure and accelerates gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, B. F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bennink, R. J.; Kraaijpoel, N.; Oors, J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride is a prokinetic drug which improves colonic motility. Animal data and in vitro studies suggest that prucalopride also affects gastric and esophageal motor function. We aimed to assess the effect of prucalopride on gastric emptying, esophageal motility, and

  14. Gastric stimulation: influence of electrical parameters on gastric emptying in control and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songné Badjona

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background The aim of this study was to test the effect of different pulse frequencies and amplitudes during gastric stimulation (GS on gastric emptying in the rat. Methods GS was performed in 2 groups of laparotomized rats: healthy control animals, and rats with acute diabetes. The effects of four pulse frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, 20 Hz and three pulse amplitudes (5, 20, 40 mA were tested. The volumes emptied from the stomach after the oro-gastric instillation of a nutrient solution were compared to those obtained in animals without GS. Intragastric pH values were assessed under basal conditions and after GS. Results In both groups, GS increased emptied volumes compared to conditions without stimulation (p Conclusions Although both pulse frequency and amplitude should be considered during GS, frequency appears to be the most critical point. The possibility of increasing gastric emptying by electrical stimulation in diabetic rats suggests potential clinical applications for this method.

  15. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Raw Rubber Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber  show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.

  16. Management of empty pesticide containers – An experience from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2014-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huici, Omar; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Jørs, Erik

    % of the empty containers have pesticide residue inside them. CONCLUSIONS The study shows a complex situation mainly due to lack of knowledge and clear guidelines. We recommend to document the social, economic and productive characteristics of the region before taking any municipal program action. The key...

  17. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  18. Left ventricular microfistulization: A rare cause of ischemia in a patient with normal coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Dindar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with chest pain occurring on physicalexercise was admitted to cardiology department.Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed inferior andanteroapical segment hypoperfusion. Selective coronaryangiography revealed multiple coronary-cameral fistulasoriginating from the left anterior descending artery andthe right coronary artery and emptying into the left ventriclewithout any significant coronary artery stenosis. Coronaryartery fistulas are defined as abnormal communicationsbetween a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber ormajor vessel. Coronary-cameral fistulas terminating in theleft ventricle are uncommon. Small fistulas usually do notcause any hemodynamic compromise. However, the largerand multiple fistulas may cause myocardial ischemiaascribed to a coronary steal phenomenon. The best wayto manage cameral fistulae is uncertain largely due to therarity of the condition. In the present case, anti-ischemicmedications with metoprolol 50 mg/day provided an uneventfulfollow-up of six months without any intervention.

  19. Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe phasic volume changes of the left atrium (LA) in healthy young and elderly subjects at rest and during pharmacological stress (PS). LA maximum size is related to cardiovascular mortality. LA has passive, active, and conduit function for left ventricular (LV......) filling. We hypothesized that changes in LV compliance from normal aging are reflected in LA volume changes and that PS will augment these differences. We enrolled twenty young (20-30 yr) and twenty elderly (60-70 yr) healthy subjects and measured their LV and LA volumes by cardiac magnetic resonance...... imaging at rest and during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress. We identified LA minimum, maximum, and middiastolic volumes and the volume before atrial contraction. LA emptying volumes were calculated as LA passive and active emptying volumes and LA conduit volume. We also calculated LV peak filling...

  20. Application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wuhe; Zheng Pude; Zeng Jinzhang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of dual nuclide standardized meal in gastric emptying imaging and its clinical value. Methods: A standardized meal labelled with dual nuclide [ 131 I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the solid phase], 99m Tc-DTPA as the liquid phase) was employed to measure gastric emptying (GE) by dynamic imaging in 35 patients with chronic gastritis and 10 healthy controls. A second solid phase, 99m Tc-Sc (Sulphur colloid), was used as an agent control. Both solid meals underwent delabelling test, being incubated in human gastric juice (pH 2.0) for more than 2 hours. Only two of the participants had another test using dual nuclide meal with 99m Tc-Sc instead of 131 I-BSA. Results: The delabelling rates of 131 I and 99m Tc from the solid meal in the in vitro test were 3.00% and 5.16%, respectively. The half-solid-emptying time (HSET) and half-liquid-emptying-time (HLET) for the control group were 58.2 +- 17.7 min and 23.5 +- 9.4 min; the HSET and HLET for the patient group were 92.5 +- 29.6 min and 37.2 +- 16.6 min. The differences between the results of two groups, for both solid and liquid phase, were significant (t = 3.474, 2.485; P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study shows that putting both solid and liquid phase in one meal is a simpler, more convenient and economical way to do gastric emptying dynamic imaging, and is of good repeatability

  1. Endoscopic Gastric Food Retention in Relation to Scintigraphic Gastric Emptying Delays and Clinical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleski, Radoslav; Baker, Jason R; Hasler, William L

    2016-09-01

    Gastric food residue frequently is observed on endoscopy despite fasting. To delineate factors promoting endoscopic food retention in the stomach. Two series of analyses were performed. Magnitudes of retained food in 834 patients from an endoscopy database were related to obstructive versus non-obstructive etiologies and gastric emptying findings. Emptying delays in 619 patients from a scintigraphy database were associated with endoscopic food retention, gastroparesis etiologies, and medications that modify gastric transit. On endoscopy, 310 (37 %) had large, 338 (41 %) showed medium, and 103 (12 %) exhibited small amounts of retained food in the stomach. Of 433 patients with definable etiologies of food retention, 106 (24 %) had obstructive causes. One hundred three of 327 (31 %) with non-obstructive conditions underwent scintigraphy showing mean 52 ± 29 % 4-h retention. From the scintigraphy database, 164/619 patients (26 %) with delayed emptying exhibited food retention on endoscopy. Four-hour scintigraphic retention was greater with versus without retained food (41 ± 25 vs. 32 ± 22 %, P food occurred more frequently with postsurgical (28/69, 41 %) versus diabetic (33/139, 24 %) and idiopathic (65/294, 22 %) gastroparesis (P = 0.006). Opiate use was more prevalent with increasing food retention (P = 0.02), while other medications that delay or accelerate emptying did not relate to retained food. Gastric food retention has obstructive and non-obstructive causes, and is found in one-quarter of gastroparesis, especially postsurgical cases. Gastric emptying delays correlate with amounts of retained food on endoscopy. Retention is influenced by opiates, but not other medications. These analyses delineate pathogenic factors promoting gastric food retention.

  2. Gastric Emptying of Elemental Liquid Diets Versus Semisolid Diets in Bedridden Gastrostomy-fed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Akira; Sakai, Ryosei; Tamaki, Michio; Kajiyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Naoki; Morikawa, Akio

    2018-03-21

    Aspiration is a common problem in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. We compared gastric emptying of an elemental liquid diet and a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden gastrostomy-fed patients. Study 1: from January 2013 to December 2016, consecutive bedridden patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) semisolid feeding hospitalized due to aspiration pneumonia were switched to elemental liquid diet feedings. The frequency of defecation, tube feed contents aspirated from the trachea, and aspiration pneumonia during hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. Study 2 was a randomized, crossover trial comparing C sodium acetate gastric emptying of a commercial elemental liquid or a commercial semisolid diet in bedridden PEG patients and controls. Study 1: 18 patients were enrolled. Elemental liquid diet was aspirated from the trachea in 1 (5.6%) (once in 24 observations); neither aspiration pneumonia nor diarrhea developed during elemental liquid diet feeding over 2 weeks observation. Study 2: 8 PEG patients and 8 healthy subjects were separately randomized to assess gastric emptying of the commercial elemental and semisolid diets. The elemental liquid diet was associated with a significant decrease of the 10%, 30%, or 50% emptying (excretion) time (Pdiet (Pdiets. Elemental liquid diets emptied more rapidly from the stomach than semisolid diets in bedridden PEG patients. They may prevent or reduce aspiration pneumonia compared with semisolid diets.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  3. Evaluation of the relationship between left atrial volume and myocardial ischemia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathophysiology of ischemia involves the cellular effect of myocardial ischemia, reactive oxygen species, and reactive inflammatory enzymes. Left atrial (LA ischemia has been shown to have several mechanisms through which it can lead to abnormalities in left ventricular filling in early diastole and thus reduces LA passive functional reserve. In this review, we evaluated the physiological mechanisms of LA during myocardial ischemia, as previously demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.Methods: Several databases were searched in order to find related articles. The outcome of interest included LA function measurements (measurement of LA volume during ischemia. By applying a standardized protocol, reviewers independently extracted and assessed the studies.Results: The literature review indicated 50 publications, among which 15 studies were eligible for analysis. Assessment of LA dimension and function is essential for clinical evaluation and prognostic purposes. Conclusion: The present article revealed that LA passive emptying volume and LA emptying volume significantly increased in myocardial ischemia. Further researches could provide a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind LA enlargement and help to predict clinical outcomes in many cardiovascular disorders.

  4. Evaluation of left atrial functions in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirpençe, Savaş; Güven, Barış; Meşe, Timur; Serdaroğlu, Erkin; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Firuzan, Esin; Tavlı, Vedide

    2014-05-01

    One-quarter of deaths in children with chronic renal failure is due to cardiovascular complications. Conventional echocardiographic methods are insufficient for evaluating systolic functions in children with chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate cardiac functions in children with chronic renal failure by evaluating left atrial volume and functions. The present cross-sectional observational study included 44 children undergoing dialysis, 16 children with chronic renal failure but not yet on dialysis, and 20 healthy control subjects. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed for all children. Variables regarding to left ventricle and atrium (left atrial systolic force, left atrial systolic force index, left atrial volume, left ventricular mass index, and relative wall thickness) were measured using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Left atrial systolic force index was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass (p=0.01, r=0.266 and p=0.02, r=0.347, respectively). However, it was positively correlated with both early and late diastolic mitral inflow velocity (r=0.518, p=0.001 and r=0.828, p=0.001, respectively). There were no significant difference among the groups in terms of left atrial systolic force index and left atrial volume. However, left atrial systolic force index was higher in children with chronic renal failure but not yet on dialysis. Left atrial systolic force was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass. These findings suggested that evaluating left atrial systolic force and left atrial volume were useful to determine diastolic dysfunction and the necessity of dialysis in patient with chronic renal failure.

  5. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  6. Relationship between severity of clinical symptoms and delay in gastric emptying in chronic gastritis; studied with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Zuccaro, A.M.; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The gastric emptying time is studied with sup(99m)TC-DTPA-labeled mixed meal in 18 patients with chronic gastritis, all confirmed by endoscopic examination and biopsy. Emptying was slow in all such patients, but the intensity of symptomatology showed no correlation with gastric emptying half time. (orig.)

