WorldWideScience

Sample records for leaves nir spectra

  1. Hardersen IRTF Asteroid NIR Reflectance Spectra V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), Mauna Kea, Hawaii, from April 2001 to January 2015. Raw NIR spectral data were obtained under mostly uniform instrumental conditions and include observations of the asteroids, extinction stars, and solar analog stars that were necessary for data reduction and production of the final average asteroid NIR reflectance spectra. SpecPR and Spextool were used during data reduction to produce the final spectra and both programs utilize similar functions that include sky background subtraction, telluric corrections, channel shifting, and averaging routines. The set of asteroids observed include a wide variety of taxonomic types and include V-, S-, M-, X-types that correspond to a wide variety of surface mineralogies, rock types, and potential meteorite analogs.

  2. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  3. Investigations on NIR-SERS Spectra of Serum for Liver Cancer Based on NIR-SERS Substrate%基于新型NIR-SERS基底的肝癌血清NIR-SERS光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁明; 刘瑞明; 武延春; 柳振全; 张德清; 自兴发; 司民真

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on near infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) spectra of the serum for patients with liver cancer and healthy persons based on Ag nanofilms prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly are reported. Analysis indicates NIR-SERS spectra of the sera between healthy persons and liver cancer patients are different. Firstly, Raman bands at 630, 720, 812 and 1578 cm-1 become weaker (even disappear) in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for cancer liver patients but stronger in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for healthy persons.Secondly, Raman bands at 1130 cm-1 and 1204 cm-1 in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for healthy persons have blue shifts to 1135 cm-1 and 1269 cm 1 in NIR-SERS spectra of sera for cancer liver patients, respectively. Meanwhile, a new Raman band at 558 cm-1 appears in NIR-SERS spectra of liver cancer patients. Additionally, striking spectral differences are abvious in NIR-SERS spectra in the intensity ratios at 630/300, 1130/300, and 1578/300 cm-1.These three peak-intensity ratios of liver cancer patients with values of 0. 848±0. 042, 1. 094~ 0. 118, 0. 914 ± 0. 070, respectively, are more notable (mean ~ S. D., n = 15, P < 0.01 ) compared with those of healthy persons (1.985t0. 487, 1.568±0.286, 1. 189±0. 108, respectively). The results show that the intensity relative peak-ratios at 630/300, 1130/300, and 1578/300 cm-1 can be used to discriminate liver cancer patients from healthy persons, which indicate these three intensity ratios can be served as N1R-SERS spectral criteria for the diagnosis of cancer liver.%基于一种新型、高效、生物兼容性近红外表面增强拉曼散射(NIR-SERS)基底,采用便携式近红外拉曼光谱仪分别对健康人和肝癌病患者的血清进行了NIR-SERS光谱研究.实验发现,健康人与肝癌患者的血清NIR-SERS光谱存在显著差异:1)健康人血清NIR-SERS光谱中位于630、720、812和1578 cm-1附近的谱峰在肝癌患者血清NIR-SERS光

  4. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  5. Relationships between NIR spectra and sensory attributes of Thai commercial fish sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai

    2007-07-01

    Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis with 12 trained panels was used to characterize the sensory attributes. These attributes consisted of 15 descriptors: brown color, 5 aromatics (sweet, caramelized, fermented, fishy, and musty), 4 tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, and umami), 3 aftertastes (sweet, salty and bitter) and 2 flavors (caramelized and fishy). The results showed that Thai fish sauce samples exhibited significant differences in all of sensory attribute values (p analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data from 622 wavelengths to two uncorrelated components (NIR1 and NIR2) which explained 92 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. NIR1 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1100 - 1544, 1774 - 2062, 2092 - 2308, and 2358 - 2440 nm, while NIR2 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1742 - 1764, 2066 - 2088, and 2312 - 2354 nm. Subsequently, the relationships among these two components and all sensory attributes were also investigated by PCA. The results showed that the first three principal components (PCs) named as fishy flavor component (PC1), sweet component (PC2) and bitterness component (PC3), respectively, explained a total of 66.86% of the variation. NIR1 was mainly correlated to the sensory attributes of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste on PC1. In addition, the PCA using only the factor loadings of NIR1 and NIR2 could be used to classify samples into three groups which showed high, medium and low degrees of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste.

  6. Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of Moldavian matured wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, Mikhail A.; Trofimova, Darya V.; Nezalzova, Elena I.

    2011-02-01

    Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of matured wine distillates (1-40 years aged) produced by three Moldavian manufacturers allows to characterize with sufficient certainty the eleven chemical parameters of considered alcoholic beverages: contents of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, furfural, vanillin, syringic aldehyde and acid, etc.

  7. Effect of Palagonite Dust Deposition on the Automated Detection of Carbonate Vis/NIR Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Martha S.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Castano, Rebecca; Bornstein, Benjamin; Greenwood, James

    2004-01-01

    Currently Mars missions can collect more data than can be returned. Future rovers of increased mission lifetime will benefit from onboard autonomous data processing systems to guide the selection, measurement and return of scientifically important data. One approach is to train a neural net to recognize spectral reflectance characteristics of minerals of interest. We have developed a carbonate detector using a neural net algorithm trained on 10,000 synthetic Vis/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra. The detector was able to correctly identify carbonates in the spectra of 30 carbonate and noncarbonate field samples with 100% success. However, Martian dust coatings strongly affect the spectral characteristics of surface rocks potentially masking the underlying substrate rock. In this experiment, we measure Vis/NIR spectra of calcite coated with different thicknesses of palagonite dust and evaluate the performance of the carbonate detector.

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  9. High Resolution Optical and NIR Spectra of HBC 722

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Green, Joel D; Cochran, William D; Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R$\\ge$30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in optical/near-IR with the BOES, HET-HRS, and IGRINS spectrographs, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first two years. The Half-Width at Half-Depth (HWHD) of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitt...

  10. Parametric Models of NIR Transmission and Reflectivity Spectra for Dyed Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    parametric model Eq.(1a), and assuming background subtraction with a scale factor Co, the modeled transmission component of the dyes as a function of...and inversely proportional to the level of scattering. The experimental quantity defined by Eq.(7) is modeled parametrically by the scaled absorption...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5708--15-9629 Parametric Models of NIR Transmission and Reflectivity Spectra for Dyed

  11. [A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances, NIR Spectra Distances, and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Jia, Shi-qiang; Wang, Chun-ying; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-cheng; Zhai, Wei; Li, Shao-ming; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Zhu, De-hai; Huang, Hua-jun; An, Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances, NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines. Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs) of maize inbred lines whose genetic distaches are different as experimental materials, we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines and the identification accuracy is used as a measure of model identification performance. The results showed that, the correlation of genetic distance and spectra distancesis 0.9868, and it has a correlation of 0.9110 with the identification accuracy, which is highly correlated. This means near-Infrared spectrum of seedscan reflect genetic relationship of maize inbred lines. The smaller the genetic distance, the smaller the distance of spectrum, the poorer ability of model to identify. In practical application, near infrared spectrum analysis technology has the potential to be used to analyze maize inbred genetic relations, contributing much to genetic breeding, identification of species, purity sorting and so on. What's more, when creating a NIR-based identification model, the impact of the maize inbred lines which have closer genetic relationship should be fully considered.

  12. Regression techniques for estimating soil organic carbon contents from VIS/NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, W.; Jarmer, T.; Bayer, A.; Hoffmann, U.; Hunziker, M.; Kuhn, N. J.; Ehlers, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil reflectance spectroscopy is regarded as a promising approach to efficiently obtain densely sampled soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates at various spatial scales. The estimates are usually based on a statistical modeling approach since physical models are mostly not applicable owing to the manifold influences on soil spectra by different soil constituents and properties. Different multivariate statistical methods exist to estimate SOC concentrations in soil samples using visible and near infra-red (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectra. All these techniques face the challenge of generating accurate predictive models with a disproportionate large number of variables compared to the number of observations in such datasets, and in addition highly correlated independent variables. This often results in overfitting and may at the same time reduce the predictive power of such models. In this study, we conduct a rigorous assessment of the predictive ability of different regression techniques (stepwise regression, robust regression with feature selection, lasso, ridge regression, elastic net, principal component (PC) regression, partial least squares (PLS) regression). We apply datasets from different environments to include a wide variety of soils and to investigate the effects of different SOC variances and concentrations on model performance. Our hypothesis is that the predictive ability of regression techniques can be significantly improved by using more advanced techniques such as PLS regression. We discuss our findings with respect to the applicability of SOC estimation from VIS/NIR reflectance spectra in different environments.

  13. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  14. Ensemble preprocessing of near-infrared (NIR) spectra for multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Tang, Li-Juan; Wu, Hai-Long; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2008-06-01

    Preprocessing of raw near-infrared (NIR) spectral data is indispensable in multivariate calibration when the measured spectra are subject to significant noises, baselines and other undesirable factors. However, due to the lack of sufficient prior information and an incomplete knowledge of the raw data, NIR spectra preprocessing in multivariate calibration is still trial and error. How to select a proper method depends largely on both the nature of the data and the expertise and experience of the practitioners. This might limit the applications of multivariate calibration in many fields, where researchers are not very familiar with the characteristics of many preprocessing methods unique in chemometrics and have difficulties to select the most suitable methods. Another problem is many preprocessing methods, when used alone, might degrade the data in certain aspects or lose some useful information while improving certain qualities of the data. In order to tackle these problems, this paper proposes a new concept of data preprocessing, ensemble preprocessing method, where partial least squares (PLSs) models built on differently preprocessed data are combined by Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV) stacked regression. Little or no prior information of the data and expertise are required. Moreover, fusion of complementary information obtained by different preprocessing methods often leads to a more stable and accurate calibration model. The investigation of two real data sets has demonstrated the advantages of the proposed method.

  15. Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towett, Erick K; Alex, Merle; Shepherd, Keith D; Polreich, Severin; Aynekulu, Ermias; Maass, Brigitte L

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty on how generally applicable near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations are across genotypes and environments, and this study tests how well a single calibration performs across a wide range of conditions. We also address the optimization of NIRS to perform the analysis of crude protein (CP) content in a variety of cowpea accessions (n = 561) representing genotypic variation as well as grown in a wide range of environmental conditions in Tanzania and Uganda. The samples were submitted to NIRS analysis and a predictive calibration model developed. A modified partial least-squares regression with cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. Calibration statistics for CP suggests that NIRS can predict this parameter in a wide range of cowpea leaves from different agro-ecological zones of eastern Africa with high accuracy (R (2)cal = 0.93; standard error of cross-validation = 0.74). NIRS analysis improved when a calibration set was developed from samples selected to represent the range of spectral variability. We conclude from the present results that this technique is a good alternative to chemical analysis for the determination of CP contents in leaf samples from cowpea in the African context, as one of the main advantages of NIRS is the large number of compounds that can be measured at once in the same sample, thus substantially reducing the cost per analysis. The current model is applicable in predicting the CP content of young cowpea leaves for human nutrition from different agro-ecological zones and genetic materials, as cowpea leaves are one of the popular vegetables in the region.

  16. [NIR-SERS Spectra Detection of Cytidine on Nano-Silver Films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-qing; Liu, Ren-ming; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Yan; Xiong, Yang; Zhang, Chuan-yun; Li, Lun; Si, Min-zhen

    2016-03-01

    The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) protected silver glass-like nanostructure (PVA-Ag-GNS) with high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity was prepared and employed to detect the near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) spectra of cytidine aqueous solution (10(-2)-10(-8) mol x L(-1)). In the work, the near-infrared laser beam (785 nm) was used as the excitation light source. The experiment results show that high-quality NIR-SERS spectra were obtained in the ranges of 300 to 2 000 cm(-1) and the detection limit of cytidine aqueous solution was down to 10(-7) mol x L(-1). Meanwhile, the PVA-Ag-GNS shows a high enhancement factor (EF) of -10(8). In order to test the optical reproducibility of PVA-Ag-GNS, ten samples of cytidine aqueous solution (10(-2)-10(-5) mol x L(-1)) had been dropped onto the surface of PVA-Ag-GNS respectively. Meanwhile, these samples were measured by the portable Raman spectrometer. As a result, the PVA-Ag-GNS demonstrated good optical reproducibility in the detection of cytidine aqueous solution. In addition, to explain the reason of enhancement effect, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) extinction spectrum and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of cytidine molecules adsorbed on the surface of PVA-Ag-GNS were measured. There is plasmon resonance band at 800 nm in the UV-Vis extinction Spectrum of the compound system. Therefore, when the near-infrared laser beam (785 nm) was used as excitation light source, the compound system may produce strongly surface plasmon resonance (SPR). According to the SEM of PVA-Ag-GNS, there are much interstitial between the silver nanoparticles. So NIR-SERS is mainly attributed to electromagnetic (EM) fields associated with strong surface plasmon resonance. At last, the geometry optimization and pre-Raman spectrum of cytidine for the ground states were performed with DFT, B3LYP functional and the 6-311G basis set, and the near-infrared laser with wavelength of 785 nm was employed in the pre

  17. Comparison of BT Settl Model Spectra in NIR to Brown Dwarfs and Massive Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Buzard, Cam; Alam, Munazza; Camnasio, Sara; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily L.

    2017-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets are difficult to observe, which hampers our understanding of their properties. Model spectra, such as the BT Settl model grid, can provide an opportunity to augment and validate our understanding of these faint objects by serving to contrast and complement our analysis of their observed spectra. We present work from an upcoming paper that leverages this opportunity. The near infrared (NIR) wavelength region is favorable for analysis of low mass brown dwarfs and high mass gaseous companions, in particular the K band (1.97 - 2.40 µm) due to its relatively high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio wavelength range for spectra of planetary companions. We present a method to analyze two regions of the K band spectral structure (2.03 - 2.10 µm and 2.215 - 2.290 µm), and apply it to a sample of objects with field gravity, low gravity, and planetary mass as well as the BT Settl model grid for a similar range of effective temperatures and surface gravities. A correlation between spectral structure and effective temperature is found for the shorter wavelength region and there is evidence of gravity dependence for the longer wavelength range. This work suggests that the K band has the potential to be an indicator for brown dwarf and exoplanet surface gravity and effective temperature. We also present preliminary analysis from another upcoming paper. We examine equivalent widths of K I absorption lines at 1.1693 µm, 1.1773 µm, 1.2436 µm and 1.2525 µm in a selection of L dwarfs to explore their physical properties by comparing them to equivalent measurements in the BT Settl model grid.

  18. [Real-time analysis of soil moisture, soil organic matter, and soil total nitrogen with NIR spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-ying; Li, Min-zan; Zheng, Li-hua; Hu, Yong-guang; Zhang, Xi-jie

    2006-03-01

    The grey-brown alluvial soil in northern China was selected as research object, and the feasibility and possibility of real-time analyzing soil para-fueter with NIR spectroscopic techniques were explored. One hundred fifty samples were collected from a winter wheat farm. NIR absorbance spectra were rapidly measured under their original conditions by a Nicolet Antaris FT-NIR analyzer. Three soil parameters, namely soil moisture, SOM (soil organic matter) and TN (total nitrogen) content, were analyzed. For soil moisture content, a linear regression model was available, using 1920 nm wavelength with correlation coefficient of 0.937, so that the results obtained could be directly used to real-time evaluate soil moisture. SOM content and TN content were estimated with a muviaiple linear regression model, 1870 and 1378 nm wavelengths were selected in the SOM estimate model, and 2262 and 1888 nrameter wavelengths were selected in the TN estimate model. The results showed that soil SOM and TN contents can be evaluated by using NIR absorbance spectra of soil samples.

  19. Standardization from a benchtop to a handheld NIR spectrometer using mathematically mixed NIR spectra to determine fuel quality parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Cavalcanti, Claudia Jessica; Honorato, Fernanda Araujo

    2017-01-01

    The interest in performing in field measures using portable instruments is growing increasingly. Calibration transfer techniques can be used to enable models, predicted values or spectra obtained in a benchtop instrument be used in portable instrument, saving money and time required for a complete...

  20. Application of neural networks to determine moisture content on humidity-attenuated NIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Philipp, B.L. [ICF Kaiser, Richland, WA (United States); Thompson-Bachmeier, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Moisture has been identified as one of the critical tank waste parameters that impacts the safety status of the wastes, particularly tanks containing ferro/ferricyanide materials. Since water content is affected by a number of factors, including gravity, one hypothesis, currently being tested by Westinghouse Hanford`s Waste Tank Safety organization, is that the surface of the waste contains a minimum of water compared to the material deeper in the tank. Assuming this hypothesis is correct, a minimum internal waste water content will be obtained by measuring the surface water content. Near infrared analysis is a nondestructive technique that takes advantage of the tendency of water molecules to absorb specific wavelengths of NIR energy. When a sample containing water is exposed to those wavelengths, a certain portion of the energy will be absorbed by the water, and the remainder will be reflected. By measuring the reflected energy, the concentration of water in the sample can be determined. An initial investigation into the feasibility of remote sensing for hot cell and waste tank applications was performed at the University of Washington`s Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (CPAC) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The BY-104 waste tank simulant test data showed that for these samples, ten percent of the incident radiation is scattered. When collected, this signal is available for determining moisture content because the moisture content of the waste affects the scattering. However, atmospheric relative humidity causes a signal attenuation that will impact any in situ measurements being obtained. For simulation, this spectra was used along with software generated atmospheric transmission data from 0-60 meters to produce a modified sample set. These data are analyzed using a backpropagation neural network algorithm to construct a model that would predict surface moisture content.

  1. Application of Principal Component Analysis to NIR Spectra of Phyllosilicates: A Technique for Identifying Phyllosilicates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Lanza, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of the martian surface from the OMEGA and CRISM instruments have identified a variety of phyllosilicates in Noachian terrains. The types of phyllosilicates present on Mars have important implications for the aqueous environments in which they formed, and, thus, for recognizing locales that may have been habitable. Current identifications of phyllosilicates from martian NIR data are based on the positions of spectral absorptions relative to laboratory data of well-characterized samples and from spectral ratios; however, some phyllosilicates can be difficult to distinguish from one another with these methods (i.e. illite vs. muscovite). Here we employ a multivariate statistical technique, principal component analysis (PCA), to differentiate between spectrally similar phyllosilicate minerals. PCA is commonly used in a variety of industries (pharmaceutical, agricultural, viticultural) to discriminate between samples. Previous work using PCA to analyze raw NIR reflectance data from mineral mixtures has shown that this is a viable technique for identifying mineral types, abundances, and particle sizes. Here, we evaluate PCA of second-derivative NIR reflectance data as a method for classifying phyllosilicates and test whether this method can be used to identify phyllosilicates on Mars.

  2. An evaluation method of reflectance spectra to be obtained by Hayabusa2 Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) based on laboratory measurements of carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Moe; Nakamura, Tomoki; Osawa, Takahito; Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Arai, Takehiko; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Hiroi, Takahiro; Imae, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kojima, Hideyasu

    2017-09-01

    We conducted ground-based performance evaluation tests of the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) onboard Hayabusa2 spacecraft in November 2013 and from April to May 2014 and established a method for evaluating its measured reflectance spectra. Reflectance spectra of nine powdered carbonaceous chondrite samples were measured by both NIRS3 and a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. We have established two methods for correcting the NIRS3 data by comparing them with the corresponding FT-IR data because raw data obtained by NIRS3 underwent spectral distortion caused by systematic offsets in sensitivity of individual pixels. The corrected NIRS3 spectra of carbonaceous chondrite samples are comparable with their FT-IR spectra. The depth of each band component D λ is defined for each wavelength λ (μm) to characterize the absorption bands in NIRS3 spectra. It is suggested that the relationship between the D 2.72/ D 2.79 ratio and the D 2.76/ D 2.90 ratio would be useful for estimating the degree of heating of the asteroid surface, if contributions of terrestrial adsorbed water on D 2.79 and D 2.90 are properly corrected. The degrees of heating and space weathering are also comprehensively evaluated by the relationship between D 2.90 and the D 2.76/ D 2.90 ratio. Reflectance spectra of asteroid Ryugu, the target asteroid of Hayabusa2, to be recorded by the NIRS3 instrument are expected to reveal the characteristics of the surface materials by using the evaluation technique proposed in this paper. Such information will be used for choosing the touchdown points for sampling and also for investigating the distribution of the materials similar to the returned samples on Ryugu.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  4. [Discrimination of pressed and extracted camellia oils by Vis/NIR spectra combined with UVE-PLS-LDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen-cai; Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2013-09-01

    Camellia oil is a special and high quality edible oil in China, and quality of pressed camellia oils is superior to extracted camellia oils. The objective of the present research was to discriminate pressed and extracted camellia oils by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy. The transmission spectra of pressed and extracted camellia oil samples were acquired using a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1800 nm. Uninformative variable elimination (UVE) was used to select informative wavelength variables, and eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, then partial least squares combined with linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to develop classification model. At last, the classification model was used to discriminate 26 samples in the prediction set. The results indicate that UVE-PLS-LDA is an efficient discrimination and classification method, pressed and extracted camellia oils can be discriminated well by the classification model developed by UVE-PLS-LDA, the accurate rate is 100% for both samples in the calibration and prediction sets. So, Vis/NIR spectra combined with UVE-PLS-LDA is an effective method for discriminating pressed and extracted camellia oils.

  5. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense samples. Fluorescence

  6. Defects in UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectra as method for forgery detections in writing documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, F.; Aloe, P.; Schirripa Spagnolo, G.

    2010-11-01

    Documents have taken up a very important place in our society. Frauds committed in connection with documents are not at all uncommon, and, in fact, represent a very large domain of the forensic science called "questioned documents". In the field of forensic examination of questioned documents, the legitimacy of an ink entry is often an essential question. A common type of forgery consists in materially altering an existing writing or adding a new writing. These changes can be characterized by means of optical spectroscopy. The aim of this work is to perform the UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectrophotometry to analyze a range of blue and black commercial ballpoint pens, in order to investigate the discriminating abilities of the different inks found on the same document.

  7. Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.

  8. Aerosol radiative effect in UV, VIS, NIR, and SW spectra under haze and high-humidity urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Che, Huizheng; Hu, Bo; Liu, Boming

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol properties derived from sun-photometric observations at Wuhan during a haze period were analyzed and used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) in ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave (SW) spectra. The results showed that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm increased from 0.32 under clear-air conditions to 0.85 during common haze and 1.39 during severe haze. An unusual inverse relationship was found between the Ångström exponent (AE) and AOD during the haze period at Wuhan. Under high-humidity conditions, the fine-mode median radius of aerosols increased from 0.113 μm to approximately 0.2-0.5 μm as a result of hygroscopic growth, which led to increases in the AOD and decreases in the AE simultaneously. These changes were responsible for the inverse relationship between AE and AOD at Wuhan. The surface ARE in the UV (AREUV), VIS (AREVIS), NIR (ARENIR), and SW (ARESW) spectra changed from -4.46, -25.37, -12.15, and -41.99 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -9.48, -53.96, -29.81, and -93.25 W/m2 during common hazy days and -12.89, -80.16, -55.17, and -148.22 W/m2 during severe hazy days, respectively, and the percentages of AREUV, AREVIS, and ARENIR in ARESW changed from 11%, 61%, and 28%-9%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Meanwhile, the ARE efficiencies (REE) in SW varied from -206.5 W/m2 under clear-air conditions to -152.94 W/m2 during the common haze period and -131.47 W/m2 during the severe haze period. The smallest decreasing rate of the REE in NIR was associated with the increase of ARENIR. The weakened REE values were related to the strong forward scattering and weak backward scattering of fine aerosol particles with increasing size resulting from hygroscopic growth, while the variation of the single scattering albedo showed less impact. Source region analysis by back trajectories and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) method showed that black carbon came

  9. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Menesatti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94. The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency.

  10. Nitrogen concentration estimation in tomato leaves by VIS-NIR non-destructive spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency.

  11. Optical-NIR spectra of quasars close to reionization (z~ 6)

    CERN Document Server

    D’Odorico, V; Cristiani, S; Maiolino, R; Molaro, P; Nonino, M; Cimatti, A; Alighieri, S di Serego; Fiore, F; Fontana, A; Gallerani, S; Giallongo, E; Mannucci, F; Marconi, A; Pentericci, L; Viel, M; Vladilo, G

    2011-01-01

    X-shooter, with its characteristics of resolution, spectral coverage and efficiency, provides a unique opportunity to obtain spectra of the highest-redshift quasars (z ~ 6) that will allow us to carry out successful investigations on key cosmological issues, from the details of the re-ionization process, to the evolution of the first galaxies and AGNs. In this paper, we present the spectra of three z ~ 6 quasars: one obtained during the commissioning of X-shooter and two in the context of our ongoing GTO programme. Combining this sample with data in the literature, we update the value of the C IV cosmic mass density in the range 4.5 \\leq z \\leq 5, confirming the constant trend with redshift between 2.5 and 5.

  12. Standardization of NIR microscopy spectra obtained from inter-laboratory studies by using a standardization cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Pierna, JA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared microscope (NIRM is an instrument that has demonstrated its great ability to detect contaminants not by analyzing a single spectrum but rather by analyzing hundreds or thousands of spectra from individual particles, while at the same time being a non-destructive and easy-to-use technique. It has been used for the detection of meat-and-bone meal (MBM in compound feeds within the context of the European bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; commonly known as "mad cow disease" crisis. This study describes, for the first time, an application of NIRM instrument standardization using a measurement cell in an inter-laboratory study conducted within the framework of a qualitative determination of animal proteins in compound feeds, based on spectra obtained with eight instruments. The standardization cell was assessed for its ability to produce good optical matching of the instruments and/or to evaluate instrument performance.

