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Sample records for leaves sour taste

  1. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel.

  2. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice...

  3. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a(-/-) mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a(+/+) and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice by crossing Skn-1a(-/-) mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(+/+) mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X2-expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(+/+) and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a(-/-) mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Reinders, M.J.; Hiller, S.; Guardia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents (n=2,

  5. A novel objective sour taste evaluation method based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Aoki, Soichiro; Kouno, Emi; Ogasawara, Masashi; Onaka, Takashi; Miura, Yutaka; Mamiya, Kanji

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important themes in the development of foods and drinks is the accurate evaluation of taste properties. In general, a sensory evaluation system is frequently used for evaluating food and drink. This method, which is dependent on human senses, is highly sensitive but is influenced by the eating experience and food palatability of individuals, leading to subjective results. Therefore, a more effective method for objectively estimating taste properties is required. Here we show that salivary hemodynamic signals, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, are a useful objective indicator for evaluating sour taste stimulus. In addition, the hemodynamic responses of the parotid gland are closely correlated to the salivary secretion volume of the parotid gland in response to basic taste stimuli and respond to stimuli independently of the hedonic aspect. Moreover, we examined the hemodynamic responses to complex taste stimuli in food-based solutions and demonstrated for the first time that the complicated phenomenon of the "masking effect," which decreases taste intensity despite the additional taste components, can be successfully detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate near-infrared spectroscopy as a novel tool for objectively evaluating complex sour taste properties in foods and drinks.

  6. A Research on Sour Sensation Mechanism of Fungiform Taste Receptor Cells Based on Microelectrode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Taste receptor cells as the fundamental units of taste sensation are not only passive receivers to outside stimulus, but some primary process for the signals and information. In this paper, an innovation on acquisition of taste receptor cells was introduced and larger amount of cells could be obtained. A multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) system was applied in signal recording, which is used in non-invasive, multiple and simultaneous extracellular recording of taste receptor cells. The cells were treated with sour solutions of different pHs, and the relations between concentration of hydrogen and firing rate were observed. Firing rates on pH 7, pH 4 and pH 2 were approximately 1.38±0.01 (MEAN±SE)/s, 1.61±0.07/s and 2.75+0.15/s.

  7. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  8. The influence of sour taste and cold temperature in pharyngeal transit duration in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The effect of sour taste and food temperature variations in dysphagic patients has not been entirely clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sour and cold food in the pharyngeal transit times of patients with stroke. METHODS: Patients participating in this study were 30 right-handed adults, 16 of which were male and 14 were female, aged 41 to 88 (average age 62.3 years with ictus varying from 1 to 30 days (median of 6 days. To analyze the pharyngeal transit time a videofluoroscopy swallow test was performed. Each patient was observed during swallow of a 5 mL paste bolus given by spoon, totaling four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour and cold sour, one at a time, room temperature (22ºC and cold (8ºC were used. Later, the tests were analyzed using specific software to measure bolus transit time during the pharyngeal phase. RESULTS: The results showed that the pharyngeal transit time was significantly shorter during swallow of cold sour bolus when compared with other stimuli. Conclusion - Sour taste stimuli associated to cold temperature cause significant change in swallowing patterns, by shortening the pharyngeal transit time, which may lead to positive effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.CONTEXTO: O efeito do sabor azedo e as variações da temperatura dos alimentos em indivíduos disfágicos, ainda não foi totalmente esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do sabor azedo e da temperatura fria no tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição em indivíduos após acidente vascular encefálico hemisférico isquêmico. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 indivíduos adultos, sendo 16 do gênero masculino e 14 do feminino, destros, com faixa etária variando de 41 a 88 anos (média de 62,3 anos e ictus que variou de 1 a 30 dias (mediana de 6 dias. Para analisar o tempo de trânsito faríngeo da deglutição foi realizado o exame de videofluoroscopia da deglutição. Cada indivíduo foi observado durante a

  9. Analytical investigation of chromium and zinc in sweet, sour and bitter tasting fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmad Tirmizi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet, sour and bitter tasting fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants are an important component of human diet. The role of chromium and zinc in carbohydrate metabolism for control of diabetes is highlighted in selected commodities. Average levels of chromium and zinc in sweet taste were 0.69 ± 0.48 mg kg-1 and 4.81 ± 4.31 mg kg-1 respectively with correlation of 0.545, while in sour taste the values were 22.5 ± 22.0 mg kg-1 and 24.5 ± 11.8 mg kg-1 respectively with the correlation of 0.239 and in bitter taste, 0.61 ± 0.33 mg kg-1 and 4.70 ± 3.54 mg kg-1 respectively with correlation of 0.343. Overall, sour tasting commodities were found higher in levels of chromium and zinc and are recommended as food supplement for diabeties. None of these species contain metals above the toxic level.

  10. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract III. Salty and sour taste: sensing of sodium and protons by the tongue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    .... The sodium-specific salt taste receptor is the epithelial sodium channel whereas a nonspecific salt taste receptor is a taste variant of the vanilloid receptor-1 nonselective cation channel, TRPV1...

  11. Synergistic effects of sour taste and low temperature in suppressing the bitterness of Aminoleban® EN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Uchida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Aminoleban® EN, a nutritional product for patients with liver failure, contains three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. As BCAAs are extremely bitter, Aminoleban® EN has a low palatability, which is a major cause of patient noncompliance. Nutrients for liver failure often need to be taken for long periods, and poor medication compliance can cause serious problems, such as encephalopathy. Therefore it is important to suppress the bitter taste of Aminoleban® EN and thereby improve patient compliance. There are already six different flavoured powders (coffee, green-tea, apple, fruit, plum and pineapple) which can be added to Aminoleban® EN to reduce its unpleasant taste and smell, but it is possible that other factors, such as temperature, may also improve the palatability of Aminoleban® EN. In this study, flavours alone significantly decreased the bitterness intensity of Aminoleban® EN. It was thought that the sweetness and sourness of the flavoured powder would be the main factors involved in decreasing the bitterness. However, low temperature (0-5 °C) decreased the bitterness intensity of Aminoleban® EN, with or without the flavoured powders, compared with normal room temperature (25-30 °C). The sourness intensity of flavoured powders was not decreased at low temperatures, but the sweetness intensity of some flavoured powders did decrease. These results suggest that sourness can be tasted even at low temperatures. As not only the addition of flavoured powders but also low temperatures can reduce the bitterness of Aminioleban® EN, the combination of a sour-flavoured powder and a low temperature will improve the palatability of Aminoleban® EN the most.

  12. Taste Perception of Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, and Umami and Changes Due to l-Arginine Supplementation, as a Function of Genetic Ability to Taste 6-n-Propylthiouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Melania; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2017-05-25

    Behavioral reaction to different taste qualities affects nutritional status and health. 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting has been reported to be a marker of variation in taste perception, food preferences, and eating behavior, but results have been inconsistent. We showed that l-Arg can enhance the bitterness intensity of PROP, whilst others have demonstrated a suppression of the bitterness of quinine. Here, we analyze the taste perception of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami and the modifications caused by l-Arg supplementation, as a function of PROP-taster status. Taste perception was assessed by testing the ability to recognize, and the responsiveness to, representative solutions of the five primary taste qualities, also when supplemented with l-Arg, in subjects classified as PROP-tasting. Super-tasters, who showed high papilla density, gave higher ratings to sucrose, citric acid, caffeine, and monosodium l-glutamate than non-tasters. l-Arg supplementation mainly modified sucrose perception, enhanced the umami taste, increased NaCl saltiness and caffeine bitterness only in tasters, and decreased citric acid sourness. Our findings confirm the role of PROP phenotype in the taste perception of sweet, sour, and bitter and show its role in umami. The results suggest that l-Arg could be used as a strategic tool to specifically modify taste responses related to eating behaviors.

  13. Orosensory contributions to dysphagia: a link between perception of sweet and sour taste and pharyngeal delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauloski, Barbara R; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    Pharyngeal delay is a significant swallowing disorder often resulting in aspiration. It is suspected that pharyngeal delay originates from sensory impairment, but a direct demonstration of a link between oral sensation and pharyngeal delay is lacking. In this study involving six patients with complaints of dysphagia, taste sensation of the oral tongue was measured and subsequently related to swallowing kinematics. It was found that a response bias for sour taste was significantly correlated with pharyngeal delay time on paste, highlighting oral sensory contributions to swallow motor dysfunctions. Investigating the precise nature of such a link between oral sensation and dysphagia would constitute a basis for understanding the disorder. The results of this study highlight oral sensory contributions to pharyngeal swallow events and provide impetus to examine this link in larger samples of dysphagic patients.

  14. Quantitative studies and taste reconstitution experiments of the sour and lingering mouthful orosensation in a debittered extract of traditional Japanese dried and fermented skipjack tuna (hongarebushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lubian, Elisabetta; Mueller, Stefan; Shi, Feng; Koenig, Thorsten

    2013-04-03

    Hongarebushi, Japanese dried skipjack tuna and a high quality ingredient of Japanese dashi, was investigated for its taste active composition. The recent investigation focused on a debittered fish fraction, which revealed a strong umami and salt impact accompanied with a pleasant and pronounced sourness. Whereas the umami and salt tastes could be correlated to monosodium glutamate (MSG), ribonucleotides, and mineral salts, the pleasant sourness was not exclusively induced by organic acids. The essential compound imparting the sour orosensation, persistence, and mouthfulness of the debittered skipjack tuna extract was investigated, and omission experiments emphasized the impact of N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG) on the overall taste sensation of the debittered fish extract. This metabolite, which is known to be present as a minor constituent in animal- and plant-derived foods, was quantified in this study for the first time in seafood, soybean products, dried shiitake mushrooms, and dried fish in notable amounts. Furthermore, it was described for the first time as an essential taste contributor to the nonvolatile profile of a foodstuff, in this case of a debittered extract of hongarebushi.

  15. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  16. [Effect of compound Chinese sour taste herbs on advanced glycation end products content and gene expression of their receptors in aorta of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gui-Xiang; Cao, Yu-Li; Zhu, De-Zeng

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the possible mechanism of compound Chinese sour taste herbs (CS) in preventing and ameliorating diabetic macroangiopathy by analyzing the effects of CS on the deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and gene expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the aorta tissue of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rat model of T2DM was established by peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and high caloric diet feeding. Experimental SD rats were divided into the normal group, the model group, the aminoguanidine (AG) group, and the CS group. At the end of the 8th and 12th week, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured by glucose oxidase method; content of AGEs and collagen in aorta detected by fluorescent method and gene expression of RAGE in aorta determined by Real-time PCR method. FBG, AGEs and collagen contents and RAGE expression in aorta of model rats were all higher than those in the normal control group (P diabetic macroangiopathy by way of suppressing the production of AGEs and down-regulating the gene expression of RAGE in aorta of T2DM rats.

  17. The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ružica; Kaličanin, Biljana; Krstić, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the effects of consuming sour-tasting food and refreshing drinks on the bone tissue of teeth among teenagers. The cumulative effect of a year-long exposure of teeth to the erosive effects of a model system of acidic media (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, apple vinegar, lemonade, the soft drink Sprite, mineral water) was studied. The effects were registered based on the amount of released biometal ions, of zinc and copper, and toxic lead, during a period of 24 hr at room temperature, using the potentiometric stripping analysis. In the given time span, amounts ranging from 75 to 750 ppm of zinc, from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of copper, and up to 1.5 ppm of lead were released from the dental matrix, while the release of cadmium was below the level of detection. The changes to the mineral structure of the bone tissue were monitored by the Fourier's transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy technique. These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 μm.

  18. Reabilitação em disfagia orofaríngea neurogênica: sabor azedo e temperatura fria Rehabilitation in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia: sour taste and cold temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: reabilitação em disfagia orofaríngea neurogênica OBJETIVO: apresentar revisão de literatura sobre os controles neurofisiológicos da deglutição orofaríngea e a influência do sabor azedo e da temperatura fria no mecanismo da deglutição. CONCLUSÃO: quanto à questão do controle central da deglutição, ainda existem controvérsias em relação ao sabor azedo e a temperatura fria. Esses dois parâmetros provocam mudanças na dinâmica da deglutição, podendo trazer benefícios aos indivíduos acometidos por disfagia orofaríngea neurogênica. Porém, tais achados sugerem a necessidade de investigações futuras com populações randomizadas.BACKGROUND: rehabilitation in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia PURPOSE: to submit an overview of the related literature about neurophisiological control of oropharingeal dysphagia and the role of temperature and sour taste on swallowing mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: as for the neurophysiologic swallowing control, there are still controversies when it comes to sour taste and cold temperature. These two standards can change the swallowing dynamics, and they may bring out benefits to the individuals with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Therefore, the findings suggest the need for further investigations with randomized studies.

  19. 加州葡萄过剩后遗症%Grape glut leaves a sour taste in Cal.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    对于加州来说,一个好消息就是,较少的葡萄收获量和栽植量将会慢慢缓解葡萄过剩的局面。而坏消息则是美国的葡萄酒贸易正陷入一个九年过剩循环的困境中,而且行业专家称,这种局面直到2006年之前都不会得到完全的恢复。

  20. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten; Vera van Stokkom; M Mars; M Stieger; P.S Teo; C de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness

  1. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  2. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment and foliar methanol application on net photosynthesis of sour orange tree (Citrus Aurantium; Rutaceae) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Garcia, R.L.; Kimball, B.A. [Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AR (United States); Idso, K.E.; Hoober, J.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AR (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Foliar spray applications of 40% aqueous methanol were made to sunlit leaves of sour orange trees that had been grown continuously in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures maintained out-of-doors at Phoenix, Arizona, for over 5.5 years in ambient air of approximately 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and in air enriched with CO{sub 2} to a concentration of approximately 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}. No unambiguous effects of the methanol applications were detected in photosynthesis measurements made on foliage in either of the two CO{sub 2} treatments. THe 75% increase in CO{sub 2}, however, raised the upper-limiting leaf temperature for positive net photosynthesis by approximately 7 C, which resulted in a 75% enhancement in net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of 31 C, a 100% enhancement at a leaf temperature of 35 C, and a 200% enhancement at 42 C. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste : Posterpresentatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, Vera van; Kooten, Olaf van; Teo, P.S; Mars, M; Stieger, M; Graaf, C de

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness inten

  4. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R. van; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it ser

  5. Functional expression of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in transgenic lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Cui, Min-Long; Ma, Biao; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-23

    Taste-modifying proteins are a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners and flavor enhancers and have been used in some cultures for centuries. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of being able to modify a sour taste into a sweet taste. Here, we report the use of a plant expression system for the production of miraculin. A synthetic gene encoding miraculin was placed under the control of constitutive promoters and transferred to lettuce. Expression of this gene in transgenic lettuce resulted in the accumulation of significant amounts of miraculin protein in the leaves. The miraculin expressed in transgenic lettuce possessed sweetness-inducing activity. These results demonstrate that the production of miraculin in edible plants can be a good alternative strategy to enhance the availability of this protein.

  6. The taste of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  7. When good deeds leave a bad taste. Negative inferences from ethical food claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P; Hannahan, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Consumer research has demonstrated halo effects arising from advertising claims on food packaging (e.g., "organic," "no cholesterol") that promote misperceiving products more positively on other dimensions (e.g., low-calorie, low-fat). However, little research has explored the conditions under which such claims might give rise to more negative rather than positive evaluations. This paper highlights two domains of judgment in which an ethical or values-based claim ("organic") can promote negative impressions. In Study 1, participants judged organic foods relative to conventional foods on healthfulness and expected taste quality. Results suggest that whereas organics are perceived as more healthful than conventional foods (consistent with previous findings), they are also perceived as less tasty, especially among participants low in environmental concern. In Study 2, participants judged the effectiveness of a formula drink intended to help alleviate malnourishment that was described as organic or not, depending on experimental condition. Results showed that participants high in environmental concern (who typically evaluate organic products positively) judged the drink more negatively (i.e., as less effective) when it was described as "organic." Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms for these effects, as well as the moderating role of judgment type and perceivers' values in halo effects more broadly.

  8. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  9. The development of taste transduction and taste chip technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; LIU Qingjun; XU Ying; CAI Hua; QIN Lifeng; WANG Lijiang; WANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic perception process of taste is obviously far less known than those of vision, audition, touch and olfaction. Despite that taste cells utilize a variety of sensory mechanisms to translate plenty of gustatory sensations such as sour, sweet, bitter, salty and umami into cellular signals, gustatory perception mechanisms are still under exploration due to the lack of effective methods on cellular and molecular level. Recently the development of molecular biological and electrophysiological studies has promoted exploration of olfactory and gustatory transduction and coding mechanisms dramatically. Based on the studies of artificial olfaction, artificial taste and cell-based biosensor in our laboratory, this paper reviews the current research on taste transduction mechanism. We introduce the recent advances in cell chip that combined biology with microelectronics, discuss taste cell chip as well as its potential of prospective application in taste transduction mechanism in detail and propose the research trends of taste chip in future.

  10. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  11. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  12. Sour or Sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖敏; 乐伟国

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 One morning, a fox comes to a big grape garden. "Wow, so many grapes! says the fox. But he can't pick the grapes. So he says to himself, " Well, I'm sure the grapes are sour. They are not healthy for me." From the tree comes a squirrel. " Good morning, Mr Fox. Do you like the grapes?" asks the squirrel. The fox thinks for a while and says, " No, I don't. The grapes are very sour, and they are not healthy. Don't eat the grapes! " "Oh, I see. Thank you, Mr Fox."

  13. TRPs in taste and chemesthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa.

  14. The effect of emotional state on taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Corinna; Dando, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013-2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating.

  15. [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.

  16. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  17. GENETIC VARIATION IN TASTE PERCEPTION AND ITS ROLE IN FOOD LIKING AND HEALTH STATUS

    OpenAIRE

    Robino, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been described as the body's “nutritional gatekeeper”, affecting the identification of nutrients and toxins and guiding food choices. Genetic variation in taste receptor genes can influence perception of sweet, umami and bitter tastes, whereas less is known about the genetics of sour and salty taste. Differences in taste perception, influencing food selection and dietary behavior, have also shown important long-term health implications, especially for food-related diseases such as o...

  18. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    of the national cuisine indicates continuity over time. There seems, hence, to be a gap between the multiplicity of instances of experience and recollection that belongs to the sphere of the individual and a historical memory embedded in the larger context of a society. From a common-sense perspective, this gap...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  19. Taste of milk from inflamed breasts of breastfeeding mothers with mastitis evaluated using a taste sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-03-01

    The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3-5 days and at 2-3, 4-5, and 8-10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium.

  20. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.160 Sour cream. (a) Description. Sour cream results from the souring, by lactic acid producing bacteria, of pasteurized...

  1. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2016-12-01

    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent.

  2. Taste - impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of what is perceived as "taste" is actually smell. People who have taste problems often have a smell disorder that can make it hard to identify ... flavor. (Flavor is a combination of taste and smell.) Taste problems can be caused by anything that ...

  3. A PKD Channel-based Biosensor for Taste Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a micro electrode array (MEA)-based biosensor for taste transduction using heterologous expressed taste polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD) channels as molecular sensors. Taste PKD1L3/2L1 channels were expressed on the plasma membrane of human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells [1]. Then the cells were cultured on the surface of MEA chip [2] to record the responses of PKD channels to sour stimulations by monitoring membrane potential. The results indicate this MEA-based biosensor can record the special off-responses of PKD channels to sour stimulation in a non-invasive manner for a long term. It may provide an alternative tool for the research of taste transduction, especially for the characterization of taste ion channels.

  4. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  5. Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  6. Taste Quality Confusions: Influences of Age, Smoking, PTC Taster Status, and other Subject Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Chen, Jonathan H; Overend, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Many persons misidentify the quality of taste stimuli, a phenomenon termed "taste confusion." In this study of 1000 persons, we examined the influences of age, sex, causes of chemosensory disturbances, and genetically determined phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taster status on taste quality confusions for four tastants (sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, caffeine). Overall, sour-bitter confusions were most common (19.3%), followed by bitter-sour (11.4%), salty-bitter (7.3%), salty-sour (7.0%), bitter-salty (3.5%), bitter-sweet (3.4), and sour-salty (2.4%) confusions. Confusions for sweet were PTC tasters had fewer confusions than non-tasters except for salty-bitter confusions. Confusions typically increased monotonically with age. Current smokers exhibited more sour-bitter confusions than never smokers (48.9% vs. 32.2%), whereas past smokers had more bitter-sour confusions than never smokers (23.8% vs. 14.2%). Previous head trauma was associated with higher bitter-salty and salty-bitter confusions relative to those of some other etiologies. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that multiple subject factors influence taste confusions and, along with literature accounts, supports the view that there are both biological and psychological determinants of taste quality confusions.

  7. On the possibility of molecular recognition of taste substances studied by Gábor analysis of oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Płocharska-Jankowska, E.; Szpakowska, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    A liquid membrane oscillator containing nitromethane as membrane material has been investigated. The influence of substances responsible for taste belonging to four classes (sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness) on oscillation patterns of liquid membrane oscillators with cationic...

  8. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  9. Does the taste matter? Taste and medicinal perceptions associated with five selected herbal drugs among three ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, Northern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieroni Andrea

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, diverse scholars have addressed the issue of the chemosensory perceptions associated with traditional medicines, nevertheless there is still a distinct lack of studies grounded in the social sciences and conducted from a cross-cultural, comparative perspective. In this urban ethnobotanical field study, 254 informants belonging to the Gujarati, Kashmiri and English ethnic groups and living in Western Yorkshire in Northern England were interviewed about the relationship between taste and medicinal perceptions of five herbal drugs, which were selected during a preliminary study. The herbal drugs included cinnamon (the dried bark of Cinnamomum verum, Lauraceae, mint (the leaves of Mentha spp., Lamiaceae, garlic (the bulbs of Allium sativum, Alliaceae, ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae, and cloves (the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae. The main cross-cultural differences in taste perceptions regarded the perception the perception of the spicy taste of ginger, garlic, and cinnamon, of the bitter taste of ginger, the sweet taste of mint, and of the sour taste of garlic. The part of the study of how the five selected herbal drugs are perceived medicinally showed that TK (Traditional Knowledge is widespread among Kashmiris, but not so prevalent among the Gujarati and especially the English samples. Among Kashmiris, ginger was frequently considered to be helpful for healing infections and muscular-skeletal and digestive disorders, mint was chosen for healing digestive and respiratory troubles, garlic for blood system disorders, and cinnamon was perceived to be efficacious for infectious diseases. Among the Gujarati and Kashmiri groups there was evidence of a strong link between the bitter and spicy tastes of ginger, garlic, cloves, and cinnamon and their perceived medicinal properties, whereas there was a far less obvious link between the sweet taste of mint and cinnamon and their

  10. Temporal, Affective, and Embodied Characteristics of Taste Experiences: A Framework for Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrist, M.; Comber, R.; Subramanian, S.; Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Spence, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present rich descriptions of taste experience through an analysis of the diachronic and synchronic experiences of each of the five basic taste qualities: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. Our findings, based on a combination of user experience evaluation techniques highlight three main themes

  11. Alteration in salivary properties and taste perception in OSMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Dyasanoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR, pH and taste perception among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF and apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (45 OSMF + 45 controls were enrolled in the study for estimating and analogizing the SFR, pH, and taste perception executing modified Schirmer, pH, and taste strips. The SFR, pH, and taste perception were evaluated and compared between 14 Stage I and 31 Stage II OSMF subjects. The entered data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd min and hypogeusia to salty (62.2%, and dysgeusia to sour taste (40% when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd min was noted. Statistical significance (P < 0.05% inferring hyposalivation in Stage II OSMF (24.1 mm at 3rd min juxtaposing with Stage I OSMF (31.4 mm at 3rd min. Statistically significant hypogeusia to salty (n = 23 and sweet (n = 16 and dysgeusia (n = 14 to sour among Stage II OSMF when differentiated with Stage I OSMF. The mean pH among the OSMF and control groups demonstrated no statistical significance. Conclusion: The findings from the study demonstrated marked decrease of SFR and taste perception to salty and sour among Stage II OSMF when compared to Stage I OSMF subjects.

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  13. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  14. The Elements of Taste: How Many Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    What is the number of tastes or flavors we have? Is it five, as most Chinese believe? None, as the ancient Taoists asserted? Four, as Western science traditionally claims? Recently, "umami" has been added to the traditional four: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (the Chinese added another: spicy or pungent). Aristotle and Raghavan Iyer (of India)…

  15. The taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Dupuis-Roy, N; Yang, X L; Qiu, J F; Zhang, Q L

    2014-03-28

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Eighteen healthy participants were presented with a taste stimulus and a food image, and asked to categorize the image as "sweet" or "sour" by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the image was faster when it was presented with a congruent taste stimulus (e.g., sour taste/image of lemon) than with an incongruent one (e.g., sour taste/image of ice cream). ERP analyses revealed a negative difference component (ND430-620) between 430 and 620ms in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop interference. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (incongruent minus congruent) indicated that two generators localized in the prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus contributed to this taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. This result suggests that the prefrontal cortex is associated with the process of conflict control in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Also, we speculate that the parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the process of discordant information in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Air Temperature and Pretreatment Solutions on Drying Time, Energy Consumption and Organoleptic Properties of Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gazor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretreatment solution (no treatment, boiling water, salty boiling water, ethil oleat on drying time of sour cherry were studied experimentally. The thin layer drying of sour cherries was carried out at three air temperatures of 50, 60, 70°C and with constant airflow velocity of 1 m/s. Drying kinetic, energy consumption and organoleptic properties as taste, visual color and texture were evaluated in dried fruits. Results of experiments showed that pretreatment solutions and air temperatures had significant effect on drying time and organoleptic properties of dried sour cherry. Using of pretreatment solution is necessary before drying process. It reduced drying time up to 80% and energy saving was approximately 83% in comparison with no treatment samples. Results of this research indicated that using of salty boiling water as pretreatment and temperature of 50°C in sour cherry drying process cause the best result in drying time and organoleptic evaluation such as taste quality, visual color and texture suitability of dried fruit. In addition, energy consumption for drying reduced noticeably when sour cherry was pretreated with salty boiling water.