  7. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-03-06

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining non-carcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: Protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW × 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); Fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); Water (kg) = 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  8. [Effects of nonnutritive sucking on gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui-xia; Yue, Xiao-hong; Lu, Hui; Xue, Xin-dong

    2004-10-01

    Although nonnutritive sucking (NNS) during tube feeding has some benefits on the physiology and development of premature infants, the effect on gastrointestinal function remains controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of NNS on the gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in premature infants. Thirty eight healthy appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants (birth weight ranged from 1050 g to 1790 g, gestational age ranged from 28 weeks to 35 weeks) accepting intermittent nasogastric feeding (INGF) were randomized into NNS group and N-NNS group according to INGF with and without NNS and fed with the same milk formula. Group NNS (n = 18) received oral stimulation by means of a pacifier immediately before feeding, during feeding and then after feeding for 5 min. Group N-NNS (n = 20) served as control and received INGF alone. The following data were collected and recorded, the fluid intake (including both intravenous and oral), milk intake, caloric intake, time of caloric intake reaching 418.4 kJ/(kg x d) by enteral feeding and relevant condition to feeding. Gastric emptying was measured when oral intake reaching above 8 ml/kg while concurrently measuring 24 hour esophageal pH. Real time ultrasonic images of the gastric antrum were obtained and the antral cross sectional area (ACSA) was measured and the half emptying time (50% DeltaACSA) was calculated. Using 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring for evaluation of GER, the five parameters of esophageal pH were recorded: number of reflux episodes during 24 hours, reflux index, number of episodes lasting > 5 min, the duration of longest episode and the total time of pH 0.05). Gastric emptying was measured on day 13.26, milk intake had no difference between the two groups and there was no difference in prefeed ACSA. The half gastric emptying time in NNS group was significantly shorter than that in N-NNS group [(58.33 +/- 22.94) min vs. (73.75 +/- 17.76) min, P 0.05). However, the

  9. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility; Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik der Magenmotilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [German] Proximaler und distaler Magen haben funktionell unterschiedliche Aufgaben. Waehrend der proximale Magen die Nahrung voruebergehend speichert und ueber die Generierung eines gastroduodenalen Druckgefaelles eine fraktionierte Entleerung in den Duenndarm bewirkt, dient die Peristaltik des distalen Magens der Durchmischung und Zerkleinerung des Speisebreis. Eine komplexe hormonelle, humorale und nervale Regulation dieser ineinandergreifenden Funktionen

  10. Ozone levels in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia--application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Masiur; Khondaker, A N; Khan, Rouf Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    In arid regions, primary pollutants may contribute to the increase of ozone levels and cause negative effects on biotic health. This study investigates the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for ozone prediction. The initial fuzzy inference system is developed by using fuzzy C-means (FCM) and subtractive clustering (SC) algorithms, which determines the important rules, increases generalization capability of the fuzzy inference system, reduces computational needs, and ensures speedy model development. The study area is located in the Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia, which is considered as a source of huge potential for oil and gas field development. The developed clustering algorithm-based ANFIS model used meteorological data and derived meteorological data, along with NO and NO₂ concentrations and their transformations, as inputs. The root mean square error and Willmott's index of agreement of the FCM- and SC-based ANFIS models are 3.5 ppbv and 0.99, and 8.9 ppbv and 0.95, respectively. Based on the analysis of the performance measures and regression error characteristic curves, it is concluded that the FCM-based ANFIS model outperforms the SC-based ANFIS model.

  11. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, psieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Left ventricular diastolic performance of left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezono, Tohru; Ozaki, Masaharu; Yamagishi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuro; Furutani, Yuji; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1987-02-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic performance in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy, ECG gated cardiac blood pool scan was performed in 11 patients with hypertrophic nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 19 patients with hypertension (HT), and left ventricular volume curve (LVVC) was analyzed and compared with those of 13 normal subjects (N). Ejection fraction (EF) and early filling volume ratio (the ratio of volume increment of 100 msec later than the zero point in the first derivative of LVVC to the end diastolic volume) (%EFV) were computed from LVVC. Peak ejection rate (PER) and peak filling rate (PFR) were obtained from the first derivative of LVVC. Peak ejection acceleration (PEA) and peak filling acceleration (PFA) were calculated from the second derivative of LVVC. EF, PER and PEA did not show any difference between these 3 groups. PFR was lower in HT (2.6 +- 0.5) compared with those in HCM (3.0 +- 0.5) (p < 0.05) and in N (3.4 +- 0.5) (p < 0.001), but the %EFV in HCM (4.9 +- 1.8) was lower than those in HT (6.9 +- 1.9) (p < 0.01) and in N (11.4 +- 1.4) (p < 0.001). Moreover, PFA in HCM (27.9 +- 7.2) was increased than those in HT (20.2 +- 5.4) (p < 0.01) with no differences between HCM and N (29.4 +- 8.1). Significant correlation was observed between PFR and PFA (Y = 0.06X + 1.4. r = 0.856. p < 0.001). These result indicate that, in HCM, reduced increase in early left ventricular volume is compensated by a greater filling acceleration. In contrast, there is no compensation by filling acceleration in HT.

  13. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p

  14. An Alternate, Egg-Free Radiolabeled Meal Formulation for Gastric-Emptying Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigue, Philippe; Bodin-Hullin, Aurore; Gonzalez, Sandra; Sala, Quentin; Guillet, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Tc-radiolabeled scrambled eggs (SEs) are most often used as the ingested solid phase for gastric-emptying scintigraphy, leading egg-reluctant patients to avoid the examination. We formulated and validated 2 egg-free alternate meals, in the absence of any commercialized formulation: chocolate mug cake (MC) and scrambled tofu (ST). Six healthy volunteers underwent gastric-emptying scintigraphy after ingesting Tc-radiolabeled MC, ST, or SE. Gastric retention indexes did not change significantly between formulations (% of overtime variation to SE: MC 7.75% ± 7.1%, ST 7.17% ± 5.8%; P = 0.6618, not statistically significant), suggesting MC and ST as interesting egg-free alternatives.

  15. Investigation of the abnormal nasal aerodynamics and trigeminal functions among empty nose syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyu; Farag, Alexander A; Maza, Guillermo; McGhee, Sam; Ciccone, Michael A; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Otto, Bradley A; Zhao, Kai

    2017-11-22

    Abnormal nasal aerodynamics or trigeminal functions have been frequently implicated in the symptomology of empty nose syndrome (ENS), yet with limited evidence. Individual computed tomography (CT)-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to 27 ENS patients to simulate their nasal aerodynamics and compared with 42 healthy controls. Patients' symptoms were confirmed with Empty Nose Syndrome 6-item Questionnaire (ENS6Q), 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores. Nasal trigeminal sensitivity was measured with menthol lateralization detection thresholds (LDTs). ENS patients had significantly lower (∼25.7%) nasal resistance and higher (∼2.8 times) cross-sectional areas compared to healthy controls (both p aerodynamics in a large cohort of ENS patients. The results indicated that a combination of loss of neural sensitivity and poorer inferior air-mucosal stimulation may potentially lead to ENS symptomology. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  17. Value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dysfunction in Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Amanda Arantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dilation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas' disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 166 consecutive patients with Chagas' disease and no other associated diseases. The patients underwent cardiac assessment with chest radiography and Doppler echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiography were calculated to detect left ventricular dysfunction and the accuracy of the cardiothoracic ratio in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction with the area below the ROC curve. The cardiothoracic ratio was correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction and the left ventricular diastolic diameter. RESULTS: The abnormal chest radiogram had a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 80.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 51.2% and 79.8%, respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction. The cardiothoracic ratio showed a weak correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.23 and left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.30. The area calculated under the ROC curve was 0.734. CONCLUSION: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with Chagas' disease should be reevaluated.

  18. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Mahjoub, Reza; Bin Mohamad Yatim, Jamaludin; Mohd Sam, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF) is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fi...

  19. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianingsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw materials, low cost operations and not use sulfur compounds. Dry raw materials are mixed with NaOH and digesting using autoclave (100°C, 1 atm for 60 minutes. NaOH concentration optimum used in the pulping process a combination rice husk and empty fruit bunches (1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 and then cooled for 30 minutes. Pulp is bleached with NaClO 5.25% (v / v, then formed and dried as paper. The lowest pulp yield obtained in a ratio of 2: 1 is 27.6%. Based on the observation of SEM known the fiber of rice husk and empty fruit bunches is 5.88 to 9.8 μm and 8.82 to 14.71 μm, while based on XRD observations, chemical treatment can improve the characteristic of peak intensity on paper combination. The highest advances of peak intensity in the 1:3 ratio is 71.28% (cellulose I dan 83.33% (cellulose II.

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and Application of Nanocellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber as Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Lani; N. Ngadi; A. Johari; M. Jusoh

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites, consisting of a polymeric matrix and nanosized elements as reinforcement, have attracted significant scientific attention because of their high mechanical performance. A large variety of nanocomposites have been prepared using bio-based materials as a matrix and nanoreinforcement, so that it can reduce the dependence on nondegradable products and move to a sustainable materials basis. The objective of this study was to isolate nanocellulose from empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber a...

  1. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianinsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw materials, low cost operations and not use sulfur compounds. Dry raw materials are mixed with NaOH and digesting using autoclave (100°C, 1 atm for 60 minutes. NaOH concentration optimum used in the pulping process a combination rice husk and empty fruit bunches (1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 and then cooled for 30 minutes. Pulp is bleached with NaClO 5.25% (v / v, then formed and dried as paper. The lowest pulp yield obtained in a ratio of 2: 1 is 27.6%. Based on the observation of SEM known the fiber of rice husk and empty fruit bunches is 5.88 to 9.8 μm and 8.82 to 14.71 μm, while based on XRD observations, chemical treatment can improve the characteristic of peak intensity on paper combination. The highest advances of peak intensity in the 1:3 ratio is 71.28% (cellulose I dan 83.33% (cellulose II.

  2. The Logistic of Empty Containers′ Return in the Liner-Shipping Network

    OpenAIRE

    Belayachi Naima; Gelareh Shahin; Yachba Khadidja; Bouamrane Karim

    2017-01-01

    The Maritime Transport is a favoured tool regarding the universal exchanges because it has gone through several evolutions. Indeed, the containerization is considered as one of the most remarkable improvements in the shipping. The containers are rented by shipping companies. However, these companies meet an empty container availability problem at some ports of Maritime Transport Network (MTN) to satisfy the demands of clients. The objective of this work is to solve the problem of the imbalanc...