  13. Ground-Based VIS/NIR Reflectance Spectra of 25143 Itokawa: What Hayabusa will See and How Ground-Based Data can Augment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Abell, P. A.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Planning for the arrival of the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid 25143 Itokawa includes consideration of the expected spectral information to be obtained using the AMICA and NIRS instruments. The rotationally-resolved spatial coverage the asteroid we have obtained with ground-based telescopic spectrophotometry in the visible and near-infrared can be utilized here to address expected spacecraft data. We use spectrophotometry to simulate the types of data that Hayabusa will receive with the NIRS and AMICA instruments, and will demonstrate them here. The NIRS will cover a wavelength range from 0.85 m, and have a dispersion per element of 250 Angstroms. Thus, we are limited in coverage of the 1.0 micrometer and 2.0 micrometer mafic silicate absorption features. The ground-based reflectance spectra of Itokawa show a large component of olivine in its surface material, and the 2.0 micrometer feature is shallow. Determining the olivine to pyroxene abundance ratio is critically dependent on the attributes of the 1.0- and 2.0 micrometer features. With a cut-off near 2,1 micrometer the longer edge of the 2.0- feature will not be obtained by NIRS. Reflectance spectra obtained using ground-based telescopes can be used to determine the regional composition around space-based spectral observations, and possibly augment the longer wavelength spectral attributes. Similarly, the shorter wavelength end of the 1.0 micrometer absorption feature will be partially lost to the NIRS. The AMICA filters mimic the ECAS filters, and have wavelength coverage overlapping with the NIRS spectral range. We demonstrate how merging photometry from AMICA will extend the spectral coverage of the NIRS. Lessons learned from earlier spacecraft to asteroids should be considered.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-resolution NIR spectra of local giants (Feuillet+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, D. K.; Bovy, J.; Holtzman, J.; Girardi, L.; MacDonald, N.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R~22500), near infrared (1.51-1.7μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages <~1Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. (1 data file).

  15. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  16. Application of Multivariate Strategies to the Classification of Pharmaceutical Excipient Manufacturers Based on Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Potts, Alan R; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-11-01

    Using partial least square discriminate analysis (PLSDA), we studied the spectroscopic differences between the commonly used filler-binder microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from five manufactures. These samples had subtle differences in the chemical and physical properties, which are often the cause of differences in excipient performance. Studying these differences allowed us to build and validate a model to classify five manufacturers of MCC using near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The sample training set includes 39 MCC samples collected from five manufactures with regions spanning the United States of America, Japan, Taiwan, Germany, and Brazil. The samples from individual manufacturers include diverse grades that differ in moisture content, particle size, and bulk density. Optimized pretreatment methods were identified as standard normal variate normalization, followed by Savitzky-Golay second derivative, mean centering, and orthogonal signal correction. The model was optimized with cross-validation and validated with an independent sample set comprising nine samples collected from those five manufacturers. The results showed that none of the samples in the independent validation set was misclassified. The score and loading plots revealed that the differences in content of oxidized cellulose group, water content and states, hydrogen bonding, and degree of polymerization of the MCC samples are responsible for the class differentiation. Permutation test demonstrated that the outcome of the PLSDA model was significantly different from that of the randomly generated model. The advantages and limitations of the method in this type of application were discussed.

  17. Principal component analysis for the forensic discrimination of black inkjet inks based on the Vis-NIR fibre optics reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Lukáš; Oravec, Michal; Gemeiner, Pavol; Čeppan, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen black inkjet inks of six different brands were examined by fibre optics reflection spectroscopy in Visible and Near Infrared Region (Vis-NIR FORS) directly on paper with a view to achieving good resolution between them. These different inks were tested on nineteen different inkjet printers from three brands. Samples were obtained from prints by reflection probe. Processed reflection spectra in the range 500-1000 nm were used as samples in principal component analysis. Variability between spectra of the same ink obtained from different prints, as well as between spectra of square areas and lines was examined. For both spectra obtained from square areas and lines reference, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were created. According to these models, the inkjet inks were divided into clusters. PCA method is able to separate inks containing carbon black as main colorant from the other inks using other colorants. Some spectra were recorded from another piece of printer and used as validation samples. Spectra of validation samples were projected onto reference PCA models. According to position of validation samples in score plots it can be concluded that PCA based on Vis-NIR FORS can reliably differentiate inkjet inks which are included in the reference database. The presented method appears to be a suitable tool for forensic examination of questioned documents containing inkjet inks. Inkjet inks spectra were obtained without extraction or cutting sample with possibility to measure out of the laboratory.

  18. Application of Wavelets and Quaternions to NIR Spectra Classification; Aplicacion de las Wavelests y los Cuaterniones a la Clasificaciond e Espectros NIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J.C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes how multi resolution analysis can combine with the use of quaternions to identify near infrared spectra. The method is applied to spectra of plastics usually present in domestic wastes. First, Haar wavelet is applied to spectrum. With the coefficients obtained, a quaternion is built. We named this quaternion a characteristic quaternion. Distances to characteristic quaternions are used to classify new quaternions. (Author) 54 refs.

  19. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  20. Non-destructive determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) distribution in oilseed rape leaves by laboratory scale NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Hailin

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging with 400–1000 nm was investigated to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) content in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. After comparing the performance of different preprocessing methods, linear and nonlinear calibration models, the optimal prediction performance was achieved by extreme learning machine (ELM) model with only 23 wavelengths selected by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and the result was RP = 0.929 and RMSEP = 2.951. Furthermore, MDA distribution map was successfully achieved by partial least squares (PLS) model with CARS. This study indicated that hyperspectral imaging technology provided a fast and nondestructive solution for MDA content detection in plant leaves.

  1. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  2. Electrical and mechanical anharmonicities from NIR-VCD spectra of compounds exhibiting axial and planar chirality: the cases of (S)-2,3-pentadiene and methyl-d(3) (R)- and (S)-[2.2]paracyclophane-4-carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto; Superchi, Stefano; Caporusso, Anna Maria; Ruzziconi, Renzo

    2011-10-01

    The IR and Near infrared (NIR) vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of molecules endowed with noncentral chirality have been investigated. Data for fundamental, first, and second overtone regions of (S)-2,3-pentadiene, exhibiting axial chirality, and methyl-d(3) (R)- and (S)-[2.2]paracyclophane-4-carboxylate, exhibiting planar chirality have been measured and analyzed. The analysis of NIR and IR VCD spectra was based on the local-mode model and the use of density functional theory (DFT), providing mechanical and electrical anharmonic terms for all CH-bonds. The comparison of experimental and calculated spectra is satisfactory and allows one to monitor fine details in the asymmetric charge distribution in the molecules: these details consist in the harmonic frequencies, in the principal anharmonicity constants, in both the atomic polar and axial tensors and in their first and second derivatives with respect to the CH-stretching coordinates.

  3. Chemometric resolution of NIR spectra data of a model aza-Michael reaction with a combination of local rank exploratory analysis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, Vanessa; Callao, M Pilar; Larrechi, M Soledad; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Ronda, J Carles; Cádiz, Virginia

    2009-05-29

    The aza-Michael reaction, a variation of the Michael reaction in which an amine acts as the nucleophile, permits the synthesis of sophisticated macromolecular structures with potential use in many applications such as drug delivery systems, high performance composites and coatings. The aza-Michael product can be affected by a retro-Mannich-type fragmentation. A way of determining the reactions that are taking place and evaluate the quantitative evolution of the chemical species involved in the reactions is presented. The aza-Michael reaction between a modified fatty acid ester with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone groups (enone containing methyl oleate (eno-MO)) and aniline (1:1) was studied isothermally at 95 degrees C and monitored in situ by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The number of reactions involved in the system was determined analyzing the rank matrix of NIR spectra data recorded during the reaction. Singular value decomposition (SVD) and evolving factor analysis (EFA) adapted to analyze full rank augmented data matrices have been used. In the experimental conditions, we found that the resulting aza-Michael adduct undergoes a retro-Mannich-type fragmentation, but the final products of this reaction were present in negligible amounts. This was confirmed by recording the (1)H NMR spectra of the final product. Applying multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to the NIR spectra data obtained during the reaction, it has been possible to obtain the concentration values of the species involved in the aza-Michael reaction. The performance of the model was evaluated by two parameters: ALS lack of fit (lof=1.31%) and explained variance (R(2)=99.92%). Also, the recovered spectra were compared with the experimentally recorded spectra for the reagents (aniline and eno-MO) and the correlation coefficients (r) were 0.9997 for the aniline and 0.9578 for the eno-MO.

  4. 蛋壳品质的近红外光谱检测分析%Detection of eggshell quality based on NIR spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊欢; 徐惠荣; 周万怀; 姚洋; 陈华瑞

    2013-01-01

    the eggshell thickness and their spectra. The correlation between conventional eggshell quality indicators was studied. The result showed that the correlation is big between eggshell strength with eggshell percentage, egg specific gravity and eggshell thickness, the correlation coefficient were 0.55, 0.49 and 0.43, respectively. They are three parameters that closely related to the eggshell strength. And the eggshell strength can be characterized by them to a certain extent. The near-infrared spectra of different eggshell strength were compared. The result showed that the average spectral reflectance of the high-intensity group was biggest, the medium-intensity group is in the second place, and the low-intensity group is smallest. The result showed that near-infrared spectral characteristic was affected by the eggshell surface structure. In order to research the influence of eggshell internal structure on near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of eggs samples with different eggshell strength, the eggshell ultra-microstructure of samples was compared between groups of high and low eggshell strength. The result showed that with the increase of the eggshell strength, the eggshell cross-sectional consistency and smoothness became better, the mastoid layer and fiber layer related more closely and the effective thickness of the mastoid became smaller, the outer surface of eggshell became smoother and denser, and cracks reduced; the eggshell fiber layer structure became closer, the primary and secondary branch was clearer, fiber gap became smaller. All the results show that detecting eggshell quality using NIR spectra is feasible, and provides a new method for rapid non-destructive testing of eggshell quality.

  5. Water stress assessment of cork oak leaves and maritime pine needles based on LIF spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, A.; Utkin, A. B.; Marques da Silva, J.; Vilar, Rui; Santos, N. M.; Alves, B.

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a method for the remote assessment of the impact of fire and drought stress on Mediterranean forest species such as the cork oak ( Quercus suber) and maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster). The proposed method is based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF): chlorophyll fluorescence is remotely excited by frequency-doubled YAG:Nd laser radiation pulses and collected and analyzed using a telescope and a gated high sensitivity spectrometer. The plant health criterion used is based on the I 685/ I 740 ratio value, calculated from the fluorescence spectra. The method was benchmarked by comparing the results achieved with those obtained by conventional, continuous excitation fluorometric method and water loss gravimetric measurements. The results obtained with both methods show a strong correlation between them and with the weight-loss measurements, showing that the proposed method is suitable for fire and drought impact assessment on these two species.

  6. [Potential Applicability of Fecal NIRs: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Du, Zhou-he; Bai, Shi-qie; Zuo, Yan-chun; Zhou, Xiao-kang; Kou, Jing; Yan, Jia-jun; Zhang, Jian-bo; Li, Ping; You, Ming-hong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Da-xu; Zhang, Chang-bing; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is an inexpensive, rapid, environment-friendly and non-invasive analytical technique that has been extensively applied in the analysis of the dietary attributes and the animal products. Acquisition of dietary attributes is essential for nutritional diagnoses to provide animals with reasonable diet. Traditionally, the calibration equations for the prediction of dietary attributes (e. g. crude protein) are developed from feed NIR spectra and the results of conventional chemical analysis (i. e. reference data). It is difficult to obtain the NIR spectra of forages consumed by grazing animals, so the method of this calibration is inappropriate for free-grazing herbivores. Feces, as the animal's metabolites, contain the information about both the animal's diet and the animal itself. Recently, Fecal-NIRS (F. NIRS) has been directly used to monitor diet information (botanical composition, chemical composition and digestibility), based on correlation between reference data and fecal NIR profile. Subsequently, some additional application (such as sex and species discrimination, reproductive and parasite status) of F. NIRS also is outlined. In the last, application of NIRS in animal manure is summarized. NIRS was shown to be an alternative to conventional wet chemical methods for analyzing some nutrient concentrations in animal manure rapidly. Overall, this paper proves that F. NIRS is a rapid and valid tool for the determination of the dietary attributes and of the physiological status of animal, although more efforts need to be done to improve the accuracy of the F. NIRS technique. Several researchers in English have reviewed the applications of F. NIRS. In China, however, there is a paucity of research and application regarding F. NIRS. We expect that this paper in Chinese will be helpful to the development of F. NIRS in China. At the same time, we propose NIRS as a simple and rapid analytical method for predicting the main

  7. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes.

  8. [Rapid identification of potato cultivars using NIR-excited fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fen; Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Benjamin, Arnold Julian Vinoj; Hong, Tian-Sheng; Zhiwei, Huang

    2014-03-01

    Potato is one of the most important food in the world. Rapid and noninvasive identification of potato cultivars plays a important role in the better use of varieties. In this study, The identification ability of optical spectroscopy techniques, including near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy, for invasive detection of potato cultivars was evaluated. A rapid NIR Raman spectroscopy system was applied to measure the composite Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy of 3 different species of potatoes (98 samples in total) under 785 nm laser light excitation. Then pure Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy were abstracted from the composite spectroscopy, respectively. At last, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to analyze and classify Raman spectra of 3 different types of potatoes. All the samples were divided into two sets at random: the calibration set (74samples) and prediction set (24 samples), the model was validated using a leave-one-out, cross-validation method. The results showed that both the NIR-excited fluorescence spectra and pure Raman spectra could be used to identify three cultivars of potatoes. The fluorescence spectrum could distinguish the Favorita variety well (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 0.86 and accuracy: 0.92), but the result for Diamant (sensitivity: 0.75, specificity: 0.75 and accuracy: 0. 75) and Granola (sensitivity: 0.16, specificity: 0.89 and accuracy: 0.71) cultivars identification were a bit poorer. We demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy uncovered the main biochemical compositions contained in potato species, and provided a better classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 1 and accuracy: 1 for all 3 potato cultivars identification) among the three types of potatoes as compared to fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses of nutrient composition and condensed tannin concentrations in carolina willow (Salix caroliniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Shana R; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Wooley, Stuart C; Stone, Koni; Russell, Scott; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2015-11-01

    Iron overload disorder has been described in a number of zoo-managed species, and it has been recommended to increase the tannin composition of the diet as a safe way to minimize iron absorption in these iron-sensitive species. The goal of this study was to examine the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and simple screening tool to assess willow (Salix caroliniana) nutrient composition (crude protein: CP; acid detergent fiber: ADF; neutral detergent fiber: NDF; lignin, gross energy: GE) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations. Calibration equations were developed by regression of the lab values from 2 years using partial least squares on n = 144 NIRS spectra to predict n = 20 independent validation samples. Using the full 2-year dataset, good prediction statistics were obtained for CP, ADF, NDF, and GE in plant leaves and stems (r(2 ) > 0.75). NIRS did not predict lignin concentrations reliably (leaves r(2)  = 0.52, stems r(2)  = 0.33); however, CTs were predicted moderately well (leaves r(2)  = 0.72, stems r(2)  = 0.67). These data indicate that NIRS can be used to quantify several key nutrients in willow leaves and stems including concentrations of plant secondary compounds which, depending on the bioactivity of the compound, may be targeted to feed iron-sensitive browsing animals.

  10. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    . Spectral NIR data from intact leaves showing different levels of yellowing (healthy leaves, slightly deformed leaves or highly deformed leaves with advanced yellowing, used in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of NIR spectra, were used to build a descriptive model for chrysanthemum leaf yellowing classification. The descriptive model indicated the presence of two groups of NIR spectra belonging to asymptomatic or symptomatic leaves, with no further differentiation of NIR spectra from leaves showing mild or severe yellowing symptoms. Not without the drawbacks of a low number of NIR spectra, these results suggests that it is possible to develop a fast, accurate and nondestructive, spectroscopic based system to detect this disease on blind plant samples. Improvements to the sensitivity of this model in detecting multiple stages of this disease will depend on obtaining and adding new NIR leaf spectra obtained from clearly defined ratings of the disease. Due to its sensitivity and wide application, NIR spectroscopy appear to be a core technique to further develop new systems for the early detection of chrysanthemum leaf yellowing and other plant diseases. This in turn may result in the design of opportune and timely systems for plant disease control.

  11. Determination of persimmon leaf chloride contents using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José Miguel; Visconti, Fernando; Chiaravalle, Mara; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of specific chloride toxicity in persimmon trees requires the reliable and fast determination of the leaf chloride content, which is usually performed by means of a cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming wet analysis. A methodology has been developed in this study as an alternative to determine chloride in persimmon leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with multivariate calibration techniques. Based on a training dataset of 134 samples, a predictive model was developed from their NIR spectral data. For modelling, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method was used. The best model was obtained with the first derivative of the apparent absorbance and using just 10 latent components. In the subsequent external validation carried out with 35 external data this model reached r(2) = 0.93, RMSE = 0.16% and RPD = 3.6, with standard error of 0.026% and bias of -0.05%. From these results, the model based on NIR spectral readings can be used for speeding up the laboratory determination of chloride in persimmon leaves with only a modest loss of precision. The intermolecular interaction between chloride ions and the peptide bonds in leaf proteins through hydrogen bonding, i.e. N-H···Cl, explains the ability for chloride determinations on the basis of NIR spectra.

  12. NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide; Voss, Kenneth

    2016-09-05

    The near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithms are used in satellite ocean color data processing, with the SWIR-based algorithm particularly useful for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we describe the NIR- and two SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibration approaches for satellite ocean color sensors, and compare results from these three on-orbit vicarious calibrations using satellite measurements from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). Vicarious calibration gains for VIIRS spectral bands are derived using the in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) spectra from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii. The SWIR vicarious gains are determined using VIIRS measurements from the South Pacific Gyre region, where waters are the clearest and generally stable. Specifically, vicarious gain sets for VIIRS spectral bands of 410, 443, 486, 551, and 671 nm derived from the NIR method using the NIR 745 and 862 nm bands, the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 1601 nm bands, and the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 2257 nm bands are (0.979954, 0.974892, 0.974685, 0.965832, 0.979042), (0.980344, 0.975344, 0.975357, 0.965531, 0.979518), and (0.980820, 0.975609, 0.975761, 0.965888, 0.978576), respectively. Thus, the NIR-based vicarious calibration gains are consistent with those from the two SWIR-based approaches with discrepancies mostly within ~0.05% from three data processing methods. In addition, the NIR vicarious gains (745 and 862 nm) derived from the two SWIR methods are (0.982065, 1.00001) and (0.981811, 1.00000), respectively, with the difference ~0.03% at the NIR 745 nm band. This is the fundamental basis for the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction algorithm, which has been used to derive improved satellite ocean color products over open oceans and turbid coastal/inland waters. Therefore, a unified

  13. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  14. 玉米自交系籽粒的遗传距离与其近红外光谱距离和品种鉴别模型性能的关系研究%A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances,NIR Spectra Distances,and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 黄华军; 安冬; 贾仕强; 王春英; 刘哲; 顾建成; 翟伟; 李绍明; 张晓东; 朱德海

    2015-01-01

    从玉米自交系种子的遗传距离、近红外光谱距离、品种鉴别模型性能三方面进行分析,探索三者间的关系。采用三组(共15对)遗传关系远近不同的玉米自交系种子作为实验材料,通过简单重复序列(simple sequence repeats,SSR)标记计算自交系种子间的遗传距离;种子的近红外光谱经预处理后降维到主成分分析(principal component analysis,PCA)空间中,计算各个自交系种子样本中心点之间的欧氏距离,作为对应的近红外光谱距离;使用仿生模式识别方法建立鉴别模型,用模型的鉴别正确率评价模型的性能。分析结果表明,自交系种子间遗传距离与近红外光谱距离相关性为0.9868,与模型鉴别正确率的相关性为0.9110,相关性显著。说明近红外光谱可以反映出玉米自交系种子之间的遗传关系,遗传关系的远近影响品种鉴别模型的性能,遗传距离越小,近红外光谱距离越小,模型鉴别能力也越差。实际应用中有望利用近红外光谱技术分析玉米自交系的遗传关系,对遗传育种、品种识别、纯度分选等具有重要意义;且建立品种鉴别模型时,应充分考虑遗传关系较近的玉米自交系对模型性能的影响。%This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances,NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines.Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs)of maize inbred lines whose genetic dis-taches are different as experimental materials,we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines andthe identification accuracy is used as a measure of model iden-tification performance.The results showed that the

  15. Systematization method for distinguishing plastic groups by using NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Mikio; Satoh, Minami; Satoh, Minoru

    2007-07-01

    A systematic classification method for polymers is not yet available in case of using near infrared spectra (NIR). That is why we have been searching for a systematic method. Because raw NIR spectra usually have few obvious peaks, NIR spectra have been pretreated by 2nd derivation for taking well modulated spectra. After the pretreatment, we applied classification and regression trees (CART) to the discrimination between the spectra and the species of polymers. As a result, we obtained a relatively simple classification tree. Judging from the obtained splitting conditions and the classified polymers, we concluded that obtained knowledge on the chemical function groups estimated by the important wavelength regions is not always applicable to this classification tree. However, we clarified the splitting rules for polymer species from the NIR spectral point of view.

  16. Responses of epidermal phenolic compounds to light acclimation: in vivo qualitative and quantitative assessment using chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in leaves of three woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, L P R; Meyer, S; Goulas, Y; Cadot, Y; Cerovic, Z G

    2007-09-25

    Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) excitation spectra were measured to assess the UV-sunscreen compounds accumulated in fully expanded leaves of three woody species belonging to different chemotaxons, (i.e. Morus nigra L., Prunus mahaleb L. and Lagerstroemia indica L.), grown in different light microclimates. The logarithm of the ratio of ChlF excitation spectra (logFER) between two leaves acclimated to different light microclimates was used to assess the difference in epidermal absorbance (EAbs). EAbs increased with increasing solar irradiance intercepted for the three species. This epidermal localisation of UV-absorbers was confirmed by the removal of the epidermis. It was possible to simulate EAbs as a linear combination of major phenolic compounds (Phen) identified in leaf methanol extracts by HPLC-DAD. Under UV-free radiation conditions, shaded leaves of M. nigra accumulated chlorogenic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives greatly increased with increasing PAR irradiance under the low UV-B conditions found in the greenhouse. These traits were also observed for the HCA of the two other species. Flavonoid (FLAV) accumulation started under low UV-A irradiance, and became maximal in the adaxial epidermis of sun-exposed leaves outdoors. A decrease in the amount of HCA was observed concomitantly to the intense accumulation of FLAV for both leaf sides of the three species. Judging from the logFER, under low UV-B conditions, larger amounts of HCA are present in the epidermis in comparison to FLAV for the three species. Upon transition from the greenhouse to full sunlight outdoors, there was a decrease in leaf-soluble HCA that paralleled FLAV accumulation in reaction to increasing solar UV-B radiation in the three species. In M. nigra, that contains large amounts of HCA, the logFER analysis showed that this decrease occurred in the adaxial epidermis, whereas the abaxial epidermis, which is protected from direct UV

  17. Aromatic Fused [30] Heteroannulenes with NIR Absorption and NIR Emission: Synthesis, Characterization, and Excited-State Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Abhijit; Oh, Juwon; Kim, Dongho; Rath, Harapriya

    2016-06-06

    Two hitherto unknown planar aromatic [30] fused heterocyclic macrocycles (1.1.0.1.1.0), with NIR absorption in free-base form and protonation-induced enhanced NIR emission, have been synthesized from easy to make precursors. The induced correspondence of fusion on the macrocyclic structure, electronic absorption, and emission spectra have been highlighted.

  18. Study on Soil Total N Estimation by Vis-NIR Spectra with Variable Selection%基于可见-近红外光谱变量选择的土壤全氮含量估测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅花; 赵小敏; 方倩; 谢碧裕

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Variable selection or feature selection is a critical step in data analysis of visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectrum research. The aim of this study was to determine the soil total nitrogen (TN) contents through building models based on absorption features of soil TN using variable selection methods combined with Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and to provide a basis for the fast estimation of the content of soil TN.[Method]Representative 120 soil samples were collected from the typical red soil area of Ji’an County, Jiangxi Province. The TN contents and the Vis-NIR were measured in the laboratory. Several variable selection methods including principal component analysis (PCA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE) and UVE coupled with successive projections algorithm (SPA) were employed for Vis/NIR data, the models of partial least squares regression (PLSR) with leave-one-out cross-validation, least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM), the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and BPNN with optimized threshold and weight using genetic algorithm (GA-BPNN) combined different variable selection methods were calibrated and validated using independent data sets. [Result] The results showed that the application of UVE to the wavelengths reduced wavelengths from original 200 to 59 of which located in visible range and the rest located in the region of overtones and combinations in near infrared range. The application of SPA to the wavelengths preselected by UVE further reduced the wavelengths to only 5 for TN, including 820, 940, 1 040, 1 060 and 1 990 nm. LS-SVM models achieved competitive prediction performance compared with PLSR, BPNN and GA-PBNN based on 59 wavelengths with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.7492 and root mean square error (RMSE p ) of 0.2921 and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 1.8904 for soil TN. Furthermore, LS-SVM models achieved excellent prediction performance with PLSR, BPNN and GA-PBNN based on 5 wavelengths using

  19. Pharmaceutical applications using NIR technology in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Luiz; Borges, Marco A.

    2017-05-01

    NIR technology has been available for a long time, certainly more than 50 years. Without any doubt, it has found many niche applications, especially in the pharmaceutical, food, agriculture and other industries due to its flexibility. There are a number of advantages over other existing analytical technologies we can list, for example virtually no need for sample preparation; usually NIR does not demand sample destruction and subsequent discard; NIR provides fast results; NIR does not require extensive operator training and carries small operating costs. However, the key point about NIR technology is the fact that it's more related to statistics than chemistry or, in other words, we are more concerned about analyzing and distinguishing features within the data than looking deep into the chemical entities themselves. A simple scan reading in the NIR range usually involves huge inflows of data points. Usually we decompose the signals into hundreds of predictor variables and use complex algorithms to predict classes or quantify specific content. NIR is all about math, especially by converting chemical information into numbers. Easier said than done. A NIR signal is a very complex one. Usually the signal responses are not specific to a particular material, rather, each grouṕs responses add up, thus providing low specificity of a spectral reading. This paper proposes a simple and efficient method to analyze and compare NIR spectra for the purpose of identifying the presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in finished products using low cost NIR scanning devices connected to the internet cloud.