  17. Influence of Air Temperature and Pretreatment Solutions on Drying Time, Energy Consumption and Organoleptic Properties of Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gazor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretreatment solution (no treatment, boiling water, salty boiling water, ethil oleat on drying time of sour cherry were studied experimentally. The thin layer drying of sour cherries was carried out at three air temperatures of 50, 60, 70°C and with constant airflow velocity of 1 m/s. Drying kinetic, energy consumption and organoleptic properties as taste, visual color and texture were evaluated in dried fruits. Results of experiments showed that pretreatment solutions and air temperatures had significant effect on drying time and organoleptic properties of dried sour cherry. Using of pretreatment solution is necessary before drying process. It reduced drying time up to 80% and energy saving was approximately 83% in comparison with no treatment samples. Results of this research indicated that using of salty boiling water as pretreatment and temperature of 50°C in sour cherry drying process cause the best result in drying time and organoleptic evaluation such as taste quality, visual color and texture suitability of dried fruit. In addition, energy consumption for drying reduced noticeably when sour cherry was pretreated with salty boiling water.

  18. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  19. Exercise intensity differentially impacts sensitivity thresholds to specific tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of exercise intensity on sensitivity to four major tastes of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Ten subjects completed two separate 30-min cycling exercise bouts, one at low intensity (50% V •O2max and the other at high intensity (70% V •O2max. Sensitivity to the four tastes was assessed before and after each exercise bout, using taste discs. Comparative data were analyzed using paired t-tests and the relationships between work-related physiologic measures and taste sensitivities were calculated using Pearson correlation. Significance was established at the 0.05 level of probability. Post-exercise sourness threshold was higher (p≤0.05 following the high intensity exercise compared to the low intensity exercise, sweetness threshold decreased following the higher intensity exercise (p≤0.05, while no differences were observed in threshold sensitivities for the other two tastes at either workload. The increased sensitivity to sweetness (decreased threshold was strongly related to changes in blood glucose following both low (r2=0.62; p<0.01 and high (r2=0.50; p≤0.05 intensity exercises. As well, changes observed in sourness threshold were directly related to the changes in core temperature (r2=0.49; p≤0.05 but only for the low intensity exercise bout.

  20. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  1. GUSTATORY SYSTEM AND MASKING THE TASTE OF BITTER HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Kale, Chetan Tapre and Abhay Ittadwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the most easy and favorable route of drug administration. The development of oral formulations containing bitter herbs has widely been required in pharmaceutical and herbal industry. The human gustatory system is capable of identifying five major taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory. Different receptors and transduction mechanisms are involved in the detection of each taste quality. Many efforts have been focused to improve the palatability in these products that has prompted in the development of numerous techniques of taste masking. Once a method for taste masking is adopted, it becomes apparent to evaluate the effectiveness of the taste masked product. The major hurdle in evaluation of measuring the effectiveness of taste masking is that the taste is a highly subjective property and it varies demographically and with the age and gender. This communication gives a brief account of gustatory system, the receptor and transduction mechanism of bitter taste and various techniques used in taste masking of the bitters. The review also reveals the in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluating taste masked efficiency of developed product. Finally, the review concludes that proper choice of method for taste masking method is essential and it might depend on the properties of the herbs.

  2. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  3. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  4. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  5. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  6. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  7. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  8. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  9. Discrimination of Basic Taste Solutions and Soft Drinks on Electrical and Optical Response Patterns of Artificial Lipid Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Arisawa, Junji

    In this paper, electrical and optical characteristics of artificial lipid membrane for basic taste solutions and tea drinks were examined. The possibility of taste sensing on the electrical and optical response patterns of a single membrane was also discussed. As a result, in case of sour and sweet solutions with different concentration, the patterns of taste response were similar in shape. In case of the tea drinks on some commercial goods, the different shapes among the sample solutions were obtained. Furthermore, the strength of sour taste was reflected in the electrical axis of response pattern and the strength of sweet taste was reflected in the optical axis of response pattern. Therefore, it was found that the possibility of taste sensing using electrical and optical response patterns was obtained from a single membrane.

  10. Smell and taste in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Reindl, Wolfgang; Dempfle, Astrid; Schuster, Anna; Wolf, Petra; Hundt, Walter; Huber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by smell/taste tests, and to determine if disease activity or medication might influence the olfactory/gustatory functions of patients. In total, 59 IBD patients (37 Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients) were studied using "Sniffin' sticks" and "taste strips" for olfactory and gustatory tests, respectively, and compared to healthy controls and published normative data. Among IBD (CD and UC) patients, the values for odor threshold, but not for odor identification or discrimination, were significantly lower than that of the normative data. Further, these patients showed lower values than the normative taste values and the control group for all tastes, except sour; 57.6% of the IBD patients were hyposmic, while 30.5% were hypogeusic. Subjective self-assessments showed that the patients were not aware of their reduced olfactory/gustatory functions. There were no relevant differences in taste and smell abilities between the CD and UC patients. Disease activity and treatment did not influence the olfactory/gustatory functions. IBD (CD and UC) patients exhibited significant reductions in the olfactory and gustatory functions. Therefore, patients should be tested by smell/taste tests, in order to be adequately informed of their olfactory/gustatory functions and provided an understanding of how to overcome their limitations, and thus improve their quality of life.

  11. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.162 Acidified sour cream. (a) Description. Acidified sour cream results from the souring of pasteurized...

  12. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  13. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  14. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Smell & Taste Smell & Taste Patient Health Information News media ... passages, or, at times, brain tumors. HOW DO SMELL AND TASTE WORK? Smell and taste belong to ...

  15. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  16. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  17. 烤烟烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系%Relationship Between Physical-chemical Indexes and Burnt Sweet Taste of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均; 姜均停

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Sixty flue-cured tobacco leaf samples were collected from Zhumadian, the relationships between physical-chemical indexes and level of burnt sweet taste were studied with correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that:l) per leaf area weight,nicotine,megastigmatrienone A,B,C and D significantly positively correlated to, leaf thickness, volatile base, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural extremely significantly positively correlated to, while reducing sugar, linalool, farnesylacetone, geranyl acetone,β-ionone, 2-acetyl furan, dihydroactinidiolide extremely significantly negatively correlated to the level of burnt sweet taste; 2) there was an extremely significant regression relationship between furfural, 5-methyl furfural, 2-acetyl furan, geranyl acetone and the level of burnt sweet taste, they were the major factors affecting the level of burnt sweet taste of tobacco leaves and determined about 89.9% of the change of the later.%以河南省驻马店烟区的60个烤烟烟叶为材料,检测评价了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度,并采用相关分析、逐步回归分析等方法研究了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系.结果表明:①烟叶叶面密度、烟碱、巨豆三烯酮A,巨豆三烯酮B,巨豆三烯酮C,巨豆三烯酮D与焦甜感程度显著正相关,厚度、挥发 性碱、山奈酚糖苷、糠醛、糠醇、5-甲基糠醛与焦甜感程度极显著正相关,还原糖、芳樟醇、金合欢基丙酮、香叶基丙酮、β-紫罗兰酮、2-乙酰呋喃、二氢猕猴桃内酯与焦甜感程度极显著负相关;②糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮与烟叶焦甜感程度存在极显著回归关系.糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮是影响烟叶焦甜感程度的主要指标.

  18. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  19. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN PeiHua; LIU Xiaodong; ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Jun; WANG Ping; YANG Wei; LUO JianHong

    2009-01-01

    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells,a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components,including voltage-gated Na~+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K~+ currents.Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants.The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed.Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  20. Modeling and simulation of ion channels and action potentials in taste receptor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on patch clamp data on the ionic currents of rat taste receptor cells, a mathematical model of mammalian taste receptor cells was constructed to simulate the action potentials of taste receptor cells and their corresponding ionic components, including voltage-gated Na+ currents and outward delayed rectifier K+ currents. Our simulations reproduced the action potentials of taste receptor cells in response to electrical stimuli or sour tastants. The kinetics of ion channels and their roles in action potentials of taste receptor cells were also analyzed. Our prototype model of single taste receptor cell and simulation results presented in this paper provide the basis for the further study of taste information processing in the gustatory system.

  1. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

     Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  2. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  3. Higher sensitivity to sweet and salty taste in obese compared to lean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Samyogita; Höchenberger, Richard; Villringer, Arno; Ohla, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Although putatively taste has been associated with obesity as one of the factors governing food intake, previous studies have failed to find a consistent link between taste perception and Body Mass Index (BMI). A comprehensive comparison of both thresholds and hedonics for four basic taste modalities (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) has only been carried out with a very small sample size in adults. In the present exploratory study, we compared 23 obese (OB; BMI > 30), and 31 lean (LN; BMI salty), citric acid (sour), and quinine hydrochloride (bitter) dissolved in water. Recognition thresholds were estimated with an adaptive Bayesian staircase procedure (QUEST). Intensity and pleasantness ratings were acquired using visual analogue scales (VAS). It was found that OB had lower thresholds than LN for sucrose and NaCl, indicating a higher sensitivity to sweet and salty tastes. This effect was also reflected in ratings of intensity, which were significantly higher in the OB group for the lower concentrations of sweet, salty, and sour. Calculation of Bayes factors further corroborated the differences observed with null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Overall, the results suggest that OB are more sensitive to sweet and salty, and perceive sweet, salty, and sour more intensely than LN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting......’ and hence a rupture in the person’s sense of self and social relations. We suggest that eating should be conceptualised as a practice that extends beyond the boundaries of our bodies and into diverse realms of relations and practices, and that changing the way we eat also changes the fundamentally embodied...

  5. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  6. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population. PMID:28355227

  7. When music is salty: The crossmodal associations between sound and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Rachel; Loui, Psyche

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate associations between complex auditory and complex taste stimuli. A novel piece of music was composed and recorded in four different styles of musical articulation to reflect the four basic tastes groups (sweet, sour, salty, bitter). In Experiment 1, participants performed above chance at pairing the music clips with corresponding taste words. Experiment 2 uses multidimensional scaling to interpret how participants categorize these musical stimuli, and to show that auditory categories can be organized in a similar manner as taste categories. Experiment 3 introduces four different flavors of custom-made chocolate ganache and shows that participants can match music clips with the corresponding taste stimuli with above-chance accuracy. Experiment 4 demonstrates the partial role of pleasantness in crossmodal mappings between sound and taste. The present findings confirm that individuals are able to make crossmodal associations between complex auditory and gustatory stimuli, and that valence may mediate multisensory integration in the general population.

  8. Taste and smell dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Chan, Ada; Gabriel, Melissa; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Reduced or altered taste and smell function may occur as a side-effect of cancer therapy. This can lead to altered nutrient and energy intake. Some studies have suggested that taste and smell dysfunction can persist many years after treatment completion but this has not been previously assessed in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if taste and smell dysfunction is present in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Food preference and Quality of Life was also assessed. Fifty-one child cancer survivors (mean age: 19.69±7.09years), more than five years since treatment completion, (mean: 12.4years) were recruited from the long term follow-up clinics at two Sydney-based children's hospitals. Taste function was assessed using a 25 sample taste identification test comprising five concentrations each of sweet, salty, sour and bitter tastes and water. Smell function was assessed by determining the ability of participants to identify 16 common odorants. The participants' Quality of Life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia Cachexia scale and food preferences were assessed using a 94-item food liking tool. Taste dysfunction was found in 27.5% of participants (n=14), and smell dysfunction in 3.9% (n=2) of participants. The prevalence of taste dysfunction was higher than that seen in the non-cancer population. The child cancer survivors' appeared to "like" the less healthy food groups such as flavoured beverages, takeaway and snacks over healthier food groups such as vegetables and salad. No correlation was found between those with a taste dysfunction and their food "likes". A high level of taste dysfunction was found in CCS though there did not appear to be an issue with smell dysfunction. Further work is also needed to assess whether a taste dysfunction do play a role in the dietary habits of CCS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-05-06

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Chemostimulatory protein: a new type of taste stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, R H

    1973-07-06

    Three taste-active proteins have recently been discovered. It is proposed that two of these (monellin and thaumatin) should be classified as chemostimulatory proteins because of their sensory effect; these two proteins taste intensely sweet. The third protein (miraculin), a taste-modifier protein, changes the normal sour taste of acids to sweet. The taste-modifier protein, miraculin, occurs in the fruit of the tropical plant Synsepalum dulcificum. Though itself not sweet, it is able to change the taste of acids from sour to sweet after the tongue has been treated with the protein. Miraculin is a basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 44,000. Monellin, a chemostimulatory protein, is found in the fruit of a different tropical plant, Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii. It has been characterized as a basic protein with a molecular weight of 10,700 that contains no carbohydrate. Thaumatin, another chemostimulatory protein, occurs in the fruit of a third tropical plant, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Like monellin, it is a basic protein that contains no carbohydrate. Its molecular weight is around 21,000. Certain gross similarities among the three proteins have been noted. Their basic ionic character and some features of the amino acid compositions are similar. Little is known of the structural features of the chemostimulatory proteins that are required for eliciting their intense sweetness; they are of the order of 10(5) times more effective than sucrose. The precise role of the tertiary structure in their biological activity is not known but appears to be an important area for further study. The relatively large size (11,000 to 21,000 molecular weight) of the chemostimulatory proteins provides indirect evidence that the initial interaction of these stimuli with taste receptor cells occurs at the plasma membrane.

  11. Changing Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line; Christensen, Bodil Just; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is a specific medical technology that alters the body in ways that force the patient to fundamentally change his or her eating habits. When patients enrol for surgery, they enter a learning process, encountering new and at times contested ways of sensing their bodies, tasting......, and experiencing hunger and fullness. In this paper, we explore how patients begin to eat again after gastric bypass surgery. The empirical data used here are drawn from a Danish fieldwork study of persons undergoing obesity surgery. The material presented shows how the patients used instructions on how to eat. We...... explore the ways in which diverse new experiences and practices of hunger and fullness are part of the process of undergoing surgery for severe obesity. New sensory experiences lead to uncertainty; as a result, patients practice what we term mimetic eating, which reflects a ‘sensory displacement...

  12. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.

  13. Cross-modal tactile-taste interactions in food evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, B. G.; Carmichael, D.A.; Simner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the taste components within a flavoured substance relies on exposing chemoreceptors within the mouth to the chemical components of ingested food. In our paper, we show that the evaluation of taste components can also be influenced by the tactile quality of the food. We first discuss how multisensory factors might influence taste, flavour and smell for both typical and atypical (synaesthetic) populations and we then present two empirical studies showing tactile-taste interactions in the general population. We asked a group of average adults to evaluate the taste components of flavoured food substances, whilst we presented simultaneous cross-sensory visuo-tactile cues within the eating environment. Specifically, we presented foodstuffs between subjects that were otherwise identical but had a rough versus smooth surface, or were served on a rough versus smooth serving-plate. We found no effect of the serving-plate, but we found the rough/smoothness of the foodstuff itself significantly influenced perception: food was rated as significantly more sour if it had a rough (vs. smooth) surface. In modifying taste perception via ostensibly unrelated dimensions, we demonstrate that the detection of tastes within flavours may be influenced by higher level cross-sensory cues. Finally, we suggest that the direction of our cross-sensory associations may speak to the types of hedonic mapping found both in normal multisensory integration, and in the unusual condition of synaesthesia. PMID:26169315

  14. Temporal signatures of taste quality driven by active sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dustin M; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2014-05-28

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system.

  15. Mammalian Sweet Taste Receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Greg; Hoon, Mark A; Chandrashekar, Jayaram; Zhang, Yifeng; Ryba, Nicholas J.P; Zuker, Charles S

    2001-01-01

    ... and information coding, and have focused on the isolation and characterization of genes encoding sweet and bitter taste receptors. The identification of taste receptors generates powerful molecular tools to investigate not only the function of taste receptor cells, but also the logic of taste coding. For example, defining the size and diversity of the re...

  16. Application of sour dough in the production of gluten free bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Ternovskoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background.Recent epidemiological studies show a high incidence of diseases associated with disturbances in protein metabolism, causing gluten intolerance and consequently the occurrence of celiac disease. Gluten, as a specific protein fraction of wheat, rye, barley and oats, cannot be metabolized in gastrointestinal tract of patients suffering from celiac disease. The prevalence of this disease in  economically developed countries of Europe and some others is more than 0.5-1% of entire population. In Russia, celiac disease is considered as rare low incidence disease with occurrence of 1 per 5 to 10 thousand children. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of application of new technology for gluten free bread production. Material  and methods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and bifidobacteria (BB were used as microbial compositions in the gluten-free baking technology. Gluten free bread, made with bacterial and yeast sour dough compositions, was tested for its physical and chemical properties and resistance to spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms during storage. Results.The preparation of the dough with sour dough containing yeast improved structural properties and taste of the bread. Enrichment by vitamins increased the nutritive value of gluten-free product. Sour doughs increased the acidity and improved the flavor and stability of the experimental bread. Conclusion.This study indicates that gluten free bread manufactured with sour dough, shows higher sensory and structural-mechanical properties when compared to some control samples. The obtained research results demonstrate the positive influenceof bacterial starter cultures to overall quality of gluten free bread, creating the sound foundation for their future application in the bread making industry.  

  17. Smell and taste in patients with vascular malformation of the extracranial head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Silke; Fasunla, Ayotunde J; Lahme, Carolin M E; Schäfers, Sophia P; Hundt, Walter; Wolf, Petra; Mandic, Robert; Werner, Jochen A; Eivazi, Behfar

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory and gustatory functions have not been investigated in patients with vascular malformation of the extracranial head and neck region with validated smell and taste tests. Although olfactory and gustatory deficiencies are often not outwardly apparent, they substantially affect daily life. Smell and taste tests using sniffin sticks and taste strips were administered in 40 patients. For all age groups and both sexes, odor threshold (THR) values were, on average, lower in patients than in healthy individuals; whereas, values of odor identification and discrimination were not significantly lower. Regarding odor THR, 33 (82.5%) patients were hyposmic. Taste values (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and total taste) were, on average, lower in patients than in healthy individuals; 21 (52.5%) patients were hypogeusic. Disease duration did not correlate with smell and taste test values. Patients with and without tongue involvement had decreased odor threshold and taste values. No significant differences were identified when taste values on the left and right sides of the tongue were compared in patients without tongue involvement and with unilateral and bilateral tongue involvement. Patients with venous malformations had lower smell test values, and patients with lymphatic malformations had lower taste test values than patients with other malformations. Patients exhibit significantly reduced olfactory and gustatory function even when the nose and/or tongue are not malformed. Patients should be tested with validated smell and taste tests to adequately inform and advise them about overcoming smell and taste deficits.

  18. The impact of oral health on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Solemdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. BACKGROUND: Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 (55 men acutely hospitalized elderly, coming from their own homes and with adequate cognitive function, were included. Dental status, decayed teeth, oral bacteria, oral hygiene, dry mouth and tongue changes were recorded. Growth of oral bacteria was assessed with CRT® Bacteria Kit. Taste ability was evaluated with 16 taste strips impregnated with sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste solutions in 4 concentrations each. Correct identification was given score 1, and maximum total taste score was 16. RESULTS: Mean age was 84 yrs. (range 70-103 yrs.. Total taste score was significantly and markedly reduced in patients with decayed teeth, poor oral hygiene, high growth of oral bacteria and dry mouth. Sweet and salty taste were particularly impaired in patients with dry mouth. Sour taste was impaired in patients with high growth of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study shows that taste ability was reduced in acutely hospitalized elderly with caries activity, high growth of oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Our findings indicate that good oral health is important for adequate gustatory function. Maintaining proper oral hygiene in hospitalized elderly should therefore get high priority among hospital staff.

  19. Interactions between CO2 oral pungency and taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; García-Medina, M R; Calviño, A M; Noriega, G

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the perceptual interactions between oral pungency, evoked by CO2, and the taste of each of four tastants--sucrose (sweet), quinine sulfate (bitter), sodium chloride (salty), and tartaric acid (sour)--were explored. In experiment 1 the effect of three concentrations of each tastant on the stimulus-response function for perceived oral pungency, in terms of both rate of change (slope) and relative position along the perceived pungency axis, was determined. In experiment 2 the effect of three concentrations of CO2 on the stimulus-response function for the perceived taste intensity of each tastant was examined. Results show that the characteristics of the mutual effects of tastant and pungent stimulus depend on the particular tastant employed. Sucrose sweetness and CO2 oral pungency have no mutual effect; sodium chloride saltiness or tartaric acid sourness and CO2 oral pungency show mutual enhancement; and quinine sulfate bitterness abates CO2 oral pungency, whereas CO2 has a double and opposite effect on quinine sulfate bitterness--at low concentrations of bitter tastant CO2 enhances bitterness, and at high concentrations of bitter tastant CO2 abates bitterness. It is suggested that the perceptual attributes of saltiness and sourness are closer, from a qualitative point of view, to oral pungency than are the attributes of bitterness and sweetness.

  20. Molecular evidence for the loss of three basic tastes in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huabin; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2015-02-16

    Sensing its biotic and abiotic environmental cues is critical to the survival and reproduction of any organism. Of the five traditionally recognized senses of vertebrates, taste is dedicated to the differentiation between nutritious and harmful foods, triggering either appetitive or rejective behaviors. Vertebrates typically can detect five basic taste qualities: sweet, umami, bitter, sour and salty. Remarkable progress in understanding the molecular basis of taste has opened the door to inferring taste abilities from genetic data. Based on genome and relevant gene sequences, we infer that the sweet, umami, and bitter tastes have been lost in all penguins, an order of aquatic flightless birds originating and still occupying the coldest ecological niche on Earth, the Antarctic.

  1. Taste loss in the elderly: Possible implications for dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Giuseppe; Bano, Giulia; Pizzato, Simona; Veronese, Nicola; Manzato, Enzo

    2017-11-22

    Aging may coincide with a declining gustatory function that can affect dietary intake and ultimately have negative health consequences. Taste loss is caused by physiological changes and worsened by events often associated with aging, such as polypharmacy and chronic disease. The most pronounced increase in elderly people's detection threshold has been observed for sour and bitter tastes, but their perception of salty, sweet, and umami tastes also seems to decline with age. It has often been suggested that elderly people who lose their sense of taste may eat less food or choose stronger flavors, but the literature has revealed a more complicated picture: taste loss does not appear to make elderly people prefer stronger flavors, but nutrition surveys have pointed to a greater consumption of sweet and salty foods. Real-life eating habits thus seem to be more influenced by other, social and psychological factors. Elderly gustatory function is worth investigating to identify dietary strategies that can prevent the consequences of unhealthy eating habits in the elderly. This paper discusses age-related changes in taste perception, focusing on their consequences on food preferences, and pointing to some strategies for preserving appropriate dietary habits in elderly people.

  2. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato, salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato, sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz2011. Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science.

  3. Mental and physical workload, salivary stress biomarkers and taste perception: Mars desert research station expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-11-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of simulation of Mars conditions on taste. This study was planned to find the effects of physical and mental workload on taste sensitivity and salivary stress biomarkers. Twelve crew members were selected. Taste reactions and intensity of the taste sensations to quinine sulfate, citric acid, and sucrose were tested before and after mental and physical tasks for one hour. Also, psychological mood states by profile of mood state, salivary, salivary alpha amylase and cortisol, and current stress test scores were measured before and after mental and physical tasks. Average time intensity evaluation showed that after the mental and physical tasks, the perceived duration of bitter, sour, and sweet taste sensations was significantly shortened relative to control group. There were good correlations between average time intensity of sweetness, bitterness, sourness and cortisol levels. Taste alterations due to stress can have an effect on the health and confidence of astronauts in long- term space missions. Thus, this issue remains one of the important issues for future human explorations.

  4. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoang eWan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colours, 15 shapes, and 2 textures and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed colour patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colours/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the colour white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colours, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  5. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  6. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  7. The effect of taste and palatability on lingual swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Cathy A; Dhanaraj, Glory E

    2006-04-01

    There is evidence that a strong, unpalatable, sour bolus improves swallowing in neurogenic dysphagia. It is not known whether other tastes may alter swallowing physiology. This study investigated the effect of moderate versus high taste concentrations (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and barium taste samples on lingual swallowing pressure in ten healthy young adults, using a three-bulb lingual pressure array secured to the hard palate. Palatability of the samples was analyzed using the nine-point hedonic scale. Results showed that moderate sucrose, high salt, and high citric acid elicited significantly higher lingual swallowing pressures compared with the pressures generated by water. Pressures in the anterior bulb were significantly higher than those recorded from the middle or posterior bulb. There was no significant effect of palatability on lingual swallowing pressures. High salt and citric acid are known to elicit chemesthesis mediated by the trigeminal nerve. These results suggest that chemesthesis may play a crucial role in swallowing physiology. If true, dysphagia diet recommendations that include trigeminal irritants such as carbonation may be beneficial to individuals with dysphagia. However, before this recommendation more research is needed to examine how food properties and their perception affect swallowing in individuals with and without dysphagia.

  8. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, P M; Maliepaard, C; Tikunov, Y; Haanstra, J P W; Bovy, A G; Visser, R G F

    2012-05-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed.