  3. Gastric emptying effects of dietary fiber during 8 hours at two simulated cabin altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinninghofen, Heidemarie; Musial, Frauke; Kowalski, Axel; Enck, Paul

    2006-02-01

    In a questionnaire survey, long-distance flying staff of a charter airline reported significantly more dyspeptic symptoms than did short-haul crewmember and ground personnel (belching: 57% vs. 37%, bloating: 51% vs. 36%). To elucidate the reason for increased frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during long-distance flights, we investigated the effects of altitude and diet on gastric emptying, cardiovascular function, and bodily complaints. In a 2 x 2 repeated measurement design we simulated an 8-h flight in a hypobaric chamber in 16 healthy men subjected to 2 meal conditions (high fiber vs. low fiber) on separate days, and assigned to either a flight altitude of 2500 m (8200 ft) or 1000 m (3280 ft). The subjects were blinded toward altitude. Heart rate and gastrointestinal symptoms were taken every hour, and gastric emptying was assessed by 13C-octanoic acid breath-test. In a separate experiment, we examined the effect of the two test meals (2 g vs. 20 g of fiber) in 30 healthy men under conventional laboratory conditions and found no significant differences. At an altitude of 2500 m, heart rate was significantly increased independent of the dietary condition. Gastric emptying (T1/2) was significantly delayed at 2500 m (8200 ft) when a high-fiber meal was given (146.3 +/- 58.4 min low fiber vs. 193.9 +/- 54.3 min high fiber). The symptom score for gastric distension (mean: 1.33 +/- 0.3 vs. mean: 1.07 +/- 0.15) and bloating (mean: 1.82 +/- 0.47 vs. mean: 1.34 +/- 0.35) were also significantly increased at 2500 m for the high-fiber meal compared with the low-fiber meal. Flight altitude is a physiological load. In combination with a high-fiber diet, this induces significant delays in gastric emptying that may explain symptoms of cabin and cockpit crew and passengers on long-distance flights.

  4. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  5. Empty sella syndrome in a male child with failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Debasmita; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Choudhury, Jasashree; Dash, Dillip Kumar; Mohapatra, Anuspandana

    2015-01-01

    Empty sella syndrome (ESS) is commonly seen in adult and is considered as an infrequent finding in childhood. It may be diagnosed incidentally on imaging in asymptomatic children. However, most of the children with ESS present with features of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. We report a case of ESS in a child with features of failure to thrive as well as hypopituitarism and review the literature briefly on the subject.

  6. Identity Disturbance, Feelings of Emptiness, and the Boundaries of the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Maja; Parnas, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Historical and current research on borderline personality disorder reveal certain affinities with schizophrenia spectrum psychopathology. This is also the case for the borderline criteria of "identity disturbance" and "feelings of emptiness," which reflect symptomatology frequently found...... in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Unfortunately, the diagnostic manuals offer limited insight into the nature of these criteria, including possible deviations and similarities with schizophrenia spectrum symptomatology. In this article, we attempt to clarify the concepts of identity...... the psychopathological boundaries of these disorders....

  7. Pseudotumor Cerebri Resulting in Empty Sella Syndrome and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    of his nausea, a dramatic increase in energy level, and a much anticipated return to public high school from his home education program. Finally...non·specific neurologic symptoms or more rarely with pituitary dysfunction. This case highlights a patient with PTC and secondary empty sella syndrome...narcotic use. This resulted in withdrawal from school and bedridden status for four years. An abnormal genital exam with small phallic and testicular

  8. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    This thesis is the first comprehensive research work conducted on the Beirut based TV station, an important representative of the post-2011 generation of Arab satellite news media. The launch of al-Mayadeen in June 2012 was closely linked to the political developments across the Arab world...... members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...

  9. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is related to intestinal motility at the time of meal ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of meal-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy individuals are subject to wide variation. We hypothesized that some of the observed variation might relate to ingestion of the meal during different phases of the migrating motor complex (MMC). Recording of gastrointestinal...... pressure was combined with scintigraphic recording of bile kinetics during infusion of 99mTc-HIDA. The material consisted of 12 healthy men. Group 1 (n = 6) had a fat-rich meal in phase I, and group 2 (n = 6) had the meal in a phase II. With the end of the meal ingestion as zero, the following results...... emerged. The subjects in group 1 had a median (range) lag period before beginning of gallbladder emptying of 13.5 (9.0-22.5) min. In group 2 gallbladder emptying began during the meal ingestion in four subjects, and the median lag period was 0 min (minimum, -9.0; maximum, 13.5 (p = 0.02)). The median...

  10. Exact Solutions of the Field Equations for Empty Space in the Nash Gravitational Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Aadne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available John Nash has proposed a new theory of gravity. We define a Nash-tensor equal to the curvature tensor appearing in the Nash field equations for empty space, and calculate its components for two cases: 1. A static, spherically symmetric space; and 2. The expanding, homogeneous and isotropic space of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW universe models. We find the general, exact solution of Nash’s field equations for empty space in the static case. The line element turns out to represent the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. Also we find the simplest non-trivial solution of the field equations in the cosmological case, which gives the scale factor corresponding to the de Sitter spacetime. Hence empty space in the Nash theory corresponds to a space with Lorentz Invariant Vacuum Energy (LIVE in the Einstein theory. This suggests that dark energy may be superfluous according to the Nash theory. We also consider a radiation filled universe model in an effort to find out how energy and matter may be incorporated into the Nash theory. A tentative interpretation of the Nash theory as a unified theory of gravity and electromagnetism leads to a very simple form of the field equations in the presence of matter. It should be noted, however, that the Nash theory is still unfinished. A satisfying way of including energy momentum into the theory has yet to be found.

  11. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  12. No influence of carbonation on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety of sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn Rou Lin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbonation of sweetened beverages on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety. After an overnight fast, 15 healthy individuals (6 women, 9 men) consumed a 500 mL beverage containing 50 g glucose that was noncarbonated (NC), low carbonated (LC), or high carbonated (HC) at a standardized rate of consumption (100 mL/min). Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage consumption. Antral cross-sectional area was measured using ultrasound at baseline, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min; for the estimation of gastric volume and gastric emptying rate. Satiety was assessed using electronic visual analog scales at the same time points as the blood glucose measurement. There were no significant differences in glycemic response among the test beverages. Higher carbonation levels significantly increased antral cross-sectional area during the first 20 min after beverage consumption (P carbonation on satiety, but the area under the curve for thirst was significantly lower for HC compared with NC (P = 0.009). The carbonation of a simple glucose solution did not increase glycemic response nor alter gastric emptying and subjective feelings of satiety (with the exception of thirst). The present study suggests that carbonation does not alter glycemic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia and diarrhea caused by idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Kottekkattu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The majority of cases of post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia are considered idiopathic. Abnormalities of B-cell function and glucose regulation by insulin and glucagon have been postulated as causes but associated gastrointestinal dysfunction has not been reported. We report the first case of accelerated gastric emptying associated with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia, abdominal bloating and diarrhea. We consider that gastric dysmotility is an important cause of this condition as treatment of the underlying abnormal gastric emptying allows effective control of symptoms. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-prandial fatigue, sweating, nausea, faintness and intermittent confusion, which had led to pre-syncope and syncope on occasions. She also experienced marked abdominal bloating and diarrhea over the same period. These episodes responded to oral administration of sweet drinks. Her symptoms were ameliorated by modification of her diet. Conclusion This is an original case report of the association of idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying with post-prandial reactive hypoglycemia and diarrhea. Family physicians, endocrinologists and gastroenterologists often consult patients with a constellation of post-prandial symptoms, which are considered to be idiopathic in most cases. This case indicates that gastric dysmotility might be the primary cause of these symptoms in some patients and, if found, offers a therapeutic target which in our case was successful.

  14. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  15. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  16. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Homosexuality and the American left: the impact of Stonewall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstad, D

    1995-01-01

    Following the Stonewall Riots in New York City in June 1969, the left had to reassess negative appraisals of homosexuality that prevailed among virtually all leftist currents. Pressure for change came from within and from without. By the mid-1970s, three approaches had emerged: (1) radical support for sexual liberation and acceptance of same-sex love as being on a par with heterosexuality; (2) liberal support for the civil rights of homosexuals but without challenging heterosupremacy; and (3) continued adherence to the (Stalinist) view that homosexuality is a form of "bourgeois decadence" alien to the working class. This essay assesses the ways in which the left adapted to the new challenges that confronted it, with particular focus on attitudes toward the nature of homosexuality and its relation to the broader goals of the left.

  18. Unifying Visual Space Across the Left and Right Hemifields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhimin; Kosovicheva, Anna; Wolfe, Benjamin; Cavanagh, Patrick; Gorea, Andrei; Whitney, David

    2018-01-01

    Visual space is perceived as continuous and stable even though visual inputs from the left and right visual fields are initially processed separately within the two cortical hemispheres. In the research reported here, we examined whether the visual system utilizes a dynamic recalibration mechanism to integrate these representations and to maintain alignment across the visual fields. Subjects adapted to randomly oriented moving lines that straddled the vertical meridian; these lines were vertically offset between the left and right hemifields. Subsequent vernier alignment judgments revealed a negative aftereffect: An offset in the same direction as the adaptation was required to correct the perceived misalignment. This aftereffect was specific to adaptation to vertical, but not horizontal, misalignments and also occurred following adaptation to movie clips and patterns without coherent motion. Our results demonstrate that the visual system unifies the left and right halves of visual space by continuously recalibrating the alignment of elements across the visual fields.

  19. Current state and environmental impact assessment for utilizing oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel, fiber and fertilizer – A case study of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Shimada, Sohei

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the trend of utilizing oil palm residue, i.e. the empty fruit bunches (EFB) left after extraction of the palm oil, using a case study of Malaysia, which is one of the world's major palm oil producers, and discusses the environmental performance of recycling technologies being developed in Malaysia for fuel, fiber, and fertilizer. Seven technologies are analyzed: ethanol production, methane recovery, briquette production, biofuel for combined heat and power (CHP) plants, composting, medium density fiberboard (MDF) production, and pulp and paper production. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to discuss the environmental impacts of these technologies for adding value to this biomass. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to determine the land use effects for the various technologies utilizing EFB and to estimate the energy generation potential of raw EFB in CHP plants and methane production. Among the technologies for energy production, CHP plants have the best performance if the electricity generated is connected to the national grid, with superior benefits in the majority of impact categories compared to briquette, methane, and ethanol production. Overall, we find that methane recovery and composting are more environmentally friendly than other technologies, as measured by reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Pulp and paper, and MDF production are favorable technologies for land use impacts; however, they have intense primary energy requirements, chemical use in the processes, and emissions from their waste treatment systems. Our results provide information for decision makers when planning for sustainable use of oil palm biomass. -- Highlights: ► The recent technologies that utilize oil palm empty fruit bunches in Malaysia are evaluated using LCA. ► EFB used as fuel has significant benefits to environment compared to use as fertilizer. ► EFB used for fiber production contribute benefits to land use. ► This study provides

  20. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  1. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  2. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...