  20. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial...... processes and had a large variability for most of the parameters. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to make the prediction models based on NIR spectra taken at 30 and 40 °C. Using proper wavelength range allowed to get models for prediction of fat, protein and amount of total solids with very...

  1. High-throughput NIR-chemometric methods for determination of drug content and pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuta, Ioan; Rus, Lucia; Iovanov, Rares; Rus, Luca Liviu

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the development, validation and application of NIR-chemometric methods for API content and pharmaceutical characterization (disintegration time and crushing strength) of indapamide intact tablets. Development of the method for chemical characterization was performed on samples corresponding to 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120% of indapamide content and for pharmaceutical characterization on samples prepared at nine different compression forces (covering the interval 7-45 kN). NIR spectra of prepared tablets were recorded in transmission mode, and partial least-squares followed by leave-one-out cross-validation were used to develop models for the prediction of the drug content and the pharmaceutical properties of tablets. All developed models were validated in terms of trueness, precision and accuracy. No statistical differences were found between results predicted by NIR-chemometric methods and the ones determined by reference methods. Therefore, the developed NIR-chemometric methods meet the requirements of a high-throughput method for the determination of drug content, pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets.

  2. 蜜瓜品质光谱检测中异常建模样品的综合评判%Outlier Sample Discriminating Methods for Building Calibration Model in Melons Quality Detecting Using NIR Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海清; 王春光; 张海军; 郁志宏; 李建康

    2012-01-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0. 601° Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 854°Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set(r = 0. 797, RMSEC = 0. 849° Brix, RMSEP=1. 19°Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set(r = 0.892, RMSEC=0. 605°Brix, RMSEP=0. 862°Brix).%针对蜜瓜可溶性固形物含量透射光谱检测中,异常建模样品对模型精度的影响及多种可能来源,提出异常样品的综合评判方法.为防止漏判,分别针对不同来源,采用基于预测浓度残差、Chauvenet检验法及杠杆值与学生残差T检验准则对85个建模样品(偏最小二乘法建模)进行初步判别,共判别出9个疑似异常样品.为防止误判,对疑似样品逐一回收,考察其对建模与预测精度的影响.先后回收5个样品后,所建校正模型相关系数r为0.889,均方根校正偏差RMSEC为0.601°Brix,对35个未知样品的均方根预测偏差RMSEP为0.854°Brix,比未剔除异常样品前所建模型(r=0.797,RMSEC=0

  3. Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from...... the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one...... marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall...

  4. Maturation of the cytochrome cd 1 nitrite reductase NirS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires transient interactions between the three proteins NirS, NirN and NirF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic cytochrome cd 1 nitrite reductase NirS occurring in denitrifying bacteria such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains the essential tetrapyrrole cofactors haem c and haem d 1. Whereas the haem c is incorporated into NirS by the cytochrome c maturation system I, nothing is known about the insertion of the haem d 1 into NirS. Here, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that NirS interacts with the potential haem d 1 insertion protein NirN in vivo. This NirS–NirN inter...

  5. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  6. Application of NIR spectroscopy for firmness evaluation of peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-ping FU; Yi-bin YING; Ying ZHOU; Li-juan XIE; Hui-rong XU

    2008-01-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was proved to be a useful tool for quality analysis of fruits. A bifurcated fiber type NIR spectrometer, with a detection range of 800~2500 nm by lnGaAs detector, was used to evaluate the firmness of peaches. Anisotropy of NIR spectra and firmness of peaches in relation to detecting positions of different parts (including three latitudes and three longitudes) were investigated. Both spectra absorbency and firmness of peach were influenced by longitudes (i,ii, iii) and latitudes (A, B, C). For modeling, two thirds of the samples were used as the calibration set and the remaining one third were used as the validation or prediction set. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models for different longitude and latitude spectra and for the whole fruit show that collecting several NIR spectra from different longitudes and latitudes of a fruit for NIR calibration modeling can improve the modeling performance. In addition, proper spectra pretreatments like scattering correction or derivative also can enhance the modeling performance. The best results obtained in this study were from the holistic model with multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) pretreatment, with correlation coefficient of cross-validation rcv=0.864, root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=6.71 N, correlation coefficient of calibration r=0.948, root mean square error of cali-bration RMSEC=4.21 N and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP=5.42 N. The results of this study are useful for further research and application that when applying NIR spectroscopy for objectives with anisotropic differences, spectra and quality indices are necessarily measured from several parts of each object to improve the modeling performance.

  7. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM, rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers’ performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R2 = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R2 = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R2 = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations.

  8. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, Maria P

    2016-02-16

    Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM), rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers' performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R² = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively). Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R² = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R² = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations.

  9. Data Mining and NIR Spectroscopy in Viticulture: Applications for Plant Phenotyping under Field Conditions †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotyping is a very important topic in agriculture. In this context, data mining strategies may be applied to agricultural data retrieved with new non-invasive devices, with the aim of yielding useful, reliable and objective information. This work presents some applications of machine learning algorithms along with in-field acquired NIR spectral data for plant phenotyping in viticulture, specifically for grapevine variety discrimination and assessment of plant water status. Support vector machine (SVM), rotation forests and M5 trees models were built using NIR spectra acquired in the field directly on the adaxial side of grapevine leaves, with a non-invasive portable spectrophotometer working in the spectral range between 1600 and 2400 nm. The ν-SVM algorithm was used for the training of a model for varietal classification. The classifiers’ performance for the 10 varieties reached, for cross- and external validations, the 88.7% and 92.5% marks, respectively. For water stress assessment, the models developed using the absorbance spectra of six varieties yielded the same determination coefficient for both cross- and external validations (R2 = 0.84; RMSEs of 0.164 and 0.165 MPa, respectively). Furthermore, a variety-specific model trained only with samples of Tempranillo from two different vintages yielded R2 = 0.76 and RMSE of 0.16 MPa for cross-validation and R2 = 0.79, RMSE of 0.17 MPa for external validation. These results show the power of the combined use of data mining and non-invasive NIR sensing for in-field grapevine phenotyping and their usefulness for the wine industry and precision viticulture implementations. PMID:26891304

  10. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  11. Fast Discrimination of Bamboo Species Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Dong, W. Y.; Kouba, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate different bamboo species was investigated. Vis/NIR spectra were collected on three bamboo species, Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis, and Phyllostachys glauca, in the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm. The range of 425-2400 nm was chosen for the spectra modeling. Multiplicative signal correction, standard normal variate with detrending, and 1st and 2nd derivatives were used to preprocess the raw spectral data, and the results were compared. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods were applied for building discriminant models. The recognition ratio of 30 samples in the validation set was 100% by both SIMCA and PLSDA models. These results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy may provide a fast and nondestructive technique to discriminate different bamboo species in the field.

  12. On children's dyslexia with NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhuo; Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Yao, Bin; Song, Ranran; Wu, Hanrong

    2003-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a kind of prevalent psychologic disease. Some functional imaging technologies, such as FMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of dyslexics. NIRS is a kind of novel technology which is more and more widely being used for study of the cognitive psychology. However, there aren"t reports about the dyslexic research using NIRS to be found until now. This paper introduces a NIRS system of four measuring channels. Brain activities of dyslexic subjects and normal subjects during reading task were studied with the NIRS system. Two groups of subjects, the group of dyslexia and the group of normal, were appointed to perform two reading tasks. At the same time, their cortical activities were measured with the NIRS system. This experimental result indicates that the brain activities of the dyslexic group were significantly higher than the control group in BA 48 and that NIRS can be used for the study of human brain activity.

  13. Prediction of Cadmium Content in the Leaves of Navel Orange in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Using VIS-NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy%污染土壤对脐橙叶片镉含量影响的光谱预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石荣杰; 潘贤章; 王昌昆; 刘娅; 李燕丽; 李志婷

    2015-01-01

    Visual and Near‐infrared (VIS‐NIR) reflectance spectroscopy had been used widely in monitoring agricultural pollution in recent years ,however ,it was rarely applied in monitoring the contamination of heavy metal in orchards .In the present paper , Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L .] Osbeck cv .Newhall) were cultivated in the potted soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd) at different levels ,and the spectral reflectance and Cd content in the leaves were measured simultaneously at different growing seasons ,which then were used to establish the prediction model by partial least squares regression (PLSR) based on spectral reflectance and by linear regression based on spectral index .The results showed that Cd was more easily transferred to and cumulated in the new leaves ,and this phenomenon was more obvious in heavily contaminated soils with Cd .Blue shift in red edge was found in the band of 700~730 nm in the new leaves ,however ,no such phenomenon was found in the old leaves .The coefficient of determination (R2 ) of linear regression model based on spectral index was nearly 0.8 ,while the PLSR model had a better result in predicting Cd content in the new leaves than the linear regression with R2CV of approximately 0.9 .Furthermore , the standard normal variate transformation(SNV)in spectral preprocessing can improve the precision significantly in PLSR mod‐el .These results suggest that the VIS‐NIR method has a great potential in monitoring heavy metal pollution in the navel orange .%近年来可见‐近红外光谱技术在农业污染监测中应用越来越广泛,但在果树的重金属污染研究中应用较少。本文以纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus sinensis[L.]Osbeck cv. Newhall)为研究对象,采用盆栽方法,通过添加镉(Cd)形成不同污染程度的土壤,然后定期监测叶片中Cd含量及其光谱,分别建立了基于光谱指数的线性回归预测模型,以及基于偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)的Cd含量

  14. 猕猴桃糖度傅里叶变换近红外光谱无损检测%Using FT-NIR Spectra in Non-destructive Measurement of Kiwifruit Sugar Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香维; 杨公明

    2011-01-01

    研究傅里叶漫反射近红外光谱技术在猕猴桃糖度无损检测中的应用.在近红外区域(4000~12000cm-1)利用偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立猕猴桃糖度与近红外光谱(NIR)的定量分析数学模型,并对不同果园、不同贮藏期、不同质量的样品所建立的糖度预测模型进行对比分析.结果表明,近红外漫反射光谱与猕猴桃糖度含量之间呈显著的线性相关,模型决定系数(R2)可达到93.65%,预测标准差RMSEP (Root Mean SquareError of Prediction)可达0.656;而且随着建模样品量及成分含量梯度的增大,预测模型通用性提高,而准确性降低.因此,建立近红外定量分析模型时,样品组成和性质应该覆盖分析样品的组成和性质的整个变化范围,以更好地满足实际应用的需要.%The nondestructive analysis of soluble-solids in kiwifruit by near infrared spectroscopy was discussed with the technique of fourier transform near infrared sapectroscopy (FT-NIRS). In the range of 12 000 to 4 000 cm"1. PLS calibration models were deveoloped and optimized for rapid assay analysis of soluble-solids in kiwifruit. Meanwhile, the calibration models were tested in which to the different orchard, the different storage period, and the different quality's sample were carried on the contrastive analysis. The result indicated that t the near-infrared diffuse refledlction spectrum and the soluble-solids content in kiwifruit assumes the remarkable linear correlation, the determinationcided coefficient R2 of the models R2 may achieve 93. 65% , RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) to be possible to reach 0. 6561 Moreover increases along with the modelling sample quantity size and the ingredient content gradient, the model's versatility was enhanceds, but the reliability reduceds. So when establishinges the near-infrared quantitative calibration models, the sample composition and the nature should cover the analysis sample the composition and the nature entire

  15. [Determination of steviol in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yul; Wu, Yue-Jin; Min, Di; Chen, Da-Wei; Hu, Tong-Hua

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a method for rapid determination of the content of stevioside (ST) and rebaudioside A (RA) in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves. One hundred and five samples of stevia from different areas containing ST of 0.27%-1.40% and RA of 0.61%-3.98% were used. The 105 groups' NIRS diagram was processed by different methods including subtracting a straight line (SLS), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative (FD), second derivative (SD) and so on, and then all data were analyzed by partial least square (PLS). The study showed that SLS can be used to extracted spectra information thoroughly to analyze the contents of ST, the correlation coefficients of calibration (Re), the root-mean-square errors of calibration (RMSEC) and prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) were 0.986, 0.341, 1.00 and 2.8, respectively. The correlation coefficients of RA was 0.967, RMSEC was 1.50, RMSEP was 1.98 and RPD was 4.17. The results indicated that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique offers effective quantitative capability for ST and RA in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves. Then the model of stevia dried leaves was used to compare with the stevia powder near infrared model whose correlation coefficients of ST was 0.986, RMSEC was 0.32, RMSEP was 0.601 and RPD was 2.86 and the correlation coefficients of RA was 0.968, RMSEC was 1.50, RMSEP was 1.48 and RPD was 4.2. The result showed that there was no significant difference between the model of dried leaves and that of the powders. However, the dried leaves NIR model reduces the unnecessary the steps of drying and grinding in the actual detection process, saving the time and reducing the workload.

  16. The incidence of nirS and nirK and their genetic heterogeneity in cultivated denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Kim; Gevers, Dirk; Vanparys, Bram; Wittebolle, Lieven; Geets, Joke; Boon, Nico; De Vos, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Gene sequence analysis of nirS and nirK, both encoding nitrite reductases, was performed on cultivated denitrifiers to assess their incidence in different bacterial taxa and their taxonomical value. Almost half of the 227 investigated denitrifying strains did not render an nir amplicon with any of five previously described primers. NirK and nirS were found to be prevalent in Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, respectively, nirK was detected in the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and nirS and nirK with equal frequency in the Gammaproteobacteria. These observations deviated from the hitherto reported incidence of nir genes in bacterial taxa. NirS gene phylogeny was congruent with the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny on family or genus level, although some strains did group within clusters of other bacterial classes. Phylogenetic nirK gene sequence analysis was incongruent with the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. NirK sequences were also found to be significantly more similar to nirK sequences from the same habitat than to nirK sequences retrieved from highly related taxa. This study supports the hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer events of denitrification genes have occurred and underlines that denitrification genes should not be linked with organism diversity of denitrifiers in cultivation-independent studies.

  17. Analysis of powder phenomena inside a Fette 3090 feed frame using in-line NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortiz, Daniel; Colon, Yleana; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Méndez, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    New analytical methods are needed to understand and optimize the processes by which tablets are produced. Fette 3090 tablet presses are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into a Fette 3090 feed frame to understand and monitor the die filling process. The second objective was to analyze in detail the different factors that could affect the prediction of the developed NIR calibration models. Two monitoring positions for NIR spectrometers were evaluated; one at each side of the feed frame. A powder wave behavior caused by the paddle motion was observed inside the feed frame. The study also revealed that NIR spectra can help in the understanding of powder flow inside the feed frame. It was demonstrated that NIR spectra baselines can also be used to determine changes in mass inside the feed frame. The new NIR method showed that the paddle wheel speed has a significant impact in the powder dynamics inside the feed frame. The baselines of the NIR spectra depended on the mass hold-up inside the feed frame and paddle wheel speed. Studies using blends were performed to develop a NIR calibration model based on the feed frame system dynamics to determine acetaminophen drug concentration variability during the die filling process. The study found that variation in the distance from the powder to the probe due to paddle wheel speed has a significant effect on the NIR prediction. This study found that with NIR spectroscopy, blend uniformity can be assessed with high accuracy during the die filling process using the corresponding paddle wheel speed in-line calibration model. NIR was demonstrated to be a good development tool for the in-line monitoring of powder during the die filling process.

  18. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination.

  19. [Comparative research on the NIR and MIR micro-imaging of two similar plastic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Liu; Pan, Li-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2011-09-01

    The NIR/MIR micro-imaging can supply not only the information of spectra, but also the information of spacial distribution of the sample, which is superior to the traditional NIR/MIR spectroscopy analysis. In the present paper, polyethylene and parafilm, with similar appearances, were regarded as the research objects, of which the NIR/MIR micro-imaging was collected. Chemical imaging (CI) and compare correlation imaging were carried out for the two materials respectively to discuss the imaging methods of the two materials. The result indicated that the differentiation of the CI values of the two materials in the NIR/MIR CI for material II was 0.004 8 and 0.254 8 respectively, while those in the NIR/MIR CI for material I were 0.002 6 and 0.326 5, respectively. Clear CI was acquired, and the two materials could be differentiated. The result of the compare correlation imagings indicated that the compare correlation imagings, in which the NIR/MIR spectra of the two materials were regarded as reference spectra respectively, can differentiate the two materials remarkably with clear imagings. In the compare correlation imagings of MIR micro-imaging, the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' MIR spectra and the reference spectrum was more than 0.12, which showed a better imaging result; while a tiny difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' NIR spectra and the reference spectrum could be employed to show a clear imaging result for NIR compare correlation imaging so as to differentiate the two materials. This thesis, to some extent, can supply the reference to not only the rapid discrimination of the safety of the packaging material for agri-food, but also the imaging methods for NIR/MIR micro-imaging to differentiate the different materials.

  20. Pharmaceutical applications of separation of absorption and scattering in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Anderson, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    The number of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic applications in the pharmaceutical sciences has grown significantly in the last decade. Despite its widespread application, the fundamental interaction between NIR radiation and pharmaceutical materials is often not mechanistically well understood. Separation of absorption and scattering in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is intended to extract absorption and scattering spectra (i.e., absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) from reflectance/transmittance NIR measurements. The purpose of the separation is twofold: (1) to enhance the understanding of the individual roles played by absorption and scattering in NIRS and (2) to apply the separated absorption and scattering spectra for practical spectroscopic analyses. This review paper surveys the multiple techniques reported to date on the separation of NIR absorption and scattering within pharmaceutical applications, focusing on the instrumentations, mathematical approaches used to separate absorption and scattering and related pharmaceutical applications. This literature review is expected to enhance the understanding and thereby the utility of NIRS in pharmaceutical science. Further, the measurement and subsequent understanding of the separation of absorption and scattering is expected to increase not only the number of NIRS applications, but also their robustness.

  1. Comparison Between MIR and NIR Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Fat and Protein Contents in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To compare mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopies for the determination of the fat and protein contents in milk, the same sample sets with varying concentrations of fat and protein were measured in the MIR range of 3 200-700 cm-1 and NIR range of 9 000-4 000 cm- 1. The spectral features in the two regions were analyzed. The MIR spectra of milk were characteristic due to the MIR inherent molecular specificity, whereas the NIR spectra were relatively characterless due to the NIR low selectivity. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models for fat and protein were developed by using both MIR and NIR spectra. MIR data with no pretreatment gave better results than NIR data. The square correlation coefficient ( R2) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.98 and 0.10 g/dL for fat and 0.97 and 0.11 g/dL for protein. With NIR techniques, satisfactory results were not obtained with raw data. However, NIR data after pretreatment gave similarly good results to the ones using MIR method. This paper indicates that either of the MIR and NIR spectral methods is reliable for the determination of the fat and protein contents.

  2. Analysis of aqueous solutions by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). I. Titrations of strong acids with strong bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molt, K.; Cho, Y. J.

    1995-04-01

    The titration of 1 M HCl with 2 M NaOH was observed by NIR-spectrometry. The measured spectra can be evaluated quantitatively for calibration of the H +- and OH --concentration. The NIRS errors with respect to the prediction of the pH and the equivalence point are discussed.

  3. In situ determination of growing stages and harvest time of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum ) fruits using fiber-optic visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqing; Kuang, Boyan; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2011-08-01

    Nondestructive in situ measurement of tomato fruits is essential to determine growing stages and to assist in automatic picking of fruits. This study evaluates the applicability of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy for in situ determination of growing stages and harvest time of three cultivars of tomato fruits. A mobile fiber-type AgroSpec Vis-NIR spectrophotometer (Tec5 Co., Germany) with a spectral range of 350-2200 nm was used to measure tomato spectra in reflection mode. A new growing stage (GS) index defined as the ratio of the current growing age in days to the on-vine duration before harvest in days was proposed. After dividing spectra into a calibration set (70%) and an independent prediction set (30%), spectra in the calibration set were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) with leave-one-out cross-validation to establish calibration models relating GS to the spectra of tomato fruits. Separate models were developed for each tomato cultivar and compared with a general model that used combined spectra of all three cultivars. The results show that PLSR based on the new GS is successful and robust in predicting the growing stages and harvest time of tomato fruits. Validation of calibration models on the independent prediction set indicates that successful prediction of GS can be achieved using the three models developed separately for each cultivar with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.91-0.92, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081-0.097, and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 3.29-3.70. General calibration using the combined spectra produces good prediction performance, although less accurate than that for the three individual cultivar models. The analysis of regression coefficient plots resulting from PLSR analysis indicates consistent assignment of important wavelengths for individual cultivar spectra and combined spectra. It is concluded that the Vis-NIR PLSR based on GS index can be adopted

  4. Online process analysis by NIRS; Online Prozessanalyse mit NIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andree, Helga [TENIRS GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nearinfrared-spectroscopy (NIRS) is a quick optical measurement system. It is meanwhile state of the art in many laboratory applications, such as feed analysis. Beyond that, NIRS is well suited as a multivariate inline-analysis-system for in-situ process-monitoring in biogas plants. First TENIRS pilot applications in full scale biogas plants deliver continuously DM, ODM, acetic-acid-equivalent, buffer-capacity, pH, ammonium and nitrogen. Advantages of NIRS as an integrated process-analysis-system derive from the contact-less, permanent measurement directly in the sample-stream, which allows representative complete monitoring of the entire process, simultaneous measurement of a wide range of parameters and the concurrent monitoring of multiple substrate streams. (orig.)

  5. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  6. Acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization: in situ, real-time monitoring using nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Colmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of on-line NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of the evolution of monomer concentration, conversion and average particle diameter in acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization was evaluated. The spectral ranges were chosen as those representing the decrease in concentration of monomer. An increase in the baseline shift indicated that the NIR spectra were affected by particle size. Multivariate partial least squares calibration models were developed to relate NIR spectra collected by the immersion probe with off-line conversion and polymer particle size data. The results showed good agreement between off-line data and values predicted by the NIR calibration models and these latter were also able to detect different types of operational disturbances. These results indicate that it is possible to monitor variables of interest during acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerizations.

  7. Energy transfer and NIR emission in rare earth tri-doped barium lanthanum fluoro tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, J. Suresh; Pavani, K.; Graca, M.P.F.; Soares, M.J. [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Venkataiah, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-09-15

    Barium lanthanum fluoro tellurite (BLFT) glasses doped with rare earth ions (ErF{sub 3}, PrF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}) both singly or in combinations were prepared by melt-quench technique and analysed spectroscopically. The prepared glasses were found to be mechanically strong and transparent. Optical absorption and NIR fluorescence were measured to the highly transparent and stable glass samples. Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative properties were estimated for the single rare earth doped BLFT glasses using the optical absorption spectra. NIR fluorescence is measured using laser excitation. From the NIR emission spectra, energy transfer among the rare earth ions is analysed in the rare earth tri-doped BLFT glasses. These rare earth tri-doped BLFT glasses are found to be highly useful for the multi- wavelength emission in the NIR region for opto-electronic applications. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Hemodynamic signals in fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Y

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was originally designed for clinical monitoring of tissue oxygenation, and it has also been developed into a useful tool in neuroimaging studies, with the so-called functional NIRS (fNIRS). With NIRS, cerebral activation is detected by measuring the cerebral hemoglobin (Hb), where however, the precise correlation between NIRS signal and neural activity remains to be fully understood. This can in part be attributed to the situation that NIRS signals are inherently subject to contamination by signals arising from extracerebral tissue. In recent years, several approaches have been investigated to distinguish between NIRS signals originating in cerebral tissue and signals originating in extracerebral tissue. Selective measurements of cerebral Hb will enable a further evolution of fNIRS. This chapter is divided into six sections: first a summary of the basic theory of NIRS, NIRS signals arising in the activated areas, correlations between NIRS signals and fMRI signals, correlations between NIRS signals and neural activities, and the influence of a variety of extracerebral tissue on NIRS signals and approaches to this issue are reviewed. Finally, future prospects of fNIRS are described. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Karakteristik Spektra Absorbansi NIR (Near Infra Red Spektroskopi Kayu Acacia mangium WILLD pada 3 Umur Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pengujian nondestruktif metode near infrared (NIR spektroskopi di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan karakteristik spektra NIR spektroskopi (panjang gelombang 700 nm – 2500 nm kayu Acacia mangium dari 3 umur yaitu 5, 6, dan, 7 tahun. Kayu mangium diperoleh dari daerah Maribaya, Parung Panjang, Bogor. Sampel contoh uji spektra terdiri dari bentuk solid atau padatan dan bentuk serbuk kayu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektra absorban NIR sampel padatan kayu lebih tinggi dibandingkan bentuk sampel serbuk. Umur pohon untuk jenis kayu yang sama tidak memberikan informasi perbedaan pola spektra absorbansi NIR yang nyata untuk setiap lokasi panjang gelombangnya. Penelitian lebih lanjut dapat dilakukan untuk menentukan model pendugaan sifat kimia, fisis dan mekanis kayu menggunakan analisis statistik metode analisis multivariasi. Kata kunci: NIR spektroskopi, Acacia mangium, kayu solid, serbuk kayu    Characteristics of Absorbency Spectra of NIR (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy of Acacia mangium Willd Wood from Three Different Age Abstract Research on non-destructive test of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy method was still limited in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine near infrared (NIR spectroscopy (wavelength range within 780 nm -2500 nm characteristic of wood species of Acacia mangium. The samples were selected from three different ages e.g. 5 year, 6 years, and 7 years grown in Maribaya area of Parung Panjang Distric. The NIR testing samples used were solid wood and ground wood. This study resulted that there was visually no significant difference of absorbance spectra NIR patterns based on wood ages. NIR absorbance spectra had same trend for both solid and ground wood samples in a range of wavelength, although those were in different values. The NIR absorbance spectra values of solid wood samples seemed higher than ground wood samples. Further research is needed to

  10. Design of an FT-NIR spectrometer for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren; Wu, Lan; Wang, Shiming; Ye, Linhua; Ding, Zhihua

    2008-03-01

    As a fast, non-destructive analysis method, Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is very suitable and effective for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process. In this thesis, the theoretics of FT-NIRS was analyzed and an FT-NIR spectrometer with 4 cm -1 resolution in the 12500-5000 cm -1 frequency range was designed. The spectrometer was based on a Michelson interferometer with Bromine tungsten lamp as the NIR light source and InGaAs detector to collect the interference signal. Each element was designed and chosen to provide maximum sensitivity in the NIR spectral region. A fiber-optic flow cell system was used to realize online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated and the feasibility of using FT-NIR spectrometer to get absorption spectra of traditional Chinese medicine was demonstrated.