  9. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  10. Taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: Implication in weight loss dietary interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona; Bertoli; Monica; Laureati; Alberto; Battezzati; Valentina; Bergamaschi; Emanuele; Cereda; Angela; Spadafranca; Laila; Vignati; Ella; Pagliarini

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome and possible implications on weight loss dietary program. METHODS: Sensitivity for bitter, sweet, salty and sour tastes was assessed by the three-Alternative-Forced-Choice method in 41 overweight(OW), 52 obese(OB) patients and 56 normal-weight matched controls. OW and OB were assessed also for body composition(by impedence), resting energy expenditure(by indirect calorimetry) and presence of metabolic syndrome(MetS) and were prescribed a weight loss diet. Compliance to the weight loss dietary program was defined as adherence to control visits and weight loss ≥ 5% in 3 mo. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted multiple regression models revealed a significant association between body mass index(BMI) and both sour taste(P < 0.05) and global taste acuity score(GTAS)(P < 0.05), with lower sensitivity with increasing BMI. This trend in sensitivity for sour taste was also confirmed by the model refitted on the OW/OB group while the association with GTAS was marginally significant(P = 0.06). MetS+ subjects presented higher thresholds for salty taste when compared to MetS- patients while no significant difference was detected for the other tastes and GTAS. As assessed by multiple regression model, the association between salty taste and MetS appeared to be independent of sex, age and BMI. Patients continuing the program(n = 37) did not show any difference in baseline taste sensitivity when compared to drop-outs(n = 29). Similarly, no significant difference was detected between patients reporting and not reporting a weight loss ≥ 5% of the initial body weight. No significant dif-ference in taste sensitivity was detected even after dividing patients on the basis of nutritional(OW and OB) or metabolic status(MetS+ and MetS-). CONCLUSION: There is no cause-effect relationship between overweight and metabolic derangements. Taste thresholds assessment is not useful in

  11. Sweet and sour cherry decorative forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of natural populations, biodiversity located on farm and the introduced cultivars and selections are a rich source of genetic variability in sour and sweet cherries, but they have never been bread with the aim of creating decorative varieties. Low vigour − dwarfing and upright − sour cherry genotypes, NS 1/16 KK and NS 1/24 KK, were selected from natural population of Fruška Gora and private arboretum, respectively. Sweet cherry selections NS 6/15 K and RŠ 8/27 were part of on farm conservation of genetic resources. Furthermore, reduction in vigour was achieved by defining specific combining abilities as a result of rootstock/scion interaction. The outcome of this study is unique columnar and dwarf forms that integrate specific genetic potential of varieties and selections, their interaction with rootstocks and traditional horticultural skills. Collected biodiversity is another confirmation that the Balkan peninsula is one of the most valuable secondary centres of genetic diversity and inexhaustible gene pool for breeding both, varieties and vegetative rootstocks.

  12. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  13. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  14. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    in a restaurant; medical professionals and patients in a hospital; and people gathered for a wine tasting event, daily dinner or a meal in a convent. The ethnographic materials are used to engage with what so far social science literatures on tasting tend to take for granted: that tasting is a physiological......This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  15. A question of taste

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes.

  16. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  17. Reservoir souring: it is all about risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijvenhoven, Cor [Shell (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The presence of H2S in produced fluid can be due to various sources, among which are heat/rock interaction and leaks from other reservoirs. This paper discusses the reasons, risk assessment and tools for mitigating reservoir souring. Uncontrolled microorganism activity can cause a sweet reservoir (without H2S) to become sour (production of H2S). The development of bacteria is one of the main causes of reservoir souring in unconventional gas fields. It is difficult to predict souring in seawater due to produced water re-injection (PWRI). Risk assessment and modeling techniques for reservoir souring are discussed. Some of the factors controlling H2S production include injection location, presence of scavenging minerals and biogenic souring. Mitigation methods such as biocide treatment of injection water, sulphate removal from seawater, microbial monitoring techniques such as the molecular microbiology method (MMM), and enumeration by serial dilution are explained. In summary, it can be concluded that reservoir souring is a long-term problem and should be assessed at the beginning of operations.

  18. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  19. The influence of taste on swallowing apnea, oral preparation time, and duration and amplitude of submental muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, L P; Huckabee, M-L; Sharma, S; Tooley, T P

    2007-02-01

    Prior research has documented a modulating effect of taste on swallowing. We hypothesized that presentation of tastant stimuli would be a significant variable in swallowing-respiratory coordination, duration of oral bolus preparation, and submental muscle contraction. Twenty-three healthy females were presented with 1-cm(3) gelatin samples flavored with 4 tastants of increasing intensities. Visual analogue scale ratings of perceived intensity of each were used to identify relative equivalent concentrations across the 4 tastants. Data were then collected during ingestion of 5 trials of the 4 equivalent tastants using measurements of nasal airflow and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) to record biomechanical measures. Chi-square analysis failed to identify a statistically significant influence of taste on the phase location of swallowing apnea. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant taste effects for oral preparation time, submental sEMG amplitude, and duration (P Swallow duration for sour, salty, and bitter tastants were longer than sweet and neutral tastants. Sour tastants resulted in the greatest amplitude of submental muscle contraction during swallowing. This study supports existing research that found that sour substances were swallowed with more effort when compared with other tastes.

  20. Assessing the Influence of the Multisensory Atmosphere on the Taste of Vodka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the multisensory atmosphere (involving variations in lighting and music on people’s rating of unflavoured and flavoured (citron and raspberry vodkas is reported. The auditory and visual attributes of the environment were changed as people tasted, and then rated, four unlabelled glasses of vodka (two unflavoured samples, one sample of citron-flavoured and one sample of raspberry-flavoured vodka. Due to the public nature of the event, all participants experienced the same order of auditory and visual changes at the same time. For flavoured vodkas, we saw significant correlations between atmosphere-vodka matching and both liking and fruitiness, and this was reinforced by results showing that those participants who tasted the vodkas in congruent atmospheric conditions (raspberry vodka in red lighting and sweet music, citron vodka in green lighting and sour music gave significantly higher ratings of liking and fruitiness than did those participants who tasted the vodkas in atmospheric conditions that were incongruent. Specifically, the participants liked the raspberry-flavoured vodka significantly more, and rated it as tasting significantly fruitier, under red lighting while listening to sweet music as compared to under green lighting and listening to sour music. Meanwhile, the unflavoured vodka was liked less under green lighting while listening to the putatively sour music than under white lighting and no music. These results demonstrate how the multisensory attributes of the environment impact on people’s experience of both unflavoured and flavoured vodkas, even when they are not given any information about what they are tasting. Some of the real-world implications for bars (i.e., the “on trade”, experiential events, and other beverage businesses are discussed.

  1. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. METHODS: The ad

  2. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  3. Effects of taste solutions, carbonation, and cold stimulus on the power frequency content of swallowing submental surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yutaka; Morita, Yuji; Koizumi, Hideki; Shingai, Tomio

    2009-05-01

    This study explored the effects of 5 taste solutions (citric acid, sucrose, sodium chloride, caffeine, and sodium glutamate) versus water on the power frequency content of swallowing submental surface electromyography (sEMG). Healthy subjects were presented with 5 ml of each of 5 tastants and water. Data were collected in 3 trials of the 5 tastants and water by using submental sEMG, which was then subjected to spectral analysis. Sour and salt taste solutions increased the spectrum-integrated values of the total power components. The spectrum-integrated values of low-frequency power (below 10 Hz) in the salt taste trial significantly increased, whereas those of high-frequency power (above 10 Hz) in the sour taste trial tended to increase. Neither pleasantness nor intensity of taste was related to these changes. This study also explored the effects of carbonation and cold stimulus on the power frequency content of continuous swallowing sEMG for 60-ml solutions. Carbonation significantly increased the spectrum-integrated value of the total power components by significantly increasing the high-frequency content. Cold stimulus significantly decreased the low-frequency content. In summary, this study reveals that taste, carbonation, and cold stimulus have qualitatively different influences on the power frequency content of swallowing sEMG.

  4. Psychophysical assessments of sourness in citric acid-ethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao, Miguelina; Greco Driano, Ezequiel J; Evin, Diego; Calviño, Amalia

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5, 15, and 45 mM citric acid alone and mixed with the same two ethanol levels were assessed by the Time Intensity Method (TI). Results were consistent with both methods. Sourness changed with citric acid concentration and ethanol levels. From TI measurements, a similar interactive pattern was obtained for parameters as duration, area under the curve, peak and average intensity.

  5. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghemulet M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Ghemulet,1,2 Maria Baskini,3 Lambros Messinis,2,4 Eirini Mouza,1 Hariklia Proios1,5 1Department of Speech Therapy, Anagennisis (Revival Physical Recovery and Rehabilitation Centre, Nea Raidestos, Filothei, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Speech and Language Therapy, Technological Institute of Western Greece, Patra, Greece; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Interbalkan European Medical Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Neuropsychology Section, Department of Neurology, University of Patras, Medical School, Patras, Greece; 5Department of Education and Social Policy, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: A verbal fluency (VF task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter and subjects’ taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI. The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (.30 kg/m2 would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures, post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects’ group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four

  6. College-Aged Males Experience Attenuated Sweet and Salty Taste with Modest Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Corinna A; Cassano, Patricia A; Dando, Robin

    2017-08-23

    Background: Human and animal studies report a blunted sense of taste in people who are overweight or obese, with heightened sensitivity also reported after weight loss. However, it is unknown if taste changes concurrently with weight gain.Objective: This study investigated the association of weight gain with changes in suprathreshold taste intensity perception in a free-living population of young adults.Methods: Taste response, anthropometric measures, and diet changes were assessed with a longitudinal study design in first-year college students 3 times throughout the academic year. At baseline, 93 participants (30 males, 63 females) were an average of 18 y old, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 21.9. Sweet, umami, salty, sour, and bitter taste intensities were evaluated at 3 concentrations by using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Ordinary least-squares regression models assessed the association of weight gain and within-person taste change, adjusting for sex, race, and diet changes.Results: Participants gained an average of 3.9% in weight, ranging from -5.7% to +13.8%. With each 1% increase in body weight, males perceived sweet and salty as less intense, with taste responses decreasing by 11.0% (95% CI: -18.9%, -2.3%; P = 0.015) and 7.5% (95% CI: -13.1%, -1.5%; P = 0.015) from baseline, respectively. Meanwhile, females did not experience this decrement, and even perceived a 6.5% increase (95% CI: 2.6%, 10.5%; P = 0.007) in sour taste with similar amounts of weight gain. Changes in the consumption of meat and other umami-rich foods also negatively correlated with umami taste response (-39.1%; 95% CI: -56.3%, -15.0%; P = 0.004).Conclusions: A modest weight gain is associated with concurrent taste changes in the first year of college, especially in males who experience a decrement in sweet and salty taste. This suggests that young-adult males may be susceptible to taste loss when gaining weight. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  8. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  9. Cross-cultural validation of a taste test with paper strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Chaves, Mariana; Chaves, Carolina; Lemos, Lisete; Silva, Eduardo D; Paiva, António; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Taste dysfunctions influence food choices, interpersonal communication and danger/health. A gustometry protocol is the mainstream for clinical taste disorders diagnosis and suggests possible therapeutics. No clinical gustometry protocol has been adapted and validated to the Portuguese population so far. We aim to validate a gustometry protocol based on strips made from filter paper impregnated with different taste solutions. Four concentrations each for sweet, sour, salty and bitter were administered to 75 subjects. Hypogeusia threshold is of 4.8 in this population. Repeated measures indicated a good reliability and validity for the taste strips (ρ 75 = 0.68, p < 0.001). Although Mediterranean food implies a heathy eating pattern, taste threshold scores may be lower because of its habituation to natural food flavoring. The taste strip gustometry protocol can be applied to the clinical practice in Portugal. It is quick, effective and cheap. The diagnostic utility of this method is indisputable, as well as the advantages we can obtain with its application, for early diagnosis and distinction between disorders of taste and smell.

  10. Alterations in taste perception as a result of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Petrycka, Magdalena; Knefel, Grzegorz; Lebiedowska, Agata; Kosmala, Joanna; Klimacka-Nawrot, Ewa; Kawecki, Marek; Nowak, Mariusz; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on taste sensitivity, hedonic perception of taste, and food preferences. The studied groups included 197 people in total (79 in the study group; 118 in the control group). All patients from the study group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy due to chronic non-healing wounds. The control group consisted of healthy people, who did not receive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The taste intensity, recognition thresholds, and hedonic perception were examined using gustatory tests. The aqueous solutions of sucrose for sweet, sodium chloride for salty, citric acid for sour, quinine hydrochloride for bitter, and monosodium glutamate for umami taste were used. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire to examine pleasure derived from eating certain types of dishes. Gustatory tests and analyses of the pleasure derived from eating in the study group were carried out before the first exposure to hyperbaric oxygen and then at the end of therapy, after at least 25 sessions of treatment. In the control group, examination of perception of taste sensations was conducted only once. The results of comparing patients with non-healing wounds with healthy people are characterized by reduced taste sensitivity. After participation in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the improvement in perception of taste sensations and changes in hedonic evaluation have occurred among patients with non-healing wounds. In terms of food preference, a decreased desire for eating sweet desserts, chocolate, and crisps was observed in those patients who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

  11. Taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: Implication in weight loss dietary interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Simona; Laureati, Monica; Battezzati, Alberto; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Cereda, Emanuele; Spadafranca, Angela; Vignati, Laila; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome and possible implications on weight loss dietary program. METHODS: Sensitivity for bitter, sweet, salty and sour tastes was assessed by the three-Alternative-Forced-Choice method in 41 overweight (OW), 52 obese (OB) patients and 56 normal-weight matched controls. OW and OB were assessed also for body composition (by impedence), resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry) and presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and were prescribed a weight loss diet. Compliance to the weight loss dietary program was defined as adherence to control visits and weight loss ≥ 5% in 3 mo. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted multiple regression models revealed a significant association between body mass index (BMI) and both sour taste (P nutritional (OW and OB) or metabolic status (MetS+ and MetS-). CONCLUSION: There is no cause-effect relationship between overweight and metabolic derangements. Taste thresholds assessment is not useful in predicting the outcome of a diet-induced weight loss program. PMID:25317249

  12. Young Chinese Women Taste the Sweet and Sour of Modern Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MONICA DOWNER

    1994-01-01

    CHINA is in the midst of snowballing economic changes that are naturally affecting society deeply. Take bikes, for example, one of China’s main modes of transportation. Chinese-made, cheap, heavy, black, steel, mass-produced bikes are being replaced by imported mountain bikes or tenspeeds. People are clearly making more money and are able to afford such fast, colorful imported products. Financial disparity is more apparent. One man who sells cigarettes and gum from a corrugated tin shack next to others who sell bike seats, fix shoes and make eys in a free market is now clad in a

  13. Sweetening the sour taste of inhomogeneous signature-based Groebner basis computations

    CERN Document Server

    Eder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we want to give an insight in the rather unknown behaviour of signature-based Groebner basis algorithms, like F5, G2V, or GVW, for inhomogeneous input. On the one hand, it seems that the restriction to sig-safe reductions in those algorithms puts a huge penalty on their performance. The lost connection between polynomial degree and signature degree can disallow lots of reductions and lead to a huge overhead in the computations. On the other hand, the way critical pairs are sorted and the corresponding s-polynomials are handled is a quite good one. We show in detail the strong connection to the sorting of critical pairs w.r.t. well-known sugar degree of polynomials. Those properties hold for signature-based Groebner basis algorithms in general, not depending on specific implementations of the underlying criteria to discard useless critical pairs.

  14. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  15. Smell and taste disorders [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landis, Basile N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.

  16. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  17. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  18. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sour cherries from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: the total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L. introduced to the southeast Serbia climate conditions. Among the researched sour cherries, ‘Oblacinska’ cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by ‘Cigancica’ > ‘Marela’. A significant difference were observed in the phenolic content among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and the phenolic compounds were significantly higher in the growing season 2009. The examined cultivars possess a high antioxidant capacity, and all phenolics of highy correlation with TAC. The following compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD: 4 anthocyanins, the most abundant of which was cyaniding-3-glucoside in ‘Marela’ and ‘Oblacinska’, and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside in ‘Cigancica’, and 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, the most abundant of which was neochlorogenic acid in all sour cherry cultivars. The growing and ripening process on the tree of sour cherry cv. Oblacinska was evaluated, also. The results showed significant increases in total phenols during the ripening, the total anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity and 4 quantified anthocyanins, however the neochlorogenic acid decreased during the ripening. The study indicated that the growing and climate conditions in southeast Serbia are convenient for introducing sour cherry cultivars.

  19. Functional bitter taste receptors are expressed in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Vrontakis, Maria; Parkinson, Fiona; Chelikani, Prashen

    2011-03-04

    Humans are capable of sensing five basic tastes which are sweet, sour, salt, umami and bitter. Of these, bitter taste perception provides protection against ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Bitter taste is sensed by bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) that belong to the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. Humans have 25 T2Rs that are expressed in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine cells and airway cells. Electrophysiological studies of the brain neurons show that the neurons are able to respond to different tastants. However, the presence of bitter taste receptors in brain cells has not been elucidated. In this report using RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry analysis we show that T2Rs are expressed in multiple regions of the rat brain. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of T2R4, T2R107 and T2R38 transcripts in the brain stem, cerebellum, cortex and nucleus accumbens. The bitter receptor T2R4 was selected for further analysis at the transcript level by quantitative real time PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. To elucidate if the T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional, assays involving G-protein mediated calcium signaling were carried out. The functional assays showed an increase in intracellular calcium levels after the application of exogenous ligands for T2R4, denatonium benzoate and quinine to these cultured cells, suggesting that endogenous T2R4 expressed in these cells is functional. We discuss our results in terms of the physiological relevance of bitter receptor expression in the brain.

  20. 鱼类脂味觉的行为学检测%Behavioral test of fat taste in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁宁; 魏书磊; 李林芳; 张敏; 徐艳萍; 刘振辉

    2012-01-01

    In humans (and probably other mammals) ,it is generally agreed that there are five basic taste qualities: sweet, bitter, umami, salty and sour. Recent compelling evidence from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids (fat taste). It has been shown that zebrafish can perceive amino acids, bitter tastant as taste stimulants,then what about fat taste? Until now,it has not been reported yet. Based on this, behavioral experiments were conducted to detect the existence of fat taste in Danio rerio and Pangasius sutchi. It was shown that fish can perceive not only bitter and amino acids tastants, but also fatty acids. In addition, we found that P. sutchi had a preference for sweet taste, which is inconsistent with the previous report that there was no sweet taste in zebrafish.%选取斑马鱼和蓝鲨为代表,设计并改进了一系列味觉行为学实验方法来探索鱼类的味觉感受.结果表明,斑马鱼和蓝鲨除了具有对苦味和鲜味的感受外,很可能具有对脂肪酸的味觉感受.研究发现,蓝鲨对甜味具有偏好性,这与斑马鱼无甜味感受能力的报道不同.

  1. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  2. Taste perception in kidney disease and relationship to dietary sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma J; Campbell, Katrina L; Bauer, Judith D

    2014-12-01

    Taste abnormalities are prevalent in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) potentially affecting food palatability and intake, and nutrition status. The TASTE CKD study aimed to assess taste and explore the relationship of dietary sodium intake with taste disturbance in CKD subjects. This was a cross-sectional study of 91 adult stage 3-5 CKD participants (78% male) aged 65.9 ± 13.5 years with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 33.1 ± 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 30 controls (47% male) aged 55.2 ± 7.4 years without kidney dysfunction. Taste assessment was performed in both groups, presenting five basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, umami and bitter) in blinded 2 ml solution which the participants tasted, identified (identification) and rated perceived strength (intensity) on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Sodium intake was measured in the CKD group using validated food frequency questionnaire to determine high or low sodium intake (cut-off 100 mmol sodium/day). Differences between groups (CKD vs controls; high vs low sodium intake) were analysed using chi-square for identification and t-test for intensity. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for age and gender differences between CKD and controls. The control group identified mean 3.9 ± 1.0 tastants correctly compared with 3.0 ± 1.2 for CKD group (p sodium intake were more likely to correctly identify salty and umami, and rated intensity of umami and bitter significantly higher than those with high sodium intake. These findings add to the body of evidence suggesting that taste changes occur with CKD, independent of age and gender differences, with specific impairment in sour, umami and salty tastes. Our finding that sodium intake is related to umami and bitter disturbance as well as salty taste warrants further investigation.

  3. Taste and smell function in pediatric blood and marrow transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Laing, D G; Wilkes, F J

    2012-11-01

    The intensive conditioning regimens of a pediatric blood and marrow transplant (BMT) can limit voluntary intake leading to a risk of malnutrition. Poor dietary intake is likely multi-factorial with a change in taste and smell function potentially being one contributing factor limiting intake, though this is not well studied. This research aimed to assess the taste and smell function of a cohort of pediatric BMT patients. A total of ten pediatric BMT patients (8-15 years) were recruited to this study. Smell function was assessed using a three-choice 16-item odour identification test. Taste function was assessed using five concentrations of sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastants. All tests were completed at admission to transplant and monthly until taste and smell function had normalised. At the 1-month post-transplant assessment, one third of participants displayed some evidence of taste dysfunction and one third smell dysfunction, but there was no evidence of dysfunction in any patient at the 2-month assessment. Contrary to reports of long-term loss of taste and smell function in adults, dysfunction early in transplant was found to be transient and be resolved within 2 months post-transplant in children. Further research is required to determine the causes of poor dietary intake in this population.

  4. Genetics of Taste and Smell: Poisons and Pleasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Danielle Renee; Knaapila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Eating is dangerous. While food contains nutrients and calories that animals need to produce heat and energy, it may also contain harmful parasites, bacteria, or chemicals. To guide food selection, the senses of taste and smell have evolved to alert us to the bitter taste of poisons and the sour taste and off-putting smell of spoiled foods. These sensory systems help people and animals to eat defensively, and they provide the brake that helps them avoid ingesting foods that are harmful. But choices about which foods to eat are motivated by more than avoiding the bad; they are also motivated by seeking the good, such as fat and sugar. However, just as not everyone is equally capable of sensing toxins in food, not everyone is equally enthusiastic about consuming high-fat, high-sugar foods. Genetic studies in humans and experimental animals strongly suggest that the liking of sugar and fat is influenced by genotype; likewise, the abilities to detect bitterness and the malodors of rotting food are highly variable among individuals. Understanding the exact genes and genetic differences that affect food intake may provide important clues in obesity treatment by allowing caregivers to tailor dietary recommendations to the chemosensory landscape of each person. PMID:21036327

  5. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  6. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  7. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  8. Extraversion and taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Yuriy; Mipando, Mwapatsa

    2008-03-01

    The rationale for investigating the gustatory reactivity as influenced by personality dimensions was suggested by some prior findings of an association between extraversion and acuity in other sensory systems. Detection thresholds for sweet, salty, and bitter qualities of taste were measured in 60 young healthy male and female volunteers using a two-alternative forced-choice technique. Personality of the responders was assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance failed to demonstrate a statistically significant interaction between an extraversion-introversion score, neuroticism score, smoking, gender and age. The only reliable negative association was found between the body mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity (Roy's largest root = 0.05, F(7436.5) = 8.34, P = 0.003). Possible reasons for lack of differences between introverts and extraverts in the values of taste detection thresholds were discussed.

  9. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  10. Studying of consumer features of the enriched soured cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Zharykbasova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the technology and performance quality of a new type of cream-enriched products of plant origin. Dietary fiber contained in a new form of sour cream cleanses the body of toxic elements, increases the immunity of a person.

  11. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  12. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    hard to name. Pleasure and embarrassment, food-­like vitality, erotic titillation, the satisfaction or discomfort that follow a meal-we suggest that these may all be included in "tasting." Thus teasing the language alters what speakers and eaters may sense and say. It complements the repertoires...

  13. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at Delf

  14. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  15. Reação da laranjeira azêda à tristeza Reaction of the sour orange plant to tristeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1954-01-01

    plantas sadias se desenvolvem mais ou menos satisfatòriamente quando sôbre-enxertadas em galhos de laranjeira doce sobre laranjeira azêda, já em avançado estado de declínio. Uma copa mista de laranjeiras azêda e doce sôbre cavalo de azêda pode causar alguns benefícios à planta afetada pela tristeza sob determinadas condições, mas êsse benefício não é duradouro e o método não oferece possibilidades práticas. A laranjeira azêda em viveiro tem sido utilizada com vantagem na determinação da presença do vírus da tristeza em borbulhas de vários tipos de Citrus, pela observação do crescimento feito a partir dessas borbulhas em comparação com aquêle de borbulhas da mesma variedade garantidamente sadias. Para a determinação da presença de estirpes fracas do vírus o método é mais demorado. Interenxertos de laranjeira azêda entre copas e raízes de laranjeira doce são suficientes para que haja manifestação de sintomas da moléstia. Há aparentemente alguma translocação através do interenxêrto, pois o desenvolvimento do cavalo abaixo e acima dele é aproximadamente igual.Young sour orange seedlings are more easily infected with the tristeza virus by approach-grafts than by means of the aphid vector. Under natural conditions adult plants in the field are highly resistant to infection by the aphid vector. Recovery of the tristeza virus from infected sour orange plants is also more easily accomplished by tissue union than by means of the aphid vector. Sour orange seedlings show yellowing of young leaves followed by stunting and shedding of leaves when infected with the ordinary strain of the tristeza virus in Brazil. These symptoms do not differ from those described for seedling yellows. The symptoms of leaf yellowing are less evident in plants infected with mild strains of the tristeza virus and there is subsequent recovery. New flushes of young leaves may show occasional vein dashes. Sour orange tissues below the bud union of the sweet

  16. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  17. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science...... and the humanities and social sciences. We do so by engaging scholars from different disciplines in a close, collaborative effort hereby generating new knowledge on taste. The center thus includes researchers from several universities and colleges, chefs from innovation kitchens, and teachers from elementary schools......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...

  18. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    in the West there seems now to be a growing openness towards other ­­- pop, sub, non-western etc. - cultures. But what does this mean? Have we finally learned to overcome cultural differences, understand foreign art forms and maybe even approach what is common to all? Has the increasing globalization......Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of taste...... and aestheticization made us appreciate cultural diversity? The aim of this article is to examine the character and possible social implications of the apparent new openness. To do this it presents the main results of the resent research in sociology of art. Combining an aesthetic and a sociological perspective...