  3. Short-term dietary supplementation with fructose accelerates gastric emptying of a fructose but not a glucose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2014-01-01

    Short-term dietary glucose supplementation has been shown to accelerate the gastric emptying rate of both glucose and fructose solutions. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying rate responses to monosaccharide ingestion following short-term dietary fructose supplementation. The gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution containing 36 g of fructose and an equicaloric glucose solution containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate were measured in 10 healthy non-smoking men with and without prior fructose supplementation (water control) using a randomized crossover design. Gastric emptying rate was assessed for a period of 1 h using the [(13)C]breath test with sample collections at baseline and 10-min intervals following drink ingestion. Additionally, appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, and prospective food consumption were recorded at baseline and every 10 min using visual analog scales. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in significantly accelerated half-emptying time of a fructose solution (mean = 48, SD = 6 versus 58, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.037), whereas the emptying of a glucose solution remained unchanged (mean = 85, SD = 31 versus 78, SD = 27 min control; P = 0.273). Time of maximal emptying rate of fructose was also significantly accelerated following increased dietary fructose intake (mean = 33, SD = 6 versus 38, SD = 9 min control; P = 0.042), while it remained unchanged for glucose (mean = 45, SD = 14 versus 44, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.757). No effects of supplementation were observed for appetite measures. Three d of supplementation with 120 g/d of fructose resulted in an acceleration of gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Analysis of the joint and a posteriori probability between primary empty sella, its comorbidities and audiovestibular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Hernández, Alhelí; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Luna-Reyes, Francisco Alfredo; Márquez-Palacios, Salvador; Arch-Tirado, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Primary empty sella is a herniation of the sellar diaphragm into the pituitary space. It is an incidental finding and patients may manifest neurological, ophthalmological and/or endocrine disorders. Episodes of vertigo, dizziness, and hearing loss, have been reported. To determine the conditional probability, as well as the statistical dependency, through the Bayesian analysis in patients with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. Individuals who attended the National Rehabilitation Institute from January 2010 to December 2011, diagnosed with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. An analysis was performed on a sample of 18 patients with a diagnosis of primary empty sella confirmed with magnetic resonance studies and who had signs of vertigo, hearing loss and dizziness. Of the 18 patients studied, 3 (16.66%) had primary empty sella as the only clinical evidence. In 9 patients (50%) empty sella was associated with vertigo, and 16 patients (88.88%) were diagnosed with hearing loss, with sensorineural hearing loss being the most frequent (77.77%). The intersection between the proportions of primary empty sella with the presence and type of hearing loss was calculated. Thus for sensorineural hearing loss, the calculated ratio was P(AB)=0.6912, and for conductive and mixed hearing loss the value of P(AB)=0.0493 in both cases. Bayesian analysis and conditional probability enables the dependence between two or more variables to be calculated. In this study both mathematical models were used to analyse comorbidities and audiovestibular disorders in patients diagnosed with primary empty sella. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Effects of the neurokinin-1 antagonist maropitant on canine gastric emptying assessed by radioscintigraphy and breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Silke; Fink, Tamara; Failing, Klaus; Borsch, Christian; Kunz, Clemens; Clemence, Richard; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Neiger, Reto

    2016-06-16

    Delayed gastric emptying is a well-recognised phenomenon in a number of canine disease conditions. Only a limited number of drugs have been reported to have some gastrokinetic effect in the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate prokinetic effects of maropitant. In a cross-over study 24 healthy adult Beagle dogs were randomised to receive either maropitant (2 mg/kg q24 h PO), cisapride (1 mg/kg q12 h PO) or placebo (vitamin-B12, 10 µg/dog q24 h PO) for 7 days with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Gastric emptying was measured simultaneously via 99mTechnetium radioscintigraphy and 13C-sodium acetate breath testing for 6 hours post-feeding. The decrease in radioactive counts in the stomach and the increase in 13CO2 concentration in exhaled breath (measured via gas chromatography) were plotted against time. The area under the curve was determined for each test and the time to 25%, 50% and 75% gastric emptying was calculated for each method. Friedman test was used to compare gastric emptying times. With both methods, no difference for gastric emptying times was observed for any treatment. Neither maropitant nor cisapride were shown to have an effect on gastric emptying in healthy beagles using radioscintigraphy or breath test when compared to placebo. Consequently, neither drug can be recommended as a gastric prokinetic in dogs.

  7. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Fatimata; Erickson, Daniel P; Hayes, Anna M R; Opekun, Antone R; Nichols, Buford L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-01-26

    From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 ( 13 C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13 C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta ( p Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  8. TYPES OF SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR POSTINFARCTION LEFT VENTRICULAR ANEURYSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of postinfarction left ventricular aneurysms in ischemic heart disease patients allows for a significant improvement of outcomes and clinical endpoints, an increase in quality of life and survival. The article deals with historical periods in surgical treatment of left ventricular aneurysms and chronologically describes the history of methods for reconstruction of the left ventricle.Despite the fact that within the last 50 years, mainly due to improvements in surgical techniques, in-hospital mortality decreased two-fold, it still remains high. The choice of technique for any kind of ventricular reparation depends on localization of the lesion that defines which sites of left ventricular asynergia should be repaired and how its form should be restored. At present, it is not possible to reliably assess benefits of any type of reparative surgery over another. Risk factors of inhospital mortality are: age, incomplete myocardial revascularization, high grade heart failure, female gender, immediate surgery, ejection fraction below 30%. To improve clinical outcomes one should strive to approximate to the physiological form of the left ventricle, to minimize negative influence of surgery on myocardial contractility.

  9. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  10. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  11. Prognostic value of left atrial size and function in adults with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggen, Vivan J M; Schut, Anne-Rose W; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Witsenburg, Maarten; Boersma, Eric; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2017-06-01

    Left atrial (LA) size predicts cardiovascular outcome in chronic heart failure. Its prognostic value in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is unknown. This study therefore investigated the association of LA size and function with cardiovascular events in adults with ToF. Clinically stable adults with ToF who visited the outpatient clinic between 2011 and 2013 underwent echocardiography and were prospectively followed for the occurrence of death, heart failure, hospitalizations, arrhythmia, thromboembolic events, and re-interventions. LA maximal, minimal and pre-A wave volume, area and length were measured on the apical four-chamber view. Total, passive and active emptying fractions were calculated. In total, 134 patients were included (median age 35 [IQR 29-45] years, 65% male, 91% NYHA I). Median follow-up was 40 [IQR 32-47] months. Patients with a dilated LA (≥34mL/m 2 , 43%) were at higher risk of cardiovascular events (n=33, adjusted HR 2.48 [1.09-5.62], P=0.030). Analysis of LA volumes as continuous variables yielded similar conclusions. In addition, LA length (adjusted HR 2.49 [1.51-4.09], P<0.001), total emptying fraction (adjusted HR 0.96 [0.93-0.99], P=0.008), and active emptying fraction (adjusted HR 0.92 [0.87-0.96], P=0.001) were significantly associated with cardiovascular events. Standardized HRs indicated that LA length was the strongest prognostic marker. In addition, none of the patients with a normally sized LA died or developed heart failure. LA size and function can provide relevant prognostic information in clinically stable adults with repaired ToF. Especially LA length may be a valuable additional tool in the risk stratification of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  13. The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Elaine Fowler

    The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

  14. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation can improve gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eiji; Arai, Makoto; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Nagano, Osamu; Shiina, Akihiro; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Imazeki, Fumio; Saeki, Naokatsu; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2012-05-01

    It is established that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor function in advanced Parkinson's disease, but its effects on autonomic function remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying. A total of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation were enrolled. Gastric emptying was expressed as the peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) in the (13)C-acetate breath test and was assessed in patients with and without administration of 100-150 mg levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery, and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation at 3 months post-surgery. The pattern of (13)CO(2) excretion curve was analysed. To evaluate potential factors related to the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying, we also examined the association between gastric emptying, clinical characteristics, the equivalent dose of levodopa and serum ghrelin levels. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values for gastric emptying in patients without and with levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor treatment were 45.6 ± 22.7 min and 42.5 ± 13.6 min, respectively (P = not significant), thus demonstrating levodopa resistance. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without and with subthalamic deep brain stimulation after surgery were 44.0 ± 17.5 min and 30.0 ± 12.5 min (P deep brain stimulation was effective. Simultaneously, the pattern of the (13)CO(2) excretion curve was also significantly improved relative to surgery with no stimulation (P = 0.002), although the difference with and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor was not significant. The difference in peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor and subthalamic deep

  15. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  16. The effect of gluten on intestinal fermentation, gastric and gallbladder emptying in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Michele; Carnevale Maffè, Gabriella; Bergonzi, Manuela; Mengoli, Caterina; Formagnana, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between gluten ingestion and gastrointestinal tract function is a matter of debate. We analysed the effect of gluten on gastric and gallbladder emptying and intestinal fermentation in healthy volunteers. Ultrasound measurement of gastric and gallbladder emptying after both gluten-containing and gluten-free meals was performed in 18 volunteers (8 women, age 25.0±2.5 years; BMI 22±1.9). Breath hydrogen excretion after a gluten-containing meal, a gluten-free meal and a gluten-free meal with added gluten powder was measured in 16 volunteers (10 women, age 25.2±2.7 years; BMI 22±1.8). The severity of symptoms was monitored. Gluten presence in the meals was not recognised. Gastric emptying time was 81.6±13.8min after gluten-containing and 73.9±21.6min after gluten-free meals (p=0.11). Percentage ejection fraction after gluten-containing meals was 60±9% and 60.6±6% after gluten-free meals (p=0.68). Peak and cumulative hydrogen excretion were significantly higher after gluten-containing than after gluten-free meals (peak: 12.5±7.3 vs 6.5±5.1 parts-per-million, p<0.01; and cumulative: 2319±1720 vs 989±680 parts-per-million/minute, respectively; p<0.01). Adding gluten powder to the gluten-free meal did not modify fermentation. Symptoms were mild and not different after the meals. In healthy volunteers, gluten may induce gastrointestinal alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify which patients could benefit from dietary modification. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with delayed gastric emptying in patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Kenji; Maetani, Iruru; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Omuta, Shigefumi; Sato, Koichiro; Ito, Sayo; Saigusa, Yoshinori; Gomi, Tatsuya; Kohda, Ehiichi

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is an important factor in determining the clinical outcome in patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction but the factors associated with DGE remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinicopathologic data could be used to identify the factors for DGE in such patients. Patients and methods: A prospective, single-arm, observational clinical study was performed in a referral hospital in Japan. A total of 54 patients with stent placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction were enrolled. A gastric emptying scintigraphy test was performed 1 week after stent placement. The relationship between DGE and clinicopathologic factors was investigated, and also the relationship between DGE and stent patency time, eating period (when the patient was able to maintain oral intake), and survival time. Results: A total of 38.9 % (21 /54) of patients had DGE. The following were identified as independent predictive factors of DGE: opioid use (odds ratio, 5.32; 95 % confidence interval [95 %CI], 1.07 – 26.41; p = 0.04), chemotherapy before stent placement (odds ratio, 8.03; 95 %CI, 1.85 – 34.95; p = 0.006), and smaller stent diameter (odds ratio, 13.59; 95 %CI, 1.72 – 107.41; p = 0.01). No relationship was found between DGE and the level of oral intake, stent patency time, eating period, and survival time. Conclusions: The factors associated with DGE after stent placement include those associated with the patient’s tumor as well as factors relating to their treatment, including stenting. The clinical and functional results after stent placement appear to be unrelated to the gastric emptying findings. PMID:26135508

  18. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  19. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  20. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.; Way, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed

  1. Relationship of gastric emptying or accommodation with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Houssam; Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Burton, Duane; Busciglio, Irene; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    The contributions of gastric emptying (GE) and gastric accommodation (GA) to satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between GA or GE with satiation, satiety, and postprandial symptoms in healthy overweight or obese volunteers (total n = 285, 73% women, mean BMI 33.5 kg/m 2 ): 26 prospectively studied obese, otherwise healthy participants and 259 healthy subjects with previous similar GI testing. We assessed GE of solids, gastric volumes, calorie intake at buffet meal, and satiation by measuring volume to comfortable fullness (VTF) and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) by using Ensure nutrient drink test (30 ml/min) and symptoms 30 min after MTV. Relationships between GE or GA with satiety, satiation, and symptoms were analyzed using Spearman rank ( r s ) and Pearson ( R ) linear correlation coefficients. We found a higher VTF during satiation test correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal ( r s = 0.535, P symptom score ( R = 0.132, P = 0.026). There was no significant correlation between GA and satiation, satiety, postprandial symptoms, or GE. We concluded that GE of solids, rather than GA, is associated with postprandial symptoms, satiation, and satiety in healthy participants. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A higher volume to comfortable fullness postprandially correlated with a higher calorie intake at ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying of solids is correlated to satiation (volume to fullness and maximum tolerated volume) and satiety (the calorie intake at buffet meal) and symptoms of nausea, pain, and aggregate symptom score after a fully satiating meal. There was no significant correlation between gastric accommodation and either satiation or satiety indices, postprandial symptoms, or gastric emptying. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Gastric emptying of two radiolabelled antacids with simutaneous montoring of gastric pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mones, J.; Carrio, I.; Sainz, S.; Berna, L.; Clave, P.; Liszkay, M.; Roca, M.; Vilardell, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the gastric emptying rate of two antacids using an scintigraphic technique and simultaneous monitoring of gastric pH in 16 healthy male volunteers. Ten ml of Talcid (hydrotalcite 1 g) and Maalox (Mg-Al-hydroxide), with a similar neutralization capacity, were labelled with technetium-99m using a pyrophosphate bridge. Labelled antacids were given on separate days (within 2 weeks), 1 h after a standard meal. Intragastric pH was measured for at least 4 h, using ambulatory pH-metry with a dual-crystant antimony catheter. Continuous monitoring was started 1 h prior to the meal (baseline) and lasted 3 h (post-prandial, post-antacid and final periods). The antacid capacity of labelled and unlabelled antacids was similar. The mean percentages of antacids retained in the stomach fitted a linear model. The mean half-emptying time of Talcid was 63.9±27.9 min, while that of Maalox was 57.3±23.9 min (P = NS). The recordings of gastric pH (mean values of pH for each period) showed a similar profile for both antacids. The mean pH (Maalox vs Talcid) was 1.69 vs 2.07 in the baseline period, 1.95 vs 1.93 in the post-prandial period, 1.79 vs 1.15 in the post-antacid period (P = NS) and 0.4 vs 0.52 in the final period (P < 0.05 vs prior periods). In conclusion, the gastric emptying of Talcid and Maalox was similar and pH profiles were parallel and remained unchanged for the two antacids within the first hour of intake. A significant decrease in pH was observed 1 h after intake of the antacids, suggesting a possible rebound effect. (orig.)

  3. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  4. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, T.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Goeke, M.; Luebeck, M.; Gratz, K.F.; Meier, P.; Manns, M.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  5. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  6. Gastric emptying of two radiolabelled antacids with simutaneous montoring of gastric pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Carrio, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Sainz, S. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Berna, L. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Clave, P. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Liszkay, M. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Roca, M. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain); Vilardell, F. [Servicio de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the gastric emptying rate of two antacids using an scintigraphic technique and simultaneous monitoring of gastric pH in 16 healthy male volunteers. Ten ml of Talcid (hydrotalcite 1 g) and Maalox (Mg-Al-hydroxide), with a similar neutralization capacity, were labelled with technetium-99m using a pyrophosphate bridge. Labelled antacids were given on separate days (within 2 weeks), 1 h after a standard meal. Intragastric pH was measured for at least 4 h, using ambulatory pH-metry with a dual-crystant antimony catheter. Continuous monitoring was started 1 h prior to the meal (baseline) and lasted 3 h (post-prandial, post-antacid and final periods). The antacid capacity of labelled and unlabelled antacids was similar. The mean percentages of antacids retained in the stomach fitted a linear model. The mean half-emptying time of Talcid was 63.9{+-}27.9 min, while that of Maalox was 57.3{+-}23.9 min (P = NS). The recordings of gastric pH (mean values of pH for each period) showed a similar profile for both antacids. The mean pH (Maalox vs Talcid) was 1.69 vs 2.07 in the baseline period, 1.95 vs 1.93 in the post-prandial period, 1.79 vs 1.15 in the post-antacid period (P = NS) and 0.4 vs 0.52 in the final period (P < 0.05 vs prior periods). In conclusion, the gastric emptying of Talcid and Maalox was similar and pH profiles were parallel and remained unchanged for the two antacids within the first hour of intake. A significant decrease in pH was observed 1 h after intake of the antacids, suggesting a possible rebound effect. (orig.)

  7. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper

  8. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  9. Supplementing Monosodium Glutamate to Partial Enteral Nutrition Slows Gastric Emptying in Preterm Pigs123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M.; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg−1·d−1) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5–8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and 13C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath 13CO2 enrichments, 13CO2 production, percentage of 13CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of 13C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2. PMID:23446960

  10. The value of determining the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dexi; Ma Lixia; Lu Junzheng; Liu Ningjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the level of serum gastrin and gastric emptying time for the liquid and solid foods in children with simple anorexia, so that it will benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy of the disease. Methods: 34 children with anorexia were recruited. 22 patients had simple anorexia (11 boys, 11 girls, median age 4.9 years). The other 12 patients had gastritis and/or gastric ulcer at the same time (3 boys, 9 girls, median age 7.3 years). 10 normal children (4 boys, 6 girls, median age 5.6 years) were compared with the patients. Serum gastrin was determined by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying times of the liquid and solid foods that were labelled with 113m In-DTPA were measured by nuclear multifunction instrument and nuclear imaging equipment. The gastric emptying curve for the liquid food was drawn for 15 minutes after drinking the tracer. Then, abdominal scintigraphy was performed at 1.5 hours after eating solid food containing the trace. Results: (1) Gastrin level: The level of serum gastrin was 133.7 ± 27 pg/ml in the control group, 209.7 ± 81 pg/ml in the simple anorexia group and 187.4 ± 44 pg/ml in the gastritis and/or gastric ulcer group. There was significant difference between simple anorexia group and control group (P 0.05). (2) Gastric emptying time: 8 of 14 patients with simple anorexia had prolonged gastric emptying of liquid food (57%), 6 patients (43%) had duodenogastric reflux. 5 of 12 patients (42%) with simple anorexia had delayed gastric emptying of solid food. Conclusion: Results show that simple anorexia in children may be the prophase symptom of functional indigestion. Therefore, to determine the level of serum gastrin and time of gastric emptying in children with simple anorexia may benefit etiological diagnosis and pertinence therapy. This may help to prevent chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer

  11. Effect of erythromycin on gallbladder emptying in diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy and high levels of motilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, S; Scionti, L; Bosso, R; Desando, A; Bottini, P; Marino, C; Morelli, A

    1992-11-01

    A reduction of gallbladder emptying in response to neural or hormonal stimulation has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. Decreased gallbladder emptying may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stones. Few drugs, if any, are able to stimulate gallbladder emptying. However, in a previous study we demonstrated that erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, stimulates gallbladder emptying and motilin release in healthy human subjects by an atropine-sensitive pathway. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of erythromycin on gallbladder emptying and motilin release in diabetic patients with or without cardiac autonomic neuropathy (AN). Thirteen diabetic patients, six with AN, and 10 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study protocol. Gallbladder emptying was determined by sonography after ingestion of a standard meal and during infusion of erythromycin alone or together with 6 micrograms/kg/hr atropine. We found that 100 mg/hr erythromycin caused a significant reduction in gallbladder volume in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. The ejection fraction (mean +/- SE) of 45.3 +/- 8.2% and 37.3 +/- 5.0% was similar. The presence of AN had no influence on gallbladder emptying induced by erythromycin. Basal motilin plasma levels were 111.5 +/- 14.5 pmol/liter in diabetic patients and 63.3 +/- 6.0 pmol/liter in healthy subjects (P < 0.01). However, patients with AN had higher (130.0 +/- 11.9 pmol/liter) motilin plasma levels than patients without (74.0 +/- 9.4 pmol/liter, P < 0.01). Erythromycin administration caused an approximately twofold increase in plasma motilin concentrations in healthy subject and patients without AN, but did not stimulate motilin release in neuropathic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Determination of solid- and liquid-phase gastric emptying half times in cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M; Papasouliotis, K; Barr, F J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Caney, S M

    1999-10-01

    To use nuclear scintigraphy to establish a range of gastric emptying half times (t1/2) following a liquid or solid meal in nonsedated cats. 12 clinically normal 3-year-old domestic shorthair cats. A test meal of 75 g of scrambled eggs labeled with technetium Tc 99m tin colloid was fed to 10 of the cats, and solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy. In a separate experiment, 8 of these cats plus an additional 2 cats were fed 18 ml (n = 5) or 36 ml (n = 5) of a nutrient liquid meal labeled with technetium Tc 99m pentetate. Liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 then were determined by use of scintigraphy. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were between 210 and 769 minutes (median, 330 minutes). Median liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 after ingestion of 18 or 36 ml of the test meal were 67 minutes (range, 60 to 96 minutes) and 117 minutes (range, 101 to 170 minutes), respectively. The median t1/2 determined for cats receiving 18 ml of the radiolabeled liquid was significantly less than that determined for cats receiving 36 ml of the test meal. The protocol was tolerated by nonsedated cats. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were prolonged, compared with liquid-phase t1/2, and a major factor governing the emptying rate of liquids was the volume consumed. Nuclear scintigraphy may prove useful in assessing gastric motility disorders in cats.

  13. Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad A. Sukiran; Loh S. Kheang; Nasrin A. Bakar; Choo Y. May

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii...

  14. Mechanical and molecular studies of biocomposites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmatin, S.; Saepulloh, D. R.; Irmansyah; Syafiuddin, A.

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims to investigate mechanical and molecular characteristics of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) microfibers. OPEFB microfibers were produced using mechanical milling. Composite granules were fabricated using single screw extruder. These composites were then used for fabricating helmet according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Mechanical testing confirms that the helmet produced using this biocomposites are suitable to the SNI. Molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB can be described using orbital hybridization theory. In general, this study has successfully investigated mechanical and molecular properties of the biocomposites.

  15. Mechanisms of gastric emptying disturbances in chronic and acute inflammation of the distal gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Beglinger, Christoph; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear why patients with inflammation of the distal bowel complain of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically to gastric emptying (GE) disturbances. Thus we aimed to determine occurrence and putative pathomechanisms of gastric motor disorders in such patients...... and correlated with GE parameters. Results were given in means +/- SD. Compared with CON, GE half time (T) was prolonged by 50% in CD (115 +/- 55 vs. 182 +/- 95 min, P = 0.037). Six CD, 2 DIV, and 2 UC patients had pathological T (>200 min). Postprandial plasma glucose was increased in all patients...