  11. Capillary method for measuring near-infrared spectra of microlitre volume liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bo; MURAYAMA Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The present study theoretically explored the feasibility of the capillary method for measuring near-infrared (NIR) spectra of liquid or solution samples with microlitre volume, which was proposed in our previous studies. Lambert-Beer absorbance rule was applied to establish a model for the integral absorbance of capillary, which was then implemented in numerical analyses of the effects of capillary on various spectral features and dynamic range of absorption measurement. The theoretical speculations indicated that the capillary method might be used in NIR spectroscopy, which was further supported by the empirical data collected from our experiments by comparison between capillary NIR spectra of several organic solvents and cuvette cell NIR spectra.

  12. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  13. Taking NIRS to the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage nutritive value (i.e., forage quality) impacts livestock health and performance, but determining the quality of forages for grazing animals is difficult. In the 1970s, development and application of bench-top near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques to assess forage quality proved to be ...

  14. [A new algorithm for NIR modeling based on manifold learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming-Jian; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wen, Quan

    2009-07-01

    Manifold learning is a new kind of algorithm originating from the field of machine learning to find the intrinsic dimensionality of numerous and complex data and to extract most important information from the raw data to develop a regression or classification model. The basic assumption of the manifold learning is that the high-dimensional data measured from the same object using some devices must reside on a manifold with much lower dimensions determined by a few properties of the object. While NIR spectra are characterized by their high dimensions and complicated band assignment, the authors may assume that the NIR spectra of the same kind of substances with different chemical concentrations should reside on a manifold with much lower dimensions determined by the concentrations, according to the above assumption. As one of the best known algorithms of manifold learning, locally linear embedding (LLE) further assumes that the underlying manifold is locally linear. So, every data point in the manifold should be a linear combination of its neighbors. Based on the above assumptions, the present paper proposes a new algorithm named least square locally weighted regression (LS-LWR), which is a kind of LWR with weights determined by the least squares instead of a predefined function. Then, the NIR spectra of glucose solutions with various concentrations are measured using a NIR spectrometer and LS-LWR is verified by predicting the concentrations of glucose solutions quantitatively. Compared with the existing algorithms such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR), the LS-LWR has better predictability measured by the standard error of prediction (SEP) and generates an elegant model with good stability and efficiency.

  15. [Application of NIR Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Lotus Seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng-yin; Fu, Xia-ping; You, Gui-rong; He, Jin-cheng

    2015-10-01

    By extracting the Near Infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectral characteristics from the post-harvest lotus seeds in different storage periods, the quantitative and qualitative analysis were applied to lotus seeds with the Soluble Solids Content (SSC) and dry matter content (DM) as criteria. The results of the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and distance discrimination (DA) models showed that the absorption spectra of lotus seeds and lotus kernels has clear relations to their SSC and DM. The PLSR models of SSC and DM of lotus seeds had the best performance in 5 941-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region in this study. Their correlation coefficients of prediction were 0.74 and 0.82, and the correlation coefficients of calibration were 0.82 and 0.84, and the correlation coefficients of leave one out cross validation were 0.72 and 0.71. The PLSR model of SSC of lotus kernels was better in 7 891-9 310 cm(-1) spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.79, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.84, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.77. The PLSR model of DM of lotus kernels is better in the full spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.92, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.89, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.82. For lotus seeds, the DA model in 5 400-7 885 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 84.2%. And for lotus kernels, the DA model in 9 226-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 90.8%. For dry lotus kernels, the discriminant accuracy of the DA model is 98.9% in the optimal spectral region. All kernels with membrane and plumule were correctly discriminated. This research shows that the NIR spectroscopy technique can be used to determine SSC and DM content of lotus seeds and lotus kernels, as well as to discriminate their freshness and also to discriminate dry lotus

  16. A career in agriculture and NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having spent the last three decades in research and most of that dealing with the application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS) to animal agriculture has led to observations about NRS in general and career decisions in particular. For example, over the last two decades NIRS has moved from ...

  17. [Determination of wine original regions using information fusion of NIR and MIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling-Li; Li, Meng-Hua; Li, Jing-Mingz; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da; Zhao, Long-Lian

    2014-10-01

    Geographical origins of wine grapes are significant factors affecting wine quality and wine prices. Tasters' evaluation is a good method but has some limitations. It is important to discriminate different wine original regions quickly and accurately. The present paper proposed a method to determine wine original regions based on Bayesian information fusion that fused near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectra information and mid-infrared (MIR) ATR spectra information of wines. This method improved the determination results by expanding the sources of analysis information. NIR spectra and MIR spectra of 153 wine samples from four different regions of grape growing were collected by near-infrared and mid-infrared Fourier transform spe trometer separately. These four different regions are Huailai, Yantai, Gansu and Changli, which areall typical geographical originals for Chinese wines. NIR and MIR discriminant models for wine regions were established using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on NIR spectra and MIR spectra separately. In PLS-DA, the regions of wine samples are presented in group of binary code. There are four wine regions in this paper, thereby using four nodes standing for categorical variables. The output nodes values for each sample in NIR and MIR models were normalized first. These values stand for the probabilities of each sample belonging to each category. They seemed as the input to the Bayesian discriminant formula as a priori probability value. The probabilities were substituteed into the Bayesian formula to get posterior probabilities, by which we can judge the new class characteristics of these samples. Considering the stability of PLS-DA models, all the wine samples were divided into calibration sets and validation sets randomly for ten times. The results of NIR and MIR discriminant models of four wine regions were as follows: the average accuracy rates of calibration sets were 78.21% (NIR) and 82.57% (MIR), and the

  18. Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-ping FU; Jian-ping LI; Ying ZHOU; Yi-bin YING; Li-juan XIE; Xiao-ying NIU; Zhan-ke YAN; Hai-yan YU

    2009-01-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation,fast response,and non-destructiveness.We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats.Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an,Zhejiang,China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm.A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study.Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of ioquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method.Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives,multiple scatter correction (MSC),and the standard normal variate (SNV).Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800-2500 nm),short NIR (800~1100 nm),and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options.The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats,with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21,1.00,0.965,and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao,Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong,Chun'an-Dahongpao,and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong,respectively.The acidity prediction was not satisfactory,with the RMSEP of 0.382,0.194,0.388,and 0.361 for the above four loquats,respectively.The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

  19. NIR spectroscopic sensing for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; Noh, Tae Gyoon; Choi, Jun Hoe; Han, Jeongsu; Ha, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Yongjong

    2017-05-01

    Foodborne illness represents a significant health burden worldwide. While monitoring the freshness of food before consumption could significantly improve the current predicament, there is a lack of a simple system that one can use to accurately assess the freshness of their food. Currently, the most common practice for food quality determination is by visual or odor inspection which lacks objectivity, accuracy and precision. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques can help address this problem by providing rapid and non-destructive means to estimate the freshness state of various foods based on the changes to their characteristic spectra in the NIR region. Recent advancements in the development of portable NIR spectrometers are also enabling the realization of this technique at the point-of-need. In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy at the point-of-need to estimate the freshness of various foods including: beef sirloin, beef eyeround, pork sirloin, bass, salmon, corvina, tomato and watermelon. Using a commercial portable NIR spectrometer, we periodically scanned and collected NIR spectra from the food items that were stored at 4°C inside a refrigerator for up to 30 days. For these food items, we show that the NIR spectra can be classified by the foods' aging day as well as by the levels of chemical/microbial indicators (i.e., thiobarbituric acid, volatile basic nitrogen and bacteria levels) with high accuracy, which represents high prospects of NIR spectroscopy for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits.

  20. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  1. Penggunaan Vis-NIR untuk Deteksi Serangan Huanglongbing pada Daun Jeruk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Arief Firmansyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Huanglongbing is citrus disease which is a major threat for citrus orchard. Neither disease has a cure nor an efficient means of control. Early detection is important to prevent development and spread of the disease. The most effective detection used DNA test by PCR. However, identification used DNA test required sample preparation, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of this study was to build detection of healthy and HLB-infected leaves software. The leaf samples collected from citrus orchard in Situgede village, Bogor. Sample leaves divided into three group, Huanglongbing-infected leaves, healthy leaves and asymptomatic leaves. All samples was tested by PCR for verification visual symptoms of huanglongbing. Vis-NIR spectrometer with a spectra range of 339 to 1022nm was used to acquisition HLB-infected and healthy leaves spectral data. MSC, SNV, baseline correction, first and second derivative were used for pretreatment method. Artificial neural network was used to build classification model. X-loading plot from principal component analysis was used to obtain sensitive wavelength. Classification for healthy and HLB-infected classs used sensitive wavelength baseline correction-based had the best performance and high accuracy (100%. The classification model was embedded in software PC-desktop based which was used visual basic programming language. Asymptomatic leaves spectral from HLB-positive tree were used to testing classification model. Model classified data into HLB-infected group, which was consistent with PCR test. The result from this study indicated that developed software could be used to HLB detection in early stage of disease. Abstrak Huanglongbing adalah penyakit jeruk yang merupakan ancaman utama bagi budidaya jeruk. Tidak ada pengendalian yang tepat untuk Huanglongbing. Deteksi dini penting untuk mencegah penyebaran dan pengembangan penyakit ini. Deteksi dini yang paling efektif menggunakan tes DNA dengan PCR

  2. Parametric models of reflectance spectra for dyed fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Daniel C.; Ramsey, Scott; Mayo, Troy; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Peak, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This study examines parametric modeling of NIR reflectivity spectra for dyed fabrics, which provides for both their inverse and direct modeling. The dye considered for prototype analysis is triarylamine dye. The fabrics considered are camouflage textiles characterized by color variations. The results of this study provide validation of the constructed parametric models, within reasonable error tolerances for practical applications, including NIR spectral characteristics in camouflage textiles, for purposes of simulating NIR spectra corresponding to various dye concentrations in host fabrics, and potentially to mixtures of dyes.

  3. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  4. NIR spectroscopy of the Sun and HD20010 - Compiling a new linelist in the NIR

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasen, D T; Mena, E Delgado; Santos, N C; Tsantaki, M; Rojas-Ayala, B; Neves, V

    2016-01-01

    Context: Effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity are basic spectroscopic stellar parameters necessary to characterize a star or a planetary system. Reliable atmospheric parameters for FGK stars have been obtained mostly from methods that relay on high resolution and high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy. The advent of a new generation of high resolution near-IR spectrographs opens the possibility of using classic spectroscopic methods with high resolution and high signal-to-noise in the NIR spectral window. Aims: We aim to compile a new iron line list in the NIR from a solar spectrum to derive precise stellar atmospheric parameters, comparable to the ones already obtained from high resolution optical spectra. The spectral range covers 10 000 {\\AA} to 25 000 {\\AA}, which is equivalent to the Y, J, H, and K bands. Methods: Our spectroscopic analysis is based on the iron excitation and ionization balance done in LTE. We use a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the Sun ...

  5. [Proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cai-jin; Han, Lu-jia; Liu, Xian; Yang, Zeng-ling

    2009-04-01

    Proximate analysis is one of the routine analysis procedures in utilization of straw for biomass energy use. The present paper studied the applicability of rapid proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology, in which the authors constructed the first NIRS models to predict volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of straw. NIRS models were developed using Foss 6500 spectrometer with spectra in the range of 1,108-2,492 nm to predict the contents of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the directly cut straw samples; to predict ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the dried milled straw samples. For the models based on directly cut straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.92% and 0.76% for moisture, 0.94% and 0.84% for ash, 0.88% and 0.82% for volatile matter, and 0.75% and 0.65% for fixed carbon, respectively. For the models based on dried milled straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.98% and 0.54% for ash, 0.95% and 0.57% for volatile matter, and 0.78% and 0.61% for fixed carbon, respectively. It was concluded that NIRS models can predict accurately as an alternative analysis method, therefore rapid and simultaneous analysis of multicomponents can be achieved by NIRS technology, decreasing the cost of proximate analysis for straw.

  6. NIR Analysis of Powder Mixing Quality in a Ribbon Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Chris; Duong, Nhat-Hang; Muzzio, Fernando

    2001-11-01

    We present experimental results on powder mixing performed in a common industrial mixer, the batch ribbon blender. Our experiments explore the effectiveness of this device on mixture quality as a function of fill level, loading pattern, ribbon speed, mixing time, and ribbon angle. We study two powder formulations consisting of common compounds used in food and pharmaceutical processing. Mixture quality is evaluated by core sampling throughout the blender and determining the composition of small samples using NIR spectroscopy. We use the spectra from NIR to calculate the intensity and scale of segregation for the three-dimensional mixing region. The mixing rates in the axial and radial directions are obtained from plots of composition variance vs. mixing time. We examine the effects of ribbon speed and fill level as the main parameters affecting mixing rate. Dead regions that remain isolated from the remainder of the flow are identified.

  7. Comparing the analytical performances of Micro-NIR and FT-NIR spectrometers in the evaluation of acerola fruit quality, using PLS and SVM regression algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malegori, Cristina; Nascimento Marques, Emanuel José; de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pasquini, Celio; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the analytical performances of a state-of-the-art device, one of the smallest dispersion NIR spectrometers on the market (MicroNIR 1700), making a critical comparison with a benchtop FT-NIR spectrometer in the evaluation of the prediction accuracy. In particular, the aim of this study was to estimate in a non-destructive manner, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in acerola fruit during ripening, in a view of direct applicability in field of this new miniaturised handheld device. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a super-fruit characterised by a considerable amount of ascorbic acid, ranging from 1.0% to 4.5%. However, during ripening, acerola colour changes and the fruit may lose as much as half of its ascorbic acid content. Because the variability of chemical parameters followed a non-strictly linear profile, two different regression algorithms were compared: PLS and SVM. Regression models obtained with Micro-NIR spectra give better results using SVM algorithm, for both ascorbic acid and titratable acidity estimation. FT-NIR data give comparable results using both SVM and PLS algorithms, with lower errors for SVM regression. The prediction ability of the two instruments was statistically compared using the Passing-Bablok regression algorithm; the outcomes are critically discussed together with the regression models, showing the suitability of the portable Micro-NIR for in field monitoring of chemical parameters of interest in acerola fruits.

  8. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  9. A high-throughput and solvent-free method for measurement of natural polyisoprene content in leaves by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2008-12-01

    Commercial development of natural polyisoprene from polyisoprene-producing plants requires detailed knowledge on how to select high-polyisoprene-content lines and establish agronomic cultivation methods for achieving maximum polyisoprene yield. This development can be facilitated by a high-throughput quantification method for natural polyisoprene. In this paper, we describe the Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) technique coupled with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model to quantify natural polyisoprene in Eucommia ulmoides leaves. PLS regression models are discussed with respect to linearity, root-mean-square error of estimation (RMSEE), and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP). The best PLS regression model was obtained with second derivative NIR spectra in the region between 4000-6000 cm(-1) (R2Y, 0.95; RMSEE, 0.25; RMSEP, 0.37). This is the first report to employ FT-NIR analysis for high throughput and solvent-free quantification of natural polyisoprene in leaves.

  10. Matrix Effects in Quantitative Assessment of Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Transmission Raman and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparén, Anders; Hartman, Madeleine; Fransson, Magnus; Johansson, Jonas; Svensson, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be an alternative to near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for nondestructive quantitative analysis of solid pharmaceutical formulations. Compared with NIR spectra, Raman spectra have much better selectivity, but subsampling was always an issue for quantitative assessment. Raman spectroscopy in transmission mode has reduced this issue, since a large volume of the sample is measured in transmission mode. The sample matrix, such as particle size of the drug substance in a tablet, may affect the Raman signal. In this work, matrix effects in transmission NIR and Raman spectroscopy were systematically investigated for a solid pharmaceutical formulation. Tablets were manufactured according to an experimental design, varying the factors particle size of the drug substance (DS), particle size of the filler, compression force, and content of drug substance. All factors were varied at two levels plus a center point, except the drug substance content, which was varied at five levels. Six tablets from each experimental point were measured with transmission NIR and Raman spectroscopy, and their concentration of DS was determined for a third of those tablets. Principal component analysis of NIR and Raman spectra showed that the drug substance content and particle size, the particle size of the filler, and the compression force affected both NIR and Raman spectra. For quantitative assessment, orthogonal partial least squares regression was applied. All factors varied in the experimental design influenced the prediction of the DS content to some extent, both for NIR and Raman spectroscopy, the particle size of the filler having the largest effect. When all matrix variations were included in the multivariate calibrations, however, good predictions of all types of tablets were obtained, both for NIR and Raman spectroscopy. The prediction error using transmission Raman spectroscopy was about 30% lower than that obtained with transmission NIR spectroscopy.

  11. Vintage year determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H Y; Ying, B; Sun, T; Niu, X Y; Pan, X X

    2007-04-01

    The feasibility of noninvasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining vintage year of Chinese rice wine was investigated. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 samples were collected in transmission mode in 600-mL square brown glass bottles by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, 1st, and 2nd derivative spectra. The concentration of alcohol content, total acid, and degrees Brix was determined to validate the VIS-NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for 1st and 2nd derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 97.1%. For the sample groups in the vintage years of 2002, 2003, and 2004, the samples were all correctly classified. And for the 2000 and 2001 sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%. In validation analysis, the samples were all correctly classified. The results demonstrated that the VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a noninvasive and rapid method for predicting vintage year of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  12. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  13. Characterization of mind wandering using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantin, Gautier; Dehais, Frederic; Delorme, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Assessing whether someone is attending to a task has become important for educational and professional applications. Such attentional drifts are usually termed mind wandering (MW). The purpose of the current study is to test to what extent a recent neural imaging modality can be used to detect MW episodes. Functional near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that has never been used so far to measure MW. We used the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to assess when subjects attention leaves a primary task. Sixteen-channel fNIRS data were collected over frontal cortices. We observed significant activations over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during MW, a brain region associated with the default mode network (DMN). fNIRS data were used to classify MW data above chance level. In line with previous brain-imaging studies, our results confirm the ability of fNIRS to detect Default Network activations in the context of MW.

  14. Characterization of Mind Wandering using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier eDurantin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing whether someone is attending to a task has become importantfor educational and professional applications. Such attentional drifts are usually termed mind wandering. The purpose of the current study is to test to what extent a recent neural imaging modality can be used to detect mind wandering episodes. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuro-imaging technique that has never been studied so far to measure mind wandering. The Sustained Attention to Response Task was used to assess when subjects attention leaves a primary task. 16-channel fNIRS data were collected over frontal cortices. We observed significant activations over the medial prefrontal cortex during mind wandering, a brain region associated with the default mode network. fNIRS data were used to classify mind wandering data above chance level. In line with previous brain-imaging studies of mind wandering, our results confirm the ability of fNIRS to detect Default Network activations in the context of mind wandering.

  15. NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pironon, J.; Dubessy, J. (CREGU and GDR CNRS-CREGU, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Sawatzki, J. (BRUKER Analytische Messtechnik Gmbh, Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1,064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  16. [Recent progress in NIR spectroscopy technology and its application to the field of forestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is the most rapidly developing and the most noticeable spectrographic technique in the 80's (the last century). Its developing history and utilization in foreign countries were introduced. The authors mainly summarized the applications of NIRS to the field of forestry. The applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in fruit quality, timber and seed quality analysis are more active in forestry due to its rapid, timely, less expensive, non-destructive, straightforward analytic characteristics. In the last two decades, non-destructive methods using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate parameters for estimating maturity were applied to different fruits species to check the ripening status of fruits on trees or to grade fruits in the packing house, to assess fruit quality, such as sugar and acid contents, soluble solids, firmness of fruit, offers great advantages to growers in deciding when to harvest. The near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) can also be used the nondestructive quantitative assessment of the solid wood density, the moisture condition and the lignin content in bulky wood. The previous results indicated that the utility of NIRS was a selection tool in breeding programs, for example, three kids of persimmon fruits, astringent, non-astringent and half-astringent, were clearly classified by using Near-infrared (NIR) methods, and based on the combination of near infrared technology and multivariate analysis, the genetic, physiological and technical qualities of both temperate and tropical tree species on single seed basis can be characterized. It has already been shown that NIRS can predict the chemical composition of litters. NIRS is also capable of correlating the initial spectral characteristics of the litters with their short- and medium-term decomposability. The stage of decay of decomposing leaves can be predicted by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The method is rich in

  17. Infrared and NIR Raman spectroscopy in medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Dieter

    1998-04-01

    FTIR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial cells are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to (i) discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, (ii) detect in situ intracellular components or structures such as inclusion bodies, storage materials or endospores, (iii) detect and quantify metabolically released CO2 in response to various different substrate, and (iv) characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions. The characteristic information is extracted from the spectral contours by applying resolution enhancement techniques, difference spectroscopy, and pattern recognition methods such as factor-, cluster-, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the spectrometer. FTIR spectra of micro-colonies containing less than 103 cells can be obtained from colony replica by a stamping technique that transfers micro-colonies growing on culture plates to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x, y- stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro- organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. FTIR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can also be used in tandem to characterize medically important microorganisms. Currently novel methodologies are tested to take advantage of the complementary information of IR and Raman spectra. Representative examples on medically important microorganisms will be given that highlight the new possibilities of vibrational spectroscopies.

  18. Identifying plant species using MIR and TIR (2 - 14 μm) emissivity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, S.; Schlerf, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Hecker, C.

    2012-04-01

    Tittle: Identifying plant species using MIR and TIR (2 - 14 µm) emissivity spectra Identification plant species using remote sensing is generally limited by the similarity of their reflectance spectra in the visible, NIR and SWIR domains. Laboratory measured emissivity spectra in the mid to thermal infrared (MIR-TIR; 2 µm - 14 µm) shows significant differences. The laboratory emissivity spectra of thirteen common broad leaved species, comprising 3024 spectral bands in the MIR and TIR, were analyzed. For each wavelength the differences between the species were tested for significance using the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey HSD test. The emissivity spectra of the analysed species were found to be statistically different at various wavebands. Subsequently, six spectral bands were selected (based on the histogram of separable pairs of species for each waveband) to quantify the separability between each species pair based on the Jefferies Matusita (JM) distance. Out of 78 combinations, 76 pairs had a significantly different JM distance. Using the selected six wavebands for multiple plant species, overall classification accuracy of 92 % was achieved. This means that careful selection of hyperspectral bands in the MIR and TIR (2.5 µm - 14 µm) results in reliable species discrimination. Keywords: Spectral emissivity, J-M distance, ANOVA, Tukey HSD, spectral separability, Kirchhoff law

  19. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S;

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analytical techniques is a simple, fast and low cost method of high dimensional phenotyping compared to usual chemical techniques. To use this method there is no need for special sample preparation. The aim of this study is to use NIRS data to predict plant traits...... (e.g. dry matter, protein content, etc.) for the next generation. In total 1984 NIRS data from 995 ryegrass families (first cut) were used. The Absorption of radiation in the region of 960 – 1690 nm in every 2 nm distance produced 366 bins to represent the NIRS spectrum. The amount of genetic...

  20. Development of NIRS method for quality control of drug combination artesunate–azithromycin for the treatment of severe malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Chantal; Gaudin, Karen; Kauss, Tina; Gaubert, Alexandra; Boudis, Abdelhakim; Verschelden, Justine; Franc, Mickaël; Roussille, Julie; Boucher, Jacques; Olliaro, Piero; White, Nicholas J.; Millet, Pascal; Dubost, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods were developed for the determination of analytical content of an antimalarial-antibiotic (artesunate and azithromycin) co-formulation in hard gelatin capsule (HGC). The NIRS consists of pre-processing treatment of spectra (raw spectra and first-derivation of two spectral zones), a unique principal component analysis model to ensure the specificity and then two partial least-squares regression models for the determination content of each active pharmaceutical ingredient. The NIRS methods were developed and validated with no reference method, since the manufacturing process of HGC is basically mixed excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients. The accuracy profiles showed β-expectation tolerance limits within the acceptance limits (±5%). The analytical control approach performed by reversed phase (HPLC) required two different methods involving two different preparation and chromatographic methods. NIRS offers advantages in terms of lower costs of equipment and procedures, time saving, environmentally friendly. PMID:22579599

  1. Development of NIRS method for quality control of drug combination artesunate-azithromycin for the treatment of severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Chantal; Gaudin, Karen; Kauss, Tina; Gaubert, Alexandra; Boudis, Abdelhakim; Verschelden, Justine; Franc, Mickaël; Roussille, Julie; Boucher, Jacques; Olliaro, Piero; White, Nicholas J; Millet, Pascal; Dubost, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods were developed for the determination of analytical content of an antimalarial-antibiotic (artesunate and azithromycin) co-formulation in hard gelatin capsule (HGC). The NIRS consists of pre-processing treatment of spectra (raw spectra and first-derivation of two spectral zones), a unique principal component analysis model to ensure the specificity and then two partial least-squares regression models for the determination content of each active pharmaceutical ingredient. The NIRS methods were developed and validated with no reference method, since the manufacturing process of HGC is basically mixed excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients. The accuracy profiles showed β-expectation tolerance limits within the acceptance limits (±5%). The analytical control approach performed by reversed phase (HPLC) required two different methods involving two different preparation and chromatographic methods. NIRS offers advantages in terms of lower costs of equipment and procedures, time saving, environmentally friendly.