  19. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  20. Tasting edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric

    2007-02-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  1. Predrilled liner / barefoot completions in horizontal sour gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.W. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    When selecting the completion type of a horizontal well, all relevant production and reservoir engineering aspects have to be taken into consideration to ensure safe and optimised long-term production. Especially in the case of sour gas wells, which require corrosion-resistant and expensive alloys, the technical/economic need to run a liner in the horizontal section is often discussed. This paper compares the preinvestment for a 'predrilled liner' with the cost of downhole operations which may become necessary in a 'barefoot completion'. These calculated 'risked savings' - as a function of the horizontal length - lead to a break-even point which is intended to assist in the decision to run a liner in sour gas wells or not. (orig.)

  2. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    Harvested yields of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar 'Stevnsbaer' grown in Denmark have been highly variable over the years, yet some propagated derived trees selected from within the two widely grown clones of 'Stevnsbaer' cl. 'Birgitte' and cl. 'Viki' have consistently produced higher yields....... This observed variability within the clones raises the question as to whether more suitable plant material for the future might be found through similar selection. In this study, a number of the selected individuals were evaluated based on their morphological (harvested yield, number of buds/flowers/fruits......, leaf chlorophyll content, cold hardiness and tree structure) and genomic (DNA fingerprinting, nuclear DNA content, DNA methylation) differences to better understand the differences that produced the improved individuals within the existing clones of sour cherry. In addition, it was investigated whether...

  3. Towards meaningful stakeholder comprehension of sour gas facility risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuley, C.; Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Public Health Sciences

    2006-01-15

    This study addressed public concerns in Alberta regarding the development of sour gas projects that are in close proximity to established populations. In particular, it focused on the reasoning of different perspectives of risk assessment between proponents of a sour gas development and the stakeholders affected. The main issues reviewed in this study were the toxicity of hydrogen sulphide and the toxic load models; the specifics of risk assessment and the risk estimation associated with pipeline failures; hazard distances associated with various end-points and set-back distances; the uncertainty that a pipeline failure will occur somewhere; a comparison of other risk scenarios where there are unknown exposure populations; risk management and risk issue management for pipeline failures; the evaluation of risk communication and validation of risk reduction measures and the issue of which risks could provide a useful basis for comparison in discussion about risk acceptability. It was noted that although zero risk is impossible, it was suggested that a better communication and understanding of the health affects of hydrogen sulphide and the toxic load concept in both public and regulatory forums would reduce uncertainty in health risk estimates associated with sour gas pipeline failures. 36 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Use of inoculated lactic acid bacteria in fermenting sour cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PETÄJÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of sour vegetables has to date occurred through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB naturally present in vegetables. The present article deals with preliminary studies on the effects of some LAB inocula (Lactobacillus alimentarius or Pediococcus pentosaceus on fermenting sour cabbage. The effect of LAB on yeast growth, a problem in sour vegetables, was also studied through the use of dual yeast and LAB inocula. The pH of cabbage juice decreased to levels under pH 4 during the first 10 days of fermentation, which is near the final values, pediococci decreasing the pH to the lowest values. The LAB count in inoculated cabbages increased by 0.5-2.0 log cfu (colony forming unit /g during the first 10 days of fermentation and thereafter decreased. Pediococci formed predominant part of microbial flora almost in all experimental batches. In cabbage challenged with yeasts, yeast counts rose only when the pH was < 3.5. Yeasts appeared almost regularly also in cabbages inoculated only with LAB. Pediococci fermented cabbage effectively decreasing the pH to lower levels than lactobacilli or natural LAB. However, too strong a decrease in pH may result in a decrease of LAB count which may subsequently lead to yeast growth. The yeast problem could not be solved with the LAB inocula used in our study.;

  5. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIATE I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  6. Identification and Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sour Dough Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yoshida, I; Uchimura, T; Ohara, N; Kozaki, M

    1992-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in four samples of sour dough sponges were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. In each sponge, there were one or two species of the genus Lactobacillus: L. reuteri and L. curvatus in San Francisco sour dough sponge, L. brevis and L. hilgardii in panettone sour dough sponge produced in Italy, L. sanfrancisco from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Germany, and L. casei and L. curvatus from a rye sour dough sponge produced in Switzerland. For all isolates except the L. reuteri strains oleic acid, a component of the Tween 80 added to the medium, was essential for growth. It was of interest that lactobacilli requiring oleic acid were the predominant flora of lactic acid bacteria in the microbial environment of sour dough sponges.

  7. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  8. IMPACT OF PREPLANTING FERTILIZATION ON THE LEAF NUTRIENT CONTENT OF YOUNG SOUR CHERRY TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRISHKOV

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of seven variants of organic and mineral preplanting fertilization on the content of the main macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the leaves of sour cherry trees, Erdi Bötermö cv., grafted on two types of rootstocks - seedling forms of Mahaleb (IK-M9 and Droganyellow bigarreau. The investigation was carried out during the period 2001-2003 in an experimental orchard at the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil. There was no significant effect of the different preplanting fertilization variants on leaf nitrogen content. The trees on rootstock Droganyellow bigarreau responded more pronouncedly to phosphorous and potassium fertilization, which corresponded to the higher leaf phosphorous and potassium content, compared to those on IK-M9. In all variants, there was a trend for a higher calcium concentration in the leaves of the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau. Leaf magnesium level decreased over experimental years, which was more strongly manifested by the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau, whereas in the variants on the Mahaleb rootstock it was of higher values.

  9. From miracle fruit to transgenic tomato: mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Duhita, Narendra; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    The utility of plants as biofactories has progressed in recent years. Some recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical products have already reached the marketplace. However, with the exception of drugs and vaccines, a strong effort has not yet been made to bring recombinant products to market, as cost-effectiveness is critically important for commercialization. Sweet-tasting proteins and taste-modifying proteins have a great deal of potential in industry as substitutes for sugars and as artificial sweeteners. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, functions to change the perception of a sour taste to a sweet one. This taste-modifying function can potentially be used not only as a low-calorie sweetener but also as a new seasoning that could be the basis of a new dietary lifestyle. However, miraculin is far from inexpensive, and its potential as a marketable product has not yet been fully developed. For the last several years, biotechnological production of this taste-modifying protein has progressed extensively. In this review, the characteristics of miraculin and recent advances in its production using transgenic plants are summarized, focusing on such topics as the suitability of plant species as expression hosts, the cultivation method for transgenic plants, the method of purifying miraculin and future advances required to achieve industrial use.

  10. Effects of oral chemical irritation on tastes and flavors in frequent and infrequent users of chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Stevenson, R J

    1995-12-01

    The studies reported here addressed the question of whether the pungent principle in chilies, capsaicin, suppresses taste and flavor intensity. Over a period of several minutes, groups of frequent and infrequent eaters of chili repeatedly rated the taste and flavor intensities of sweet and sour solutions that also contained either orange or vanilla flavor, and capsaicin at 0, 2, 4, and 16 ppm. As well as the intensity of the qualities while in the mouth, measures of the number of rating periods for the intensity to dissipate to zero, and the summed total intensity were also derived. Infrequent chili users rated the capsaicin burn as more intense than did the frequent users. With few exceptions, and for groups, sweetness was suppressed by the presence of capsaicin. By contrast, sourness was unaffected by capsaicin. Flavor intensities also showed suppression by capsaicin. High correlations between ratings of sweetness and flavor were found, suggesting that perceptual confusion between the two qualities may have been responsible for the flavor suppression. A second experiment examined the effects of capsaicin on ratings of strawberry flavor alone. This study produced little evidence of flavor suppression by capsaicin. These results are discussed in terms of an attentional model of capsaicin's effects.

  11. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...

  12. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  13. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  14. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed......The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...

  15. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja;

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  16. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Jaber

    Full Text Available Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic. However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers

  17. The influence of chemotherapy on taste perception and food hedonics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltong, Anna; Keast, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Altered food relationships in people receiving chemotherapy are prevalent and distressing. Whether, or to what extent, taste perception and food hedonics plays in altered food relationships is unknown among people receiving chemotherapy. This two-armed systematic review addressed the question "Does chemotherapy influence taste perception and hedonic experience of food?" A systematic review was undertaken of (1) taste perception and (2) food hedonics. Search phrases used in the taste arm were: "chemotherapy AND taste", and in the food hedonics arm, "chemotherapy AND (liking OR food OR appetite OR hedonic(∗))". Databases searched were PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. English language, peer-reviewed publications investigating adults (>18years) receiving chemotherapy as the only cancer treatment were eligible. One hundred and sixty three papers were screened in the taste arm, of which eight (5%) met inclusion criteria. Nine hundred and seventy two papers were screened in the food hedonics arm of which 25 (3%) met inclusion criteria. Chemotherapy had variable influence on both taste sensitivity and perceived intensity of the taste qualities sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Liking of food and drink decreased after chemotherapy treatment commenced. Caffeinated foods and drinks, red meat and citrus fruits or juices were most frequently reported as aversive during chemotherapy. A reduction in appetite was reported between baseline (pre-chemotherapy) and cycles 1-3 of chemotherapy with no further worsening in latter chemotherapy cycles and an improvement after completion of chemotherapy treatment. There was a lack of consistency of results between studies due to differences in study design, chemotherapy regimen, tumor type and stage of treatment examined. These results provide insufficient evidence to suggest chemotherapy has a significant or consistent influence on taste. There is a consistent, albeit small, body of evidence indicating

  18. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  19. Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P fermenting meals, the highest correlation being between production of diacetyl and acid (0.694), a positive correlation indicating that production of both antimicrobial compounds increase together with time. Antimicrobial activities of the fermented maize dough were confirmed by their abilities to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus from an initial inoculum concentration of 7 log cfu ml(-1)) for test bacteria and zone of inhibition of up to 1.33 cm for aflatoxigenic A. flavus. The findings of this study form a database for further studies on the development of starter cultures for sour maize bread production as an alternative bread specialty.

  20. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.

    2015-12-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  2. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S., E-mail: myerson@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 66-568, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Simpson, Jeffrey [Department of Chemistry Instrumentation Facility, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 18-0090, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L. [Connect Consulting, 6 Hollands Field, Horsham RH123HQ (United Kingdom); Yurttas, Nese [Cargill, Inc., Global Food Technology, 2301 Crosby Road, Wayzata, Minnesota 55391 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  3. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    . Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  4. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L

    2013-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  5. Evaluation and improvement of sour property packages in UniSim design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhao, E.; Wang, L.; Saha, S. [Honeywell, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described specialty fluid packages for modeling oil and gas process systems involving sour gases in contact with aqueous phase. UniSim Design is a popular process simulation tool in the oil and gas industry. The sour Peng-Robinson (PR) and sour Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) models are commonly used for handling sour system where hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) or ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are in contact with an aqueous phase. These sour options combine the PR/SRK equation of state and Wilson's API-sour model where the equation of state is used to determine the fugacities of the vapor and liquid hydrocarbon phases, plus the enthalpy for all 3 phases. The Wilson's API-sour method is used for the aqueous phase calculations, which accounts for the ionization of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the aqueous phase. The efficiency of these 2 thermodynamic property packages were evaluated in this study by comparing industrial and experimental data and the results from other similar models. The purpose of this study was to improve these property packages for more accurate and reliable modeling of sour systems. tabs., figs.

  6. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  7. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  8. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  9. A polyphasic study on the taxonomic position of industrial sour dough yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntynen, V H; Korhola, M; Gudmundsson, H; Turakainen, H; Alfredsson, G A; Salovaara, H; Lindström, K

    1999-02-01

    The sour dough bread making process is extensively used to produce wholesome palatable rye bread. The process is traditionally done using a back-slopping procedure. Traditional sour doughs in Finland comprise of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The yeasts present in these doughs have been enriched in the doughs due to their metabolic activities, e.g. acid tolerance. We characterized the yeasts in five major sour bread bakeries in Finland. We found that most of the commercial sour doughs contained yeasts which were similar to Candida milleri on the basis of 18S rDNA and EF-3 PCR-RFLP patterns and metabolic activities. Some of the bakery yeasts exhibited extensive karyotype polymorphism. The minimum growth temperature was 8 degrees C for C. milleri and also for most of sour dough yeasts.

  10. Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Corsetti, A; Rossi, J

    1995-11-01

    Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced with yeast alone, yeast fermentation with heterofermentative LAB present was faster whereas that with homofermentative LAB (L. plantarum DC400, L. farciminis CF3) present was slower and produced more CO2. Combining L. brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 with S. cerevisiae 141 decreased bacterial cell numbers and souring activity. However, addition of fructose to the sour-dough overcame these problems as well as activating S. cerevisiae 141.

  11. Taste as didactic element in food education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    argues that most of the research literature on taste education has a very reductive understanding of taste and is essentially totally distrustful concerning children’s taste. Taste is seen as a barrier for ‘correct’ eating habits and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure or happiness...

  12. Type 1 Taste Receptors in Taste and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Our sense of taste allows us to evaluate the nutritive value of foods prior to ingesting them. Sweet taste signals the presence of sugars, and savory taste signals the presence of amino acids. The ability to identify these macronutrients in foods was likely crucial for the survival of our species when nourishing food sources were sparse. In modern, industrialized settings, taste perception continues to play an important role in human health as we attempt to prevent and treat conditions stemming from overnutrition. Recent research has revealed that type 1 taste receptors (T1Rs), which are largely responsible for sweet and umami taste, may also influence the absorption and metabolism of the foods we eat. Preliminary research shows that T1Rs contribute to intestinal glucose absorption, blood sugar and insulin regulation, and the body's responses to excessive energy intake. In light of these findings, T1Rs have come to be understood as nutrient sensors, among other roles, that facilitate the selection, digestion, and metabolism of foods. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  14. A prospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy on taste function, food liking, appetite and associated nutritional outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boltong

    Full Text Available 'Taste' changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status.This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52 prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined.Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05 but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01 but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001. Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r = 0.31; p = 0.008 as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r = 0.34; p = 0.002 and protein intake (r = 0.36; p = 0.001 early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p = <0.0005 over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea.The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education.

  15. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  16. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  17. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...... with taste in Food Knowledge may have an effect on students’ expected learning that is equally positive – or even more so – as that of known didactic elements like student participation and innovation. Therefore, teachers need to create balance between didactic elements and remember to incorporate taste...

  18. Study on Optimization and Processing Technology of Hot and Sour Vermicelli of Sichuan%四川小吃酸辣粉的加工工艺及优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文

    2015-01-01

    以四川小吃酸辣粉的制作为研究对象,首先对红薯粉丝复水工艺进行研究,再对影响酸辣粉的色泽、口感等风味的主要因素食盐、味精、胡椒粉、醋、酱油、花椒粉和辣椒油进行单因素试验和正交试验,根据试验数据分析确定了酸辣粉的最佳配方.结果表明:以红薯粉丝100 g、绿豆芽25 g为主料制成的酸辣粉的最佳配方为:食盐2.5 g、味精1 g、胡椒粉0.2 g、醋9 g、酱油7 g、花椒粉0.5 g、辣椒油20 g,制成的产品粉条滑爽劲道,味咸鲜酸辣,鲜香可口.%Taking Sichuan Hot and Sour Vermicelli as object of study ,first to study the rehydration process of the sweet potato vermicellies after water technology , to influence the hot and sour vermicellies color , taste the flavor of main factors such as salt, monosodium glutamate, pepper,vinegar, soy sauce, Chinese prickly ash, chili oil has carried on the single factor experiment and orthogonal test, according to the analysis of experiment analysis to determine the best formula of hot and sour vermicellies. Results showed that with sweet potato vermicellies100 g,and mungbean sprout 25 g as the main ingredient, hot and sour vermicellies made of the best formula is:salt 2.5 g, monosodium glutamate 1 g, pepper 0.2 g, vinegar 9 g, soy sauce 7 g, Chinese prickly ash 0.5 g, chili oil 20 g, products vermicellies made dishes, quite smooth hot and sour taste salty, delicious and tasty.

  19. Taste of Clindamycin and Acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kimberlee A; Wo, Shane R; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the taste palatability of liquid clindamycin and acetaminophen products on the market. Subjects rated the palatability of 3 clindamycin suspensions, 1 amoxicillin suspension (tasted twice), an acetaminophen elixir, and an acetaminophen suspension in a randomized blinded fashion on a 0 to 5 scale. Forty-six adults aged 20 to 82 years volunteered for this study. Means (and 95% confidence intervals) were as follows: amoxicillin-first taste 3.6 (3.3-3.9), amoxicillin-second taste 3.5 (3.2-3.7). Clindamycin Rising, Perrigo, Greenstone; 2.0 (1.6-2.5), 3.0 (2.7-3.3), and 2.2 (1.8-2.6), respectively. Acetaminophen elixir 0.6 (0.4-0.8) and acetaminophen suspension 3.4 (3.1-3.6). One clindamycin tasted significantly better than the others. Additionally, although 2 acetaminophen formulations are currently available over-the-counter, the suspension is more palatable and less costly. Medicaid drug programs that perpetuate the use of elixir should change their coverage to save money and provide patients access to better tasting acetaminophen.

  20. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  1. Application of Heavy Solvent Deasphalting in Sour Resid Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Jun; Wang Zijun; Huang Weiqi; Zu Deguang

    2003-01-01

    Complete conversion of resid into light oil needs to consume large amount of hydrogen, because the light oil has higher hydrogen content. The conversion of whole resid into light oil is not economic at the normal price gap between the light and heavy oils. Hence a combination of hydrogenation process with carbon removal process is generally adopted.The heavy solvent deasphalting can selectively remove the asphaltenes and metals contained in resid while providing a large amount of easily convertible deasphalted oil for the down-stream processes.This article refers to the characteristics of heavy solvent deasphalting and its application in sour resid processing, along with various routes for utilization of deoiled asphalt.

  2. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    . This observed variability within the clones raises the question as to whether more suitable plant material for the future might be found through similar selection. In this study, a number of the selected individuals were evaluated based on their morphological (harvested yield, number of buds...... dormant buds of the clones could be preserved and recovered from cryopreservation. Variation in yield was mainly found between groupings of the selected individuals from cl. 'Birgitte' and cl. 'Viki'. The higher yield can partly be explained by a higher number of buds/flowers/fruits and higher chlorophyll...... and epigenetic studies strongly suggest that little further genetic variation exists within the narrow base spanning the two clones. Consequently, there would appear to be little value in continuing to pursue an improvement strategy for sour cherry based on non-mutant selection within the ommercial clones...

  3. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities.

  4. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  5. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R) Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabu, Shoichiro; Lowery, Jonathan W; Toyono, Takashi; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2017-03-15

    The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  6. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    that design and evaluate taste education programs for children. Our main argument is that most of the literature on taste education has a very reductive understanding of taste and is essentially totally distrustful concerning children’s taste. Taste is seen as a barrier for ‘correct’ eating habits...... and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  7. Constructing quality profiles for taste compounds in rats: a novel paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Connie L; Spector, Alan C

    2008-10-20

    We developed a novel behavioral method, adapted from the work by Morrison (1967), for the assessment of taste quality in rats. Four groups of rats were trained to discriminate a standard stimulus (either NaCl, sucrose, quinine, or citric acid, which are widely thought to represent the four basic human taste qualities of salty, sweet, bitter, and sour, respectively) from the remaining three compounds (each at multiple concentrations). Animals were then tested for generalization to the standard stimuli when test compounds were presented and a quality profile was constructed. Rats generalized novel concentrations of standard stimuli completely to their training concentrations and generalized their responses to mixtures of NaCl and sucrose on the basis of the relative concentrations of the stimulus components. In general, the sugars (at high concentrations), denatonium, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate generalized to sucrose, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl, respectively. Monosodium glutamate generalized to a mixture of sucrose and NaCl. KCl produced a complex generalization profile with notable quinine and citric acid components. Our procedure supplements the current use of the conditioned taste aversion generalization procedure which has some procedural and interpretive limitations. Although our procedure involves the use of a complex stimulus delivery and response measurement apparatus and requires substantial initial conditioning of animals, once trained, a single cohort of animals can be tested for its response to a substantial number of test stimuli over the course of many months without any ostensible loss of stimulus control.

  8. Oro-sensory perception of dietary lipids: new insights into the fat taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naim Akhtar; Besnard, Philippe

    2009-03-01

    The sense of taste informs the organism about the quality of ingested food. Five basic taste modalities, e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami have so far been identified. Recent compelling evidence from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. Recent studies strongly suggest that lingual CD36, being implicated in the perception of dietary fat, may act as a gustatory lipid sensor. Knocking down of CD36 gene decreases the spontaneous preference for long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in mice subjected to a free choice situation. Lingual CD36, after activation by LCFA, is able to trigger specific signalling mechanisms, e.g., increase in free intracellular calcium concentrations, ([Ca(2)(+)]i), phosphorylation of protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) and release of the neurotransmitters like serotonin and nor-adrenaline into synaptic clefts. This signalling cascade is likely responsible for physiologic responses, induced by the detection of lipids in the oral cavity (i.e., lingual fat preference and cephalic phase of digestion). This review provides recent insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the oro-sensory perception of lipids.

  9. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  10. The Role of Volcanic Sour Gas on the Alteration of Martian Basalt: Insights from Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Treguier, E.; D'Uston, C.; Pinet, P.; Toplis, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    We assess the chemical constraints of the alteration of basaltic material by a cold aqueous phase under atmospheric sour gas containing SO3. Secondary chemistry and mineralogy are calculated by a geochemical simulator and compared to MER data.

  11. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  12. A National Test of Taste and Smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the only national U.S. health survey that combines both in-person interviews with physical examinations. In ... Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste and ...

  13. Integrated development and industrial application of high sour natural gas purification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at acute characteristics of flammability,explosibility,causticity and leakiness of high sour nat-ural gas,giving full consideration to local natural conditions in Sichuan Province and starting with purification pro-cess,the paper analyzed process configurations,energy utilization and conservation,safety and environment pro-tection measures. The integrated technology and engineering scheme for high sour natural gas purification was es-tablished and successfully used in industrial application.

  14. Quantitative studies and taste re-engineering experiments toward the decoding of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelstede, Simone; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-07-09

    The first comprehensive quantitative determination of 49 putative taste-active metabolites and mineral salts in 4- and 44-week-ripened Gouda cheese, respectively, has been performed; the ranking of these compounds in their sensory impact based on dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by the confirmation of their sensory relevance by taste reconstruction and omission experiments enabled the decoding of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of Gouda cheese. The bitterness of the cheese matured for 44 weeks was found to be induced by CaCl2 and MgCl2, as well as various bitter-tasting free amino acids, whereas bitter peptides were found to influence more the bitterness quality rather than the bitter intensity of the cheese. The DoT factors determined for the individual bitter peptides gave strong evidence that their sensory contribution is mainly due to the decapeptide YPFPGPIHNS and the nonapeptides YPFPGPIPN and YPFPGPIHN, assigned to the casein sequences beta-CN(60-69) and beta-CN(60-68), respectively, as well as the tetrapeptide LPQE released from alphas1-CN(11-14). Lactic acid and hydrogen phosphate were identified to play the key role for the sourness of Gouda cheese, whereas umami taste was found to be due to monosodium L-glutamate and sodium lactate. Moreover, saltiness was induced by sodium chloride and sodium phosphate and was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced by L-arginine.

  15. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  16. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Baskoy

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls enrolled in the prospective study in Istanbul, Turkey. Subclinical hypothyroid patients were treated with L-thyroxine for 3 months. Psychophysiological olfactory testing was performed using odor dispensers similar to felt-tip pens ("Sniffin' Sticks", Burghart, Wedel, Germany. Taste function tests were made using "Taste Strips" (Burghart, Wedel, Germany which are basically tastant adsorbed filter paper strip. Patients scored lower on psychophysical olfactory tests than controls (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.9±1.1, p = 0.007; odor discrimination:12.4±1.3 vs 13.1±0.9, p = 0.016; odor identification:13.1±0.9 vs 14.0±1.1, p = 0.001; TDI score: 33.8±2.4 vs 36.9±2.1, p = 0.001. In contrast, results from psychophysical gustatory tests showed only a decreased score for "bitter" in patients, but not for other tastes (5.9±1.8 vs 6.6±1.0, p = 0.045. Three month after onset of treatment olfactory test scores already indicated improvement (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.6±0.6, p<0.001; odor discrimination:12.4±1.31 vs 12.9±0.8, p = 0.011; odor identification:13.1±0.9 vs 13.9±0.8, p<0.001; TDI scores:33.8±2.4 vs 35.5±1.7, p<0.001 respectively. Taste functions did not differ between groups for sweet, salty and, sour tastes but bitter taste was improved after 3 months of thyroxin substitution (patients:5.9±1.8 vs 6.6±1.2, p = 0.045. Correlation of changes in smell and taste, with thyroid function test were also evaluated. TSH, fT4 were found have no

  17. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  18. Casing and tubing design for sour oil and gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center; State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Lin, Y.; Shi, T.; Zhu, D. [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu (China); Wang, Z.; You, X.; Zhang, G.; Liu, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan (China). Drilling and Completion Research and Design Center

    2009-07-01

    Environmental fractures are the main cause of casing and tubing yield failures in sour gas and oil wells. This paper discussed casing and tubing designs for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water wells. A fracture mechanics methods was used to establish yield design criterion for a conventional sulfur resistance casing T95 and a quasi-resistance casing C110. Sulfide stress corrosion (SSC) tests, A-uniaxial tensile tests, and double cantilever beam tests were conducted to determine the potential for failures caused by the unstable propagation of a pre-existing crack and failures caused by the initiation and stable growth of cracks. Elasto-plastic equations were developed to calculate the pressure at which a pipe will fail due to the propagation of a pre-existing sharp crack. Results of the tests indicated that the predictive fracture pressures for the C110 casing and tubing samples were lower than those observed for the T95 sample. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  20. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen A; Owyang, Chung

    2017-06-24

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  2. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  3. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  4. Expected taste intensity affects response to sweet drinks in primary taste cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew T; Lloyd, Donna M; Kuenzel, Johanna; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B; Thomas, Anna

    2011-06-11

    Expectations about a food can impact on its taste, but this may represent a perceptual change or a bias in response at the decision-making stage. We hypothesised that expectation of taste intensity should be underpinned by modulation of activity in primary taste cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that expecting a very sweet drink, but receiving a less sweet drink, enhanced the reported sweetness and bolstered activity in taste cortex, relative to a less sweet drink without this expectation. The activation overlapped with primary taste cortex activation found in 11 recent taste studies. Our findings provide evidence that taste expectation modulates activity in an area consistently reported as primary taste cortex, implying that expectation effects do indeed impact on taste perception.