  16. Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch – A response surface methodology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work studied the extraction of Nano Crystalline Cellulose (NCC from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB, with aid of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Particle size analysis using Malvern Zetasizer had confirmed the extracted NCC fall within the desired nano scaled range. The impact of three input parameters, namely concentration of NaOH solution during alkaline treatment, concentration of H2SO4 solution during acid hydrolysis, and duration for acid hydrolysis on NCC particle were investigated. From ANOVA study, it had suggested that the current RSM model is significant to interpret the interaction among the all three input parameters.

  17. Correlation between solid gastric emptying and endoscopy after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.C.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Sansana, C.R.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pareja, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Bariatric surgeries have been used in the treatment of obese patients. Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) consists of creating a gastric pouch which will lead to changes in the mechanism of digestion and to weight loss Aim: To determine the solid gastric emptying T1/2 in patients who underwent SRVG, and to correlate these findings with endoscopy, body mass index (BMI) and percent loss of excess body weight (PLEBW). Materials and Methods: Thirty six obese patients (30 women and 6 men, mean age 40.3 years) were submitted to SRVG. Endoscopy was performed 6 to 12 months after SRVG to classify the ring introduced into the neo stomach as tight, medium and large. Twelve to 18 months after SRVG the patients were submitted to scintigraphy and evaluation of BMI and PLEBW. Gastric emptying was performed with a solid meal which consisted of a cooked egg labeled with 99m Tc-microcolloid. Patients were placed in the upright position and acquisition was begun after ingestion of the radioactive meal. The gastric emptying T1/2 was calculated. Results: The T1/2 was 53.44 ± 40.26 minutes for patients with a tight ring (47.2% of the patient population); 68.03 ± 43.06 minutes for patients with a medium ring (22.2% of the patient population); and 23.06 ± 25.15 minutes for patients with a large ring (30.6% of the patient population). There was a significant correlation between T1/2 and endoscopic findings (p = 0.0482; ANOVA). Within 18 months after SRVG, patients showed BMI = 32.48 ± 7.51 and PLEBW = 77.41 ± 21.22 %. Statistical analyses showed that there was a tendency towards a direct correlation between T1/2 and PLEBW (r = 0.46; p 0.0045) and a tendency towards an inverse correlation with the BMI (r -0.48; p=0.0028). Conclusions: Despite the significant correlation between T1/2 and the endoscopic, BMI and PLEBW findings, this method was unable to differentiate the ring sizes, probably because endoscopy was performed at least 6 months prior to the gastric emptying study

  18. Potent inhibitory effect of alcoholic beverages upon gastrointestinal passage of food and gallbladder emptying

    OpenAIRE

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Bożek, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Magdalena; Mgłosiek, Patrycja

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. Methods Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid 1485 kJ meal was followed by intake of 400 ml beer (4.7 %vol), 200 ml red wine (13.7 %vol) or 100 ml whisky (43.5 %vol) or matching volumes...

  19. Nondestructive assay of plutonium in empty stainless steel boxes by apparent mass method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, C.; Chaudhury, S.; Nathaniel, T.N.; Goswami, A.

    2012-01-01

    Apparent mass method (Venkataraman and Croft, Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 505:527, 2003), initially standardized for the assay of Pu (Agarwal et al., J Nucl Mater 651:386, 2007) has been used to get Pu amount in empty stainless steel boxes generally used for storing and transferring plutonium oxide powders. The results have been compared with the neutron coincidence counting results and have been found to match well. The advantage of the method is that it can be used for any sample with nonstandard geometry and with uncertain source distribution. (author)

  20. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  1. Left atrial volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höllmer, M.; Willesen, J. L.; Tolver, A.

    2017-01-01

    stroke volume increased, whereas LA reservoir and contractile function decreased with increasing disease severity. A maximal LA volume heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100......%. An active LA emptying fraction heart failure in dogs with chronic MMVD with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 82%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dogs with MMVD appear to have larger LA...... of cardiac compensation. Left atrial function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to evaluate LA volume and function in dogs with naturally occurring MMVD. ANIMALS: This prospective study included 205 client-owned dogs of different breeds, 114...

  2. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......Measurement of left atrial (LA) maximal volume (LA(max)) using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides prognostic information in several cardiac diseases. However, the relationship between LA(max) and LA function is poorly understood and TTE is less well suited for measuring......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...

  4. The Willingness-to-Pay for General Practitioners in Contractual Service and Influencing Factors among Empty Nesters in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2012, a pilot health policy of contractual service relations between general practitioners and patients was implemented in China. Due to the decline in body and cognitive function, as well as the lack of family care and narrow social support networks, the demand of health services among the elderly is much higher than that among the general population. This study aims to probe into the empty nesters’ willingness-to-pay for general practitioners using a contractual service policy, investigating empty nesters’ payment levels for the service, and analyze the main factors affecting the willingness of empty-nesters’ general practitioners using contractual service supply cost. Methods: This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage stratified sampling method to survey 865, city empty nesters (six communities in three districts of one city aged 60–85 years. A condition value method was used to infer the distribution of the willingness-to-pay; Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of willingness-to-pay. Results: More than seventy percent (76.6% of the empty nesters in this city were willing to pay general practitioners using contract service in Chongqing. The level of willingness-to-pay for the surveyed empty nesters was 34.1 yuan per year. The median value was 22.1 yuan per year, which was below the Chongqing urban and rural cooperative medical insurance individual funding level (60 yuan per year in 2013. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model analysis showed that the higher the education level was, the worse the self-reported health status would be, accompanied by higher family per capita income, higher satisfaction of community health service, and higher willingness-to-pay empty nesters using a contract service. Women had a higher willingness-to-pay than men. Conclusions: The willingness-to-pay for general practitioners by contractual service is high among city empty

  5. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mones, J. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Carrio, I. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Calabuig, R. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Estorch, M. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Sainz, S. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Berna, L. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Vilardell, F. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78[+-]5 min during the follicular phase, 75[+-]7 min during the luteal phase and 76[+-]6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  6. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oester-Joergensen, E.; Quist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); and others

    1996-05-01

    No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying characteristics and whether different hormone secretion patterns are associated with specific alteration in emptying rate. 12 healthy men were examined on two occasion: one with meal ingestion in phase I and the other with meal ingestion in phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with {sup 99m}Tc followed by 150 ml water labelled with {sup 111}In. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin, motilin, and peptide YY were measured in the fasting state, immediately after food ingestion, and at 15 min-min intervals in the postprandial period. New findings from the present study include a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II, and a linear relationship between median total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I. Furthermore, in phase I a linear relationship between total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated. The findings from the present investigation have to be considered in the future design of studies that focus on postprandial release of gastrointestinal hormones. The transition from phase III to phase I is a reproducible and easily recognized pressure event. Therefore, the authors recommend the use of food ingestion immediately after termination of duodenal phase III. 14 refs.

  7. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying

  8. Influence of the menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids in female volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mones, J.; Carrio, I.; Calabuig, R.; Estorch, M.; Sainz, S.; Berna, L.; Vilardell, F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the normal menstrual cycle and of menopause on the gastric emptying rate of solids. Gastric emptying was studied in 15 premenopausal and ten postmenopausal women with an isotopic technique after the ingestion of a radiolabelled test meal. Premenopausal women were studied twice: Within 1 week prior to menses and again 1 week after onset of menses. Postmenopausal women were studied only once. The emptying curves of the solid component of the meal fitted a linear model. The half-emptying time was 78±5 min during the follicular phase, 75±7 min during the luteal phase and 76±6 min in postmenopausal women (differences not statistically significant). The mean percentages of the meal retained in the stomach at different time intervals were also similar in the three groups. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not influence the gastric emptying rate of solids, which remains unchanged in relation to the follicular phase or after menopause. (orig.)

  9. [Evaluation of stomach emptying under extreme obstruction of gastrointestinal transit treated with gastro-intestinal or duodenal-intestinal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, S; Górka, Z; Jonderko, K; Nalewajka-Kołodziejczak, J; Gruszka, Z; Kuśnierz, K; Leidgens, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare gastric emptying in two groups of dogs in which a gastrojejunal or duodenojejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis was performed over the site of an experimental obstruction in the distal duodenum. The experiment was carried out on 10 mongrel dogs. Gastric emptying was assessed twice in each dog before the experiment (control examination); the solid phase of the test meal was labelled with 99mTc. Following a control examination, the dogs were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, and subjected to the above mentioned surgical procedures. Postoperative gastric emptying was carried out 3 weeks after the operation, and then at 3 and 6 months following the procedure. The following parameters describing quantitatively gastric emptying were determined: mean transit time MTT0-60. MTT0-120 and total mean transit time MTT0-180. The comparison of these parameters revealed statistically significant differences confirming delay of gastric emptying in dogs with a gastrojejunal anastomosis.

  10. Gasification of bio char from empty fruit bunch in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsamba Hussein Kisiki; Amran Mohammad Salleh; Wan Azlina; Hamdan Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bio char from empty fruit bunch was gasified in a fluidized bed reactor using compressed air as a gasifying agent. The experiment was conducted in the temperature ranges of 500-850 degree Celsius and the equivalence ratio, temperature and size of the feedstock was varied. A series of parameters such as gas yield, overall carbon conversion, gas quality, and composition, were measured as a function of temperature, equivalence ratio and temperature. Results obtained were compared to the actual values of coal and other gasification feedstock reveal that, bio char has the potential to replace coal as a gasification agent in power plants .Hydrogen gas from bio char was also optimized during the experiment. There is great potential of making Hydrogen from Bio char through thermo chemical gasification It was observed that it has a very great potential of being upgraded to Fischer Tropsh fuels. There is a great opportunity of using this char from empty fruit bunch as an alternative fuel in power plants and all the adverse effects of coal gasification can be counteracted. (author)

  11. Bio-composite Nonwoven Media Based on Chitosan and Empty Fruit Bunches for Wastewater Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikin, Aziatul Niza; Nawawi, Mohd Ghazali Mohd; Othman, Norasikin

    2011-01-01

    Fibrous filter media in the form of non-woven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Lignocellulosic such as empty fruit bunches have potential to be used as a low cost filter media as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly. Laboratory filtration tests were performed to investigate the potential application of empty fruit bunches that enriched with chitosan as a fiber filter media to remove suspended solids, oil and grease, and organics in terms of chemical oxygen demand from palm oil mill effluent. The present paper studies the effect of chitosan concentration on the filter media performance. Bench-scaled experiment results indicated that pre-treatment using the fiber filtration system removed up to 67.3% of total suspended solid, 65.1% of oil and grease and 46.1% of chemical oxygen demand. The results show that the lignocellulosic fiber filter could be a potential technology for primary wastewater treatment.