  2. Study on molecular structure and hydration mechanism of Domyoji-ko starch by IR and NIR hetero 2D analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Kondo, Miyuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2010-06-01

    The hydration structure of starch molecule in Domyoji-ko, which is made from gluey rice, was investigated by hetero 2D correlation analysis of IR and NIR spectroscopy. The feature near 1020 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Domyoji-ko is changed by rehydration process, indicating that the molecular structure of amylopectin in the starch has been varied by the hydration without heating. The intensity of a band at 4770 cm -1 in NIR spectra is decreasing with the increasing of either the heating time with water or rehydration time without heating. These results suggest that the hydration of Domyoji-ko has proceeded in similar mechanisms on these processes. The generalized hetero 2D IR-NIR correlation analysis for rehydration of Domyoji-ko has supported the assignments for NIR bands concerning the gelatinization of starch.

  3. Estimating Leaf Water Status from Vis-Nir Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches involve measurements in the thermal infrared and the 900-2000nm reflective infrared. Less popular UV-visible-NIR techniques presumably deserve research attention, because photochemical changes linked to plant water status manifest spectral light scattering and absorption changes. Here we monitored the visible and NIR light reflected from the leaf interior as well as the leaf transmittance as the relative water content of corn (Zeamays L.) leaves decreased. Our results highlight the importance of both scattering effects and effects due to absorption by leaf pigments.

  4. In situ NIR spectroscopy monitoring of plasmid production processes effect of producing strain, medium composition and the cultivation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Marta B.; Gonçalves, Geisa A. L.; Felício-Silva, Daniel; Prather, Kristala L. J.; Monteiro, Gabriel; Prazeres, Duarte M. F.; Calado, Cecília Ribeiro da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDWhile the pharmaceutical industry keeps an eye on plasmid DNA production for new generation gene therapies, real-time monitoring techniques for plasmid bioproduction are as yet unavailable. This work shows the possibility of in situ monitoring of plasmid production in Escherichia coli cultures using a near infrared (NIR) fiber optic probe. RESULTSPartial least squares (PLS) regression models based on the NIR spectra were developed for predicting bioprocess critical variables su...

  5. LapRLSR for NIR spectral modeling and its application to online monitoring of the column separation of Salvianolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel near infrared (NIR) modeling method-Laplacian regularized least squares regression (LapRLSR) was presented,which can take the advantage of many unlabeled spectra to promote the prediction performance of the model even if there are only few calibration samples. Using LapRLSR modeling, NIR spectral analysis was applied to the online monitoring of the concentration of salvia acid B in the column separation of Salvianolate. The results demonstrated that LapRLSR outperformed partial least squares (PLS) significantly, and NIR online analysis was applicable.(C) 2007 Guo An Luo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Tardaguila, Javier; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Diago, María P.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network’s modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years and leaves

  7. Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network Models for the Classification of Grapevine Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrophotometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The identification of different grapevine varieties, currently attended using visual ampelometry, DNA analysis and very recently, by hyperspectral analysis under laboratory conditions, is an issue of great importance in the wine industry. This work presents support vector machine and artificial neural network's modelling for grapevine varietal classification from in-field leaf spectroscopy. Modelling was attempted at two scales: site-specific and a global scale. Spectral measurements were obtained on the near-infrared (NIR spectral range between 1600 to 2400 nm under field conditions in a non-destructive way using a portable spectrophotometer. For the site specific approach, spectra were collected from the adaxial side of 400 individual leaves of 20 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. varieties one week after veraison. For the global model, two additional sets of spectra were collected one week before harvest from two different vineyards in another vintage, each one consisting on 48 measurement from individual leaves of six varieties. Several combinations of spectra scatter correction and smoothing filtering were studied. For the training of the models, support vector machines and artificial neural networks were employed using the pre-processed spectra as input and the varieties as the classes of the models. The results from the pre-processing study showed that there was no influence whether using scatter correction or not. Also, a second-degree derivative with a window size of 5 Savitzky-Golay filtering yielded the highest outcomes. For the site-specific model, with 20 classes, the best results from the classifiers thrown an overall score of 87.25% of correctly classified samples. These results were compared under the same conditions with a model trained using partial least squares discriminant analysis, which showed a worse performance in every case. For the global model, a 6-class dataset involving samples from three different vineyards, two years

  8. [Discrimination of donkey meat by NIR and chemometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Ying; Shao, Li-Min; Dong, Fang; Zhao, Zhi-Lei; Zhu, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Donkey meat samples (n = 167) from different parts of donkey body (neck, costalia, rump, and tendon), beef (n = 47), pork (n = 51) and mutton (n = 32) samples were used to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) classification models in the spectra range of 4,000~12,500 cm(-1). The accuracies of classification models constructed by Mahalanobis distances analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM), respectively combined with pretreatment of Savitzky-Golay smooth (5, 15 and 25 points) and derivative (first and second), multiplicative scatter correction and standard normal variate, were compared. The optimal models for intact samples were obtained by Mahalanobis distances analysis with the first 11 principal components (PCs) from original spectra as inputs and by LS-SVM with the first 6 PCs as inputs, and correctly classified 100% of calibration set and 98. 96% of prediction set. For minced samples of 7 mm diameter the optimal result was attained by LS-SVM with the first 5 PCs from original spectra as inputs, which gained an accuracy of 100% for calibration and 97.53% for prediction. For minced diameter of 5 mm SIMCA model with the first 8 PCs from original spectra as inputs correctly classified 100% of calibration and prediction. And for minced diameter of 3 mm Mahalanobis distances analysis and SIMCA models both achieved 100% accuracy for calibration and prediction respectively with the first 7 and 9 PCs from original spectra as inputs. And in these models, donkey meat samples were all correctly classified with 100% either in calibration or prediction. The results show that it is feasible that NIR with chemometrics methods is used to discriminate donkey meat from the else meat.

  9. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  10. Penentuan Pola Peningkatan Kekerasan Kulit Buah Manggis Selama Penyimpanan Dingin dengan Metode NIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Dian Novita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pericarp hardening of mangosteen fruit has correlation with the decrease in moisture content due to transpiration and respiration during storage. The change of pericarp moisture content during storage may be determined nondestructively using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy. The objectives of this study were to build calibration model of NIR reflectance to predict the moisture content of the pericarp, and to determine the pattern of pericarp hardening based on change of moisture content during storage using NIR reflectance. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained from fruits stored at 8ºC, 13ºC, and room temperature. Calibrations were built using partial least squares (PLS and artificial neural network (ANN models. Results of analysis indicated that pericarp moisture content could be predicted well by NIR reflectance using the calibration model of PLS for mangosteen stored at 8ºC, 13ºC, and room temperature. The pattern of pericarp hardening based on change of moisture content also could be determined using NIR reflectance for mangosteen stored at 13ºC and room temperature.

  11. Design and synthesis of polymer-functionalized NIR fluorescent dyes--magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lakshmi, Jeeva Lavanya; Dolmanan, Surani Bin; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Ho, Vincent H B; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Hariharan, Anushya; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Zhang, Yong; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2013-08-27

    The fluorescent probes having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift) are highly useful for solar concentrators and bioimaging. In bioimaging application, NIR fluorescent dyes have a greater advantage in tissue penetration depth compared to visible-emitting organic dyes or inorganic quantum dots. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of an amphiphilic polymer, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhyride)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) IR-820 dye and its conjugates with iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Our results demonstrate that the Stokes shift of unmodified dye can be tuned (from ~106 to 208 nm) by the functionalization of the dye with polymer and MNPs. The fabrication of bimodal probes involves (i) the synthesis of NIR fluorescent dye (IR-820 cyanine) functionalized with ethylenediamine linker in high yield, >90%, (ii) polymer conjugation to the functionalized NIR fluorescent dye, and (iii) grafting the polymer-conjugated dyes on iron oxide MNPs. The resulting uniform, small-sized (ca. 6 nm) NIR fluorescent dye-magnetic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a wider emissive range (800-1000 nm) and minimal cytotoxicity. Our preliminary studies demonstrate the potential utility of these NPs in bioimaging by means of direct labeling of cancerous HeLa cells via NIR fluorescence microscopy and good negative contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MR imaging of a murine model.

  12. 新疆艾比湖湿地土壤有机碳含量的光谱测定方法对比%Comparative assessment of two methods for estimation of soil organic carbon content by Vis-NIR spectra in Xinjiang Ebinur Lake Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱霞; 丁建丽

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical soil property that has profound impact on soil quality and plant growth. It is involved in soil structural formation and atmospheric carbon sequestration. This is especially true in the arid and semi-arid regions. Accurately detecting SOC is an important issue. Traditionally, SOC is limited to laboratory determination using the techniques such as wet or dry combustion, ion sensing electrodes, loss on ignition, or via chemical assays. Yet those traditional approaches often involve expensive testing materials, time-consuming sample preparation and production of excessive environmental pollutants. An approach which can quantify SOC content with time and cost savings is needed. With 140 soil samples acquired from the Ebinur Lake wetland protection area in Xinjiang, China, this research attempts to apply 2 algorithms in hyperspectral data mining, namely, the ant colony optimization – interval partial least squares (ACO-iPLS) and recursive feature elimination – support vector machine (SVM-RFE) to improve the estimation accuracy of SOC content using the visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy of soils (350-2500 nm) in laboratory. After convolution smoothing (S-G), 2 common spectra pre-processing methods, namely, first order differential and first order differential of the logarithm of inverse, are applied in the hyperspectral data to extract the feature wavelengths. Results indicate that the feature wavelengths pertaining to SOC mainly are located within 1786-1929 nm with ACO-iPLS and 745-910, 1677, 1755, and 1911-2254 nm with SVM-RFE. With the extracted feature wavelengths, the ensuing models with the same 2 approaches are established with the half of the samples (70 soil samples) as training set and the other half (70 soil samples) as testing set. The results show that the spectra processed with the combination of the S-G and first order with reflectance perform much better than the logarithm of first order

  13. Estimation of soil parameters using VIS-NIR spectroscopy - Challenges and Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Thomas; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Recently VIS-NIR spectroscopy has become a popular method for the prediction and mapping of soil parameters. It is a rapid, cost and time effective method to measure quantities like soil organic carbon (SOC), clay content or pH which are important information for e.g. precision agriculture or digital soil mapping. However, there is a need to calibrate measured field spectra against laboratory determined soil properties. In this regard, it is common to use data mining algorithms for calibration, statistical tools that discover empirically the relation between spectra and soil properties. However, each time a site-specific calibration model is required, which clearly limits the operational application of VIS-NIR calibration methods. Therefore, the incorporation of physical understanding regarding the relationship is desirable. So far three field campaigns have been conducted in Germany in order to collect soil data and connected spectral information. VIS-NIR data were measured using a mobile VIS-NIR spectrometer (Veris Technologies). Furthermore at each field campaign the geophysical methods Electromagnetic Induction and Gamma Ray Spectroscopy have been used to gather additional soil related information. The soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for SOC, texture and pH. Using common calibration methods like partial least square regression and site specific calibration models the specific soil parameters have been spatially mapped. This work will present results of the field campaigns and resulting recommendations. Additionally a conceptual framework will be presented how physical knowledge can be incorporated into the VIS-NIR calibration process.

  14. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer.

  15. Comparison of NIR chemical imaging with conventional NIR, Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy for quantification of furosemide crystal polymorphs in ternary powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Weiss, A K H; Griesser, U J; Pallua, J D; Huck, C W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), near-infrared (NIR), Raman and attenuated-total-reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to quantify three polymorphic forms (I, II, III) of furosemide in ternary powder mixtures. For this purpose, partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed, and different data preprocessing algorithms such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and 1st to 3rd derivatives were applied to reduce the influence of systematic disturbances. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparison of the standard error of cross-validation (SECV), R(2), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of all methods were determined. For NIR-CI, a SECVcorr-spec and a SECVsingle-pixel corrected were calculated to assess the loss of accuracy by taking advantage of the spatial information. NIR-CI showed a SECVcorr-spec (SECVsingle-pixel corrected) of 2.82% (3.71%), 3.49% (4.65%), and 4.10% (5.06%) for form I, II, III. NIR had a SECV of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 2.75%, and Raman reached 3.25%, 3.08%, and 3.18%. The SECV of the ATR-IR models were 7.46%, 7.18%, and 12.08%. This study proves that NIR-CI, NIR, and Raman are well suited to quantify forms I-III of furosemide in ternary mixtures. Because of the pressure-dependent conversion of form II to form I, ATR-IR was found to be less appropriate for an accurate quantification of the mixtures. In this study, the capability of NIR-CI for the quantification of polymorphic ternary mixtures was compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques for the first time. For this purpose, a new way of spectra selection was chosen, and two kinds of SECVs were calculated to achieve a better comparability of NIR-CI to NIR, Raman, and ATR-IR.

  16. Greenhouse cooling by NIR-reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Braak, van der N.; Dueck, T.A.; Marissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wageningen UR investigated the potential of several NIR-filtering methods to be applied in horticulture. In this paper the analysis of the optical properties of available NIR-filtering materials is given including a calculation method to quantify the energy reduction under these materials and to est

  17. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analytical techniques is a simple, fast and low cost method of high dimensional phenotyping compared to usual chemical techniques. To use this method there is no need for special sample preparation. The aim of this study is to use NIRS data to predict plant traits...

  18. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  19. Selection of the NIR region for a regression model of the ethanol concentration in fermentation process by an online NIR and mid-IR dual-region spectrometer and 2D heterospectral correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Takashi; Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    A new selection procedure of an informative near-infrared (NIR) region for regression model building is proposed that uses an online NIR/mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer in conjunction with two-dimensional (2D) NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. In this procedure, both NIR and mid-IR spectra of a liquid sample are acquired sequentially during a reaction process using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer; the 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum is subsequently calculated from the obtained spectral data set. From the calculated 2D spectrum, a NIR region is selected that includes bands of high positive correlation intensity with mid-IR bands assigned to the analyte, and used for the construction of a regression model. To evaluate the performance of this procedure, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model of the ethanol concentration in a fermentation process was constructed. During fermentation, NIR/mid-IR spectra in the 10000 - 1200 cm(-1) region were acquired every 3 min, and a 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum was calculated to investigate the correlation intensity between the NIR and mid-IR bands. NIR regions that include bands at 4343, 4416, 5778, 5904, and 5955 cm(-1), which result from the combinations and overtones of the C-H group of ethanol, were selected for use in the PLS regression models, by taking the correlation intensity of a mid-IR band at 2985 cm(-1) arising from the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration mode of ethanol as a reference. The predicted results indicate that the ethanol concentrations calculated from the PLS regression models fit well to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, it can be concluded that the selection procedure using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer combined with 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method for the construction of a reliable regression model.

  20. NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

    2011-03-01

    DLP® hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

  1. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina Juel

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial processes and had a large variability for most of the parameters. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to make the prediction models based on NIR spectra taken at 30 and 40°C. Using proper wavelength range allowed to get models for prediction of fat, protein and amount of total solids with very high precision and accuracy. The lactose was found to be the most challenging parameter.

  2. Spectral calibration for deriving surface mineralogy of Asteroid (25143) Itokawa from Hayabusa Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) Data

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, Megha; Corre, Lucille Le; Sanchez, Juan A; Dunn, Tasha; Izawa, Matthew R M; Li, Jian-Yang; Becker, Kris J; Weller, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral calibration equations for determining mafic silicate composition of near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa from visible/near-infrared spectra measured using the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS), on board the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft. Itokawa was the target of the Hayabusa sample return mission and has a surface composition similar to LL-type ordinary chondrites. Existing laboratory spectral calibrations use a spectral wavelength range that is wider (0.75-2.5 microns) than that of the NIRS instrument (0.85-2.1 microns) making them unfit for interpreting the Hayabusa spectral data currently archived in the Planetary Data System. We used laboratory measured near-infrared reflectance spectra of ordinary (H, L and LL) chondrites from the study of Dunn et al. (2010), which we resampled to the NIRS wavelength range. Using spectral parameters extracted from these resampled spectra we established a relationship between band parameters and their mafic silicate composition (olivine and low-Ca pyrox...

  3. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Carleo, I; Gratton, R; Benatti, S; Bonavita, M; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Desidera, S; Claudi, R; Sissa, E

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 micron) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the v...

  4. [NIR spectroscopy based on least square support vector machines for quality prediction of tomato juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Wang, Hui-jun; Xu, Hui-rong; Wang, Jian-ping; Ying, Yi-bin

    2009-04-01

    The application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method based on statistics study theory to the analysis with near infrared (NIR) spectra of tomato juice was introduced in the present paper. In this method, LS-SVM was used for establishing model of spectral analysis, and was applied to predict the sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) in tomato juice samples. NIR transmission spectra of tomato juice were measured in the spectral range of 800-2,500 nm using InGaAs detector. The radial basis function (RBF) was adopted as a kernel function of LS-SVM. Sixty seven tomato juice samples were used as calibration set, and thirty three samples were used as validation set. The results of the method for sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) prediction were: a high correlation coefficient of 0.9903 and 0.9675, and a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0056 degree Brix and 0.0245, respectively. And compared to PLS and PCR methods, the performance of the LSSVM method was better. The results indicated that it was possible to built statistic models to quantify some common components in tomato juice using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure, and LS-SVM could be a rapid and accurate method for juice components determination based on NIR spectra.

  5. Reference solar irradiance spectra and consequences of their disparities in remote sensing of the ocean colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shanmugam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite ocean colour missions require a standard extraterrestrial solar irradiance spectrum in the visible and near-infrared (NIR for use in the process of radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and normalization of water-leaving radiances from in-situ measurements. There are numerous solar irradiance spectra (or models currently in use within the ocean colour community and related domains. However, these irradiance spectra, constructed from single and/or multiple measurements sets or models, have noticeable differences – ranging from about ±1% in the NIR to ±6% in the short wavelength region (ultraviolet and blue – caused primarily by the variation in the solar activity and uncertainties in experimental data from different instruments. Such differences between the applied solar irradiance spectra may have quite important consequences in reconciliation, comparison and validation of the products resulting from different ocean colour instruments. Thus, it is prudent to examine the model-to-model differences and ascertain an appropriate solar irradiance spectrum for use in future ocean colour research and validation purposes. This study first describes the processes which generally require the application of a solar irradiance spectrum, and then investigates the eight solar irradiance spectra (widely in use within the remote sensing community selected on the basis of the following criteria: minimum spectral range of 350–1200 nm with adequate spectral resolution, completely or mostly based on direct measurements, minimal error range, intercomparison with other experiments and update of data. The differences in these spectra in absolute terms and in the SeaWiFS and MERIS in-band irradiances and their consequences on the retrieval algorithms of chlorophyll and suspended sediment are analyzed. Based on these detailed analyses, this study puts forward the solar irradiance spectrum most appropriate for all aspects of research

  6. Complementary analysis of tissue homogenates composition obtained by Vis and NIR laser excitations and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy and four excitation lines in the visible (Vis: 488, 532, 633 nm) and near infrared (NIR: 785 nm) were used for biochemical analysis of rat tissue homogenates, i.e. myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney. The Vis Raman spectra are very similar for some organs (brain/intestines and kidney/liver) and dominated by heme signals when tissues of lung and myocardium were investigated (especially with 532 nm excitation). On the other hand, the NIR Raman spectra are specific for each tissue and more informative than the corresponding ones collected with the Vis excitations. The spectra analyzed without any special pre-processing clearly illustrate different chemical composition of each tissue and give information about main components e.g. lipids or proteins, but also about the content of some specific compounds such as amino acid residues, nucleotides and nucleobases. However, in order to obtain the whole spectral information about tissues complex composition the spectra of Vis and NIR excitations should be collected and analyzed together. A good agreement of data gathered from Raman spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from Raman imaging of the tissue cross-sections indicates that the presented here approach can be a method of choice for an investigation of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, the Raman spectral profile of tissue homogenates is specific enough to be used for an investigation of potential pathological changes the organism undergoes, in particular when supported by the complementary FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. Leaving Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Kenzie-Brown, Peter

    2011-07-15

    Canadian workers in Libya have been leaving the country due to civic unrest. Canadian companies evacuated their expat employees in cooperation with the Canadian government, without regard to the financial aspect, to keep them safe. Canadian expats are optimistic about the future.

  8. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  9. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hai-qing; YING Yi-bin; LU Hui-shan; FU Xia-ping; YU Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR)methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values.Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 °Brix(QL); 0.58 °Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 °Brix (QL); 0.34 °Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the'RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra(Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a nondestructive way.

  10. Decomposition of spectra using maximum autocorrelation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    into classification or regression type analyses. A featured method for low dimensional representation of multivariate datasets is Hotellings principal components transform. We will extend the use of principal components analysis incorporating new information into the algorithm. This new information consists......This paper addresses the problem of generating a low dimensional representation of the variation present in a set of spectra, e.g. reflection spectra recorded from a series of objects. The resulting low dimensional description may subseque ntly be input through variable selection schemes...... Fourier decomposition these new variables are located in frequency as well as well wavelength. The proposed algorithm is tested on 100 samples of NIR spectra of wheat....

  11. New insights in forensic chemistry: NIR/Chemometrics analysis of toners for questioned documents examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzi, Stefano; Risoluti, Roberta; Pinci, Sara; Saverio Romolo, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) coupled to chemometrics was investigated for the first time as a new tool for the analysis of black toners to evaluate its application in forensic cases. Ten black toners from four manufacturers were included in this study and the acquired spectra were compared in order to differentiate toners. Multivariate statistical analysis based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered to develop a model of comparison of toners in questioned documents. Results demonstrated the capabilities of the approach NIR/Chemometrics to correctly identify toners when printed on different papers and to be not affected by the printing process. This study has shown that NIRs can be considered as a useful, fast, non-destructive tool providing the characterisation of toners in forensic caseworks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171.

  13. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R.; Poggio, M.; Brown, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogenous agricultural fields must be partitioned into zones with similar soil properties for effective site-specific management. However, standard soil surveys do not generally provide the necessary spatial resolution for this application, and it is expensive and time consuming to generate high-resolution soil maps using standard soil sampling and analysis techniques. Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) spectroscopy is an established method for rapidly and inexpensively estimating soil properties when applied to dried and sieved samples in a laboratory setting. However, this technique still requires that samples be extracted, transported and processed using standard methods. To reduce soil analysis costs further (and allow more dense spatial sampling), it would be ideal to interrogate soils in situ with a field-portable VisNIR spectrometer and foreoptic. The goal of this study was to design and test a VisNIR penetrometer capable of simultaneously collecting soil spectra and insertion force, in situ. Our design allows the use of field-deployable spectrometers that employ signal delivery via fiber optics (e.g. ASD Agrispec) and hydraulic push-type soil coring rig (ex. Giddings). We first compared the quality of VisNIR spectra collected using the penetrometer fore-optic with the spectrometer manufacturer's contact probe foreoptic in a laboratory setting for dried and sieved (2 mm) Palouse soils (eastern WA and northern ID, USA.) Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used calibrate and validate VisNIR models predicting soil clay and organic carbon content. The VisNIR penetrometer was then deployed for in situ soil characterization at ten fields in the states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho selected to capture broad ranges of soil characteristics (ex. parent material, soil organic C, soil inorganic C, clay content, clay mineralogy). To calibrate VisNIR PLSR models, intact soil cores were collected adjacent to location probed with the VisNIR penetrometer and

  14. Determination of sucrose in date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growing in the Sultanate of Oman by NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Boqué, Ricard; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Javid; Hafidh, A; Hind, K; Ahmed, M A G; Manzoor, A; Hussain, Hidayat; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Iman, S H; Said, Jahina J; Hamood, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    A Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the Sultanate of Oman. In this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. The sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one test set of 17 samples. All samples were measured with a NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 700 to 2500 nm. The spectra collected were preprocessed using baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay 1st derivative. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to build the regression model with the training set of 31 samples. This model was then validated by using random leave-one-out cross-validation. Later, the PLS regression model was externally validated by using the test set of 17 samples of known sucrose concentration. The root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be of 1.5%, which shows a good prediction ability of the model. Finally, the PLS model was applied to the spectra of 54 date fruit samples to quantify their sucrose amount. It was found that the Khalas, Barnia Nizwi, Ajwa Almadina, Maan, and Khunizi varieties contain high amounts of sucrose, i.e. ranging from 36% to 60%, while Naghal, Fardh, Nashu and Qash Tabaq varieties contain the least amount of sucrose, ranging from 3.5% to 8.1%.

  15. In-line and real-time process monitoring of a freeze drying process using Raman and NIR spectroscopy as complementary process analytical technology (PAT) tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Vercruysse, P; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Ouyang, J; Zhang, X; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the complementary properties of Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as PAT tools for the fast, noninvasive, nondestructive and in-line process monitoring of a freeze drying process. Therefore, Raman and NIR probes were built in the freeze dryer chamber, allowing simultaneous process monitoring. A 5% (w/v) mannitol solution was used as model for freeze drying. Raman and NIR spectra were continuously collected during freeze drying (one Raman and NIR spectrum/min) and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Raman spectroscopy was able to supply information about (i) the mannitol solid state throughout the entire process, (ii) the endpoint of freezing (endpoint of mannitol crystallization), and (iii) several physical and chemical phenomena occurring during the process (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization). NIR spectroscopy proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor the critical aspects during drying: (i) endpoint of ice sublimation and (ii) monitoring the release of hydrate water during storage. Furthermore, via NIR spectroscopy some Raman observations were confirmed: start of ice nucleation, end of mannitol crystallization and solid state characteristics of the end product. When Raman and NIR monitoring were performed on the same vial, the Raman signal was saturated during the freezing step caused by reflected NIR light reaching the Raman detector. Therefore, NIR and Raman measurements were done on a different vial. Also the importance of the position of the probes (Raman probe above the vial and NIR probe at the bottom of the sidewall of the vial) in order to obtain all required critical information is outlined. Combining Raman and NIR spectroscopy for the simultaneous monitoring of freeze drying allows monitoring almost all critical freeze drying process aspects. Both techniques do not only complement each other, they also

  16. Sediment denitrifier community composition and nirS gene expression investigated with functional gene microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, C.A.; Jackson, G.A.; Ward, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    total RNA extracts) targets were hybridized to the same array to compare the profiles of community composition at the DNA (relative abundance) and mRNA (gene expression) levels. Only the three dominant denitrifying groups (in terms of relative strength of DNA hybridization signal) were detected at the m......A functional gene microarray was used to investigate denitrifier community composition and nitrite reductase (nirS) gene expression in sediments along the estuarine gradient in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The nirS oligonucleotide probe set was designed to represent a sequence database containing 539...