  5. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  6. Corrosion behaviour of steels and CRA in sour gas environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, M. Alvarez de; Lancha, A.M.; Hernandez, F.; Gomez-Briceno, D. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coca, P. [ELCOGAS, S.A., C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera de Calzada de Calatrava a Puertollano, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The ELCOGAS power plant in Puertollano (Spain), with 335 MWe (ISO conditions), is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant built to demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility of this alternative for clean generation of electricity from coal. IGCC technology is based on a coal gasification process, namely the conversion of coal into combustible gas, which is then subjected to an exhaustive cleaning process. The result is a synthetic gas, virtually free of pollutants that can be burned with a high efficiency in a combined cycle electricity-generating unit. Basically, the ELCOGAS plant consists of three islands jointly designed and integrated into the process: gasification island, air separation island and combined cycle island. In the gasification island, the gas from the gasifier is cleaned (de-dusted and washed) and desulfurized before being sent to the combined cycle island. The washing system consists of a Venturi scrubber with a separator where halogens and alkalis (NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF) are removed from the previously de-dusted gas by means of the wash water. The halogens and alkalis removed are then stripped from the wash water as stripped gas, which is a sour gas. The coal-gas coming from the separator proceeds to sulphur removal in a MDEA system and then, the clean gas (mainly CO, H{sub 2}) is sent to the combined cycle plant. As COS is a significant part of the sulphur containing gases in the coal gas, hydrolysis of the COS to H{sub 2}S takes place before the desulfurization stage, since MDEA is a selective amine for H{sub 2}S. There are many important areas related to materials corrosion within the gas cleaning system. In the ELCOGAS plant carbon steels, austenitic stainless steels and nickel based alloys, such as AISI 316Ti, AISI 904L and Hastelloy C276, are used in the Venturi, the water separator and the strippers. AISI 316Ti is used for the gas piping from the separator to the COS hydrolysis system. Laboratory tests to evaluate

  7. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...... findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...

  8. Rapid Propagation of Sweet and Sour Cherry Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica DORIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a protocol for micropropagation of Prunus sp. rootstocks included in the sweet and sour cherry breeding program. Germplasm diversity for rootstock breeding derives from natural populations, where conditions and biological vectors for systematic infection with viral diseases are constantly present. The establishment of aseptic culture depends primarily on the explant type, as all selections were collected from natural habitat. For nearly all investigated selections, dormant buds were the favored source, due to enabling rosette initiation in more than 58% cases. In P. cerasus L. selections, 100% contamination was noted when shoot tips were used as an explant source. Significant influence of the double-phase medium on the number and height of multiplied shoots was observed in the standard cherry rootstock, ‘Gisela 6’. For P. fruticosa Pall., selection ‘SV1’ and ‘SV2’, and P. cerasus ‘D6’ selection, the double-phase medium also had a significant effect on the height of multiplied shoots, when compared to solid DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut medium. Genetic variability of selections within the investigated species resulted in variable plant rooting success. Adding Fe-EDDHA (Ethylenediamine di-2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate ferric in the 200 mg l-1 concentration to the rooting medium significantly enhanced the percentage of rooted plants. The highest rooting percentage was noted for ‘Gisela 6’ and ‘D6’ genotype at 1 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, while 0.8 mg l-1 was the optimum concentration for P. mahaleb L. ‘M1’ selection. P. fruticosa genotypes required significantly higher IBA concentration for rooting (2.5 and 3.5 mg l-1.

  9. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  10. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  11. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  12. Taste perception and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Rossella; Di Feola, Mariarosaria; Di Domenico, Simone; Scala, M Giuseppa; Artesi, Ginevra; Valente, Serena; Smarrazzo, Andrea; Turco, Francesca; Morini, Gabriella; Greco, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which variation in taste perception influences food preferences is, to date, controversial. Bitterness in food triggers an innate aversion that is responsible for dietary restriction in children. We investigated the association among genetic variations in bitter receptor TAS2R38 and food choices in healthy children in the Mediterranean area, to develop appropriate tools to evaluate the relation among genetic predisposition, dietary habits, and feeding disorders. The aims of the study were to get a first baseline picture of taste sensitivity in healthy adults and their children and to explore taste sensitivity in a preliminary sample of obese children and in samples affected by functional gastrointestinal diseases. Individuals (98 children, 87 parents, 120 adults) were recruited from the general population in southern Italy. Bitterness sensitivity was assessed by means of a suprathreshold method with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil. Genomic DNA from saliva was used to genotype individuals for 3 polymorphisms of TAS2R38 receptor, A49P, A262 V, and V296I. Food intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Children's taste sensation differed from that of adults: we observed a higher frequency of supertasters among children even in the mother-child dyads with the same diplotypes. Among adults, supertaster status was related with proline-alanine-valine (taster allele) homozygous haplotype, whereas supertaster children were mainly heterozygous. Regarding the food choices, we found that a higher percentage of taster children avoided bitter vegetables or greens altogether compared with taster adults. Taster status was also associated with body mass index in boys. Greater sensitivity to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil predicts lower preferences for vegetables in children, showing an appreciable effect of the genetic predisposition on food choices. None of the obese boys was a supertaster.

  13. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided.

  14. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  15. Color Parameters and Total Anthocyanins of Sour Cherries (Prunus cerasus L. During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is very important indicator of quality of fresh fruit. It also serves for estimating the stage of maturity of fruit. Plant pigments responsible for the color of some kind of fruits are anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are the flavonoids which are present in high amounts in sour cherries. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins and color parameters of sour cherries ‘Cigančica’ and ‘Keleris’ collected in Osijek and Zadar (Croatia in 2005 during ripening. Color parameters of skin and fl esh of sour cherries were determined with colorimetric CIE LAB method and total anthocyanins were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using UV/VIS PDA detector. Total anthocyanin was higher in sour cherries cv. Keleris grown in Zadar than in cv. Cigančica grown in Osijek during ripening although cv. Keleris is light colored genotype. Obtained results suggested that warm Mediterranean climate could have influence on high anthocyanin synthesis during ripening. Analysis of variance showed that stage of ripening did not influence total anthocyanin concentrations, but influenced almost all color parameters. Parameter H° was good indicator of color variation during ripening in both sour cherry cultivars.

  16. 哺乳动物的味觉受体及其介导的信号途径研究进展%The Research Progress of Taste Receptors and Signaling Transduction Pathways in Mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 魏书磊; 刘振辉

    2012-01-01

    Taste is one of the important physical sense of animals.Recent compelling evidence from rodent and human studies showed that in mammals there are 6 basic taste qualities:sweet,sour,bitter,salty,umami and fat.The progress of receptors and molecular mechanism for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has been made and reviewed within the last decade.%味觉是动物重要的生理感觉之一,众多研究结果表明,哺乳动物具有酸、甜、苦、咸、鲜(umami)、脂等六种基本味觉.近年来对于这六种味觉受体及其介导的信号途径的研究取得了很大进展,本文对此进行了综述.

  17. 食品的味觉分析%Taste analysis in foodstuff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿利华; 李扬; 詹浩宇; 姜小苓

    2012-01-01

    The taste sensing system TS - 5000Z, which employs the same mechanism as that of the human tongue, converts the taste of various substances such as food and drugs into numerical data. Using unique aftertaste measurement technology, even aspects such as "richness" and "sharpness" , which could not be measured by conventional chemical instruments, can be expressed. Moreover, the proprietary analysis application makes obtaining analysis results easy. As a support tool for sensory evaluation, the TS - 5000Z is a powerful tool for use in a variety of fields such as quality control, product development, marketing, and sales, where objective evaluation of taste is required. In this paper, Taste Sensing System TS -5000Z, we analysis the sourness, bitterness, aftertaste bitterness and other key indicators of different brands of beer in the market. And analysis the difference and similarity between the different brands of beer taste, We provide a taste reference of beer for consumers and producers.%TS - 5000Z味觉分析系统,即电子舌,采用和人的舌头一样的机理,把各种物质的味道转化到数据库中,例如食品或药品的味道.利用独特的回味测量技术,能够表述出通过传统的化学仪器不能测量的参数,例如“丰富度”、“浓烈度”等.此外,通过专有的分析应用软件,能够很容易的获得分析数据.作为对感官评定的支持工具,TS - 5000Z完全能够应用于例如质量控制、产品研发、市场和销售等环节.本文应用TS - 5000Z型味觉分析系统,分析了市场中不同品牌啤酒的酸味、苦味、苦味回味等关键的味觉指标,并且分析了不同品牌啤酒之间的味觉差异和相似度,为消费者和生产厂家提供参考.

  18. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent

  19. Failure life determination of oilfield elastomer seals in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennelley, K.J.; Abrams, P.I. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (US)); Vicic, J.C. (FMC Corp., Central Engineering Labs., Santa Clara, CA (US)); Cain, D. (FMC Corp., Wellhead Equipment, Houston, TX (US))

    1989-01-01

    Previous screening tests of various oilfield elastomers in sour gas/dimethyl disulfide environments indicated that hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR), tetrafluoroethylene-propylene (TFE/P), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), and perfluorinated rubber (FFKM) elastomers may perform satisfactorily in these environments. This paper describes subsequent failure life tests conducted with the subject elastomers in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide test environment at several elevated temperatures (> 135{degrees}C). The materials were tested in the form of O-rings (size 214), which were used to seal an autoclave containing the test environment at 14 MPa gas pressure. The results were used to extrapolate time to failure at a common reference temperature of 135{degrees}C. The performance of EPDM and HNBR in the sour gas/dimethyl disulfide mixture substantially exceeded a projected 20-year service life at 135{degrees}C, while FFKM and TFE/P did not.

  20. [Sensors for Measuring Taste and Smell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-05-01

    Gustatory and olfactory senses receive chemical substances at the biological membranes of taste and olfactory cells, respectively. The present review article describes electronic tongue (taste sensor) and electronic nose (odor sensor) developed based on biomimetic technology. A taste sensor is now commercially sold and utilized in pharmaceutical and food companies across the world. An electronic nose with high sensitivity was also commercialized in Japan. These sensors provide novel methods for analyzing chemical substances instead of using conventional tools.

  1. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease.

  2. Leaving Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Kenzie-Brown, Peter

    2011-07-15

    Canadian workers in Libya have been leaving the country due to civic unrest. Canadian companies evacuated their expat employees in cooperation with the Canadian government, without regard to the financial aspect, to keep them safe. Canadian expats are optimistic about the future.

  3. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  4. Assessing the shape symbolism of the taste, flavour, and texture of foods and beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Charles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers reliably match a variety of tastes (bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, oral-somatosensory attributes (carbonation, oral texture, and mouth-feel, and flavours to abstract shapes varying in their angularity. For example, they typically match more rounded forms such as circles with sweet tastes and more angular shapes such as triangles and stars with bitter and/or carbonated foods and beverages. Here, we suggest that such shape symbolic associations could be, and in some cases already are being, incorporated into the labelling and/or packaging of food and beverage products in order to subconsciously set up specific sensory expectations in the minds of consumers. Given that consumers normally prefer those food and beverage products that meet their sensory expectations, as compared to those that give rise to a ‘disconfirmation of expectation’, we believe that the targeted use of such shape symbolism may provide a means for companies to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Here, we review the latest research documenting a variety of examples of shape symbolism in the food and beverage sector. We also highlight a number of the explanations for such effects that have been put forward over the years. Finally, we summarise the latest evidence demonstrating that the shapes a consumer sees on the label and even the shape of the packaging in which the product is served can all impact on a consumer’s sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to food and beverage products.

  5. Association between taste receptor (TAS) genes and the perception of wine characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Vodicka, Pavel; Flamini, Riccardo; Martelli, Irene; Slyskova, Jana; Jiraskova, Katerina; Rejhova, Alexandra; Vodenkova, Sona; Canzian, Federico; Bertelli, Alberto; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Bavaresco, Luigi; Vodickova, Ludmila; Barale, Roberto

    2017-08-23

    Several studies have suggested a possible relationship between polymorphic variants of the taste receptors genes and the acceptance, liking and intake of food and beverages. In the last decade investigators have attempted to link the individual ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and the sensations, such as astringency and bitterness, elicited by wine or its components, but with contradictory results. We have used the genotype instead of the phenotype (responsiveness to PROP or other tastants), to test the possible relation between genetic variability and the perception of wine characteristic in 528 subjects from Italy and the Czech Republic. We observed several interesting associations, among which the association between several TAS2R38 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (P = 0.002) and the TAS2R16-rs6466849 polymorphism with wine sourness P = 0.0003). These associations were consistent in both populations, even though the country of origin was an important factor in the two models, thus indicating therefore that genetics alongside cultural factors also play a significant role in the individual liking of wine.

  6. Taste of Milk from Inflamed Breasts of Breastfeeding Mothers with Mastitis Evaluated Using a Taste Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis.

  7. TASTE MASKING IN PHARMACEUTICAL: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  8. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our...

  9. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  10. Males and females show differential brain activation to taste when hungry and sated in gustatory and reward areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Lori; Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although males and females differ in eating behavior and prevalence rates for eating disorders and obesity, little is known about gender differences in cortical activation to pleasant and unpleasant pure tastes during the physiological states of hunger and satiety. Twenty-one healthy young adults (12 females and 9 males) underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Using four pure tastants of differing qualities (i.e., salty, sour, bitter, sweet), the present study examined gender differences in fMRI activation during two motivational states (hunger and satiety). There was greater change in fMRI activation from hunger to satiety in males than females in response to all tastes within the middle frontal gyrus (BA 10), insula, and cerebellum. Males also had greater change in activation from hunger to satiety, relative to females, in limbic regions including dorsal striatum, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior and anterior cingulate; however, activation was stimulus dependent, despite equivalent ratings in perceived pleasantness and intensity. Interestingly, males and females showed significant change from hunger to satiety in response to citric acid, suggesting that in addition to gender and physiological condition, stimulus quality is an important factor in taste fMRI activation. These gender differences may have implications for the pathophysiology of eating disorders and obesity. PMID:21718731

  11. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  12. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  13. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  14. Functional characterization of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor for phenylthiocarbamide in colobine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Laurentia Henrieta Permita Sari; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Tsutsui, Kei; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nila, Sarah; Suryobroto, Bambang; Imai, Hiroo

    2017-01-01

    Bitterness perception in mammals is mostly directed at natural toxins that induce innate avoidance behaviours. Bitter taste is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor TAS2R, which is located in taste cell membranes. One of the best-studied bitter taste receptors is TAS2R38, which recognizes phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Here we investigate the sensitivities of TAS2R38 receptors to PTC in four species of leaf-eating monkeys (subfamily Colobinae). Compared with macaque monkeys (subfamily Cercopithecinae), colobines have lower sensitivities to PTC in behavioural and in vitro functional analyses. We identified four non-synonymous mutations in colobine TAS2R38 that are responsible for the decreased sensitivity of the TAS2R38 receptor to PTC observed in colobines compared with macaques. These results suggest that tolerance to bitterness in colobines evolved from an ancestor that was sensitive to bitterness as an adaptation to eating leaves. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Platte

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of three clinical psychological variables (non-pathological levels of depression and anxiety, as well as experimentally manipulated mood on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants. Following mood manipulation, subjects rated five different oral stimuli, appearing sweet, umami, sour, bitter, fatty, which were delivered at five different concentrations each. Depression levels were assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI and anxiety levels were assessed via the Spielberger's STAI-trait and state questionnaire. Overall, subjects were able to track the concentrations of the stimuli correctly, yet depression level affected taste ratings. First, depression scores were positively correlated with sucrose ratings. Second, subjects with depression scores above the sample median rated sucrose and quinine as more intense after mood induction (positive, negative and neutral. Third and most important, the group with enhanced depression scores did not rate low and high fat stimuli differently after positive or negative mood induction, whereas, during baseline or during the non-emotional neutral condition they rated the fat intensity as increasing with concentration. Consistent with others' prior observations we also found that sweet and bitter stimuli at baseline were rated as more intense by participants with higher anxiety scores and that after positive and negative mood induction, citric acid was rated as stronger tasting compared to baseline. The observation that subjects with mild subclinical depression rated low and high fat stimuli similarly when in positive or negative mood is novel and likely has potential implications for unhealthy eating patterns. This deficit may foster unconscious eating of fatty foods in sub-clinical mildly depressed populations.

  16. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  17. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ke Li; Juan-mei Yang; Yi-bo Huang; Dong-dong Ren; Fang-lu Chi

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well under-stood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of re-covery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantiifed and compared among groups. No signiifcant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection+lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, vol-umes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased signiifcantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  18. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  19. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their

  20. TActical Sensor network TEst bed (TASTE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, P. van; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.

    2008-01-01

    TASTE is a software tool for specifying and deploying unattended ground sensors (UGS) in a composition which the commander assumes will suit his needs the best. With TASTE different sensor types such as acoustic, magnetic, seismic, radar and IR imaging sensors can be deployed virtually and their ind

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  2. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring...

  3. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    Irregular yields of Prunus cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’, which is the preferred sour cherry cultivar in Denmark, have been proposed to be a result of freeze injury to floral tissues. This study determined floral mortality of P. cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ and the supposedly more cold hardy P...

  4. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale proce

  5. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljevac Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  6. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid chr

  7. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  8. Sodium aspartate as a specific enhancer of salty taste perception-sodium aspartate is a possible candidate to decrease excessive intake of dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomohiro; Kohori, Jun; Koike, Shin; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Shoji, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    The excessive intake of dietary salt is a global issue in health. Attempts have been made to address this issue, including the development of salt substitutes. Yet, none of these substances are currently in wide use, because of their weak saltiness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sodium aspartate (Asp-Na) on salty taste perception using the bullfrog glossopharyngeal nerve response and human sensory tests. When added to the mixture of NaCl and KCl, Asp-Na significantly enhanced the glossopharyngeal nerve response to the mixture by 1.6-fold compared to control. Asp-Na did not enhance the response to NaCl, nor did Asp-Na enhance the response to sour, bitter, or umami stimuli. The optimal concentration for Asp-Na to enhance the salt mixture was 1.7mM. The largest enhancement was induced when NaCl and KCl were mixed at equimolar concentrations. Asp-Na significantly suppressed the glossopharyngeal nerve response to quinine hydrochloride, which suggests that bitterness of KCl is suppressed by Asp-Na. The salty taste enhancing effect of Asp-Na was also confirmed with human sensory tests. The present results suggested that the mixture of NaCl and KCl containing Asp-Na can be used as a salt substitute. In addition to demonstrating that Asp-Na enhanced salt taste responses in an experimental animal and human, our findings provide clues to identify the elusive salty taste receptors.

  9. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  10. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Spence, Charles

    2015-06-01

    At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music-one chosen to match each wine-were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine-music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  12. Biological Activity of Sour Cherry Fruit on the Bacterial Flora of Human Saliva in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Blázovics

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report on the antibacterial effect of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars. Biological activity of sour cherry juices prepared from fruits Érdi jubileum, Érdi bőtermő, Maliga emléke and Kántorjánosi 3 harvested at different maturity stages was investigated on bacteria present in human saliva. The influence of sour cherry on a mixed bacterial flora of human saliva of 10 volunteers was determined by different experimental approaches. Bactericidal effects were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using agar diffusion methods and by minimum bactericidal dilution (MBD assays counting the number of surviving bacterial cells in the diluted juices. Time-dependent antibacterial effects were also determined by monitoring the decrease in bacterial cell numbers after the treatment with undiluted juices. The investigated sour cherry juices displayed an impressive bactericidal effect against human saliva bacteria (10–100× reduction of cell numbers within a short time frame (10–40 min. Érdi jubileum was more effective (100 000× reduction of cell number after 270 min than the other studied cultivars. Bactericidal effect was influenced by ripening of samples of Érdi jubileum obtained at different harvesting dates. Biologically active components were effective against a large spectrum of opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Pantoea spp. and Escherichia coli, including the antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa but they were ineffective against beneficial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. Results confirmed the antibacterial potential of all the investigated sour cherry fruits, therefore the consumption of the fruit or its juice for positive influence on oral hygiene is highly recommended.

  13. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.

  14. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  15. Individually Modified Saliva Delivery Changes the Perceived Intensity of Saltiness and Sourness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, C.I.; Stieger, M.A.; Bult, J.H.F.; Smit, B.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals vary largely in their salivary flow and composition, and given the importance of saliva on perception of taste, this might influence how the tastant stimuli are perceived. We therefore hypothesise that altering the individual salivary flow rates has an impact on the perceived taste inten

  16. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  17. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, ...

  18. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M.

    2014-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three ...

  19. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  20. Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Xu, Hong; Pronin, Alexey; Liu, Haitian; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2008-12-30

    Umami is one of the 5 basic taste qualities. The umami taste of L-glutamate can be drastically enhanced by 5' ribonucleotides and the synergy is a hallmark of this taste quality. The umami taste receptor is a heteromeric complex of 2 class C G-protein-coupled receptors, T1R1 and T1R3. Here we elucidate the molecular mechanism of the synergy using chimeric T1R receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling. We propose a cooperative ligand-binding model involving the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1, where L-glutamate binds close to the hinge region, and 5' ribonucleotides bind to an adjacent site close to the opening of the flytrap to further stabilize the closed conformation. This unique mechanism may apply to other class C G-protein-coupled receptors.

  1. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancer molecules. Whereas the sweeteners bind to the hinge region and induce the closure of the Venus flytrap domain of T1R2, the enhancers bind close to the opening and further stabilize the closed and active conformation of the receptor.

  2. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste.

  3. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  4. The anatomy of mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-02-01

    All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than 600 single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs. Using this alignment, a homology 3D-model of the human sweet taste receptor is built and analyzed to dissect out the role of key residues involved in ligand binding and those responsible for receptor activation. Proteins 2017; 85:332-341. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of fructooligosaccharides on the physicochemical properties of sour cassava starch and baking quality of gluten-free cheese bread

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Sandoval, Eduardo; Landi Franco, Celia M. [UNESP; Manjarres-Pinzon, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to explore the influence of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the functional and thermal properties of sour cassava starch and the quality characteristics of gluten-free (GF) cheese bread. Fructooligosaccharides were used to replace sour cassava starch at substitution level of 9% (SF1), 17% (SF2), and 29% (SF3). The functional and thermal properties of the starch-FOS mixtures were determined by the water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), p...

  6. Study on Pickled Sour Plants in Guangxi%广西酸食植物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉华; 曹书阁; 隆卫革

    2016-01-01

    Pickled sour food is a common catering culture in Guangxi.Various edible fruits and vegetables can be taken as raw materials for making pickled sour food.Plant resources of pickled sour food are studied in Guangxi through field investigation, key informant interviews, specimen identification and literature analysis.The results show that there are 72 species of main plants, belonging to 29 families and 55 genera in Guangxi.The edible value and efficacy of pickled sour plants,the geographical and climatic factors of pickled sour food and the problems of nitrite production in pickled sour food are analyzed in this study.The development prospects of pickled sour food industry are discussed,which has provided the reference for the development and utilization of pickled sour food.%酸食指腌制的酸的食物,食酸食是广西人普遍的一种饮食文化,各种蔬菜水果均可成为腌制酸食的原料。本研究通过实地调查、关键人物访谈、标本鉴定和文献研究,共记录了腌制酸食的主要植物72种,隶属于29科55属。对酸食植物的食用价值与功效、酸食形成的地理和气候因素、酸食中产生的亚硝酸盐问题等进行了分析,探讨了酸食产业发展中出现的问题并提出建议,为酸食植物的开发利用提供参考。

  7. Wine Tasting Discourse: Traditional Knowledge, and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    STENGEL, Kilien; Marinescu, Angelica-Helena

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Traditions, brotherhoods, wines of terroir, vintage wines…so many expressions that, beyond the numerical value, compose the wine tasting speech, in France as well as in Romania, among others. The rising of awareness concerning traditions and heritage notions has largely evolved during the XXth century, spanning from the vineyard as a field for the theatricality of the brotherhoods to the considerations given to rites and customs, as well as to wine-tasting, till the la...

  8. O singular monumento funerário romano de Soure : (conventus Scallabitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D'Encarnação

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retoma-se o estudo epigráfico do monumento romano de Soure (HEp, 6, 1996, 1037, salientando a importância da representação, em baixo relevo, da cena de caça à lebre e o elevado interesse histórico-cultural da referência a laquearia, como elemento arquitectónico integrante do monumento.Epigraphic analysis of a roman monument (HEp, 6, 1996, 1037 found at Soure, near Conimbriga, in Lusitania. The great significance of the representation, in basso relief, of a hunting hare’s scene. The funerary monument had laquearia (panelled ceiling, a very significant mark of an uncommon erudition and culture.

  9. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and application of the LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakainen, Hilkka; Korhola, Matti

    2005-07-30

    We have cloned by complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sequenced a LEU2 gene from the sour dough yeast Candida milleri CBS 8195 and studied its chromosomal location. The LEU2 coding sequence was 1092 nt long encoding a putative beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase protein of 363 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region had 71.6% identity to S. cerevisiae LEU2 sequence. On the protein level, the identity of C. milleri Leu2p to S. cerevisiae Leu2p was 84.1%. The CmLEU2 DNA probe hybridized to one to three chromosomal bands and two or three BamHI restriction fragments in C. milleri but did not give any signal to chromosomes or restriction fragments of C. albicans, S. cerevisiae, S. exiguus or Torulaspora delbrueckii. Using CmLEU2 probe for DNA hybridization makes it easy to quickly identify C. milleri among other sour dough yeasts.