  12. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. da-Costa-Pinto

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  13. RF empty bucket channelling combined with a betatron core to improve slow extraction in medical synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M

    1998-01-01

    The uniformity of a slow-extracted beam from a synchrotron is degraded by ripples from the power converters of the magnetic elements. This effect can be reduced by making the beam particles cross more quickly from the stable to the unstable region. Among the various methods that have been proposed for this purpose, RF bucket channelling seems to be a good candidate for compensating low frequency ripples in spills of the order of one second. The method is based on the technique of RF phase displacement acceleration. In the configuration studied, a coasting beam is accelerated slowly into a third-order resonance by a betatron core. The acceleration rate set by the betatron core determines the spill length. Empty buckets are then created at the resonance frequency and adjusted with a phase angle that would decelerate any trapped beam by an equal and opposite amount. The main RF system can be used for this purpose. The empty buckets cause an obstruction in phase space and the beam particles are forced to channel ...

  14. Midlife Challenge or Welcome Departure? Cultural and Family-Related Expectations of Empty Nest Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Barbara A; Wister, Andrew V

    2015-10-01

    Mid- and later-life parental transitions to the "empty nest" are characterized by increasing complexity, uncertainty, and variability. Drawing upon a life course perspective coupled with a sociocultural stress model, this mixed-methods study focuses on parental perceptions of anticipated emotional challenge associated with their children's homeleaving and how this is shaped by ethnic culture and other family-related factors. Data entail a subsample of 174 midlife parents (mean age=51.8) with at least one adult child aged 18 to 35 living at home, collected as part of the "Mid/Later Life Parenting Project." Study participants belonged to British-, Chinese-, Southern European-, or South-Asian groups living in Metro Vancouver, BC. Analyses indicate that societal and ethnic group norms, relationship quality, and living arrangement preferences, as well as supportive exchanges and economic constraints (e.g., housing costs) influence empty nest perceptions and pathways. Implications of these findings are applied to aging families and family development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. How Peircean semiotic philosophy connects Western science with Eastern emptiness ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2017-12-01

    In recent articles in this journal I have discussed why a traditional physicalist and mechanist, as well as an info-computationalist, view of science cannot fulfil the goal of building a transdisciplinary science across Snow's two cultures. There seems to be no path proceeding from mechanistic physicalism to views that encompass phenomenological theories of experiential consciousness and meaning-based cognition and communication. I have suggested, as an alternative, the Cybersemiotic framework's integration of Peirce's semiotics and Luhmann's autopoietic system theory. The present article considers in greater depth the ontological developments necessary to make this possible. It shows how Peirce avoids materialism and German idealism through his building on a concept of emptiness similar to modern quantum field theory, positing an indeterminist objective chance feeding into an evolutionary philosophy of knowing based on pure mathematics and phenomenology that is itself combined with empirically executed fallibilism. Furthermore, he created a new metaphysics in the form of a philosophical synechist triadic process philosophy. This was integrated into the transcendentalist view of process view of science and spirituality developed from Western Unitarianism by Emerson (agapism), and featuring a metaphysics of emptiness and spontaneity (tychism) that are also essential for the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism and Vedanta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of gastric emptying by means of scintigraphy using different test meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, V.; Quintao, M.F.; Marino, V.S.P.; Coelho, L.G.V.; Mota, Luciene G.; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Universidade Federal de Minas Ferais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by symptoms and evidence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Scintigraphy has been considered a 'gold standard' for measuring Gastric Emptying Time (GET) and retention percentage of radio-labeled food, after four hours of ingestion. To obtain the images, it is recommended, worldwide, the use of the Tougas diet (227 kcal) as a standard meal. The objective of this study was to compare the GET and the percentage of retention in the time of 4h, obtained by scintigraphy using the Tougas diet and the proposed diet (319 kcal). We selected 30 patients, both genders, aged between 23 and 76 years, presenting clinical symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. These parameters were measured for the same patient, but on different days. The results showed that the fat content of the diet used to obtain EG scintigraphy of solid foods did not influence retention percentage results after 4 hours of ingestion of the radiolabeled food. However, the time of two hours is an important parameter to be observed in the result of this examination. In addition, the data suggest that the proposed diet may be more efficient for the classification of the severity of EG delay in patients with clinical signs suggestive of gastroparesis. (author)

  17. Evaluation of gastric emptying by means of scintigraphy using different test meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, V.; Quintao, M.F.; Marino, V.S.P.; Coelho, L.G.V.; Mota, Luciene G.; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata

    2017-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by symptoms and evidence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Scintigraphy has been considered a 'gold standard' for measuring Gastric Emptying Time (GET) and retention percentage of radio-labeled food, after four hours of ingestion. To obtain the images, it is recommended, worldwide, the use of the Tougas diet (227 kcal) as a standard meal. The objective of this study was to compare the GET and the percentage of retention in the time of 4h, obtained by scintigraphy using the Tougas diet and the proposed diet (319 kcal). We selected 30 patients, both genders, aged between 23 and 76 years, presenting clinical symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. These parameters were measured for the same patient, but on different days. The results showed that the fat content of the diet used to obtain EG scintigraphy of solid foods did not influence retention percentage results after 4 hours of ingestion of the radiolabeled food. However, the time of two hours is an important parameter to be observed in the result of this examination. In addition, the data suggest that the proposed diet may be more efficient for the classification of the severity of EG delay in patients with clinical signs suggestive of gastroparesis. (author)

  18. Production of furfural from palm oil empty fruit bunches: kinetic model comparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, J. R. H.; Monica, S.; Gozan, M.

    2017-05-01

    Furfural is a chemical compound that can be applied to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, resins and cleaning compound which can be produced by acid hydrolysis of biomass. Indonesia’s demand for furfural in 2010 reached 790 tons that still imported mostly 72% from China. In this study, reaction kinetic models of furfural production from oil palm empty fruit bunches with submitting acid catalyst at the beginning of the experiment will be determine. Kinetic data will be obtained from hydrolysis of empty oil palm bunches using sulfuric acid catalyst 3% at temperature 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 20 minutes. From this study, the kinetic model to describe the production of furfural is the kinetic model where generally hydrolysis reaction with an acid catalyst in hemicellulose and furfural will produce the same decomposition product which is formic acid with different reaction pathways. The activation energy obtained for the formation of furfural, the formation of decomposition products from furfural and the formation of decomposition products from hemicellulose is 8.240 kJ/mol, 19.912 kJ/mol and -39.267 kJ / mol.

  19. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  20. Structure of a pheromone receptor-associated MHC molecule with an open and empty groove.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the murine vomeronasal organ (VNO express a family of class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins (M10s that interact with the V2R class of VNO receptors. This interaction may play a direct role in the detection of pheromonal cues that initiate reproductive and territorial behaviors. The crystal structure of M10.5, an M10 family member, is similar to that of classical MHC molecules. However, the M10.5 counterpart of the MHC peptide-binding groove is open and unoccupied, revealing the first structure of an empty class I MHC molecule. Similar to empty MHC molecules, but unlike peptide-filled MHC proteins and non-peptide-binding MHC homologs, M10.5 is thermally unstable, suggesting that its groove is normally occupied. However, M10.5 does not bind endogenous peptides when expressed in mammalian cells or when offered a mixture of class I-binding peptides. The F pocket side of the M10.5 groove is open, suggesting that ligands larger than 8-10-mer class I-binding peptides could fit by extending out of the groove. Moreover, variable residues point up from the groove helices, rather than toward the groove as in classical MHC structures. These data suggest that M10s are unlikely to provide specific recognition of class I MHC-binding peptides, but are consistent with binding to other ligands, including proteins such as the V2Rs.

  1. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg -1 ), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg -1 ) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg -1 ) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  2. Foldable Containers to Reduce the Costs of Empty Transport? A Cost–Benefit Analysis from a Chain and Multi-Actor Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Konings

    2005-01-01

    Transport of empty containers, which arises from the need to reposition containers, is an expensive business. This holds in particular for shipping lines, which are usually responsible for container repositioning and have to bear these container management costs. Shipping lines are known to follow various strategies to reduce the costs of empty transport. A rather unfamiliar, but interesting option to save costs is the possibility to fold empty containers. This could save transport costs, but...

  3. Could successful cryoballoon ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation prevent progressive left atrial remodeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Tamás; Dénes, Mónika; Kardos, Attila; Mihálcz, Attila; Földesi, Csaba; Temesvári, András; Lengyel, Mária

    2012-03-19

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been proved to be effective and to prevent progressive left atrial (LA) remodeling. Cryoballoon catheter ablation (CCA), using a different energy source, was developed to simplify the ablation procedure. Our hypothesis was that successful CCA can also prevent progressive LA remodeling. 36 patients selected for their first CCA because of nonvalvular paroxysmal AF had echocardiography before and 3, 6 and 12 months after CCA. LA diameters, volumes (LAV) and LA volume index (LAVI) were evaluated. LA function was assessed by: early diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus (Aa(sept), Aa(lat)), LA filling fraction (LAFF), LA emptying fraction (LAEF) and the systolic fraction of pulmonary venous flow (PVSF). Detailed left ventricular diastolic function assessment was also performed. Excluding recurrences in the first 3-month blanking period, the clinical success rate was 64%. During one-year of follow-up, recurrent atrial arrhythmia was found in 21 patients (58%). In the recurrent group at 12 months after ablation, minimal LAV (38 ± 19 to 44 ± 20 ml; p < 0.05), maximal LAV (73 ± 23 to 81 ± 24 ml; p < 0.05), LAVI (35 ± 10 to 39 ± 11 ml/m2; p = 0.01) and the maximal LA longitudinal diameter (55 ± 5 to 59 ± 6 mm; p < 0.01) had all increased. PVSF (58 ± 9 to 50 ± 10%; p = 0.01) and LAFF (36 ± 7 to 33 ± 8%; p = 0.03) had decreased. In contrast, after successful cryoballoon ablation LA size had not increased and LA function had not declined. In the recurrent group LAEF was significantly lower at baseline and at follow-up visits. In patients whose paroxysmal atrial fibrillation recurred within one year after cryoballoon catheter ablation left atrial size had increased and left atrial function had declined. In contrast, successful cryoballoon catheter ablation prevented progressive left atrial remodeling.

  4. Could successful cryoballoon ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation prevent progressive left atrial remodeling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Tamás

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF has been proved to be effective and to prevent progressive left atrial (LA remodeling. Cryoballoon catheter ablation (CCA, using a different energy source, was developed to simplify the ablation procedure. Our hypothesis was that successful CCA can also prevent progressive LA remodeling. Methods 36 patients selected for their first CCA because of nonvalvular paroxysmal AF had echocardiography before and 3, 6 and 12 months after CCA. LA diameters, volumes (LAV and LA volume index (LAVI were evaluated. LA function was assessed by: early diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus (Aasept, Aalat, LA filling fraction (LAFF, LA emptying fraction (LAEF and the systolic fraction of pulmonary venous flow (PVSF. Detailed left ventricular diastolic function assessment was also performed. Results Excluding recurrences in the first 3-month blanking period, the clinical success rate was 64%. During one-year of follow-up, recurrent atrial arrhythmia was found in 21 patients (58%. In the recurrent group at 12 months after ablation, minimal LAV (38 ± 19 to 44 ± 20 ml; p p 2; p = 0.01 and the maximal LA longitudinal diameter (55 ± 5 to 59 ± 6 mm; p p = 0.01 and LAFF (36 ± 7 to 33 ± 8%; p = 0.03 had decreased. In contrast, after successful cryoballoon ablation LA size had not increased and LA function had not declined. In the recurrent group LAEF was significantly lower at baseline and at follow-up visits. Conclusions In patients whose paroxysmal atrial fibrillation recurred within one year after cryoballoon catheter ablation left atrial size had increased and left atrial function had declined. In contrast, successful cryoballoon catheter ablation prevented progressive left atrial remodeling.