  17. Screening of grated cheese authenticity by nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR cheese is one of the oldest traditional cheeses produced in Europe, and it is still one of the most valuable Protected Designation of Origin (PDO cheeses of Italy. The denomination of origin is extended to the grated cheese when manufactured exclusively from whole Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese wheels that respond to the production standard. The grated cheese must be matured for a period of at least 12 months and characterized by a rind content not over 18%. In this investigation the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR, coupled to different statistical methods, were used to estimate the authenticity of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese PDO. Cheese samples were classified as: compliance PR, competitors, non-compliance PR (defected PR, and PR with rind content greater then 18%. NIR spectra were obtained using a spectrophotometer Vector 22/N (Bruker Optics, Milan, Italy in the diffuse reflectance mode. Instrument was equipped with a rotating integrating sphere. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was conducted for an explorative spectra analysis, while the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN were used to classify spectra, according to different cheese categories. Subsequently the rind percentage and month of ripening were estimated by a Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. Score plots of the PCA show a clear separation between compliance PR samples and the rest of the sample was observed. Competitors samples and the defected PR samples were grouped together. The classification performance for all sample classes, obtained by ANN analysis, was higher of 90%, in test set validation. Rind content and month of ripening were predicted by PLS a with a determination coefficient greater then 0.95 (test set. These results showed that the method can be suitable for a fast screening of grated cheese authenticity.

  18. [Application of uncertainty assessment in NIR quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhong; Xu, Bing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jian-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectra of Liuyi San samples were collected during the mixing process and the quantitative models by PLS (partial least squares) method were generated for the quantification of the concentration of glycyrrhizin. The PLS quantitative model had good calibration and prediction performances (r(cal) 0.998 5, RMSEC = 0.044 mg · g(-1); r(val) = 0.947 4, RMSEP = 0.124 mg · g(-1)), indicating that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid determination method of the concentration of glycyrrhizin in Liuyi San powder. After the validation tests were designed, the Liao-Lin-Iyer approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate β-content-γ-confidence tolerance intervals. Then the uncertainty was calculated, and the uncer- tainty profile was drawn. The NIR analytical method was considered valid when the concentration of glycyrrhizin is above 1.56 mg · g(-1) since the uncertainty fell within the acceptable limits (λ = ± 20%). The results showed that uncertainty assessment can be used in NIR quantitative models of glycyrrhizin for different concentrations and provided references for other traditional Chinese medicine to finish the uncertainty assessment using NIR quantitative analysis.

  19. In line NIR quantification of film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets during a fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Seo, Da-Young; Lee, Hea-Eun; Wang, In-Chun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Choi, Guang J

    2011-01-17

    Along with the risk-based approach, process analytical technology (PAT) has emerged as one of the key elements to fully implement QbD (quality-by-design). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied as an in-line/on-line analytical tool in biomedical and chemical industries. In this study, the film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets was examined for quantification using in-line NIR spectroscopy during a fluid-bed coating process. A precise monitoring of coating thickness and its prediction with a suitable control strategy is crucial to the quality assurance of solid dosage forms including dissolution characteristics. Pellets of a test formulation were manufactured and coated in a fluid-bed by spraying a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating solution. NIR spectra were acquired via a fiber-optic probe during the coating process, followed by multivariate analysis utilizing partial least squares (PLS) calibration models. The actual coating thickness of pellets was measured by two separate methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser diffraction particle size analysis (LD-PSA). Both characterization methods gave superb correlation results, and all determination coefficient (R(2)) values exceeded 0.995. In addition, a prediction coating experiment for 70min demonstrated that the end-point can be accurately designated via NIR in-line monitoring with appropriate calibration models. In conclusion, our approach combining in-line NIR monitoring with CLSM and LD-PSA can be applied as an effective PAT tool for fluid-bed pellet coating processes.

  20. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.

  1. Improved Calibration of Near-Infrared Spectra by Using Ensembles of Neural Network Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ukil, A.; Bernasconi, J.; Braendle, H.; Buijs, H.; Bonenfant, S.

    2015-01-01

    IR or near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a method used to identify a compound or to analyze the composition of a material. Calibration of NIR spectra refers to the use of the spectra as multivariate descriptors to predict concentrations of the constituents. To build a calibration model, state-of-the-art software predominantly uses linear regression techniques. For nonlinear calibration problems, neural network-based models have proved to be an interesting alternative. In this paper, we propo...

  2. Absolutely nondestructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile species with miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yang, Hai-Long; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Zang, Heng-Chang

    2014-10-01

    As one very precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Huoshan Dendrobium has not only high price, but also significant pharmaceutical efficacy. However, different species of Huoshan Dendrobium exhibit considerable difference in pharmaceutical efficacy, so rapid and absolutely non-destructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile according to different species is crucial to quality control and pharmaceutical effect. In this study, as one type of miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, MicroNIR 1700 was used for absolutely nondestructive determination of NIR spectra of 90 batches of Dendrobium from five species of differ- ent commodity grades. The samples were intact and not smashed. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify and recognize different species of Dendrobium samples. The results indicated that the SIMCA qualitative models established with pretreatment method of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) in the spectra range selected by Qs method had 100% recognition rates and 100% rejection rates. This study demonstrated that a rapid and absolutely non-destructive analytical technique based on MicroNIR 1700 spectrometer was developed for successful discrimination of five different species of Huoshan Dendrobium with acceptable accuracy.

  3. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K ( -85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  4. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K (-85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  5. Improvements of the Vis-NIRS Model in the Prediction of Soil Organic Matter Content Using Spectral Pretreatments, Sample Selection, and Wavelength Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z. D.; Wang, Y. B.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, L. S.; Lu, C. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Song, L. T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-07-01

    A total of 130 topsoil samples collected from Guoyang County, Anhui Province, China, were used to establish a Vis-NIR model for the prediction of organic matter content (OMC) in lime concretion black soils. Different spectral pretreatments were applied for minimizing the irrelevant and useless information of the spectra and increasing the spectra correlation with the measured values. Subsequently, the Kennard-Stone (KS) method and sample set partitioning based on joint x-y distances (SPXY) were used to select the training set. Successive projection algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm (GA) were then applied for wavelength optimization. Finally, the principal component regression (PCR) model was constructed, in which the optimal number of principal components was determined using the leave-one-out cross validation technique. The results show that the combination of the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for smoothing and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) can eliminate the effect of noise and baseline drift; the SPXY method is preferable to KS in the sample selection; both the SPA and the GA can significantly reduce the number of wavelength variables and favorably increase the accuracy, especially GA, which greatly improved the prediction accuracy of soil OMC with Rcc, RMSEP, and RPD up to 0.9316, 0.2142, and 2.3195, respectively.

  6. Photoswitchable NIR-Emitting Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacchi, Sara; Cantelli, Andrea; Battistelli, Giulia; Guidetti, Gloria; Calvaresi, Matteo; Manzi, Jeannette; Gabrielli, Luca; Ramadori, Federico; Gambarin, Alessandro; Mancin, Fabrizio; Montalti, Marco

    2016-09-05

    Photo-switching of the NIR emission of gold nanoparticles (GNP) upon photo-isomerization of azobenzene ligands, bound to the surface, is demonstrated. Photophysical results confirm the occurrence of an excitation energy transfer process from the ligands to the GNP that produces sensitized NIR emission. Because of this process, the excitation efficiency of the gold core, upon excitation of the ligands, is much higher for the trans form than for the cis one, and t→c photo-isomerization causes a relevant decrease of the GNP NIR emission. As a consequence, photo-isomerization can be monitored by ratiometric detection of the NIR emission upon dual excitation. The photo-isomerization process was followed in real-time through the simultaneous detection of absorbance and luminescence changes using a dedicated setup. Surprisingly, the photo-isomerization rate of the ligands, bound to the GNP surface, was the same as measured for the chromophores in solution. This outcome demonstrated that excitation energy transfer to gold assists photo-isomerization, rather than competing with it. These results pave the road to the development of new, NIR-emitting, stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for theranostics.

  7. NIRS in clinical neurology - a 'promising' tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrig, Hellmuth

    2014-01-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a relevant research tool in neuroscience. In special populations such as infants and for special tasks such as walking, NIRS has asserted itself as a low resolution functional imaging technique which profits from its ease of application, portability and the option to co-register other neurophysiological and behavioral data in a 'near natural' environment. For clinical use in neurology this translates into the option to provide a bed-side oximeter for the brain, broadly available at comparatively low costs. However, while some potential for routine brain monitoring during cardiac and vascular surgery and in neonatology has been established, NIRS is largely unknown to clinical neurologists. The article discusses some of the reasons for this lack of use in clinical neurology. Research using NIRS in three major neurologic diseases (cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and headache) is reviewed. Additionally the potential to exploit the established position of NIRS as a functional imaging tool with regard to clinical questions such as preoperative functional assessment and neurorehabilitation is discussed.

  8. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; BAO Chun-fang; REN Yu-lin

    2011-01-01

    The modem near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique,which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile,R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition,the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for thc quality control of soy sauce.

  9. Baseline Correction of Diffuse Reflection Near-Infrared Spectra Using Searching Region Standard Normal Variate (SRSNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    An alternative baseline correction method for diffuse reflection near-infrared (NIR) spectra, searching region standard normal variate (SRSNV), was proposed. Standard normal variate (SNV) is an effective pretreatment method for baseline correction of diffuse reflection NIR spectra of powder and granular samples; however, its baseline correction performance depends on the NIR region used for SNV calculation. To search for an optimal NIR region for baseline correction using SNV, SRSNV employs moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR), and an optimal NIR region is identified based on the root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models with the first latent variable (LV). The performance of SRSNV was evaluated using diffuse reflection NIR spectra of mixture samples consisting of wheat flour and granular glucose (0-100% glucose at 5% intervals). From the obtained NIR spectra of the mixture in the 10 000-4000 cm(-1) region at 4 cm intervals (1501 spectral channels), a series of spectral windows consisting of 80 spectral channels was constructed, and then SNV spectra were calculated for each spectral window. Using these SNV spectra, a series of PLSR models with the first LV for glucose concentration was built. A plot of RMSE versus the spectral window position obtained using the PLSR models revealed that the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region was optimal for baseline correction using SNV. In the SNV spectra calculated using the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region (SRSNV spectra), a remarkable relative intensity change between a band due to wheat flour at 8500 cm(-1) and that due to glucose at 8364 cm(-1) was observed owing to successful baseline correction using SNV. A PLSR model with the first LV based on the SRSNV spectra yielded a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.999 and an RMSE of 0.70%, while a PLSR model with three LVs based on SNV spectra calculated in the full spectral region gave an R2 of 0.995 and an RMSE of

  10. Remote Estimation of Chlorophyll-a in Inland Waters by a NIR-Red-Based Algorithm: Validation in Asian Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing is a highly useful tool for monitoring chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a in water bodies. Remote sensing algorithms based on near-infrared-red (NIR-red wavelengths have demonstrated great potential for retrieving Chl-a in inland waters. This study tested the performance of a recently developed NIR-red based algorithm, SAMO-LUT (Semi-Analytical Model Optimizing and Look-Up Tables, using an extensive dataset collected from five Asian lakes. Results demonstrated that Chl-a retrieved by the SAMO-LUT algorithm was strongly correlated with measured Chl-a (R2 = 0.94, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMS were 8.9 mg∙m−3 and 72.6%, respectively. However, the SAMO-LUT algorithm yielded large errors for sites where Chl-a was less than 10 mg∙m−3 (RMSE = 1.8 mg∙m−3 and NRMS = 217.9%. This was because differences in water-leaving radiances at the NIR-red wavelengths (i.e., 665 nm, 705 nm and 754 nm used in the SAMO-LUT were too small due to low concentrations of water constituents. Using a blue-green algorithm (OC4E instead of the SAMO-LUT for the waters with low constituent concentrations would have reduced the RMSE and NRMS to 1.0 mg∙m−3 and 16.0%, respectively. This indicates (1 the NIR-red algorithm does not work well when water constituent concentrations are relatively low; (2 different algorithms should be used in light of water constituent concentration; and thus (3 it is necessary to develop a classification method for selecting the appropriate algorithm.

  11. Simultaneous determination of the impurity and radial tensile strength of reduced glutathione tablets by a high selective NIR-PLS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Jiang, Yue; Fan, Qi; Chen, Yang; Wu, Ruanqi

    2014-05-05

    This paper establishes a high-throughput and high selective method to determine the impurity named oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and radial tensile strength (RTS) of reduced glutathione (GSH) tablets based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). In order to build and evaluate the calibration models, the NIR diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and transmittance spectra (TS) for 330 GSH tablets were accurately measured by using the optimized parameter values. For analyzing GSSG or RTS of GSH tablets, the NIR-DRS or NIR-TS were selected, subdivided reasonably into calibration and prediction sets, and processed appropriately with chemometric techniques. After selecting spectral sub-ranges and neglecting spectrum outliers, the PLS calibration models were built and the factor numbers were optimized. Then, the PLS models were evaluated by the root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), cross-validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP), and by the correlation coefficients of calibration (R(c)) and prediction (R(p)). The results indicate that the proposed models have good performances. It is thus clear that the NIR-PLS can simultaneously, selectively, nondestructively and rapidly analyze the GSSG and RTS of GSH tablets, although the contents of GSSG impurity were quite low while those of GSH active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) quite high. This strategy can be an important complement to the common NIR methods used in the on-line analysis of API in pharmaceutical preparations. And this work expands the NIR applications in the high-throughput and extraordinarily selective analysis.

  12. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  13. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicácia P. Machado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy. To determine pears' soluble solids (SS and pulp firmness (PF, it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.Recentemente, técnicas não destrutivas como a espectroscopia Vis/NIR têm sido utilizadas para avaliar as características de maturação e qualidade das peras. O trabalho tem como objetivo validar as leituras por espectroscopia Vis/NIR, como forma não destrutiva de avaliar as características qualitativas em peras das cultivares Williams, Packams e Carrick produzidas em condições brasileiras. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, Pelotas/RS e o instrumento utilizado para determinar a qualidade dos frutos de forma não destrutiva foi o espectrofotômetro NIR-Case (SACMI, Imola, Itália. Para a determinação de sólidos solúveis (SS e firmeza

  14. Inequality spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  15. Multivariate detection limits of on-line NIR model for extraction process of chlorogenic acid from Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhisheng; Sui, Chenglin; Xu, Bing; Ai, Lu; Ma, Qun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2013-04-15

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the multivariate detection limits (MDL) of on-line near-infrared (NIR) model in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) system. In this paper, Lonicera japonica was used as an example, and its extraction process was monitored by on-line NIR spectroscopy. Spectra of on-line NIR could be collected by two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2mm-flange. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of chlorogenic acid in the extract solution. Multivariate calibration models were carried out including partial least squares regression (PLS) and interval partial least-squares (iPLS). The result showed improvement of model performance: compared with PLS model, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of iPLS model decreased from 0.111mg to 0.068mg, and the R(2) parameter increased from 0.9434 to 0.9801. Furthermore, MDL values were determined by a multivariate method using the type of errors and concentration ranges. The MDL of iPLS model was about 14ppm, which confirmed that on-line NIR spectroscopy had the ability to detect trace amounts of chlorogenic acid in L. japonica. As a result, the application of on-line NIR spectroscopy for monitoring extraction process in CHM could be very encouraging and reliable.

  16. Disentangling the NIR/optical emission of the black hole XTE J1650-500 during outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, P A; Heras, J A Zurita

    2012-01-01

    While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the different states of low-mass X-ray binaries are relatively well understood, the origin of the near-infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more often debated. It is likely that the NIR/optical flux originates from an amalgam of different emission regions, because it occurs at the intersecting wavelengths of multiple processes. We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) of one such low-mass X-ray binary and black hole candidate, XTE J1650-500, via photometric, timing, and spectral analyses. We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the peak of the 2001 outburst of XTE J1650-500. The data suggest that the NIR/optical flux is due to a combination of emission mechanisms including a significant contribution from X-ray reprocessing and, at early times in the hard state, a relativistic jet that is NIR/radio dim compared to similar sources.The jet of XTE J1650-500 is relatively weak compared t...

  17. Noninvasive NIR measurement of tissue pH to assess hemorrhagic shock in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Zhang, Songbiao; Micheels, Ronald H.; Puyana, Juan C.

    1999-07-01

    Body-worn noninvasive physilogical sensors are needed to continuously monitor soldiers for hemorrhage and to provide real-time information for minimally skilled medics to treat the injured. In the hospital intramucosal pHi of the gut is used to monitor shock and its treatment. We hypothesize that abdominal wall muscle (AWM) pH can be measured noninvasively using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis (PLS) and will correlate with pHi. METHODS: AWM pH was measured with microelectrodes and gastric pHi was measured with a tonometric catheter simultaneously while NIR spectra were collected using prototype LED spectrometers placed on the pig's flanks. Animals were subject to hemorrhagic shock at 45 mm Hg for 45 minutes, then resuscitated with blood and lactated ringers. Relationships between electrode pH, pHi and NIR spectra were developed using PLS with cross validation. RESULTS: NIR spectral changes noninvasively acquired through the skin were shown to be from the muscle, not from changes in skin blood flow. Trending ability (R2) model accuracy (RMSD), and relative error were calculated for individual pigs. Using electrode pH as the reference, average R2 was 0.88 with a predicted accuracy of 0.17 pH units, a 9.3% relative error. Slightly degraded results were observed when pHi was used as a reference. CONCLUSIONS: NIR measurement of tissue pH can be used to noninvasively monitor for shock and guide its treatment in a swine model. These measurements correlate with gastric pHi, a clinically accepted measure of shock, providing an approach to develop similar methodology for humans.

  18. Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Hattori, Akito; Ebina, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2013-12-07

    In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln(3+), e.g. Y2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), are promising candidates for NIR-NIR bioimaging. Ln(3+)-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR-NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.

  19. NIR optimerer produktionen af gammeldags modnede sild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Vibeke Tølbøl; Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    2005-01-01

    Måling med nærinfrarødt (NIR) lys er et godt supplement til de nuværende metoder til at følge modningen af sild saltede i tønder. Det viser resultaterne af et forskningsprojekt udført i samarbejde mellem Lykkeberg A/S, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser og Den Kgl Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Ved hjælp...... af avanceret matematik er det nemt og hurtigt at bestemme modningsgraden af sild direkte fra en NIR måling....

  20. NIR Techniques Create Added Values for the Pellet and Biofuel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern A. [Swedish Univ of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry; Johnsson, Bo; Grothage, Morgan [Casco Adhesives AB, Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    biofuels for heating. The factors varied were: high and low values of drying temperature and of wood powder dryness, and binary mixes of sawdust from the conifers Norway spruce and Scots pine. The mixes of raw sawdust was dried and milled into powder before pelletizing. In all 11 runs including three center points were conducted. Each run gave about 10 Mg of wood Pellets. The validation of a running multivariate calibration model for on-line NIR spectra in the pellet plant showed high accuracy with a prediction error of 0.42 % water content in the milled sawdust dried to c. 7-11 % water content. Also the NIR based models for drying temperature and binary mixes of sawdust from the two species gave good predictions. Validation of the model for drying temperature of saw dust resulted in lower prediction accuracy for prolonged periods. The findings indicate that also chemical contents, for example contents of extractives, such as fatty and resin acids, in dried and milled sawdust, can be predicted by on-line NIR technique as these contents are highly correlated with the used tree species and pretreatments of the sawdust. Multivariate statistical methods, besides resulting in calibrations, are also useful in model interpretation of the wide and overlapping peaks in the NIR wavelength region. The possibilities to meet costumer specifications and create added values are enhanced by the NIR technique that, further, can be used as an important tool in the monitoring and control of the pelletizing process as well as in characterization and standardization of biofuels on the world market. The NIR technique can also be implemented in process analytical technology that has the ultimate goal to understand and control the manufacturing process to ensure the quality of the final product to the consumer. (Full text of contribution)

  1. In-line near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) for in situ evaluation of the transesterification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontalvo-Gómez, Miriam; Colucci, José A; Velez, Natasha; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized from different commercially available oils while in-line Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained simultaneously, and the spectral changes that occurred during the reaction were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA). Raman and NIR spectra were acquired every 30 s with fiber optic probes inserted into the reaction vessel. The reaction was performed at 60-70 °C using magnetic stirring. The time of reaction was 90 min, and during this time, 180 Raman and NIR spectra were collected. NIR spectra were collected using a transflectance probe and an optical path length of 1 mm at 8 cm(-1) spectral resolution and averaging 32 scans; for Raman spectra a 3 s exposure time and three accumulations were adequate for the analysis. Raman spectroscopy showed the ester conversion as evidenced by the displacement of the C=O band from 1747 to 1744 cm(-1) and the decrease in the intensity of the 1000-1050 cm(-1) band and the 1405 cm(-1) band as methanol was consumed in the reaction. NIR spectra also showed the decrease in methanol concentration with the band in the 4750-5000 cm(-1) region; this signal is present in the spectra of the transesterification reaction but not in the neat oils. The variations in the intensity of the methanol band were a main factor in the in-line monitoring of the transesterification reaction using Raman and NIR spectroscopy. The score plot of the first principal component showed the progress of the reaction. The final product was analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and using mid-infrared spectroscopy, confirming the conversion of the oils to biodiesel.

  2. 基于NIR-PCA-SVM联用技术的烤烟烟叶产地模式识别%NIR-PCA-SVM Based Pattern Recognition of Growing Area of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束茹欣; 孙平; 杨凯; 张建平; 刘太昂

    2011-01-01

    To accurately identify the growing area of flue - cured tobacco, the contents of chemical components, including total sugar, reducing sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine, total chlorine and total potassium, in 402 cured tobacco samples collected from Yunnan, Henan, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou and Jilin Provinces in 2010 were tested, and the samples were scanned by near infrared spectrometer. The near infrared spectra (NIR) pattern recognition models of growing area were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms, and the growing areas of the samples were recognized. The results indicated that: 1) The prediction accuracy recognized by NIR-PCA-SVM models reached 97%, while that by chemical component-SVM and NIR-SVM models were lower. 2) The NIR - PCA - SVM, and chemical component - SVM models all offered better recoginition for Yunnan tobacco samples. NIR-PCA-SVM model could be applied to pattern recognition of flue-cured tobacco samples of different origins.%为了更准确地对烟叶样品进行产地模式识别,检测了云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省2010年生产的402个初烤烟叶样品的总糖、还原糖、总氮、烟碱、总氯、总钾含量,同时进行了近红外( NIR)光谱扫描,利用主成分分析( PCA)法和支持向量机算法(SVM)建立了烟叶产地模式识别模型,并对云南、河南、安徽、福建、贵州、吉林6省烟叶样品进行了产地模式识别.结果表明:①NIR-PCA-SVM模型对6省烟叶样品识别的预报正确率高达97%,而化学成分-SVM模型和NIR-SVM模型对6省烟叶产地的识别效果差;②NIR-PCA-SVM、化学成分-SVM和NIR-SVM 3个模型对云南省烟叶都有着较好的识别效果.NIR-PCA-SVM模型可用于不同烟叶样品产地的模式识别.

  3. Agricultural applications of NIR reflectance and transmittance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy technologies for rapid determination of quality parameters in agriculture, including applications within crop product quality, feed and food quality, manure quality, soil analyses etc...

  4. Vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY)-a new way of using IR and NIR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Erik; Bro, Rasmus; Engelsen, Søren B; Karlberg, Bo; Torgrip, Ralf J O

    2007-05-01

    This work explores a novel method for rearranging 1st order (one-way) infra-red (IR) and/or near infra-red (NIR) ordinary spectra into a representation suitable for multi-way modelling and analysis. The method is based on the fact that the fundamental IR absorption and the first, second, and consecutive overtones of NIR absorptions represent identical chemical information. It is therefore possible to rearrange these overtone regions of the vectors comprising an IR and NIR spectrum into a matrix where the fundamental, 1st, 2nd, and consecutive overtones of the spectrum are arranged as either rows or columns in a matrix, resulting in a true three-way tensor of data for several samples. This tensorization facilitates explorative analysis and modelling with multi-way methods, for example parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), N-way partial least squares (N-PLS), and Tucker models. The vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY) arrangement is shown to benefit from the "order advantage", producing more robust, stable, and interpretable models than, for example, the traditional PLS modelling method. The proposed method also opens the field of NIR for true peak decomposition--a feature unique to the method because the latent factors acquired using PARAFAC can represent pure spectral components whereas latent factors in principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS usually do not.