  11. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  12. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

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    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  13. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    Sight is undoubtedly not only important for food identification and selection but also for the modulation of gustatory sensitivity. We can, therefore, assume that taste sensitivity and eating habits are affected by visual deprivation from birth. We measured taste detection and identification thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli.

  14. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  15. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  16. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh; Kazem Arzani; Naser Bouzari; Ali Saei

    2014-01-01

    Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars) was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially IS...

  17. Souring control in fluid samples of oil industry using a multiple ligand simultaneous docking (MLSD) strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Elias Silva; de Souza, Leila Cristiane Virgens; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Ramos-de-Souza, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We have used docking techniques in order to propose potential inhibitors to the enzymes adenosine phosphosulfate reductase and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase that are responsible, among other deleterious effects, for causing souring of oil and gas reservoirs. Three candidates selected through molecular docking revealed new and improved polar and hydrophobic interactions with the above-mentioned enzymes. Microbiological laboratory assays performed subsequently corroborated the results of computer modelling that the three compounds can efficiently control the biogenic sulfide production.

  18. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  19. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  20. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  1. Antifungal properties of organic extracts of eight Cistus L. species against postharvest citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Talibi, I; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Saadi, B; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of methanol and chloroform extracts of eight Cistaceae species to control citrus sour rot decay, caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii, was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Methanol extracts of these plant species exhibited more interesting activity against G. citri-aurantii, in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, compared with chloroforme extracts. Under in vitro trials, obtained results showed that methanol extracts of all tested plants revealed a highest significant antifungal activity with inhibition zones that ranged between 12·33 and 16·33 mm in diameter. All tested methanol extracts totally inhibited spore germination when tested at 10 mg ml(-1) . Incidence of sour rot was significantly lowered to 11·11% when fruits were treated with Cistus populifolius and Cistus ladanifer methanol extracts compared with 100% in the control. The disease severity was lowered to 5·19% and 6·04% when fruits were treated with the same methanol extracts respectively. The methanol Cistus extracts had sufficient antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo against G. citri-aurantii to consider its use in the citrus industry after it has been tested under production and natural infection conditions. Such natural products therefore represent a viable alternative approaches for sour rot postharvest management of citrus. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effect of processing conditions on acidification properties of wheat sour doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Benedito de Barber, C; Collar Esteve, C

    1994-06-01

    The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and lactic and acetic acids production have been investigated for wheat sour doughs with and without yeast addition, inoculated with two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (B33, B39). To study the effect of flour extraction rate (0.54, 11.11 and 1.68% ash content), dough yield (DY) (160, 200 and 240 of sour dough/100 g flour), and fermentation temperature (25, 30 and 35 degrees C) a response surface regression, factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis were used. Results from factor analysis point out that the extraction rate of fluor governs TTA and acetic acid content; this factor accounts for the 53% of variability of the data. Dough yield is highly correlated with lactic acid content, explaining 27% of the total variance. Finally, temperature explains the remaining 16% of variation, but it is not related to any analytical variable. From K-means clustering analysis, flour extraction rate of 1.68% ash content leads to the highest TTA and acetic acid values, whereas DY of 240 g sour dough/100 g flour gives the greatest lactic acid content, and DY of 160 leads to the lowest levels of TTA and organic acids.

  3. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. I. Yeasts responsible for the leavening action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, T F; Kline, L; Miller, M W

    1971-03-01

    Two hundred isolates from San Francisco sour dough French bread fermentations (40 from each of five different bakeries) were screened by fermentation tests and for their ability to grow in the presence of cycloheximide (Actidione). All of the isolates from four of the bakeries and 70% of those from the fifth were unable to utilize maltose but grew well on other sugars, even in the presence of cycloheximide. The remaining few isolates from the fifth bakery utilized maltose but not galactose and were inhibited by cycloheximide. No bakers' yeast types were found. Sixteen of the maltose-negative and five of the galactose-negative isolates were subjected to more rigorous taxonomic procedures. All of the maltose-negative isolates were identified as asporogenous strains of Saccharomyces exiguus (Torulopsis holmii) and the galactose-negative ones, as S. inusitatus. The predominance of S. exiguus, its vigor in the particular acidic environment of the sour dough, and the correlation of its numbers with the leavening function constitute strong evidence on the role of this organism in the sour dough system.

  4. In vitro sterilization procedures for micropropagation of ‘oblačinska’ sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljević Ines

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sterilization is the most important step in preparation of explants for micropropagation, because controlling fungal and bacterial contamination of woody plant from field sources is very difficult. Six sterilizing agents: sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO2], sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DICA, mercuric (II chloride (HgCl2, silver nitrate (AgNO3 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were tested for sterilization of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry buds, by varying their concentration and time of exposure. The aim of this study was to establish best surface sterilization for in vitro propagation of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry. Aseptic cultures of ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry were established from axillary buds which were placed in nutrient medium, supplemented with plants hormones 6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 1- naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. The results indicated that among these sterilizing agents silver nitrate (AgNO3 at concentration of 1% for 20 minutes was the best for controlling the infection, whereas sterilization with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DICA at concentration of 1% for 10 minutes was not satisfactory.

  5. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  6. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  7. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  8. Effect of concentration on taste-taste interactions with foods for elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in concentration of one of the tastants in a 'real food' might affect not only the perception of the taste quality of that manipulated tastant but also the other perceivable taste qualities. The influence of concentration increase of sodium or potassium chloride in tomato soup, sucrose o

  9. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  10. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  11. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  13. Expectations influence sensory experience in a wine tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2009-06-01

    Information about a product may shape consumers' taste experience. In a wine tasting experiment, participants received (positive or negative) information about the wine prior to or after the tasting. When the information was given prior to the tasting, negative information about the wine resulted in lower ratings compared to the group that received positive information. No such effect was observed when participants received the information after the tasting but before they evaluated the wine. Results suggest that the information about the wine affected the experience itself and not only participants' overall assessment of the wine after the tasting.

  14. 5 CFR 630.503 - Leave from former leave systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave from former leave systems. 630.503... AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.503 Leave from former leave systems. An employee who earned leave under the leave acts of 1936 or any other leave system merged under subchapter I of chapter 63 of...

  15. A composite sensor array impedentiometric electronic tongue Part II. Discrimination of basic tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G; Di Francesco, F; Marchetti, A; Ferro, M; Leardi, R; Ahluwalia, A

    2007-05-15

    An impedentiometric electronic tongue based on the combination of a composite sensor array and chemometric techniques aimed at the discrimination of soluble compounds able to elicit different gustative perceptions is presented. A composite array consisting of chemo-sensitive layers based on carbon nanotubes or carbon black dispersed in polymeric matrices and doped polythiophenes was used. The electrical impedance of the sensor array was measured at a frequency of 150 Hz by means of an impedance meter. The experimental set-up was designed in order to allow the automatic selection of a test solution and dipping of the sensor array following a dedicated measurement protocol. Measurements were carried out on 15 different solutions eliciting 5 different tastes (sodium chloride, citric acid, glucose, glutamic acid and sodium dehydrocholate for salty, sour, sweet, umami and bitter, respectively) at 3 concentration levels comprising the human perceptive range. In order to avoid over-fitting, more than 100 repetitions for each sample were carried in a 4-month period. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect and remove outliers. Classification was performed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A fairly good degree of discrimination was obtained.

  16. Microorganisms of the San Francisco sour dough bread process. II. Isolation and characterization of undescribed bacterial species responsible for the souring activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, L; Sugihara, T F

    1971-03-01

    A medium was developed which permitted isolation, apparently for the first time, of the bacteria responsible for the acid production in the 100-year-old San Francisco sour dough French bread process. Some of the essential ingredients of this medium included a specific requirement for maltose at a high level, Tween 80, freshly prepared yeast extractives, and an initial pH of not over 6.0. The bacteria were gram-positive, nonmotile, catalase-negative, short to medium slender rods, indifferent to oxygen, and producers of lactic and acetic acids with the latter varying from 3 to 26% of the total. Carbon dioxide was also produced. Their requirement for maltose for rapid and heavy growth and a proclivity for forming involuted, filamentous, and pleomorphic forms raises a question as to whether they should be properly grouped with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

  17. Effects of haemodialysis on taste and thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R; Farleigh, C A; Atkinson, C; Pryor, J S

    1987-10-01

    Fifteen patients undergoing haemodialysis tasted soup varying in salt concentration and apple puree varying in sucrose concentration, immediately before and after dialysis. Matched controls tasted the same foods with a similar interval between tastings. The samples were rated for intensity, and on a relative-to-ideal scale. For the salt, the slopes of the functions plotted against log (concentration) were higher after dialysis than before, whilst the most preferred concentration was lower. There were no effects found for the sweetness ratings or for the controls. Likewise there were no overall differences in the ratings between the patients and controls. Thirst was found to increase on dialysis, and there was a trend of this being higher for the patients than for the controls. The reduction in preferences for salt by dialysis would make compliance with a reduced salt diet easier, but the increase in thirst would make compliance with reduced fluid intake more difficult.

  18. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  19. Sensing via intestinal sweet taste pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Young

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycaemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterised in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterising nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of gastrointestinal motility.

  20. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  1. Case studies of the application of enhanced steel alloys for bottom hole assembly components for sour service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Alvaro [Nov Grant Prideco, Navasota (United States); Moura, Carlos [ASPEN Assesoria Tecnica e Comercial, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Johnson, Charles; Landriault, Alain [Weatherford Canda Partnership, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The new more modern drilling programs require the drill string to travel across sour formations in order to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Traditional materials have been employed in the manufacture of HWDP components along with basic heat treatment processes. Standard HWDP tools have started to show their operational as well as environmental limitations when subjected to sour service applications. The advanced, more complex drilling programs require for the HWDP tools to be put in service under different configurations. Either at the bottom of the drill string near the drill bit for vertical well configurations or on top of the drill string for weight application on horizontal or extended reach applications. An operator in northwestern Canada has replaced standard HWDP with enhanced sour service HWDP in order to complete the programmed wells. These enhanced tools offer higher tensile and torque capabilities and improved toughness than standard HWDP tools and in addition, provide protection against sour service conditions. The use of second-generation double shoulder connections (2nd-Gen. DSC) has also provided added torque and tensile capacities to these versatile HWDP tools. For over a year more than a dozen wells have been drilled employing these enhanced BHA tools and have helped the operator reach its targets through sour service formations and produce wells in a safe and cost effective manner. (author)

  2. UK: Organic foods win the taste test

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    Nine categories of organic versus non-organic products were scored for taste on a scale of 1 to 5. The organic products were from the Duchy Originals range produced by Prince Charles’s organic food company and sold at Waitrose, a UK supermarket chain. The comparable alternatives were sourced from Tesco, Sainsbury, Morrisons, Marks & Spencer, ASDA, Lidl, and Aldi. In these taste tests conducted by UK journalist/chef Anne Shooter the organic products lead in seven of the nine product categories...

  3. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  4. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  5. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  6. 紫背天葵色素对酸豆奶发酵进程的影响%Influence of Begonia Fimbristipula Hance Pigment on Fermentation Process of Sour Soy Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕊静; 康维民; 郭朔

    2013-01-01

    soybeans were the main raw materials and the pigment extracted from begonia fimbristipula hance was added into soy milk to make sour soy milk through the process of lactic acid fermentation, with lactobacillus bulgari-cus and streptococcus thermophilus mixed in an equal ratio as leavening agent. Through single factor test, we explored the influence of begonia fimbristipula hance pigment on fermentation pH, number of lactic acid bacteria, quality and preservation performance of sour soy milk. As the results showed, in the soy milk where the soybean and water mass proportion was 1: 10, we added 6% begonia fimbristipula hance pigment extract, 6% sucrose and 2% glucose , and when they were cooled to 43℃ after 30 min of 85℃ sterilization we inoculated 3% lactic acid bacteria for 6 hours of fermentation. In this process, begonia fimbristipula hance pigment was beneficial to growth and reproduction of lactic acid bacteria, accelerated the process of acid fermentation of soy milk, shortened the fermentation time, and could improve the product tissue state and preservation performance. With bright red color, manufactured sour soy milk had delicate tissue, good coagulation, good taste and flavor and high nutritional value.%大豆为主要原料,将紫背天葵提取色素添加到豆奶中,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌等比混合为发酵剂进行乳酸发酵制酸豆奶.通过单因素试验,探讨紫背天葵色素对酸豆奶发酵pH、乳酸菌数、酸豆奶品质及保藏性能的影响.结果表明,豆水质量比为1:10的豆奶中添加6%紫背天葵色素提取液,6%蔗糖和2%葡萄糖,85℃杀菌30 min后冷却至43℃,接种3%乳酸菌发酵6h,紫背天葵色素的添加有利于乳酸菌的生长繁殖,加速酸豆奶的发酵进程,缩短发酵时间,能改善产品的组织状态,提高产品的保藏性能.制得的酸豆奶色泽鲜红,组织细腻,凝固性好,滋味和气味优良,营养价值高.

  7. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  8. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  9. Sulfidogenesis and Control in Fractured Rock: Laboratory Experiments and Implication for Souring Intervention in Oil Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Geller, J. T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfidogenesis in oil reservoirs, referred to as souring, is commonly encountered during sea water flooding. A better understanding of the souring process and effective control is of great interest to the oil industry. While a large fraction of global oil reserve is found in fractured rock, understanding of sulfidogenesis and control in fractured rock is next to non-existent. Complex and contrasting flow properties between fracture and matrix result in heterogeneous thermal and reaction gradients, posing great challenges to both experimental and modeling studies. We conducted the first experiment on biogenic sulfidogenesis and control in fractured rock. A 2D flow cell was used and straight fractures were created in order to reduce complexity, producing datasets more amenable to models. Heating was applied to simulate temperature gradients from colder sea-water injection. Perchlorate treatment was performed following sulfidogenesis as a thermodynamic control strategy. Synthetic sea water (SSW) with acetate was used as the growth media. Inoculations were carried out with sulfate reducing and perchlorate reducing microbes. A set of control and monitoring methods was applied including temperature, optical and infrared imaging, distributed galvanic sensing and fluid sampling as well as influent/effluent monitoring. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the experiment. Our experiment captured the dynamics of sulfur cycling in fractured rocks. Time-lapse optical imaging recorded the evolution of microbial biomass. Infrared imaging revealed the thermal gradient and the impacts from flow. Such data was essential for the identification of a mesophilic zone and it's co-location with sufidogenesis. Galvanic-potential signals provided the critical dataset for tracking spatial sulfide distribution over time. Our experiment demonstrated for the first time the role of heterogeneous flow and temperature controlling sulfidogenesis and treatment in fractured rock

  10. Investigations of corrosion films formed on API-X52 pipeline steel in acid sour media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Espejel, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA-Unidad Altamira-Tamaulipas, km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamps (Mexico); Cabrera-Sierra, R. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Industrial, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Meneses, C. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arce-Estrada, E.M., E-mail: earce@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Ed. 7, Zacatenco 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Corrosion films formed by voltammetry using different switching potentials and by immersion on API-X52 pipeline steel in simulated acid sour media (NACE ID182) have been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Linear Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. XRD and EDS analysis showed that the films are mainly composed of sulphide compounds (mackinawite, troilite, marcasite and pyrite) as well as iron oxides, as steel damage increases. Across SEM micrographs the corrosion films formed by potentiodynamic and immersion tests are very similar, covering most of the steel. Polarization and EIS results corroborate poor behavior against corrosion.

  11. Gustology As A Science About The Aesthetical Taste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NataliaG.Kalashnik

    2003-01-01

    The new problem to be solved together; Last decade's changes of the world; The aesthetical taste as a part of day-by-day life; Gustology - the new science; Definitions and the double nature of the aesthetical taste; History of the aesthetical taste studying.

  12. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  13. Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller

  14. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2007-08-01

    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  15. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  16. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  17. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  18. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  19. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  20. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  1. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  2. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  3. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  4. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divid...

  5. Progress in the Mechanisms of Mammalian Taste%哺乳动物味觉感受机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴亚; 庞广昌

    2014-01-01

    味觉系统对于食品风味、营养和毒害的“主动认知”对保证哺乳动物生存具有积极意义.哺乳动物具有甜、鲜、苦、咸、酸五类基本味觉.近年来,随着微电子技术及分子生物学等学科的快速发展,人类对味觉系统的研究取得了较大的进展.呈味分子与味觉感受器上的受体结合后,引起味觉细胞去极化和神经递质的释放,神经纤维接收递质并将产生的神经信号传达到脑的味觉感受区,完成味觉识别过程.本文对味觉系统中味觉感受器的组成、味觉受体介导的信号途径以及味觉信息的神经传导过程进行了系统的论述.%The "active perception" of mammalian taste system for food flavor,nutrition and poison has a positive significance to guarantee their survival.Mammals have five basic tastes,such as sweet,fresh,bitter,salty and sour.Recent researches have made great progress on human taste system along with the rapid development of microelectronics,molecular biology and other subjects.Tastant binding with gustatory receptor causes cell depolarization and release of neurotransmitters,which are accepted by nerve fibers to generate nerve signals.The signals are conveyed to the area of taste perception in brain and then taste recognition process is completed.In this paper,the progress of the composition of taste receptors,taste receptor mediated signaling pathways and gustatory information as well as the nerve conduction are briefly reviewed.

  6. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms.

  7. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Peace

    Full Text Available High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus. This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome. Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269 and sour (n = 330 cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery

  8. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L Michel

    Full Text Available Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS.In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi culture with three concentrations of bacteria (10(2, 10(4, 10(7 colony forming units/ml, followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C and outdoor (33°C temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days.M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (10(7 cfu/ml, M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C, approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%, giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours.This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for periods of time that

  9. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Raseleka, Keneilwe; Getz, Wayne M.; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    Background Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS. Methods In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi) culture with three concentrations of bacteria (102, 104, 107 colony forming units/ml), followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C) and outdoor (33°C) temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days). Results M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (107cfu/ml), M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C), approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%), giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours). Conclusions This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for

  10. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid in sour lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during post-harvest pathogenesis by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Rozy; Sumbali, Geeta

    2005-04-01

    During hot and humid seasons, extensive rot of sour lime was observed to be caused by Aspergillus flavus. In view of this, investigations were undertaken to obtain data on the production of various toxins by A. flavus during post harvest pathogenesis of sour lime. Sixty percent of the pathogenic A. flavus isolates were detected to be aflatoxin B(1) producers in sour lime tissue. It was also noted that thirty three percent of aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates had the potential to coproduce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Such aflatoxigenic isolates produced quantitatively more CPA (ranging from 250.0 to 2501.3 microg/kg) than aflatoxin B(1) (ranging from 141.3 to 811.7 microg/kg) in the affected sour lime. This study demonstrates for the first time that sour lime are a favourable substrate for aflatoxin B(1) and cyclopiazonic acid production by A. flavus isolates. This is of great concern to the health of consumers.

  11. TASTE MASKING METHODS AND AGENTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajkar Reshma Nilesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a critical factor during development of any dosage form and it is important parameter in administering drugs orally. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. The present review explains in detail the various methods and agents used for taste-masking like, Inclusion complexation, Ion exchange resin, Coating, Granulation, Microencapsulation, Flavors, and Sweeteners, Pro-drug etc.The review also highlights factors affecting the selection of technology for taste masking and methods for evaluation of taste.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones.

  13. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  14. Microwave-vacuum drying of sour cherry: comparison of mathematical models and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavali, Ali; Najafi, Gholam Hassan; Abbasi, Solayman; Minaei, Saeid; Ghaderi, Abdurrahman

    2013-08-01

    Drying characteristics of sour cherries were determined using microwave vacuum drier at various microwave powers (360, 600, 840, 1200 W) and absolute pressures (200, 400, 600, 800 mbars). In addition, using the artificial neural networks (ANN), trained by standard Back-Propagation algorithm, the effects of microwave power, pressure and drying time on moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR) were investigated Based on the evaluation of experimental data fitting with semi-theoretical and empirical models, the Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate one. Furthermore, the ANN model was able to predict the moisture ratio and drying rate quite well with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9961 and 0.9958 for training, validation and testing, respectively. The prediction Mean Square Error of ANN was about 0.0003, 0.0071 and 0.0053 for training, validation and testing, respectively. This parameter signifies the difference between the desired outputs (as measured values) and the simulated values by the model. The good agreement between the experimental data and ANN model leads to the conclusion that the model adequately describes the drying behavior of sour cherries, in the range of operating conditions tested.

  15. The growth relationships in maiden trees of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Lipecki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in a nursery of sour cherry ‘Łutówka’ budded on Prunus mahaleb L. in the years 1993, 2000–2003, and 2013. The height of trees, the diameter of stems, and the length of lateral shoots were measured. The air temperature and precipitation higher than the long-term mean (by approximately 10 % and 28%, respectively contributed to the increase in the stem diameter, the total length of shoots, and the number of shoots per tree. The length of lateral shoots increased from the top of the crown towards the lower parts, however, the number of feathers per tree and the mean length of shoots decreased. A strong positive relationship (r = 0.74, P < 0.05 was revealed between the stem diameter and the total length of shoots. Generally, the correlations between the type of growth of sour cherry maiden trees and morphological traits were similar to those characteristic for apple maiden trees or “knip-boom” type trees.

  16. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Manipulation of Poetic and Ideology: Human Translation in Sour Sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金龙

    2015-01-01

    Timothy Mo, a famous British writer whose works have won many important prizes, experiences both Chinese culture and English culture since his childhood. Due to this kind of experience, his works are usually concerned with the issue of cultural con-flict. Among these works, Sour Sweet is the most well-known one in China, and it has also been filmed as Soursweet in 1988 with the famous actress Zhang Aijia. In Sour Sweet, Timothy Mo tells a story about a Chinese family's struggle in the UK. After experi-encing a serious of cultural conflict, among the three family members Chen, Lily and Mui, only Lily achieves a delicate balance. Af-ter defining the process of establishing oneself in a new environment as a kind of human translation, the article applies André Lefe-vere's theory to study the three characters'different responses to the cultural conflict, analyze how different poetic and different strategies adopted to deal with ideology affect their translation, explain why does or doesn't he/she translates himself/herself suc-cessfully, and finally gets the conclusion:because Lily deals well with the dominant ideological and poetical currents, and makes appropriate choice in face of cultural translatability and untranslatability, so only she can translate herself successfully.

  18. Cross-Linkable Polyimide Membranes for Improved Plasticization Resistance and Permselectivity in Sour Gas Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-09-10

    A series of cross-linkable membrane materials based on the 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) polyimide backbone were synthesized for improved sour gas separation performance, in terms of both membrane stability and permselectivity. Short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecules were used as cross-linking agents in an esterification-based cross-linking reaction. Pure and mixed gas permeation and pure gas sorption experiments were performed on dense films of these materials. Compared to unmodified 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2), higher sour gas permselectivity and membrane stability were achieved under aggressive feed conditions. H2S-induced plasticization was not evident until pure H2S feed pressures greater than approximately 6-8 bar. Pure CO 2-induced plasticization only occurred at feed pressures greater than about 25 bar. Under mixed gas feed conditions with 20% H2S, 20% CO2, and 60% CH4 at 35 C, attractive selectivities above 22 and 27 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively, were observed for a feed pressure of 62 bar with both triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol cross-linking agents. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  20. Physicochemical Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry cv. Marasca During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedisić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry cv. Marasca is Dalmatian cultivar from XVI century. Cultivation is limited on the north and central part of Dalmatia and on the part of the islands, where it achieves the best quality of fruit, high content of dry matter and sugar respectively, agreeable aroma and intense color. Sour cherry cv. Marasca is source of biologically active ingredients, organic and inorganic compounds, dietary fibers, aromatic compounds and high content of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and hormone melatonin. Many epidemiological studies showed that phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and they have beneficial effect on human health. Marasca is rich with mentioned compounds. Physicochemical composition (total and soluble dry matter, pH value, total acidity during ripening of cv. Marasca ecotype Recta (Cerasus marasca recta grown in Zadar and Split area were determined. Total and soluble dry matter increased and pH value and total acidity showed little change during ripening. The content of phenolic compounds increased during ripening as well as content of anthocyanins, while antioxidant activity decreased with ripening. That indicates there was no correlation between antioxidant activity and content of total phenolic compounds.

  1. SEGREGATION IN HSLA STEELS FOR SOUR SERVICE: AN EVALUATION USING COMPUTATIONAL THERMODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Vasconcellos da Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount, type and distribution of non-metallic inclusions as well as the solidification segregation, which influences inclusion type and distribution, have great influence on the performance of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steels used in sour service in the oil industry. The effects of manganese, both on segregation and on steel cleanness have been studied through experiments and, to a lesser extent, through mathematical modeling of solidification. However, the effect of some other relevant elements added to these steels, in special those effects caused by solidification segregation, have not been extensively studied. In the present work, the extent of segregation and the probable effect on inclusion distribution of the main elements in HSLA steels used in sour service are evaluated through different computational thermodynamic models. In particular, two limiting cases bound the comparison: equilibrium solidification and the Scheil model, in which no homogenization in the solid phase is assumed. Special attention is given to silicon. For relevant compositions, models considering solid and liquid state diffusion are used. The results are compared with experimental data available for some steel compositions and serve as basis for a first evaluation of the alloy design strategy currently applied to these steels, from the point of view of segregation and internal cleanness.

  2. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  3. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pantelić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine.