  5. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  6. Empty virions in AAV8 vector preparations reduce transduction efficiency and may cause total viral particle dose-limiting side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty virions are inadvertent by-products of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV packaging process, resulting in vector lots with mixtures of full and empty virions at variable ratios. Impact of empty virions on the efficiency and side effects of rAAV transduction has not been well characterized. Here, we generated partially and completely empty AAV8 virions, fully packaged rAAV8 lots, and mixtures of empty and fully packaged virions with variable ratios of empty virions. The aforementioned dosing formulations of rAAV8 expressing either cellular (EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein or nuclear-targeted (n LacZ or secreted (human α1-antitrypsin (hA1AT reporter genes were intravenously injected into two different mouse strains, followed by analyses of transgene expressions and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels at different time points. We found that addition of empty particles to the fixed doses of rAAV8 preparations repressed liver transduction up to 64% (serum hA1AT and 44% (nLacZ in C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The similar trend in inhibiting EGFP expression together with concurrent elevations of serum ALT levels were observed in the BALB/c mice, indicating that empty particles may also exacerbate side effects of rAAV8 EGFP transduction. Our results suggest that removal of empty particles from rAAV preparations may improve efficacy and safety of AAV in clinical applications.

  7. Gastric emptying after artificial ulceration in rats: differences due to the site of the ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie; Shimizu, Kimiko

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the position of an acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer and the effects of prokinetic drugs on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Acetic acid ulcers were induced either in the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall of the stomach or in the glandular region on the greater curvature of the stomach to determine whether there were regional differences in the effect of the ulcers. Gastric emptying was evaluated with a breath test using [1- 13 C] acetic acid. In addition, the effects of the prokinetic drugs, metoclopramide and mosapride, on gastric emptying were also evaluated. Results Acetic acid induced ulcers in the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall of the stomach significantly delayed gastric emptying as compared with control rats, but not the acetic acid induced ulcers in the glandular region on the greater curvature of the stomach. Metoclopramide and mosapride did not improve the delayed gastric emptying even at doses that enhanced gastric emptying in normal rats. Conclusion These findings show that gastric emptying is influenced by the position of the ulcer and the region between the fundus and pylorus on the anterior wall plays an important role in gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that metoclopramide and mosapride do not improve the delayed gastric emptying caused by acetic acid ulcers induced on the anterior wall in the region between the fundus and pylorus.

  8. Preservation of Myocardial Perfusion and Function by Keeping Hypertrophied Heart Empty and Beating for Valve Surgery: An In Vivo MR Study of Pig Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Deng, Jixian; Lin, Hung-Yu; Freed, Darren H; Arora, Rakesh C; Tian, Ganghong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives . Normothermic hyperkalemic cardioplegia arrest (NHCA) may not effectively preserve hypertrophied myocardium during open-heart surgery. Normothermic normokalemic beating perfusion (NNBP), keeping hearts empty-beating, was utilized as an alternative to evaluate its cardioprotective role. Materials and Methods . Twelve hypertrophied pig hearts at 58.6 ± 7.2 days after ascending aorta banding underwent NNBP and NHCA, respectively. Near infrared myocardial perfusion imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) was conducted to assess myocardial perfusion. Left ventricular (LV) contractile function was assessed by cine MRI. TUNEL staining and western blotting for caspase-3 cleavage and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) degradation were conducted in LV tissue samples. Results . Ascending aortic diameter was reduced by 52.7% ± 0.4% at approximately fifty-eight days after banding. LV wall thickness was significantly higher in aorta banding than in sham operation. Myocardial blood flow reflected by maximum ICG absorbance value was markedly higher in NNBP than in NHCA. The amount of apoptotic cardiomyocyte was significantly lower in NNBP than in NHCA. NNBP alleviated caspase-3 cleavage and cTnI degradation associated with NHCA. NNBP displayed a substantially increased postoperative ejection fraction relative to NHCA. Conclusions . NNBP was better than NHCA in enhancing myocardial perfusion, inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and preserving LV contractile function for hypertrophied hearts.

  9. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  10. Distal gastrectomy in pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial release of GLP-1, and improved insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmuth, Stefan; Wewalka, Marlene; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    resistance (HOMA-IR) and oral glucose insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: Patients with Whipple procedure as compared to PPPD had accelerated gastric emptying (p = 0.01) which correlated with early (0-30 min) integrated GLP-1 (AUC30; r (2) = 0.61; p = 0......OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between gastric emptying, postprandial GLP-1 and insulin sensitivity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose regulation is highly prevalent in patients with pancreatic neoplasm and resolves in some after PD......, the cause of which is unclear. The procedure is carried out with pylorus preservation (PPPD) or with distal gastrectomy (Whipple procedure). Accelerated gastric emptying and ensuing enhanced release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conceivably play a role in glucose metabolism after PD. It was the purpose...

  11. Simultaneous estimation of liquid and solid gastric emptying using radiolabelled egg and water in supine normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris, M G; Yeh, S D; Gralla, R J; Young, C W

    1986-01-01

    To develop an additional method for the measurement of gastric emptying in supine subjects, 10 normal subjects were given a test meal containing 99Tc-labelled scrambled egg as the "solid" phase marker and 111In in tapwater as the marker for the "liquid" phase. The mean time for emptying 50% of the "solid" phase (t1/2) was 85 min and 29 min for the "liquid" phase. Three individuals were restudied with a mean difference between the two determinations of 10.8% for the "solid" phase and 6.5% for the "liquid" phase. Twenty-six additional studies attempted have been successfully completed in symptomatic patients with advanced cancer. This method provides a simple and reproducible procedure for the determination of gastric emptying that yields results similar to those reported for other test meals and can be used in debilitated patients.

  12. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  13. A sinister plot? Facts, beliefs, and stereotypes about the left-handed personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Gina M; Wilson, Marc S

    2013-01-01

    Is there a left-handed personality? Is there a left-handed stereotype? Although psychologists have enthusiastically compared left- and right-handers across myriad cognitive, behavioural, and neuropsychological domains, there has been very little empirical investigation of the relationship between handedness and personality. In Study 1 we assessed the Big 5 personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotionality, and openness to experience) in a sample of 662 young adults in New Zealand. Left- and right-handers did not differ on any factor. However, there was a curvilinear relationship between hand preference and extraversion; mixed-handers were more introverted than either left- or right-handers. This finding is consistent with other research indicating that degree may be of more psychological consequence than direction of handedness. In Study 2 we assessed beliefs and stereotypes about the left-handed personality. Both left- and right-handers shared the belief that left-handers are more introverted and open to experience than right-handers. This stereotype is not negative, and argues against the status of left-handers as a stigmatised group in modern Western culture.

  14. Dose-dependent effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying in rats and the related mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Cao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying in rats and the related mechanism of action. Sixty Wistar rats were randomized into control and test groups, which respectively received intraperitoneal injection of normal saline and ghrelin at different doses (0.5 nmol/kg, 1.0 nmol/kg, 1.5 nmol/kg, 2.0 nmol/kg, and 2.5 nmol/kg. After 45 minutes, all rats were gavaged with semisolid paste. The gastric emptying rate was determined 30 minutes later, and the plasma cholecystokinin level was tested by radioimmunoassay. The mean gastric emptying rate in the test groups was significantly higher than in the control group (38.24 ± 7.15% and 27.18 ± 2.37%, respectively, p < 0.05. Medium and high doses of ghrelin (1.0 nmol/kg, 1.5 nmol/kg, 2.0 nmol/kg, and 2.5 nmol/kg, but not low dose (0.5 nmol/kg, accelerated the gastric emptying. In addition, the plasma cholecystokinin level in the test groups was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.01. The gastric emptying rate was positively correlated with the plasma cholecystokinin level (p < 0.01. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin at medium and high doses significantly accelerated gastric emptying in rats.

  15. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  16. A Conserved Leucine Occupies the Empty Substrate Site of LeuT in the Na+-free Return State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina; Said, Saida; Sahin, Caglanur

    2016-01-01

    report crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus LeuT in an outward-oriented, Na+- and substrate-free state likely to be H+-occluded. We find a remarkable rotation of the conserved Leu25 into the empty substrate-binding pocket and rearrangements of the empty Na+ sites. Mutational studies of the equivalent...... Leu99 in the human serotonin transporter show a critical role of this residue on the transport rate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that extracellular Na+ is blocked unless Leu25 is rotated out of the substrate-binding pocket. We propose that Leu25 facilitates the inward-to-outward transition...

  17. Determination of the stomach emptying time of tilapia oreochromis sp. using different weekly feeding frequencies and starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Peñaranda, José Ader; Clavijo-Restrepo, Laura Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The research measured the necessary time to complete the stomach emptying of the tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) starting on the day subsequent to the regular feeding with a fasting period. Samples were collected from stomach contents in periods about 2 hours after feeding (9:30 and 15:30 h) until the fourth sign of the stomach emptying The tilapia weighing was 150±10 grams. The research was designed with four treatments: (1) T5 = feed to satiation for 5 days and fasting for two days (T5), (2) T6 =...

  18. Anarchy, socialism and a Darwinian left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    In A Darwinian left Peter Singer aims to reconcile Darwinian theory with left wing politics, using evolutionary game theory and in particular a model proposed by Robert Axelrod, which shows that cooperation can be an evolutionarily successful strategy. In this paper I will show that whilst Axelrod's model can give support to a kind of left wing politics, it is not the kind that Singer himself envisages. In fact, it is shown that there are insurmountable problems for the idea of increasing Axelrodian cooperation within a welfare state. My surprising conclusion will be that a Darwinian left worthy of the name would be anarchistic.

  19. Left-behind Children in Rural China: School Experiences of Boys and Girls in Jiangxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Aili

    2011-01-01

    Research findings show that the migration of rural parents brings negative impacts on left-behind children in many aspects, especially in their school experiences. However, less research is conducted to examine how gender may impact left-behind children’s school experiences. From a social constructivist perspective, gender identity is constructed through a series of shared understanding and practices and it is in a state of reconstruction. Compared with men, women’s disadvantaged position in ...

  20. Patterns of left ventricular remodeling among patients with essential and secondary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu,Dan; Stoicescu,Laurentiu; Buzdugan,Elena; Donca,Valer

    2013-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure causes left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a negative prognostic factor among hypertensive patients. Aim: To assess left ventricular geometric remodeling patterns in patients with essential hypertension or with hypertension secondary to parenchymal renal disease. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from echocardiograms performed in 250patients with essential hypertension (150 females) and 100 patients with secondary hypertension (60 females). The interven...