  5. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  6. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting

    2015-05-05

    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  7. Estimation of selected properties of forest soils using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Mateusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR as a tool for evaluation of selected properties of forest soils. We analysed 144 soil samples from the topsoil of nine plots located in southern Poland. Six plots were established under pine stands, and three plots under oak stands. The NIR measurements were performed using Antharis II FT scanner. On the basis of the spectrum files obtained from scanning of 96 samples and the measurement results obtained for selected properties of the soil samples, we developed a calibration model. The model was validated using 48 independent samples. We attempted to estimate the following properties of forest soils: pH, C:N ratio, the organic carbon content (Ct, total nitrogen (Nt, clay content (Clay, base cation content (BC, cation exchange capacity (CEC and total acidity (TA. We conclude that estimation of soil properties using NIR method can be applied as additional (to laboratory analysis or initial assessment of soil quality. Our results also suggest that forest species composition may affect the mathematical model applied to NIR spectra analysis, however, this hypothesis needs some of further investigations.

  8. The effect of nitrate addition on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln genes in acidified Norway spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kaåa, Jiří; Antrå¯Čková, Hana Å.

    2010-05-01

    The denitrification is the main biotic process leading to loses of fixed nitrogen as well as removal of excess of nitrate (NO3-) from the soil environment. The reduction of NO2- to nitric oxide (NO) distinguishes the 'true' denitrifiers from other nitrate-respiring bacteria. This reaction is catalyzed by two different types of nitrite reductases, either a cytochrome cd1 encoded by nirS gene (nirS denitrifiers) or a Cu-containing enzyme encoded by nirK gene (nirK denitrifiers). The nirS denitrifiers are located mostly in rhizosphere, while the nirK denitrifiers are more abundant in bulk soil. These two groups can be also classified as markers of denitrification. Glutamine synthetase is one of the main bacterial NH4+ assimilating enzymes; it is coded by glnI gene. Glutamine synthetase is mostly active when N is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. There is recent evidence that the activity may be affected by the presence of alternative N source (i.e. NO3-). However, in anaerobic condition NO3- can be used also by the denitrifying bacteria so there may be strong competition for this nutrient. The laboratory experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of nitrates (NO3-) on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln gene copy numbers. The amount of NO3- corresponded to the actual atmospheric depositions on experimental sites in the Bohemian Forest. Litter organic layer (0-5cm of soil) was used for laboratory incubation experiment. Four replicates of control (no addition of NO3-), and NO3-addition were incubated anaerobically for one month. After the incubation DNA was extracted and the number of nirK, nirS and gln gene copies was determined using qPCR (SYBRGreen methodology). Results showed that the addition of NO3- significantly increased the number of nirK and nirS denitrifiers from 5.9x106 to 1.1x107 and from not detectable amount to 1.4x106, respectively. The gln gene copy number was also higher after NO3-addition. However, the difference was not statistically

  9. Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braker, G.; Witzel, K.P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Limnologie, Ploen (Germany); Fesefeldt, A. [Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Mikrobiologie

    1998-10-01

    A system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the application of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with PCR. Primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) after comparative sequence analysis. Whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. Likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory strains. The nirK gene could be amplified from Blastobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, and Alcaligenes sp. (DSM 30128); the nirS gene was amplified from Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 530 and from the denitrifying isolate IFAM 3698. For each of the two genes, at least one primer combination amplified successfully for all of the test strains. Specific amplification products were not obtained wit h nondenitrifying bacteria or with strains of the other nir type. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by subsequent sequencing. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. This was shown by applying the generally amplifying primer combination for each nir gene developed in this study to total DNA preparations from aquatic habitats.

  10. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre

    2015-07-05

    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy.

  11. NIR-red spectral space based new method for soil moisture monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZhiMing; QIN QiMing; GHULAN Abduwasit; WANG DongDong

    2007-01-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster that occurs frequently. Soil moisture has been the main issue in remote monitoring of drought events as the most direct and important variable describing the drought. Spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil moisture evidently affect surface evapotranspiration, agricultural water demand, etc. In this paper, a new simple method for soil moisture monitoring is developed using near-infrared versus red (NIR-red) spectral reflectance space. First, NIR-red spectral reflectance space is established using atmospheric and geometric corrected ETM+ data, which is manifested by a triangle shape, in which different surface covers have similar spatial distribution rules. Next, the model of soil moisture monitoring by remote sensing (SMMRS) is developed on the basis of the distribution characteristics of soil moisture in the NIR-red spectral reflectance space. Then, the SMMRS model is validated by comparison with field measured soil moisture data at different depths. The results showed that satellite estimated soil moisture by SMMRS is highly accordant with field measured data at 5 cm soil depth and average soil moisture at 0―20 cm soil depths, correlation coefficients are 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. This paper concludes that, being simple and effective, the SMMRS model has great potential to estimate surface moisture conditions.

  12. NIR-red spectral space based new method for soil moisture monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GHULAN; Abduwasit

    2007-01-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster that occurs frequently. Soil moisture has been the main issue in remote monitoring of drought events as the most direct and important variable describing the drought. Spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil moisture evidently affect surface evapotranspiration, agricultural water demand, etc. In this paper, a new simple method for soil moisture monitoring is de- veloped using near-infrared versus red (NIR-red) spectral reflectance space. First, NIR-red spectral reflectance space is established using atmospheric and geometric corrected ETM+ data, which is manifested by a triangle shape, in which different surface covers have similar spatial distribution rules. Next, the model of soil moisture monitoring by remote sensing (SMMRS) is developed on the basis of the distribution characteristics of soil moisture in the NIR-red spectral reflectance space. Then, the SMMRS model is validated by comparison with field measured soil moisture data at different depths. The results showed that satellite estimated soil moisture by SMMRS is highly accordant with field measured data at 5 cm soil depth and average soil moisture at 0―20 cm soil depths, correlation coef- ficients are 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. This paper concludes that, being simple and effective, the SMMRS model has great potential to estimate surface moisture conditions.

  13. Method for NIR Reflectance Estimation with Visible Camera Data based on Regression for NDVI Estimation and its Application for Insect Damage Detection of Rice Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Method for Near Infrared: NIR reflectance estimation with visible camera data based on regression for Normalized Vegetation Index: NDVI estimation is proposed together with its application for insect damage detection of rice paddy fields. Through experiments at rice paddy fields which is situated at Saga Prefectural Agriculture Research Institute SPARI in Saga city, Kyushu, Japan, it is found that there is high correlation between NIR reflectance and Green color reflectance. Therefore, it is possible to estimate NIR reflectance with visible camera data which results in possibility of estimation of NDVI with drone mounted visible camera data. As is well known that the protein content in rice crops is highly correlated with NIR intensity, or reflectance of rice leaves, it is possible to estimate rice crop quality with drone based visible camera data.

  14. [The evaluation of hydrocarbon potential generation for source rocks by near-infrared diffuse reflection spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jia; Xu, Xiao-Xuan; Song, Ning; Wu, Zhong-Chen; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Jin; Cao, Xue-Wei; Wang, Bin

    2011-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) diffuse reflection spectra were compared and evaluated for hydrocarbon potential generation of source rocks. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance often exhibits significant differences in the spectra due to the non-homogeneous distribution of the particles, so the signal-to-noise ratio of NIR is much lower than MIR It is too difficult to get accurate results by NIR without using a strong spectral preprocessing method to remove systematic noise such as base-line variation and multiplicative scatter effects. In the present paper, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) and an improved algorithm of it, i.e. direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), are used as different methods to preprocess both the NIR and MIR spectra of the hydrocarbon source rocks. Another algorithm, wavelet multi-scale direct orthogonal signal correction (WMDOSC), which is a combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and DOSC, is also used as a preprocessing method. Then, the calibration model of hydrocarbon source rocks before and after pretreatment was established by interval partial least square (iPLS). The experimental results show that WMDOSC is more successfully applied to preprocess the NIR spectra data of the hydrocarbon source rocks than other two algorithms, and NIR performed as good as MIR in the analysis of hydrocarbon potential generation of source rocks with WMDOSC-iPLS pretreatment calibration model.

  15. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul J; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2016-10-15

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual kernels and did not give acceptable results because of high misclassification. However by using a predefined threshold and classifying entire kernels based on the number of correctly predicted pixels, improved results were achieved (sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.97). Object-wise classification was performed using two methods for feature extraction - score histograms and mean spectra. The model based on score histograms performed better for hard kernel classification (sensitivity and specificity of 0.93 and 0.97), while that of mean spectra gave better results for medium kernels (sensitivity and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale.

  16. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  17. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...... (PLS) regression. High correlations (r > 0.96) were obtained from cross validations of the data estimated by FT-IR, FT-NIRand above-mentioned conventional analytical methods, except for correlations (r = 0.90-0,95) between FT-IR and SFC profiles. Overall, FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with transmission....... The blends and interesterified fats samples in liquid form were measured by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) based FT-IR (spectra region: 1516-781 cm-1) and transmission mode based FT-NIR (spectra region: 5369-4752 cm-1) with temperature both controlled at 70°C. The samples in solid form were also measured...

  18. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapol Pornprasit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM, were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square (PLS calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [R2] of the validation greater than 0.9, could be achieved for the hardness and tensile properties of rubber materials. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively.

  19. [Detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yong; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai-xue; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2011-12-01

    Adding benzoyl peroxide (BPO) into wheat flour was prohibited by the relevant government departments since May 1, 2011. And it is of great importance to detect BPO additive amount in wheat flour quickly and accurately. Part of BPO which was added into wheat flour will be deoxidized into benzoic acid, and this make it complex to detect the original BPO additive amount. The objective of the present research is to investigate the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for measurement of BPO original adding amount in wheat flour. A total of 133 wheat flour samples were prepared by adding different content of BPO into pure wheat flour. Spectra data were obtained by NIR spectrometer and then denoised by wavelet transform. Ninety seven samples were taken as calibration set and other 36 samples as prediction set. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to establish the calibration model between BPO original adding contents and the spectra data. The determination coefficient of model for the calibration set is 0.8901, and root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 40.85 mg x kg(-1). The determination coefficient for the prediction set is 0.8865, and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is 44.69 mg x kg(-1). The result indicates that it is feasible to detect the BPO adding contents in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique and this technique has the potential to measure some other additives in food.

  20. Development of an inverted NIR-FT-Raman microscope for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, B.; Tatsch, E.; Schrader, B.

    1997-06-01

    NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most suitable tool for investigation of biological samples, because the fluorescence of organic substances is reduced to a minimum. To examine the applicability of NIR excited FT-Raman spectroscopy to the study of cell cultures and tissues, measurements were made with an inverted Raman microscope, a modified Zeiss Axiovert 135. This system allows the collection of Raman spectra both by Koehler laser illumination and the confocal principle: • Koehler laser illumination avoids overheating and denaturation of the sample because the exciting laser beam illuminates the sample as an unfocused collimated beam. An integrative collection over the whole image of the microscope objective is necessary to increase the Raman light flux. • The confocal arrangement allows high spatial resolution which is reached by selective collection of the Raman scattering of details of the sample. A larger spatial resolution leads to a decreased light flux of the Raman scattering, this is compensated by a focused laser beam. We have used NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of normal breast tissues, potentially useful in the diagnosis of cancer.

  1. Estimation of Acacia melanoxylon unbleached Kraft pulp brightness by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The ability of NIR spectroscopy for predicting the ISO brightness was studied on unbleached Kraft pulps of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal. Materials and methods: The samples were Kraft pulped in standard identical conditions targeted to a kappa number of 15. A Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLSR model was developed for the ISO brightness prediction using 75 pulp samples with a variation range of 18.9 to 47.9 %. Main results: Very good correlations between NIR spectra and ISO brightness were obtained. Ten methods were used for PLS analysis (cross validation with 48 samples, and a test set validation was made with 27 samples. The 1stDer pre-processed spectra coupling two wavenumber ranges from 9404 to 7498 cm-1 and 4605 to 4243 cm-1 allowed the best model with a root mean square error of ISO brightness prediction of 0.5 % (RMSEP, a r2 of 99.5 % with a RPD of 14.7. Research highlights: According to AACC Method 39-00, the present model is sufficiently accurate to be used for process control (RPD ≥ 8

  2. 5 CFR 630.503 - Leave from former leave systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave from former leave systems. 630.503... AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.503 Leave from former leave systems. An employee who earned leave under the leave acts of 1936 or any other leave system merged under subchapter I of chapter 63 of...

  3. Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Hattori, Akito; Ebina, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln3+), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln3+, e.g. Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, are promising candidates for NIR-NIR bioimaging. Ln3+-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR-NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near

  4. POST-MAXIMUM NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF SN 2014J

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, D. J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Banerjee, D. P. K.;

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. The 17 NIR spectra span epochs from +15.3 to +92.5 days after B-band maximum light, while the JHK(s) photometry include epochs from -10 to +71 days. These. data are. used to constrain...... in our post-maximum spectra, with a rough hydrogen mass limit of less than or similar to 0.1 M-circle dot, which is consistent with previous limits in SN. 2014J from late-time optical spectra of the H alpha line. Nonetheless, the growing data. set of high-quality NIR spectra holds the promise of very...

  5. Exploring the use of NIR reflectance spectroscopy in prediction of free L-Asparagine in solanaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guorong, Du; Yanjun, Ma; Li, Ma; Jun, Zhou; Yue, Huang

    2016-10-01

    Much researches of Near-infrared spectroscopy modeling methods that are utilized to analyze the trace amount components, especially indirect modeling on complex system, have gained widely attraction in recent years. Amino acids in plants are essential nutrients of maintaining growth and ensuring health. As the important participants in various biochemical reactions in plants, nondestructive detection of free amino acids will provide meaningful observation on physiological changing in different steps of plant growth. In this research, two hundred and twenty-two samples were measured to obtain the concentration of free L-Asparagine in plant by amino acid analyzer. NIR spectra were also collected for conducting chemometrics modeling. Different spectral pretreatments and variables selecting methods were employed to optimize the NIR models. Independent validation set as well as unknown samples from different years were successfully predicted by using the slope intercept correction. Results in this study demonstrated that fast analysis of free L-Asparagine can be established by NIR modeling approach.

  6. Effects of NIR annealing on the characteristics of al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Min-Chul; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2012-06-06

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by employing radio frequency (RF) sputtering method for transparent conducting oxide applications. For the RF sputtering process, a ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt.%) target was employed. In this paper, the effects of near infrared ray (NIR) annealing technique on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the AZO thin films have been researched. Experimental results showed that NIR annealing affected the microstructure, electrical resistance, and optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with the preferentially c-axis oriented normal to the substrate surface. Optical transmittance spectra of the AZO thin films exhibited transmittance higher than about 80% within the visible wavelength region, and the optical direct bandgap (Eg) of the AZO films was increased with increasing the NIR energy efficiency.

  7. [Application of NIR spectroscopy to estimate of MFA and fiber length of Neosinocalamus a f finis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-ling; Chai, Yu-bo; Huang, An-min; Liu, Jun-liang

    2011-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to rapidly predict microfibril angle (MFA) and fiber length of Neosinocalamus a f finis Keng by using a fiber-optic probe in diffuse reflectance mode. The MFA and fiber length were measured by X-ray diffractometry and optical microscope, respectively. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to build models based on raw and pretreated spectra, including noise spectra and noise combined with orthogonal signal correction (OSC) spectra. The results showed that the PLS models of MFA and fiber length, based on noise combined with OSC spectra, gave the strongest correlations, with correlation coefficient (R) of 0.8936 and 0.9883 and root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.2920 and 0.1460 in prediction set. The correlations between NIR predicted and MFA/fiber length actual values are very good. Therefore, it is concluded that MFA and fiber length of N. a f finis can be estimated by NIR spectroscopy with sufficient accuracy.

  8. NIRS-aided monitoring and prediction of biogas yields from maize silage at a full-scale biogas plant applying lumped kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, H Fabian; Ohl, Susanne; Thiessen, Eiko; Hartung, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), available biogas plant data and lumped degradation kinetics to predict biogas production (BPr) of maize silage. A full-scale agricultural biogas plant was equipped with NIRS-metrology at the feeding station. Continuously NIR-spectra were collected for 520 d. Substrate samples were analyzed by means of feedstuff analysis. Biogas potential of the samples was calculated from the laboratory analysis results and for a sample-subset practically assessed by "Hohenheim biogas tests". NIRS-regression-models for all mentioned parameters were calibrated. Continuously gathered spectra, NIRS-models, actual plant-feeding data and degradation kinetics were used to calculate time-series of theoretically expectable BPr. Results were validated against measured gas quantity. Determination coefficients between calculated and measured BPr were up to 58.2%. This outcome was mainly due to the positive correlation between BPr and input amount since the substrate was very homogeneous. The use of NIRS seems more promising for plants with stronger substrate heterogeneity.

  9. Handheld NIRS sensors for routine compound feed quality control: Real time analysis and field monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modroño, Sagrario; Soldado, Ana; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances achieved in different sensor technologies and computer processing data have made possible to respond the needs of livestock sector, providing precise and rapid information on feed composition, being an alternative to real time quality control on compound feed the use of handheld NIRS sensors. This work aimed to evaluate two hand-held portable NIR spectrophotometers for on-site and real time analysis of nutritive parameters in raw compound feed: Phazir 1624 Polychromix Inc (PhIR) and MicroNIR(TM) 1700 by JDSU (MICRO). For computing data, different combinations of pre-treatments and multivariate statistical methods have been assayed to extract the valuable information of spectra data and to develop appropriate calibrations. The calibration models displayed greatest predictive capacity for Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF) and Starch (STCH) and the determination coefficients of cross validation were 0.90-0.88 for CP, 0.85-0.91 for CF, 0.89-0.88 and 0.89-0.91 for STCH using PhIR and MICRO instruments respectively. Dry Matter showed the lowest determination coefficients of cross validation 0.67-0.73. Accuracy achieved 99-101% for both NIRS instruments and no differences were found when applying tstudent-test comparing reference and predicted data. Results obtained with both instruments were compared by using standard deviation and not significant differences were observed at the 5% level. Results so far have demonstrated the potential of these handheld NIRS instruments proposed here to estimate the individual compound feeds composition changes at farms level instantly, time avoiding the disadvantage of moving the samples to the lab.

  10. A Feasibility Study on Monitoring Residual Sugar and Alcohol Strength in Kiwi Wine Fermentation Using a Fiber-Optic FT-NIR Spectrometry and PLS Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqian; Peng, Bangzhu

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to investigate the potential of fiber-optic Fourier transform-near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometry associated with chemometric analysis, which will be applied to monitor time-related changes in residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation. NIR calibration models for residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation were established on the FT-NIR spectra of 98 samples scanned in a fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometer, and partial least squares regression method. The results showed that R(2) and root mean square error of cross-validation could achieve 0.982 and 3.81 g/L for residual sugar, and 0.984 and 0.34% for alcohol strength, respectively. Furthermore, crucial process information on kiwi must and wine fermentations provided by fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry was found to agree with those obtained from traditional chemical methods, and therefore this fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry can be applied as an effective and suitable alternative for analyses and monitoring of those processes. The overall results suggested that fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry is a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the kiwi wine fermentation process.

  11. Feasibility of using a miniature NIR spectrometer to measure volumic mass during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Novales, Juan; López, María-Isabel; González-Caballero, Virginia; Ramírez, Pilar; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2011-06-01

    Volumic mass-a key component of must quality control tests during alcoholic fermentation-is of great interest to the winemaking industry. Transmitance near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 124 must samples over the range of 200-1,100-nm were obtained using a miniature spectrometer. The performance of this instrument to predict volumic mass was evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR). The validation statistics coefficient of determination (r(2)) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) were r(2) = 0.98, n = 31 and r(2) = 0.96, n = 31, and SEP = 5.85 and 7.49 g/dm(3) for PLS and MLR equations developed to fit reference data for volumic mass and spectral data. Comparison of results from MLR and PLS demonstrates that a MLR model with six significant wavelengths (P alcoholic fermentation, and that a low-cost NIR instrument can be used for this purpose.

  12. Determination of SFC, FFA, and equivalent reaction time for enzymatically interestified oils using NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Lars P.; Kristensen, Dorthe; Rosager, Helle

    2007-01-01

    that NIRS could be used to replace the traditional methods for determining FFA and SFC in vegetable oils.It was possible to monitor the activity of the immobilized enzyme for interesterification of margarine oils by predicting the equivalent reaction time in a batch reactor from NIR spectra. Root mean...... both fixed bed and batch reactors. Calibrations were developed for quantitative determination of solid fat content (SFC) at 10, 20, 30, 35, and 40 ◦C and free fatty acid (FFA) resulting in root mean square errors of prediction of 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.19% (w/w), respectively. The data showed...

  13. NIRS as an alternative to conventional soil analysis for Greenland soils (focus on SOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Ogric, Mateja; Adhikari, Kabindra;

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property. It is the main constituents of soil organic matter and a good indicator of soil quality. The estimation and mapping of SOC content could be used to select potential agricultural areas in the Arctic areas. However, conventional analysis of SOC...... are time consuming and expensive. They involve a lot of sample preparation, and chemicals and are destructive. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the range between 400 and 2500 nm is an alternative method for SOC analysis. It is fast and non-destructive. The aims of this study where to test...... the feasibility of using NIRS to estimate SOC content on a landscape and field scale in Greenland. Partial Least squares regression models were built to correlated soil spectra and their reference SOC data to develop calibration models. Very good predictive ability for both landscape and field scale were obtained...

  14. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  15. NIR sensitivity analysis with the VANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Justin T.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Baylot, Alex E.

    2016-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) cameras, with peak sensitivity around 905-nm wavelengths, are increasingly used in object detection applications such as pedestrian detection, occupant detection in vehicles, and vehicle detection. In this work, we present the results of simulated sensitivity analysis for object detection with NIR cameras. The analysis was conducted using high performance computing (HPC) to determine the environmental effects on object detection in different terrains and environmental conditions. The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) was used to simulate highresolution models for environment, terrain, vehicles, and sensors. In the experiment, an active fiducial marker was attached to the rear bumper of a vehicle. The camera was mounted on a following vehicle that trailed at varying standoff distances. Three different terrain conditions (rural, urban, and forest), two environmental conditions (clear and hazy), three different times of day (morning, noon, and evening), and six different standoff distances were used to perform the sensor sensitivity analysis. The NIR camera that was used for the simulation is the DMK firewire monochrome on a pan-tilt motor. Standoff distance was varied along with environment and environmental conditions to determine the critical failure points for the sensor. Feature matching was used to detect the markers in each frame of the simulation, and the percentage of frames in which one of the markers was detected was recorded. The standoff distance produced the biggest impact on the performance of the camera system, while the camera system was not sensitive to environment conditions.

  16. fNIRS-based online deception decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Hong, Keum-Shik; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-04-01

    Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising.

  17. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

  18. Identification of fine wool and cashmere by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guifang; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    As a rapid and non-destructive methodology, near infrared spectroscopy technique has been paid much attention recently. This paper presents an automatic recognition scheme for the fine wool fiber and cashmere fiber by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique, aim at the characteristics of Vis/NIR spectra on cashmere and fine wool. One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere and fine wool with principal component analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Preliminary qualitative analysis model has been built: We adopt Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques to collect the spectral data of cashmere and fine wool, two kinds of data pretreatment methods were applied: the standard normal variate (SNV) was used as scatter correction. Savitzky-Golay with the segment size 3 was used as the smoothing way to decrease the noise processed. Followed the pretreatment, spectral data were processed using principal component analysis, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.8%, the scores of these 6 PCs would be taken as the input of the three-layer back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (BP-ANN). Trained the BP-ANN with samples in calibration collection and predicted the samples in prediction collection. Experiments demonstrate that the system works quickly and effectively, and has remarkable advantages in comparison with the previous systems, The result indicted a model had been built to discriminate cashmere from fine wool using Vis/NIR spectra method combined with PCA-BP technology. The model works well, which indicates that this kind of approach is effective and promising, can raise resolution of cashmere and fine wool.

  19. In-line NIR spectroscopy for the understanding of polymer-drug interaction during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerens, Lien; Dierickx, Lien; Quinten, Thomas; Adriaensens, Peter; Carleer, Robert; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate near-infrared spectroscopy for the in-line determination of the drug concentration, the polymer-drug solid-state behaviour and molecular interactions during hot-melt extrusion. Kollidon® SR was extruded with varying metoprolol tartrate (MPT) concentrations (20%, 30% and 40%) and monitored using NIR spectroscopy. A PLS model allowed drug concentration determination. The correlation between predicted and real MPT concentrations was good (R(2)=0.97). The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by the root mean square error of prediction, which was 1.54%. Kollidon® SR with 40% MPT was extruded at 105°C and 135°C to evaluate NIR spectroscopy for in-line polymer-drug solid-state characterisation. NIR spectra indicated the presence of amorphous MPT and hydrogen bonds between drug and polymer in the extrudates. More amorphous MPT and interactions could be found in the extrudates produced at 135°C than at 105°C. Raman spectroscopy, DSC and ATR FT-IR were used to confirm the NIR observations. Due to the instability of the formulation, only in-line Raman spectroscopy was an adequate confirmation tool. NIR spectroscopy is a potential PAT-tool for the in-line determination of API concentration and for the polymer-drug solid-state behaviour monitoring during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion.

  20. Kappa Number Prediction of Acacia melanoxylon Unbleached Kraft Pulps using NIR-PLSR Models with a Narrow Interval of Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J.A. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 120 Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (Australian blackwood stem discs, belonging to 20 trees from four sites in Portugal, were used in this study. The samples were kraft pulped under standard identical conditions targeted to a Kappa number of 15. A Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLSR model was developed for the Kappa number prediction using 75 pulp samples with a narrow Kappa number variation range of 10 to 17. Very good correlations between NIR spectra of A. melanoxylon pulps and Kappa numbers were obtained. Besides the raw spectra, also pre-processed spectra with ten methods were used for PLS analysis (cross validation with 48 samples, and a test set validation was made with 27 samples. The first derivative spectra in the wavenumber range from 6110 to 5440 cm-1 yielded the best model with a root mean square error of prediction of 0.4 units of Kappa number, a coefficient of determination of 92.1%, and two PLS components, with the ratios of performance to deviation (RPD of 3.6 and zero outliers. The obtained NIR-PLSR model for Kappa number determination is sufficiently accurate to be used in screening programs and in quality control.