  4. The discovery and mechanism of sweet taste enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    Excess sugar intake posts several health problems. Artificial sweeteners have been used for years to reduce dietary sugar content, but they are not ideal substitutes for sugar owing to their off-taste. A new strategy focused on allosteric modulation of the sweet taste receptor led to identification of sweet taste 'enhancers' for the first time. The enhancer molecules do not taste sweet, but greatly potentiate the sweet taste of sucrose and sucralose selectively. Following a similar mechanism as the natural umami taste enhancers, the sweet enhancer molecules cooperatively bind with the sweeteners to the Venus flytrap domain of the human sweet taste receptor and stabilize the active conformation. Now that the approach has proven successful, enhancers for other sweeteners and details of the molecular mechanism for the enhancement are being actively pursued.

  5. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  6. SOUR GRAPES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Win User

    2008-08-15

    Aug 15, 2008 ... When minimum wages in the sector were first promulgated in 2002, the farmers' ... probably not have represented an increase at all in certain areas.23 The ...... in Canada and the United States post-NAFTA” (2005) 26 ...

  7. Sour Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fight songs such as "The Victors" and "Notre Dame Victory March" have become part of the American music lexicon. Along with their sister songs, alma maters, they stir memories of carefree college days, elicit feelings of pride, and sometimes--especially fight songs--poke fun at athletic foes. They are the embodiment of tradition at U.S. colleges…

  8. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  9. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  11. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  12. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults (

  13. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  14. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  15. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: A review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the introduction of Toxoptera citricida (also known as the brown citrus aphid [BrCA] in 1995 there was a greater concern for maintaining production of existing blocks of citrus on sour orange rootstock. Availability of the CTV genome sequence around the same time as well as molecular characterization of in planta CTV populations led to the selection of mild CTV isolates which when inoculated into existing field trees, extended the productive life of the groves and enabled a more graduate replanting of trees on CTV-tolerant rootstocks. The history of CTV in Florida and the methods developed to select mild isolates for use for mild strain cross protection will be reviewed.

  16. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes inv...

  17. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  18. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  19. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  20. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  1. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  2. Abnormality of taste and smell in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mussadiq; Deeb, Jacquie; Fernando, Marina; Noyce, Alastair; Visentin, Elisa; Findley, Leslie J; Hawkes, Christopher H

    2009-03-01

    Smell sense is impaired in classic Parkinson's disease (PD). An initial study found no change in taste threshold in non-demented PD subjects and pathological studies suggest that the first relay for taste, the nucleus of the solitary tract, is spared. We wished to determine if taste is abnormal in PD and whether it is associated with smell dysfunction. Taste threshold was estimated using the Rion electrogustometer and olfaction by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in 75 non-demented PD patients and 74 controls. There was a significant impairment of taste threshold and severe disorder of smell identification in the PD group. Age, duration of symptoms, disability, and smoking had no important effect on threshold measurement and there was no correlation between taste and smell dysfunction. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a provisional diagnosis of PD would be confirmed if smell or taste were abnormal; conversely, the diagnosis would merit review if both modalities were normal. Impaired taste appreciation was found in about 27% of patients with clinically defined PD. There were no important effects from age, disease severity or smell sense. Given the sparing of the first and second order taste neurones in PD, disorder of taste in PD most likely signifies involvement of the frontal operculum or orbitofrontal cortex, in keeping with advanced disease, although confounding by drug effects and changes in salivary constitution could not be excluded completely.

  3. Taste effects of lingual application of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, J; Graham, B G; Schiffman, S S

    2000-01-01

    Medications used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmia, are prescribed extensively in Western countries. However, taste complaints are common side effects of many of these cardiovascular medications. Although clinical observations are helpful in determining potential taste problems from a medication, experimental studies are necessary to obtain quantitative data on taste. In the studies performed here, nine cardiovascular medications (labetalol HCl, captopril, diltiazem HCl, enalapril maleate, hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol HCl, mexiletine HCl, procainamide HCl, and propafenone HCl) were applied to the tongue in human volunteers to measure the direct effect of these drugs on taste receptors. The medications were applied topically to the tongue surface of both young and elderly subjects to mimic the situation in which the drug is secreted into the saliva. Detection thresholds ranged from 0.048 mM (propafenone) to 0.438 mM (procainamide). The detection thresholds of healthy elderly subjects did not significantly differ from young controls. The compounds tested had a predominantly bitter taste with other qualities as well. In addition, topical application of the medications to the tongue affected the taste of one or more taste stimuli, with medications differing in the pattern of taste effects exhibited. The mechanism of taste effects is not fully known, but the results of this study suggest one route may be due to medications' effect on peripheral taste receptors.

  4. [Changes in taste ability in patients with vestibular schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessert, P; Grüttner, C; van Ewijk, R; Haxel, B

    2014-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are rare tumors that can cause different symptoms due to their anatomical relationship to the cranial nerves in the inner auditory canal. So far little data is known to the effect of VS on the somatosensory function of the intermediate nerve. This study aimed to investigate the taste function of patients suffering from single sided VS. Therefore the well validated psychophysical test "Taste Strips" has been used. 26 patients who consulted our outpatient clinic at a university hospital could be included in the study. All patients were asked carefully for their medical history. A full ENT examination was done. Each side of the anterior two thirds of the tongue was tested separately using the Taste Strips. The average age was 52 years with both gender equally represented. Throughout all age groups the taste score was lower on the tumor vs. the non affected side. Testing for significance just failed the level of 0.05. No correlation between tumor size and location of the tumor with the taste score could be detected. Only 2 patients complained of taste dysfunction. They had a taste score below the 10. percentile of their age group on tumor while normal scores on the non affected side. To sum up a decreased taste score on the tumor side vs. the non affected side could be confirmed. Only 8% of the patients complained of taste disturbance as a symptom. That supports the observation that taste is a whole mouth experience and dysfunction can be compensated.

  5. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Campa

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001 with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics.

  6. Secondary taste neurons that convey sweet taste and starvation in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Pinky; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-02-18

    The gustatory system provides vital sensory information to determine feeding and appetitive learning behaviors. Very little is known, however, about higher-order gustatory circuits in the highly tractable model for neurobiology, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report second-order sweet gustatory projection neurons (sGPNs) in the Drosophila brain using a powerful behavioral screen. Silencing neuronal activity reduces appetitive behaviors, whereas inducible activation results in food acceptance via proboscis extensions. sGPNs show functional connectivity with Gr5a(+) sweet taste neurons and are activated upon sucrose application to the labellum. By tracing sGPN axons, we identify the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) as an immediate higher-order processing center for sweet taste. Interestingly, starvation increases sucrose sensitivity of the sGPNs in the AMMC, suggesting that hunger modulates the responsiveness of the secondary sweet taste relay. Together, our results provide a foundation for studying gustatory processing and its modulation by the internal nutrient state.

  7. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Zeinstra, Gertrude G; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Meester, Hante J; van den Top-Pullen, Rinelle; Van't Veer, Pieter; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the Dutch school programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Thirty-three primary schools (877 children in grades 6-7 with a mean age of 10.3 years) participated in Taste Lessons Vegetable Menu (TLVM, lessons and extra activities), Taste Lessons (TL, lessons), or a control group. A baseline and follow-up measurement was used to assess for each child: number of four familiar and four unfamiliar vegetables tasted, quantity tasted, choice of vegetable of which to eat more, and number of vegetables willing to taste again later. Furthermore, children filled out a questionnaire on daily vegetable intake and food neophobia. Multilevel and Cox regression analyses were conducted to compare changes in the outcome measures between the three study groups. No significant intervention effects were found on willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Neither were effects found on familiar vegetables, except for number of familiar vegetables tasted (p < 0.05). Furthermore, no significant intervention effects were found on daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia. These results indicate that more intensive school-based nutrition education activities are needed to increase children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables and increase their vegetable intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Histological analysis of pollen-pistil interactions in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Hérika Chagas; Pereira, Telma Nair Santana; Da Cunha, Maura; Klein, Denise Espellet

    2012-08-01

    The success of sexual plant reproduction is directly influenced by specific interactions between the pollen and pistil. Light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the steps of pollination in sour passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims). In the compatible interaction, pollen tubes grow through stigma projections towards the ovary. The pollen grain surface was found to be spheroidal and to consist of heteroreticulate exine with six colpi. Furthermore, analysis in vivo of pollen-pistil interactions indicated that stigmas of flowers 24 hours before anthesis are unable to discriminate compatible (genetically unrelated) and incompatible (genetically related) pollen grains. Taken together, these results provide insight into the cellular mechanisms underlying pollination in passion fruit plants.

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE ROOT TYPE ON THE FRUIT QUALITY OF THREE SOUR CHERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SOTIROV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted in the period 2003-2005 at the Institute of Agriculture in Kyustendil /Bulgaria/ with three sour cherry cultivars - Heimanns rubinveichsel, M-15 and Nefris, self-rooted and grafted on IK-M9 mahaleb rootstock. The yield per tree, the fruit weight and the content of dry matter, the total sugars and total acids of the fruits were evaluated. The fruit yield of the self-rooted trees was smaller than that of the grafted ones in all experimental years, but the statistical analysis showed significant differences only for cv. Nefris. The rootstock used or its absence did not have considerable influence on the fruit weight. Significant differences in the fruit chemical composition between the grafted and self-rooted trees were not found and it depended mainly on the cultivar and to a smaller extent on the rootstock or its absence.

  10. Genetic divergence of Oblačinska sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan 3

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on examination of 10 important pomologic and technologic properties, genetic divergence of 10 selected Oblačinska sour cherry clones was established. The genetic divergence between the analyzed clones was determined using the hierarchical cluster analysis. The UPGA method was used and the Euclidean distance in order to determine the difference between the groups. Four similar clone groups were obtained on the dendrogram. The objective of clone differentiation was primarily yield, although other properties were taken into account as well. As the most yielded clones for the production, that can be recommended, were clone D8 or clone D4 that are genetically very similar, and clone D3.

  11. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  12. Identifying Optimal Zeolitic Sorbents for Sweetening of Highly Sour Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mansi S; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2016-05-10

    Raw natural gas is a complex mixture comprising methane, ethane, other hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. For sour gas fields, selective and energy-efficient removal of H2 S is one of the crucial challenges facing the natural-gas industry. Separation using nanoporous materials, such as zeolites, can be an alternative to energy-intensive amine-based absorption processes. Herein, the adsorption of binary H2 S/CH4 and H2 S/C2 H6 mixtures in the all-silica forms of 386 zeolitic frameworks is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adsorption of a five-component mixture is utilized to evaluate the performance of the 16 most promising materials under close-to-real conditions. It is found that depending on the fractions of CH4 , C2 H6 , and CO2 , different sorbents allow for optimal H2 S removal and hydrocarbon recovery.

  13. Phylogenetic characterization of a corrosive consortium isolated from a sour gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-Roblero, J; Romero, J M; Amaya, M; Le Borgne, S

    2004-06-01

    Biocorrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. Characterization of the microbial populations responsible for biocorrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implement efficient monitoring and control strategies. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to separate PCR products and sequence analysis revealed the bacterial composition of a consortium obtained from a sour gas pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico. Only one species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was detected in this consortium. The rest of the population consisted of enteric bacteria with different characteristics and metabolic capabilities potentially related to biocorrosion. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. The low abundance of the detected SRB was evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In addition, the localized corrosion of pipeline steel in the presence of the consortium was clearly observed by ESEM after removing the adhered bacteria.

  14. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage.

  15. Cold work effects on sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steel exposed to sour environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Shaw, W.J.D. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Cold work effects on sulfide stress cracking of a pipeline steel were examined for exposure to a sour gas environment. Cold worked steel was found to be sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. The fracture toughness decreases with increasing cold work. Sufficiently low values of fracture toughness may be achieved to promote plane strain fracture even in relatively thin laboratory specimens after a steady state level of hydrogen has occurred in the material. Sulfide stress cracking failure of steel with low amounts of cold work (<30%) is by transgranular cleavage fracture, while heavily cold worked steel shows secondary cracks and microvoid coalescence. The results indicate that sulfide stress cracking of the steel is a mixture of anodic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement. The anodic SCC mechanism is mainly promoted by carbon dioxide and a high level of chloride. (author).

  16. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garneau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public. The latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hyperguesia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives.

  17. Resistance of trip 800 steels in a sour environment containing H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, J.; Vodarek, V.; Vanova, P.; Schindler, I.; Wenglorzova, A.; Filus, F. [VSB-TU Ostrava, Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kander, L. [Materialovy a metalurgicky vyzkum, s.r.o., Pohranicni 31, 706 02 Ostrava-Vitkovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-15

    We have evaluated the resistance of two samples of TRIP 800 steel prepared under laboratory conditions at the Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (FMME) VSB (Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic) in a sour environment containing H{sub 2}S. The first steel investigated had a C-Mn-Si composition, and the second steel had a C-Mn-Si-Al composition. Both TRIP steels were characterized using the yield strength in the range 420 to 450 MPa and tensile strength in the range 880 to 900 MPa. The TRIP steel samples were in the form of sheets with a thickness of 1.5 mm. The residual austenite content was 11% and 13%, respectively, in the two steels studied. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was evaluated in a sour environment that contained hydrogen sulphide using hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and sulphide stress cracking (SSC) tests performed in accordance with NACE standards. Both TRIP 800 steels showed a high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and no SSC cracks were observed. Some cracking arising from HIC was observed in both steels. The measured parameters showed some variation; in some cases they were lower than recommended limits, but in other cases the measured parameters were higher (e.g., the crack length ratio was up to 70%). The cracks initiated preferentially at non-metallic inclusions, either at elongated manganese sulphide particles, or at oxide stringers that were rich in Al. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Extraoral Taste Receptor Discovery: New Light on Ayurvedic Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilca, Marilena; Dragos, Dorin

    2017-01-01

    More and more research studies are revealing unexpectedly important roles of taste for health and pathogenesis of various diseases. Only recently it has been shown that taste receptors have many extraoral locations (e.g., stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, respiratory system, heart, brain, kidney, urinary bladder, pancreas, adipose tissue, testis, and ovary), being part of a large diffuse chemosensory system. The functional implications of these taste receptors widely dispersed in various organs or tissues shed a new light on several concepts used in ayurvedic pharmacology (dravyaguna vijnana), such as taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), qualities (guna), and energetic nature (virya). This review summarizes the significance of extraoral taste receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels for ayurvedic pharmacology, as well as the biological activities of various types of phytochemical tastants from an ayurvedic perspective. The relative importance of taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), and energetic nature (virya) as ethnopharmacological descriptors within Ayurveda boundaries will also be discussed.

  19. Improve Your Wine Sales:Host a Wine Tasting Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wine sales have grown in Ireland, wine distributors have improved their portfolios in response to heightened competition in the marketplace. For publicans the increased interest in wine has created new opportunities for bars to form small wine clubs or host regular wine tasting evenings for customers. This article highlights the points to remember when hosting regular wine tasting events. Remember wine tasting is intelligent drinking for customers it is an exercise in verbalising what they ar...

  20. Dynamic evolution of bitter taste receptor genes in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Gareth; Dong Dong; Zhang Shuyi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R), which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better unders...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  3. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  4. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  5. Dye-coupling among frog (Rana catesbeiana) taste disk cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, O; Okada, Y; Miyamoto, T; Sato, T

    1992-09-01

    1. Dye-coupling among taste disk cells in the bullfrog fungiform papillae was examined histologically by injecting a fluorescent dye (Lucifer yellow) into the cell, and the effects of the dye-coupling on depolarizing responses induced by taste stimuli were studied electrophysiologically. 2. With dye injection into a taste cell, dye-coupling was found between taste cells (23%) or between taste cell and supporting cell (28%). With dye injection into a supporting cell, dye-coupling was found between supporting cells (34%) or between supporting cell and taste cell (27%). 3. Depolarizing responses recorded from either a taste cell or a supporting cell to stimulation with 0.5 M NaCl or 10 mM quinine-HCl were the same in amplitude whether the dye-coupling to another cell was present or not. On the other hand, depolarizing responses recorded from a taste cell for 0.5 mM acetic acid became significantly larger when dye-coupled to a supporting cell. 4. It is concluded that gustatory transduction for acid stimuli is influenced by supporting cells coupled to taste cells.

  6. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  7. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  8. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  9. Exploring the Musical Taste of Expert Listeners: Musicology Students reveal Tendency towards Omnivorous Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eElvers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n=1003 completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: The first cluster (51% musicology students / 27% controls showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency towards »sophisticated« musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students / 46% controls exhibited an interest in »conventional« music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students / 27% controls showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge towards musical omnivorousness.

  10. Taste quality and intensity of 100 stimuli as reported by rats: the taste-location association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari eGautam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.

  11. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet......Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...

  12. Not Just Gustation: the Cognitive Effects of Multi-Sensory Advertising on Taste Perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan Elder; Aradhna Krishna

    2010-01-01

    .... Bringing together research in physiology and consumer behavior, we propose that advertisements focusing on multi-sensory components of taste result in higher taste perceptions than ads focusing on taste alone...

  13. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  14. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed.

  15. Features of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Steviavebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borisovna Krasina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Stevia. Dry leaves of Stevia contain diterpene glycosides that contribute to their sweet taste, which makes possible the use of Stevia as a sugar substitute in a production of flour confectionery products. The evaluation of amino acid composition of dried leaves of Stevia showed that their composition includes 7 essential amino acids, among them the limiting amino acid is valine.During experimental researches it was established that they are containing in a sufficient quantity water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in their composition. We have studied the effect of processing conditions on the degree of milling of dry leaves of Stevia. It was revealed that the pressure of 5 MPa in the contact zone of the working elements do not guarantee a product with a desired degree of milling. Milling of dried leaves of Stevia at a pressure equal to 10 MPa, allows achieving a high degree of size reduction with a simultaneous formation of the main physical and chemical characteristics of amilledproduct. It was established that granulometric composition of dry leaves of Stevia, obtained by milling in a rotor-roller disintegrator, presents the highest content of particles with a size from 5 to 30 μm, ensuring high consumer properties of the obtained biologically active additives (BAA.

  16. The construction of technical standard system for ultra deep and high sour gas fields in Northeast Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yintao; Liao Chengrui; Yang Yukun

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the exploitation difficulties of gas fields in Northeast Sichuan with deep marine strata, after re- searching the relative standards domestic and abroad extensively, summarizing and promoting the successful experiences and failure lessons of project construction technology application scientifically, Sinopec has established an integrated technical standard system for the exploration and development of ultra deep and high sour gas fields. The system consists of 51 enterprise standards and covers 7 professions including geophysical prospecting, drilling, drilling log, well log- ging, gas formation test and production, sour gas gathering and transferring system, and HSE (health, safety, environ- ment). It guides and guarantees the safe, high-quality and high-efficiency project construction effectively by means of enhancing the engineering design criterion, recommending the data processing and interpretation methods, identifying the requirements of operation and field inspection and standardizing the application of technical equipments.

  17. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  18. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  19. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the

  20. The complex network of musical tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Cano, P.; Koppenberger, M.; Almendral, Juan A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an empirical study of the evolution of a social network constructed under the influence of musical tastes. The network is obtained thanks to the selfless effort of a broad community of users who share playlists of their favourite songs with other users. When two songs co-occur in a playlist a link is created between them, leading to a complex network where songs are the fundamental nodes. In this representation, songs in the same playlist could belong to different musical genres, but they are prone to be linked by a certain musical taste (e.g. if songs A and B co-occur in several playlists, an user who likes A will probably like also B). Indeed, playlist collections such as the one under study are the basic material that feeds some commercial music recommendation engines. Since playlists have an input date, we are able to evaluate the topology of this particular complex network from scratch, observing how its characteristic parameters evolve in time. We compare our results with those obtained from an artificial network defined by means of a null model. This comparison yields some insight on the evolution and structure of such a network, which could be used as ground data for the development of proper models. Finally, we gather information that can be useful for the development of music recommendation engines and give some hints about how top-hits appear.

  1. Tasting in mundane practices: Ethnographic interventions in social science theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests

  2. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  3. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense...

  4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the ne

  5. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; F.K.L. Spijkervet; R. Weissenbruch; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; A. Vissink; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the

  6. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Rigotti, Tanya; Forster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006). Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others' taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art-and especially abstract art-crystallizes private taste.

  7. The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating

  8. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eLeder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006. Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others’ taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art—and especially abstract art—crystallizes private taste.

  9. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing ...

  10. Dissolution methodology for taste masked oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-10

    Conventional adult dosage forms are often not suitable for the paediatric and geriatric populations due to either swallowing difficulties or patient repulsion and a requirement for tailored dosing to individual compliance or physiological needs. Alternative formulations are available; however these often require the incorporation of more complex taste masking techniques. One approach to taste masking is to reduce contact between the bitter Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and oral cavity taste bud regions. This is achieved by hindering release in the oral cavity, or including competitive inhibition of bitter sensation for example by using flavours or sweeteners. There may also be other sensational complications from the API such as residual burning, reflux or metallic taste sensations to deal with. In vitro dissolution testing is employed to elucidate taste masking capability by quantifying release of the drug in simulated oral cavity conditions. Dissolution testing approaches may also be used to potentially predict or quantify the effect of the taste masking technique on the resultant pharmacokinetic profile. The present review investigates the anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity and current approaches to taste masking. In vitro dissolution methodologies adopted in the evaluation of taste masked formulations are discussed for their relative merits and drawbacks. A vast array of methodologies has been employed, with little agreement between approaches, and a lack of biorelevance. Future directions in dissolution methodology such as TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) and the Artificial Stomach and Duodenum model (ASD) are also discussed.

  11. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  12. Functional specialization of the male insula during taste perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Renken, Remco J.; Langers, Dave R. M.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary gustatory area is located in the insular cortex. Although the insular cortex has been the topic of multiple parcellation studies, its functional specialization regarding taste processing received relatively little attention. Studies investigating the brain response to taste suggested tha

  13. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  14. Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Anaya, M A; Llin, M L; Pilar Macías, M; Collar, C

    1994-09-01

    The efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. As a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of O2 or H+ acceptors. This paper studies the influence of O2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (Lactobacillus brevis 25a, B-21, L-62; L. sanfrancisco L-99) and homofermentative (L. plantarum B-39) lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs [280 and 250 dough yield (DY)]. The pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of sour-doughs after 44 h fermentation varied with DY and strain. As expected, the addition of O2 promoted greater increases in TTA with heterofermentative lactobacilli (15-42%) than with L. plantarum (15%). Fructose addition was only effective for heterofermentative strains, but the overall effects were smaller than those observed for oxygenation. The ability of lactobacilli to produce acetic acid in sour-doughs without treatment varied from 0.16 g/100 g flour at 44 h (B-39, 280, 350 DY) to 0.47-0.65% (L-62, 280, 350 DY). The production of acetic acid was positively promoted by all treatments. Oxygenation was again the most effective way of inducing acetic acid production; increases ranged from 54% (B-21) to 269% (L-99, 350 DY). The addition of H+ acceptors had variable effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  16. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  17. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  18. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  19. Design of small diameter HT/HP sour service reeled rigid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel; Gouveia, Joao; Tardelli, Luciano [Tecnitas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: daniel.carneiro@br.bureauveritas.com; Parrilha, Rafael [Bureau Veritas Group, London (United Kingdom); Oazen, Eduardo; Cardoso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The paper presents an overview of the challenges overcome in the engineering design of two 219 mm diameter, 6 km length oil production pipelines, to be installed by reeling at Espirito Santo Basin, offshore Brazilian coast in 1500 m water depth. The high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) operating conditions and sour content associated with the small diameter required to single well oil production would usually lead to flexible flow line solution in Brazilian fields. The decision of employing small diameter thick-walled rigid C-Mn steel pipelines with thick thermal insulation made necessary extensive engineering work to achieve a safe and robust thermal expansion control arrangement, including the design of walking mitigation and buckle initiation apparatus; a feasible weld acceptance criterion covering both high cycle fatigue due to pipe lay and vortex induced vibration (VIV) at free spans, and high strain low cycle fatigue and fracture growth induced by reeling installation and in-service lateral buckling. Several studies were performed using highly non-linear three-dimensional finite element models considering: pipe-soil interaction with full 3D seabed bathymetry; load history maintained from pipe lay to operational cycles, including temperature transient effects; high plastic strains (including steel properties de-rating due to high temperature) and section ovalization; mechanical contact between pipe and appurtenances during both installation and operational phases. Pipe-soil interaction comprised embedment considering dynamic effects of pipe lay and full non-linear lateral and axial response curves including break-out and residual resistance. Strain concentration factors due to field joints were evaluated using detailed solid models considering non-linear response of both steel and insulation materials. Susceptibility to VIV at free spans was assessed considering post loaded deformed span natural frequencies, including multi-span interaction effects and

  20. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  1. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  2. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer; Karstensen, Helena G; Siebner, Hartwig; Tommerup, Niels; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin' Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals.

  3. Monitoring of Milk Quality With Disposable Taste Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Suzuri Hitam

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A disposable screen-printed multi channel taste sensor composed of several types of lipid as transducers and a computer as data analyzer could detect taste in a manner similar to human gustatory sensation. The disposable taste sensor was used to measure the electrical potential resulted from the interaction between lipid membranes and taste substances. In the present study, two types of packaged commercial milk, the ultra high temperature (UHT and the pasteurized milk were tested. It was found that the disposable taste sensor is capable to discriminate reliably between fresh and spoiled milk and to follow the deterioration of the milk quality when it is stored at room temperature based on a pattern recognition principle namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA. This research could provide a new monitoring method ideally for simple and cheap decentralized testing for controlling the quality of milk, which may be of great use in the dairy industries.

  4. Food branding and young children's taste preferences: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Conlon, Martin J

    2013-08-20

    This study examines the effects of branding and packaging on young children's taste preferences. Preschool children aged 3 to 5 (n=65) tasted five pairs of identical foods in packaging from McDonald's and in matched packaging that was either plain, Starbucks-branded, or colourful (but unbranded). Children were asked if the foods tasted the same or if one tasted better. Children preferred the taste of foods wrapped in decorative wrappings, relying more on aesthetics than on familiar branding when making their choices. The findings suggest the need to explore questions beyond commercial advertising (and brand promotion) on television and other media platforms. More attention should be directed at the important role of packaging in directing children's food preferences.

  5. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jae Young Kwon; Anupama Dahanukar; Linnea A Weiss; John R Carlson

    2014-09-01

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). We define 9 categories of projections in the thoracico-abdominal ganglia and 10 categories in the SOG. The projection patterns are modular, and can be interpreted as combinations of discrete pattern elements. The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different taste stimuli.

  6. The effect of activation of the lactoperoxidase system and souring on certain potential human pathogens in cows' milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.K. Kangumba

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods of ensuring the safety and soundness of cows' milk for human consumption, such as pasteurisation, are not always practical in poor socioeconomic conditions or in rural communities that lack modern amenities. Activation of lactoperoxidase (LP system and souring of milk were investigated as potential alternative methods to sustain the safety of milk by inhibiting certain microorganisms with known pathogenic potential. The activation of the LP-system inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the order of 2 log values. The inhibition of Brucella abortus was negligible. The replication of Coxiella burnetti in milk was not disturbed even after 17 h of LP-system activation at 20 oC, but the outcome of the LP-system treatment on Mycobacterium bovis could not be determined as the conventional culturing technique used to grow this organism did not allow full recovery. Souring inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli also by the order of 2 log values. From the results obtained in this investigation are concluded that the activation of the LP-system and souring can be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli in cows' milk, thereby increasing its safety.

  7. GISH, AFLP and PCR-RFLP analysis of an intergeneric somatic hybrid combining Goutou sour orange and Poncirus trifoliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C H; Chen, C L; Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2004-11-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids combining Goutou sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) with trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf] were produced by electrofusion and their genetic inheritance analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Sixteen mini-calluses were obtained after 20 days of culture; they all developed into embryoids on EME500 medium. Following several subcultures on shoot induction medium for a total culture period of 6 months, shoots regenerated. The plants grew vigorously with a well-developed root system and exhibited the trifoliate leaf character of P. trifoliata. Ploidy analysis verified that all of the regenerates were tetraploids (2 n=4 x=36) as expected. GISH analysis confirmed that 18 chromosomes came from trifoliate orange and the remaining 18 from Goutou sour orange, as with most symmetric somatic hybrid plants; moreover, chromosome translocations were also observed in one plant. AFLP analysis of 16 regenerates and their fusion parents indicated that all of the somatic hybrids except one were genetically uniform. Analysis of the somatic hybrid cytoplasmic genomes with universal primers revealed that their chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) banding patterns were identical to those of the mesophyll parent trifoliate orange, while their mitochondria (mt) genomes were of the callus parent sour orange. The potential of GISH in Citrus somatic hybrid analysis is discussed.

  8. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  9. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Grant

    Full Text Available The tachykinins substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1. These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods.

  10. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C.E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Dongen, van Ellen J.I.; Meester, Hante J.; Top, van den Rinelle; Veer, van 't Pieter; Graaf, de Kees

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the Dutch school programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Thirty-three primary schools (877 children in grades 6-7 with a mean age of 10.3 years) particip

  11. Taste coding of complex naturalistic taste stimuli and traditional taste stimuli in the parabrachial pons of the awake, freely licking rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that taste-responsive cells in the brainstem taste nuclei of rodents respond to sensory qualities other than gustation. Such data suggest that cells in the classical gustatory brainstem may be better tuned to respond to stimuli that engage multiple sensory modalities than to stimuli that are purely gustatory. Here, we test this idea by recording the electrophysiological responses to complex, naturalistic stimuli in single neurons in the parabrachial pons (PbN, the second neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Following electrode implantation and recovery, we presented both prototypical and naturalistic taste stimuli and recorded the responses in the PbN. Prototypical taste stimuli (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine) and naturalistic stimuli (clam juice, grape juice, lemon juice, and coffee) were matched for taste quality and intensity (concentration). Umami (monosodium glutamate + inosine monophosphate) and fat (diluted heavy cream) were also tested. PbN neurons responded to naturalistic stimuli as much or more than to prototypical taste stimuli. Furthermore, they convey more information about naturalistic stimuli than about prototypical ones. Moreover, multidimensional scaling analyses showed that across unit responses to naturalistic stimuli were more widely separated than responses to prototypical taste stimuli. Interestingly, cream evoked a robust and widespread response in PbN cells. Collectively, these data suggest that natural foods are more potent stimulators of PbN cells than purely gustatory stimuli. Probing PbN cells with pure taste stimuli may underestimate the response repertoire of these cells.

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T Biggs

    Full Text Available Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2 were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R, were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14 promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox. While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox, this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2 and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4 positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  13. The viscosity and density of sour gas fluids at high temperatures and high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, B.R.; Marriott, R.A.; Blais, P.; Clark, P.D. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-01-15

    This poster session discussed an experiment designed to measure the viscosity and density of sour gas fluids at high temperatures and pressures. An option for disposing acid gases while enhancing the production of oil and gas fields is the re-injection of gases rich in hydrogen sulphide/carbon dioxide (H{sub 2}S/CO{sub 2}) into reservoirs up to very high pressures, but issues with respect to corrosion, compression, pumping, and transport need addressing, and the reliable high-density/high-pressure data needed to arrive at an optimum process concept and the design of pumps, compressors, and transport lines had up to this point been lacking. The experimental set up involved the use of a Vibrating Tube Densimeter and a Cambridge Viscometer. Working with toxic gases at very high pressures and obtaining highly accurate data in a wide range of conditions were two of the challenges faced during the experiment. The experiment resulted in physical property measurement systems being recalibrated and a new daily calibration routine being adopted for accuracy. The densities and viscosities of pure CO{sub 2} and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in a wide pressure and temperature range were determined. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  14. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  15. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  16. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was rot was lowered to 8.33% when fruits were treated with aqueous extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way.

  17. Low Density Wood-Based Particleboards Bonded with Foamable Sour Cassava Starch: Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Monteiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the feasibility of producing low density particleboards using an adhesive system based on sour cassava starch, taking advantage of its adhesive and self-expansion properties. Relevant properties of the produced particleboards were evaluated according to European Standards including: density, internal bond, moisture content and thickness swelling. Low density particleboards were produced with densities between 207 kg/m3 and 407 kg/m3. The best performance corresponded to particleboard with a density of 318 kg/m3, an internal bond strength of 0.67 N/mm2, and a thickness swelling of 8.7%. These values meet the standard requirements of general purpose lightweight boards for use in dry conditions. Heat post-treatment (24 h at 80 °C led to lower internal bond strength, due to retrogradation (recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin chains upon cooling causing higher rigidity of the starch binder. However, it showed to have a significant effect on decreasing the thickness swelling.

  18. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

    2004-05-15

    The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively.

  19. Variability components and heritability of pomological and chemical characteristics in sour cherry clones of cultivar Montmorency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 12 sour cherry clones of cultivar Montmorency 5 pomological (fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, stone weight and fruit stem length and 4 chemical characteristics (soluble solid content, total acid content, invert sugar content and total sugar content were investigated. Based on results of analysis of variance for all examined characteristics, variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense were calculated. Considering components of total variability, year represented the component that caused variability of majority examined characteristics in the highest percentage. Coefficients of genetic variation showed that in investigated clones total acid content varied the least (CVg = 1.79%, and the most fruit weight (CVg = 11.41%. The lowest phenotypic varying was determined for fruit length (CVf = 4.01% but the highest for fruit weight (CVf = 13.86%. Coefficient of heritability was the highest for stone weight (h2 = 70.27%, and the lowest for total acid content (h2 = 7.73%.

  20. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-04-20

    Microwave assisted extraction technique was used to extract pectin from sour orange peel. Box-Behnken design was used to study the effect of irradiation time, microwave power and pH on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of pectin. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest yield of pectin (29.1%) were obtained at pH of 1.50, microwave power of 700W, and irradiation time of 3min. DE values of pectin ranged from 1.7% to 37.5%, indicating that the obtained pectin was low in methoxyl. Under optimal conditions, the galacturonic acid content and emulsifying activity were 71.0±0.8% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the emulsion stability value ranged from 72.1% to 83.4%. Viscosity measurement revealed that the solutions of pectin at low concentrations showed nearly Newtonian flow behavior, and as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant.

  1. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant.

  2. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  3. The effect of temperature on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of sour cherry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the effect of three different temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth of five sour cherry cultivars: ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’, ‘Kelleriis 14’, ‘Oblačinska’, ‘Rexelle’ and ‘Šumadinka’. Pollen germination a % agar % Temperature significantly affected pollen germination. High germination rates (50-70% were obtained at both 15°C and 25°C. Satisfactory germination rates (42-51% were also obtained at 5°C in some cultivars (‘Rexelle’, ‘Šumadinka’ and ‘Heimanns Konservenweichsel’. The influence of temperature on the pollen tube growth was more prominent. The length of pollen tubes was three to six times higher at 15°C and 25°C in comparison with 5°C. This has led to the conclusion that the temperature of 5°C, although it could be adequate for pollen germination, is not high enough for optimal pollen tube growth. was determined by germinating pollen grains in culture medium containing 0.7agar-and 15sucrose. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  4. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  5. Hierarchies of television tastes and class distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on data from the empirical research project Media consumption, social class and cultural stratification carried out with the help of a questionnaire administered to 820 residents of Ljubljana and Maribor, the paper examines the relationship between social class, education and television tastes. Contrary to some of the recent literature which emphasises a weak or non-existent connection between class positions and patterns of television consumption, the author uses the Slovenian sample to show that class and education differentiate television preferences significantly although only in some segments of the television repertoire. In the conclusion of the paper, the importance of studying television preferences in connection with other fields of cultural consumption is stressed.

  6. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  7. Acquiring a taste for the Higgs boson

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    Before CERN's scientists had even announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, others were already attributing some interesting characteristics to it: flavoursome, sparkling and liquid...   The artisan brewery Hopfenstark in Quebec launched its new "Higgs boson" beer in November 2010. Ever since, it has been intriguing enthusiasts with its unique taste explosion. The boson was a source of inspiration for brewer Frédéric Cormier, the Hopfenstark brewery's owner, who is a big fan of science programmes. "I returned from a trip to Europe in 2010 with the idea for a new beer that would be unlike any other," he explains. "I was always reading and hearing about CERN's particle accelerator in the media, so I did some research on the famous Higgs boson and decided to give my new creation the same name." For Frédéric Cormier, it's important that the names of his beers refle...

  8. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  9. Tasting fees and the youth market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Treloar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Many wineries in Australia and New Zealand are seeking strategies to continue to develop in a highly competitive marketplace. One such strategy is via the development of wine tourism. Although there is a significant amount of literature of the relative advantages and disadvantages of wine tourism for small wineries, particularly with respect to its educational and market development function, there is very little research available on how wine tourism is perceived by the next generation of wine drinkers – the youth market. The purpose of this study is therefore to gain a better understanding of how the youth market perceives tasting fees at wineries and influences on purchasing and other wine behaviours. In late 2003, 599 surveys were distributed to ten universities throughout Australia and New Zealand, of which 448 were returned, representing a valid response rate of 74.8 percent. The results of the survey indicated that the majority of respondents who thought of wine tourism as an appealing activity, who had visited wineries previously, who normally consumed and purchased wine and who had some knowledge of wine all thought that a fee at the cellar door would impact on their decision to visit. Wineries need to maximise the return on their wine, however there also needs to be recognition of the potential trade-off between immediate returns from charging for tastings and cellar-door sales versus longer-term returns from direct and indirect sales. In some markets, and particularly the ‘Generation Y’ market, seeking short-term returns through charging may affect longer-term custom and loyalty. However, regardless of the strategy, it is important that it is effectively communicated to the market, particularly if individual wineries are interested in growing the market for the future.

  10. Aspects of taste and compliance in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Taste alterations are common in patients with cancer, and can be the result of the disease itself and/or its treatment(s). Specifically, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to the head and neck area have been shown to induce significant taste changes. Alterations in taste are distressing for patients and can lead to food aversions, a reduction in food intake and nutritional deficits. Ultimately, this can lead to weight loss and, in severe cases, malnutrition, which has been associated with poor patient outcomes, including a negative effect on survival. Dietary counselling and advice tailored to the individual can improve nutritional status, and several effective strategies are available to accommodate taste changes and increase nutritional intake. Oral supplements may provide additional nutritional support when dietary intake is insufficient. The success of supplementation depends, however, on the product acceptability and on patient compliance over the long term. Patient compliance is linked to perceived supplement taste, which may be affected by a variety of taste changes reported by patients both before and after therapy, or as a consequence of disease progression. Supplements which offer a variety of flavours are likely to prove beneficial by helping to prevent taste fatigue. In addition, individuals appear to exhibit distinct preferences for particular flavours at different time points during treatment.

  11. Failure in Anticipation and Plasticity in Perception of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Yokokawa, Sari; Tsukahara, Yasuo

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were designed to illustrate the plasticity of gustatory processing in human. In the matching experiment, forty-two subjects were respectively given twenty-four samples, each of which consisted of a usual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of apple juice covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. In the mismatching experiment, the same subjects were respectively given twenty samples each of which consisted of an unusual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of soup covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. Eight subjects sensed taste to water (p 0.05) after the matching one.

  12. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  13. The insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Veldhuizen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we used fMRI to determine whether odor sweetness is represented in the piriform olfactory cortex, which is thought to code odor quality, or in the insular taste cortex, which is thought to code taste quality. Fifteen participants sampled two concentrations of a pure sweet taste (sucrose, two sweet food odors (chocolate and strawberry, and two sweet floral odors (lilac and rose. Replicating prior work we found that olfactory stimulation activated the piriform, orbitofrontal and insular cortices. Of these regions, only the insula also responded to sweet taste. More importantly, the magnitude of the response to the food odors, but not to the non-food odors, in this region of insula was positively correlated with odor sweetness rating. These findings demonstrate that insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding by representing the taste-like aspects of food odors. Since the effect was specific to the food odors, and only food odors are experienced with taste, we suggest this common central mechanism develops as a function of experiencing flavors.

  14. The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Douglas, Danielle; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Gitelman, Darren R; Small, Dana M

    2011-10-12

    Despite the importance of breaches of taste identity expectation for survival, its neural correlate is unknown. We used fMRI in 16 women to examine brain response to expected and unexpected receipt of sweet taste and tasteless/odorless solutions. During expected trials (70%), subjects heard "sweet" or "tasteless" and received the liquid indicated by the cue. During unexpected trials (30%), subjects heard sweet but received tasteless or they heard tasteless but received sweet. After delivery, subjects indicated stimulus identity by pressing a button. Reaction time was faster and more accurate after valid cuing, indicating that the cues altered expectancy as intended. Tasting unexpected versus expected stimuli resulted in greater deactivation in fusiform gyri, possibly reflecting greater suppression of visual object regions when orienting to, and identifying, an unexpected taste. Significantly greater activation to unexpected versus expected stimuli occurred in areas related to taste (thalamus, anterior insula), reward [ventral striatum (VS), orbitofrontal cortex], and attention [anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS)]. We also observed an interaction between stimulus and expectation in the anterior insula (primary taste cortex). Here response was greater for unexpected versus expected sweet compared with unexpected versus expected tasteless, indicating that this region is preferentially sensitive to breaches of taste expectation. Connectivity analyses confirmed that expectation enhanced network interactions, with IPS and VS influencing insular responses. We conclude that unexpected oral stimulation results in suppression of visual cortex and upregulation of sensory, attention, and reward regions to support orientation, identification, and learning about salient stimuli.

  15. Human psychometric and taste receptor responses to steviol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellfritsch, Caroline; Brockhoff, Anne; Stähler, Frauke; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-07-11

    Steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, have recently been approved as a food additive in the EU. The herbal non-nutritive high-potency sweeteners perfectly meet the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients in Europe. We have characterized the organoleptic properties of the most common steviol glycosides by an experimental approach combining human sensory studies and cell-based functional taste receptor expression assays. On the basis of their potency to elicit sweet and bitter taste sensations, we identified glycone chain length, pyranose substitution, and the C16 double bond as the structural features giving distinction to the gustatory profile of steviol glycosides. A comprehensive screening of 25 human bitter taste receptors revealed that two receptors, hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14, mediate the bitter off-taste of steviol glycosides. For some test substances, e.g., stevioside, we observed a decline in sweet intensity at supra-maximum concentrations. This effect did not arise from allosteric modulation of the hTAS1R2/R3 sweet taste receptor but might be explained by intramolecular cross-modal suppression between the sweet and bitter taste component of steviol glycosides. These results might contribute to the production of preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts by an optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing.

  16. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  17. Icephobicity of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Shirazi, Elika T.; Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh

    2016-11-01

    Ice adhesion and excessive accumulation on exposed structures and equipment are well known to cause serious problems in cold-climate regions; therefore, the development of coatings that can resist icing can solve many challenges in various areas of industry. This work was inspired by nature and ice-resistivity and superhydrophobicity of plants leaves. Kale is an example of a plant that can be harvested in winter. It shows superhydrophobic behavior, which is normally known as an advantage for cleaning the leaves, but we were able to show that its surface structure and high contact angle of water drops on kale leaves could delay the ice formation process making it a good candidate for an ice-repellent coating. We have performed in-depth experimental analyses on how different plants can prevent icing, and contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the leaves were taken to further mimic their surface morphology.

  18. Smell and taste function in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jessica E; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Kainer, Gad

    2010-08-01

    Loss of appetite and poor growth are common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and changes in smell and/or taste function may be responsible, but the hypothesis has not been proven. This aims of this prospective age- and gender-controlled study were to determine whether: (1) changes in smell and taste function occur in children with CKD; (2) smell or taste dysfunction are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); (3) there is an association between smell or taste loss and body mass index (BMI). The study cohort consisted of 72 children of whom 20 were CKD stage 3-5 patients, 12 were CKD stage 2 patients, 20 were clinical controls (CC) and 20 were healthy children (HC). The CKD patients and clinical controls were recruited from Sydney Children's Hospital and The Children's Hospital, Westmead, and healthy controls were recruited from a local school. Scores for each group from taste and smell chemosensory function tests were compared, and their relationship with renal function and BMI investigated. The CKD stage 3-5 group had a significantly lower taste identification score (85.6%, P children in the CKD stage 3-5 group exhibiting taste loss. Decreased taste function was associated with decreased eGFR (r = 0.43, P 0.9). Odour identification scores were not different; however, there was a positive relationship with BMI (r = 0.427, P = 0.006). We conclude that a loss of taste can occur in children with CKD and that when it occurs, it worsens as eGFR declines and is found early in kidney disease.

  19. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  20. Bringing the immigrant back into the sociology of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishnendu

    2017-12-01

    The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless, there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. Although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of tasting in the purchasing process

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen Roos

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, it is forbidden by law to taste and sell wine in the same room, even if the buyer only places an order for delivery and no actual exchange of money and wine takes place, with the exception of licensed liquor stores. Wine traders, tastings and events are disadvantaged by this law. Wine tastings where consumers can buy or order wine are officially forbidden, even in a licensed liquor shop. The law makes no distinction between the act of “tasting” and the act of “drinking” wi...

  2. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  3. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  4. Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptors: Keys for Survival in Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2017-01-05

    Research on bitter taste receptors has made enormous progress during recent years. Although in the early period after the discovery of this highly interesting receptor family special emphasis was placed on the deorphanization of mainly human bitter taste receptors, the research focus has shifted to sophisticated structure-function analyses, the discovery of small-molecule interactors, and the pharmacological profiling of nonhuman bitter taste receptors. These findings allowed novel perspectives on, for example, evolutionary and ecological questions that have arisen and that are discussed.

  5. [Duration of maternity leave and sick leave during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Sabroe, S

    1999-09-06

    The aim of the project was to describe the reasons for sick leave during pregnancy. This article presents data on a subgroup of women on sick leave. The purpose of this reanalysis was to examine whether women with short maternity leave had longer sick leave during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish County applying for sick leave in a year were consecutively included in the study. Data were obtained by questionnaires during 1991-1992. Women with rights to a longer maternity leave, obtained through collective bargaining, were mainly employed in occupational groups related to the public sector and were on sick leave significantly longer, than women with short maternity leave, obtained only through legislation. The diagnoses differed among the two groups. Data suggest unequal possibilities for obtaining pregnancy related sick leave, as women with longer predelivery leave and a more secure employment situation had significantly longer sick leave than other women.

  6. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  7. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  8. Development of a test for evaluation of taste perception after tongue reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A.M. van der Horst; M.J.C. Smeulders; R.M.S. Polsbroek; J.H. Ravesloot

    2010-01-01

    When performing a tongue reduction a frequently asked question is how operation will influence taste of the patient. Different kinds of taste tests are designed, most of these being non-specific ways to determine taste sensation in which high concentration of taste solutions are used to detect if a

  9. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huaming; Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wanchao; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species) corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death) of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1) gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC) analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  10. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  11. Mouse taste cells with G protein-coupled taste receptors lack voltage-gated calcium channels and SNAP-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medler Kathryn F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors which activate the phospholipase C (PLC signaling pathway in Type II taste cells. However, it is not known how these cells communicate with the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that the subset of taste cells that expresses the T2R bitter receptors lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which are normally required for synaptic transmission at conventional synapses. Here we use two lines of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP from two taste-specific promoters to examine Ca2+ signaling in subsets of Type II cells: T1R3-GFP mice were used to identify sweet- and umami-sensitive taste cells, while TRPM5-GFP mice were used to identify all cells that utilize the PLC signaling pathway for transduction. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were assessed with Ca2+ imaging and whole cell recording, while immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of SNAP-25, a presynaptic SNARE protein that is associated with conventional synapses in taste cells. Results Depolarization with high K+ resulted in an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a small subset of non-GFP labeled cells of both transgenic mouse lines. In contrast, no depolarization-evoked Ca2+ responses were observed in GFP-expressing taste cells of either genotype, but GFP-labeled cells responded to the PLC activator m-3M3FBS, suggesting that these cells were viable. Whole cell recording indicated that the GFP-labeled cells of both genotypes had small voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents, but no evidence of Ca2+ currents. A subset of non-GFP labeled taste cells exhibited large voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents and a high threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ current. Immunocytochemistry indicated that SNAP-25 was expressed in a separate population of taste cells

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  13. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  14. Amygdala-gustatory insular cortex connections and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Reilly, Steve

    2012-12-01

    To examine whether communication between the amygdala and gustatory insular cortex (GC) is required for normal performance of taste neophobia, three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, rats with asymmetric unilateral lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the GC displayed elevated intake of a novel saccharin solution relative to control subjects. However, an attenuation of neophobia was not found following asymmetric unilateral lesions of the GC and medial amygdala (MeA; Experiment 2) or of the MeA and BLA (Experiment 3). This pattern of results indicates that the BLA and GC functionally interact during expression of taste neophobia and that the MeA functionally interacts with neither the BLA nor the GC. Research is needed to further characterize the nature of the involvement of the MeA in taste neophobia and to determine the function of the BLA-GC interaction during exposure to a new taste.

  15. Dimensions of Taste Qualifying Didactic Reflections on Home Economics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    review on children, learning, food and taste followed by analyses in a value reflective pedagogy perspective as well as quantitative and qualitative research in home economic education. This has been combined with systems theory developed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann providing concepts......Aim: Traditionally and worldwide home economics education has been concerned with taste and flavorings based training associated with students cooking in the school kitchen. In contrast new educational research on food knowledge in the Danish public school shows that taste is used as a didactic......? Method: The proposal features theoretical work. It aims to push the boundaries of theory and research in order to seek out a new paradigm including a model of four basic taste dimensions. Based on this model it suggests new ways of framing home economic education. The starting point has been a literature...

  16. Functional expression of ionotropic purinergic receptors on mouse taste bud cells

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors on taste bud cells (TBCs) and taste nerve fibres are likely to contribute to taste transduction by mediating the interaction among TBCs and that between TBCs and taste nerve fibres. We investigated the functional expression of P2 receptor subtypes on TBCs of mouse fungiform papillae. Electrophysiological studies showed that 100 [mu m ATP applied to their basolateral membranes either depolarized or hyperpolarized a few cells per taste bud. Ca2+ imaging showed that si...

  17. Taste preference changes throughout different life stages in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueda, Katsura; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kumabe, Shunji; Inui, Tadashi; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3–6 weeks), young adult (8–11 weeks), adult (17–20 weeks), middle-aged (34–37 weeks), and old-aged (69–72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured. We observed that the old-aged group had lower preference ratios for 0.3 M sucrose and 0.1 M MSG in comparison with other groups. The preference ratio for 0.03 mM QHCl was higher in the middle-aged group than in the three younger groups and higher in the old-aged group than the juvenile group. The taste preferences for HCl and NaCl did not significantly differ among the age groups. The old-aged group tended to prefer high concentrations of sucrose, QHCl, NaCl, and MSG to low concentrations, indicating age-related decline in taste sensitivity. We also aimed to investigate differences between life stages in the electrophysiological responses of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the peripheral gustatory nerves, to taste stimuli. The electrophysiological recordings showed that aging did not alter the function of the chorda tympani nerve. This study showed that aging induced alterations in taste preference. It is likely that these alterations are a result of functional changes in other peripheral taste nerves, the gastrointestinal system, or the central nervous system. PMID:28742813

  18. Endogenous peripheral neuromodulators of the mammalian taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin

    2010-10-01

    The sensitivity of the mammalian taste system displays a degree of plasticity based on short-term nutritional requirements. Deficiency in a particular substance may lead to a perceived increase in palatability of this substance, providing an additional drive to redress this nutritional imbalance through modification of intake. This alteration occurs not only in the brain but also, before any higher level processing has occurred, in the taste buds themselves. A brief review of recent advances is offered.

  19. Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Girgih, Abraham T; Pownall, Trisha L; Bugera, Jacqeline L; Eskin, Michael N A

    2013-01-01

    Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.

  20. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...