  1. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The modern near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique, which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile, R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition, the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for the quality control of soy sauce.

  2. [Identification of fine wool and cashmere by using Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gui-fang; Zhu, Deng-sheng; He, Yong

    2008-06-01

    As a rapid and non-destructive methodology, near infrared spectroscopy technique has been attracting much attention recently. The present study applied Vis/NIR spectra to the identification of cashmere and fine wool fiber. Cashmere and fine wool are resemble in superficies, but they differs in diameter, height, thickness, angle of inclination, and marginal morphology of surface scale. Although researchers both at home and abroad did a lot researches and experiments to distinguish fine wool from cashmere, the resolution of cashmere and fine wool is still not satisfactory, and it is always a challenging task to differentiate and recognize fine wool and cashmere. This paper presents an automatic recognition scheme for the fine wool fiber and cashmere fiber by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique, aiming at the characteristics of Vis/NIR spectra of cashmere and fine wool. One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere and fine wool with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN). Preliminary qualitative analysis model has been built: Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques were used to collect the spectral data of cashmere and fine wool, and two kinds of data pretreatment methods were applied: the standard normal variate (SNV) was used for scatter correction. Savitzky-Golay with the segment size 3 was used as the smoothing way to decrease the noise processed. Following the pretreatment, spectral data were processed using principal component analysis, 6 principal components (PCs) were selected based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.8%, and the scores of these 6 PCs would be taken as the input of the three-layer back-propagation (BP) artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The BP-ANN was trained with samples in calibration collection and predicted the samples in prediction collection were predicted. Experiments demonstrate that the system works quickly and effectively, and has remarkable advantages in comparison with the previous systems

  3. NIR-NIR fluorescence: A new genre of fingermark visualisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roberto S P; Hallett, Peter M; Foster, Doug

    2016-05-01

    A preliminary study reveals that finely divided cuprorivaite powder may be used to efficiently develop and subsequently image latent fingermarks across a range of highly patterned, coloured non-porous and semi-porous substrates using near infrared illumination and imaging. Problematic multi-coloured backgrounds provide very little interference under the illumination conditions used, and invoked fluorescence observed, when using this material. This is the first reported example of a NIR-NIR fluorophore for use within latent fingermark visualisation and offers the potential for application at the scene and in the laboratory.

  4. The NIRS Analysis Package: noise reduction and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Tomer; Rubin, Denis; Carlson, Joshua M; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique that can be used to measure cortical hemodynamic responses to specific stimuli or tasks. While analyses of NIRS data are normally adapted from established fMRI techniques, there are nevertheless substantial differences between the two modalities. Here, we investigate the impact of NIRS-specific noise; e.g., systemic (physiological), motion-related artifacts, and serial autocorrelations, upon the validity of statistical inference within the framework of the general linear model. We present a comprehensive framework for noise reduction and statistical inference, which is custom-tailored to the noise characteristics of NIRS. These methods have been implemented in a public domain Matlab toolbox, the NIRS Analysis Package (NAP). Finally, we validate NAP using both simulated and actual data, showing marked improvement in the detection power and reliability of NIRS.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the nirS gene, encoding cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase, of Paracoccus pantotrophus LMD 92.63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N F; Ferguson, S J; Baker, S C

    2000-02-01

    The gene for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase of Paracoccus pantotrophus, a protein of known crystal structure, is nirS. This gene is shown to be flanked by genes previously recognized in other organisms to encode proteins involved in the control of its transcription (nirI) and the biosynthesis of the d1 cofactor (nirE). Northern blot analysis has established under anaerobic conditions that a monocistronic transcript is produced from nirS, in contrast to observations with other denitrifying bacteria in which arrangement of flanking genes is different and the messages produced are polycistronic. The lack of a transcript under aerobic conditions argues against a role for cytochrome cd1 in the previously proposed aerobic denitrification pathway in Pa. pantotrophus. A putative rho-independent transcription termination sequence immediately following nirS, and preceding nirE, can be identified. The independent transcription of nirS and nirE indicates that it should be possible to produce site-directed mutants of nirS borne on a plasmid in a nirS deletion mutant. The transcript start point for nirS has been determined by two complementary techniques, 5'-RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends) and primer extension. It is 29 bp upstream of the AUG of nirS. An anaerobox, which presumably binds Nnr, is centred a further 41.5 bp upstream of the transcript start. No standard sigma70 DNA sequence motifs can be identified, but a conserved sequence (T-T-GIC-C-G/C-G/C) can be found in approximately the same position (-16) upstream of the transcript starts of nirS and nirI, whose products are both involved in the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide.

  6. [Study on the Application of NAS-Based Algorithm in the NIR Model Optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Xiang, Bing-ren; He, Lan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, net analysis signal (NAS)-based concept was introduced to the analysis of multi-component Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts. NAS algorithm was utilized for the preprocessing of spectra, and NAS-based two-dimensional correlation analysis was used for the optimization of NIR model building. Simultaneous quantitative models for three flavonol aglycones: quercetin, keampferol and isorhamnetin were established respectively. The NAS vectors calculated using two algorithms introduced from Lorber and Goicoechea and Olivieri (HLA/GO) were applied in the development of calibration models, the reconstructed spectra were used as input of PLS modeling. For the first time, NAS-based two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was used for wave number selection. The regions appeared in the main diagonal were selected as useful regions for model building. The results implied that two NAS-based preprocessing methods were successfully used for the analysis of quercetin, keampferol and isorhamnetin with a decrease of factor number and an improvement of model robustness. NAS-based algorithm was proven to be a useful tool for the preprocessing of spectra and for optimization of model calibration. The above research showed a practical application value for the NIRS in the analysis of complex multi-component petrochemical medicine with unknown interference.

  7. Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Millar, Samuel J.; Chau, Astor

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating a SWIR camera with a cooled 14 bit HgCdTe detector and N25E spectrograph (Specim Ltd, Finland). Samples are scanned in a pushbroom mode using a motorised stage. The system has a spectral resolution of 256 pixels covering a range of 970-2500 nm and a spatial resolution of 320 pixels covering a swathe adjustable from 8 to 300 mm. Images are acquired at a rate of up to 100 lines s-1, enabling samples to be scanned within a few seconds. Data are captured using SpectralCube software (Specim) and analysed using ENVI and IDL (ITT Visual Information Solutions). Several food applications are presented. The strength of individual absorbance bands enables the distribution of particular components to be assessed. Examples are shown for detection of added gluten in wheat flour and to study the effect of processing conditions on fat distribution in chips/French fries. More detailed quantitative calibrations have been developed to study evolution of the moisture distribution in baguettes during storage at different humidities, to assess freshness of fish using measurements of whole cod and fillets, and for prediction of beef quality by identification and separate measurement of lean and fat regions.

  8. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  9. On the terminology of the spectral vegetation index (NIR – SWIR)/(NIR + SWIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lel; Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral vegetation index (ρNIR – ρSWIR)/(ρNIR + ρSWIR), where ρNIR and ρSWIR are the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectances, respectively, has been widely used to indicate vegetation moisture condition. This index has multiple names in the literature, including infrared index (II), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), normalized difference water index (NDWI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface water index (LSWI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR), etc. After reviewing each term’s definition, associated sensors, and channel specifications, we found that the index consists of three variants, differing only in the SWIR region (1.2–1.3 µm, 1.55–1.75 µm, or 2.05–2.45 µm). Thus, three terms are sufficient to represent these three SWIR variants; other names are redundant and therefore unnecessary. Considering the spectral representativeness, the term’s popularity, and the “rule of priority” in scientific nomenclature, NDWI, NDII, and NBR, each corresponding to the three SWIR regions, are more preferable terms.

  10. Determination of SFC, FFA, and equivalent reaction time for enzymatically interestified oils using NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmøller, Lars P; Kristensen, Dorthe; Rosager, Helle

    2007-02-15

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of the degree of interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and rapeseed oil obtained using an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase at 70 degrees C was investigated. Interesterification was carried out by applying both fixed bed and batch reactors. Calibrations were developed for quantitative determination of solid fat content (SFC) at 10, 20, 30, 35, and 40 degrees C and free fatty acid (FFA) resulting in root mean square errors of prediction of 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.19% (w/w), respectively. The data showed that NIRS could be used to replace the traditional methods for determining FFA and SFC in vegetable oils. It was possible to monitor the activity of the immobilized enzyme for interesterification of margarine oils by predicting the equivalent reaction time in a batch reactor from NIR spectra. Root mean square errors of prediction for two different oil blends interesterified for 300 and 170min were 21 and 12min, respectively.

  11. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  12. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  13. Diversity of nitrite reductase genes (nirS) in the denitrifying water column of the coastal Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, D.A.; Francis, C.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Ward, B.B.

    and 1 sequence from Sample G840. Cluster VIII contained the majority (23 of 26) of the sequences from Sample V400. Many of the se- quences in Cluster VIII were virtually identical to the nirS sequence of the cultivated denitrifier Pseudo- monas... environmental clone, exhibiting close identity to a cul- tured denitrifier species, was also observed in a recent study of the River Colne estuary sediments, in which virtually identical nirS sequences were obtained from a Flavobacterium isolate and from 2 RT...

  14. Advanced MEMS spectral sensor for the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Jarkko E.; Kantojärvi, Uula; Mäkynen, Jussi; Tammi, Matti; Suhonen, Janne

    2015-02-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometers are widely used in many fields to measure material content, such as moisture, fat and protein in grains, foodstuffs and pharmaceutical powders. These fields include applications where only highly miniaturized and robust NIR sensors can be used due to small usable space, weight requirements and/or hostile working environment. Handheld devices for material inspection, online process automation and automotive industry introduce requirements for size, robustness and cost, which is currently difficult to meet. In this paper we present an advanced spectral sensor based on a tunable Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot Interferometer. The sensor is fibercoupled, weighs 125 grams and fits to an envelope of 25x55x55 mm3. Three types of sensors cover the wavelength ranges from 1.35-1.7 μm, 1.55-2.0 μm and 1.7-2.2 μm, utilizing only a single pixel extended InGaAs detector, avoiding the expensive linear array detectors. We describe the design, principle of operation and calibration methods together with the control schemes. Some environmental tests are described and their results and finally application measurement results are presented along with discussion and conclusions.

  15. Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Goddard, L L; Behymer, E

    2007-07-03

    We report on a novel sensing technique combining photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for the detection and monitoring of gas emissions for critical environmental, medical, and industrial applications. We discuss how MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be exploited for in-situ detection and NIR spectroscopy of several gases, such as O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub x}, CH{sub 4}, HF, HCl, etc., with estimated sensitivities between 0.1 and 20 ppm on footprints {approx}10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. The VCSELs can be electrostatically tuned with a continuous wavelength shift up to 20 nm, allowing for unambiguous NIR signature determination. Selective concentration analysis in heterogeneous gas compositions is enabled, thus paving the way to an integrated optical platform for multiplexed gas identification by bandgap and device engineering. We will discuss here, in particular, our efforts on the development of a 760 nm AlGaAs based tunable VCSEL for O{sub 2} detection.

  16. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  17. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  18. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  19. Multipoint NIR spectroscopy for gross composition analysis of powdered infant formula under various motion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Powdered infant formula (PIF) is a worldwide, industrially produced, human milk substitute. Manufacture of PIF faces strict quality controls in order to ensure that the product meets all compositional requirements. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive and well-qualified technique for food quality assessments. The use of fibre-optic NIR sensors allows measuring in-line and at real-time, and can record spectra from different stages of the process. The non-contact character of fibre-optic sensors can be enhanced by fitting collimators, which allow operation at various distances. The system, based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, records four spectra concurrently, rather than consecutively as in the "quasi-simultaneous" multipoint NIR systems. In the present study, a novel multipoint NIR spectroscopy system equipped with four fibre-optic probes with collimators was assessed to determine carbohydrate and protein contents of PIF samples under static and motion conditions (0.02, 0.15 and 0.30m/s) to simulate possible industrial scenarios. Best results were obtained under static conditions providing a R(2) of calibration of 0.95 and RMSEP values of 1.89%. Yet, considerably low values of RMSEP, for instance 2.70% at 0.15m/s, were provided with the in-motion predictions, demonstrating the system's potential for in/on-line applications at various levels of speed. The current work also evaluated the viability of using general off-line calibrations developed under static conditions for on/in-line applications subject to motion. To this end, calibrations in both modes were developed and compared. Best results were obtained with specific calibrations; however, reasonably accurate models were obtained with the general calibration. Furthermore, this work illustrated independency of the collimator-probe setup by characterizing PIF samples simultaneously recorded according to their carbohydrate content, even when measured under different conditions. Therefore

  20. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  1. Impact of blood volume changes within the human skin on the diffuse reflectance measurements in visible and NIR spectral ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Bykov, Alexander; Popov, Alexey; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We consider changes in the volume of blood and oxygen saturation caused by a pulse wave and their influence on the diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible/NIR spectral range. CUDA-based Monte-Carlo model was used for routine simulation of detector depth sensitivity (sampling volume) and skin spectra, and their variations associated with physiological changes in the human skin. The results presented in the form of animated graphs of sampling volume changes for scaling of the parameters of the main human skin layers related to the results of experimental measurements are of particular interest for pulse oximetry, photoplethysmography, Doppler flowmetry, reflectance spectroscopy.

  2. A New NIR Flareof the QSO PMNJ2301-0157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Miramon, J.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the new NIR flare of the high redshift QSO PMNJ2301-0157 (z=0.778), cross identified with the source BZQJ 2301-1058. On November 13th,2016 (MJD 2457705.722), we found the source with the following flux in the NIR band: H = 14.287 +/- 0.03.

  3. NIR Flare of the AGN Candidate PMNJ0107+0333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Miramon, J.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the new NIR flare of the AGN candidate PMNJ0107+0333, cross identified with the X-ray source 1RXS J010729.5+033341. On November 13th,2016 (MJD 2457705.699), we found the source with the following flux in the NIR band: H = 14.657 +/- 0.05.

  4. Cotton micronaire measurements by small portable near infrared (nir) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber’s maturity and fineness. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instru...

  5. TMS: a navigator for NIRS of the primary motor cortex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, K.L.; Munneke, M.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique, which is increasingly used to measure hemodynamic responses in the motor cortex. The location at which the NIRS optodes are placed on the skull is a major factor in measuring the hemodynamic responses optimally. In this s

  6. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis

  7. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapper, C.; Klont, R.E.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with

  8. Near Infrared (nir) Imaging for Nde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    A novel application of near infrared (NIR) signals is presented, which can be used to provide images of many different materials and objects. It is effectively a very low cost non-ionising alternative to many applications currently being investigated using electromagnetic waves at other frequencies, such as THz and X-ray imaging. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from examples industrial quality control, food inspection and various security applications, and the results compared to existing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used in through-transmission mode on biological and medical samples, and images are presented that differentiate between not only flesh and bone, but also various types of soft tissue.

  9. A fast chemometric procedure based on NIR data for authentication of honey with protected geographical indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Latorre, C; Peña Crecente, R M; García Martín, S; Barciela García, J

    2013-12-15

    In this work, information contained in near infrared (NIR) spectra of honeys with protected geographical indication (PGI) "Mel de Galicia" was processed by means of different chemometric techniques to develop an authentication system for this high quality food product. Honey spectra were obtained in a fast and single way, and they were pretreated by means of standard normal variate transformation in order to remove the influence of particle size, scattering and other factors, and prior to their use as input data. As the first step in chemometric study, display techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied in order to demonstrate that the NIR data contained useful information to develop a pattern recognition classification system to authenticate honeys with PGI. The second step consisted in the application of different pattern recognition techniques (such as D-PLS: Discriminant partial least squares regression; SIMCA: Soft independent modelling of class analogy; KNN: K-nearest neighbours; and MLF-NN: Multilayer feedforward neural networks) to derive diverse models for PGI-honey class with the objective of detecting possible falsification of these high-quality honeys. Amongst all the classification chemometric procedures, SIMCA achieved to be the best PGI-model with 93.3% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. Therefore, the combination of NIR information data with SIMCA developed a single and fast method in order to differentiate between genuine PGI-Galician honey samples and other commercial honey samples from other origins that, due to their lower price, could be used as substrates for falsification of genuine PGI ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by NIR reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally industries seek to have a rapid technique to ensure the purity of identity preserved waxy wheat lots. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a technique widely used in the cereals industry for proximate analysis, is a logical candidate for measuring contamination level and thus is the subject of this study. Two sets of wheat samples, harvested, prepared and scanned one year apart, were used to evaluate the NIR concept. One year consisted of nine pairs of conventional:waxy preparations, with each preparation consisting of 29 binary mixtures ranging in conventional wheat fraction (by weight) of 0-100% (261 spectral samples). The second year was prepared in the same fashion, with 12 preparations, thus producing 348 spectral samples. One year's samples were controlled for protein content and moisture level between pair components in order to avoid the basis for the conventional wheat fraction models being caused by something other than spectral differences attributed to waxy and nonwaxy endosperm. Likewise the second year was controlled by selection of conventional wheat for mixture preparation based on either protein content or cluster analysis of principal components of candidate spectra. Partial least squares regression, one and two-term linear regression, and support vector machine regression models were examined. Validation statistics arising from sets within the same year or across years were remarkably similar, as were those among the three regression types. A single wavelength on second derivative transformed spectra, namely 2290 nm, was effective at estimating the mixture level by weight, with standard errors of performance in the 6-9% range. Thus, NIR spectroscopy may be used for measuring conventional hard wheat 'contamination' in waxy wheat at mixture levels above 10% w/w.

  11. Experimental Space Weathering: A coordinated LIBS, TEM, VIS and NIR/MIR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Pavlov, Sergey; Markus, Kathrin; Morlok, Andreas; Wirth, Richard; Weber, Iris; Schreiber, Anja; Hiesinger, Harald; Sohn, Martin; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    We conducted pulsed infrared laser irradiation experiments, in order to simulate space weathering triggered modifications of planetary surfaces not protected by an enveloping atmosphere [1,2], e.g., Mercury. Our work is embedded in the framework of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury [3]. The MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), an onboard spectrometer will deliver surface data in the range of 7 - 14 μm once it reaches orbit in 2024 [4]. Space weathering effects known from other Solar System bodies are likely to be very prominent on Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, the lack of a protective atmosphere and its weak magnetic field [5]. Space weathering effects, e.g., implantation of solar wind in regolith material, sputtering and (micro) meteorite impacts modify the planetary surface and thus, therefrom obtained spectral data in the VIS/NIR range considerably (e.g., reddening and darkening of spectra) [6-9]. We expect modifications induced by space weathering, known from the VIS/NIR range also to show in the mid infrared range, probably by amorphisation or similar still unknown effects [2,10]. Our approach is therefore threefold: a) alter analog material artificially by pulsed laser experiments, b) investigate altered analog material spectrally (VIS/NIR and MIR range) and c) conduct transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on selected weathered grains to better understand the nanostratigraphy developed by irradiation and its impact on the resulting infrared spectra. Here, we report on results obtained from the first set of experiments. Characteristic upper mantle minerals were taken as analog material, Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene, were ground into a powder (Earth, Planets Sp. 1255-1265. [7] Brucato et al. (2003) Earth, Moon, and Planets. 307-314. [8] Sasaki et al. (2003) Adv Sp Res. 2537-2542. [9] Brunetto et al. (2007) Icarus. 381-393. [10] Morlok et al. (2016) Icarus. 352-368.

  12. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  13. NIR autofluorescence and OCT imaging of biotissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorvat, Dusan, Jr.; Smolka, Jozef; Mateasik, Anton; Hrin, Lubos

    2003-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most promising recently developed methods for non-invasive in vivo characterization of biological highly scattering tissues. However, one of the drawbacks of the pure OCT imaging is that it is not sensitive to changes in metabolism. This may impact derived information and consecutive diagnostics, because pathological changes of tissue structure are accompanied with changes in metabolic activity or functional state in these areas even if there is not yet strongly evident structural change. Therefore, it is desirable to combine early detection of tissue malformations by OCT with other techniques, capable to detect and evaluate their functional state. One of suitable candidates for such non-invasive optical functional imaging is detection of laser induced autofluorescence, which could provide information about rate of biological and chemical processes in living cells. As an example, the cells in proliferative state (with increased metabolic activity or during mitosis) show more intensive NIR fluorescence than the cells that are not proliferative, because of increased concentration of free porphyrins. In presented study we used OCT and laser induced NIR autofluorescence imaging for detection and evaluation of changes in areas of naevus and injuries in group of volunteers. The fusion of information on structural and functional state of biotissues provided by the two mentioned complementary methods may enhance the diagnostics power of their prospective clinical use. Firstly the fluorescence of area of naevus and injuries, excited by 630 nm was taken by CCD camera and then was naevus scanned by OCT. The findings of both methods were compared and correlated. In the case of naevus the obtained results were reviewed with histological treatment of the same area.

  14. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  15. Diseno y construccion de un espectrometro NIR; Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. A NIR spectroscopy-based efficient approach to detect fraudulent additions within mixtures of dried porcini mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Monica; Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Di Piazza, Simone; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Boletus edulis and allied species (BEAS), known as "porcini mushrooms", represent almost the totality of wild mushrooms placed on the Italian market, both fresh and dehydrated. Furthermore, considerable amounts of these dried fungi are imported from China. The presence of Tylopilus spp. and other extraneous species (i.e., species edible but not belonging to BEAS) within dried porcini mushrooms - mainly from those imported from China and sold in Italy - may represent an evaluable problem from a commercial point of view. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid and effective alternative to classical methods for identifying extraneous species within dried porcini batches and detecting related commercial frauds. To this goal, 80 dried fungi including BEAS, Tylopilus spp., and Boletus violaceofuscus were analysed by NIRS. For each sample, 3 different parts of the pileus (pileipellis, flesh and hymenium) were analysed and a low-level strategy for data fusion, consisting of combining the signals obtained by the different parts before data processing, was applied. Then, NIR spectra were used to develop reliable and efficient class-models using a novel method, partial least squares density modelling (PLS-DM), and the two most commonly used class-modelling techniques, UNEQ and SIMCA. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric class-modelling technique can be suggested as an effective analytical strategy to check the authenticity of dried BEAS mushrooms.

  17. Evaluation of the value of near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy for the analysis of glycyrrizhic acid in licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Dai, Sheng-Yun; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    It has been reported that hyperspectral data could be employed to qualitatively elucidate the spatial composition of tablets of Chinese medicinal plants. To gain more insights into this technology, a quantitative profile provided by near infrared (NIR) spectromicroscopy was further studied by determining the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Thirty-nine samples from twenty-four different origins were analyzed using NIR spectromicroscopy. Partial least squares, interval partial least square (iPLS), and least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) methods were used to develop linear and non-linear calibration models, with optimal calibration parameters (number of interval numbers, kernel parameter, etc.) being explored. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the iPLS model were 0.717 7% and 0.936 1 in the prediction set, respectively. The RMSEP and R(2) of LS-SVR model were 0.515 5% and 0.951 4 in the prediction set, respectively. These results demonstrated that the glycyrrhizic acid content in licorice could barely be analyzed by NIR spectromicroscopy, suggesting that good quality quantitative data are difficult to obtain from microscopic NIR spectra for complicated Chinese medicinal plant materials.

  18. NIR and optical observations of the failed outbursts of black hole binary XTE J1550-564

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, P A

    2013-01-01

    A number of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) undergo "failed outbursts" in which, instead of evolving through the canonical states, they remain in a hard state throughout the outburst. While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the hard state are relatively well understood, the origin of the near infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more complex though it likely stems from an amalgam of different emission processes, occurring as it does, at the intersecting wavelengths of those processes. We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) during a number of failed outbursts of one such low mass X-ray binary and black hole candidate, XTE J1550-564, in order to confirm or refute their classification as hard-state, failed outbursts. We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the failed outbursts of 2001 and 2000. We compare the NIR/optical photometric, timing, and spectral properties with those expected for the different emission mechanisms ...

  19. [Visible/NIR analysis of fat, protein and water in chilled pork].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui-Wu; Cheng, Fang; Lin, Hong-Jian; Sun, Tong; Xu, Kai; Hu, Lei-Xiu; Ying, Yi-Bin; Xu, Hui-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Fat, protein and water were determined by visible and NIR transmittance spectroscopy in chilled pork. After preprocessed by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), the quantitative analysis models were developed based on the original, first derivative and second derivative spectra by using partial least squares (PLS) at the temperatures of 0-4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. By comparing the correlation coefficient (r), RMSEC, and SEP, we found that the first derivative model was the best, and the performance for 0-4 degrees C was better than that for 20 degrees C. At 0-4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the correlation coefficients were 0.950 and 0.924 for fat, 0.713 and 0.455 for protein and 0.944 and 0.914 for water respectively, SEP values were 2.41 and 2.95 for fat, 5.44 and 4.25 for protein, and 2.37 and 2.38 for water respectively. The results showed that the visible and NIR analysis could measure the fat and water contents in chilled pork well, but was bad for protein, and this was caused by processing line of chilled pork. What's more, the spectrum offset was found in the original spectra at about 770 nm to be about 10 nm.

  20. Investigation of Glucose Non-Invasive Measurement Based on NIR Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingna Zheng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy represents a feasible and promising approach to the noninvasive prediction of blood glucose concentration. This paper experimentally studied and proposed a novel method to develop a stand-alone measurement system, in which laser beams at several particular wavelengths are collimated and illuminated a sample with low-energy NIR by an optical fibre probe, and the diffused reflectance from the sample is collected by a detector. The experimental scheme of the measurement system has been demonstrated to be reasonable and suitable for detecting the change of diffuse reflected absorbance from phantoms and finger tissue. The experimental results have presented the good correlation between the diffuse reflected absorbance and glucose concentration at several particular wavelengths. The spectra lines are perfectly separate from each other at different glucose concentration in vitro. Obvious differences exist in the diffuse reflected absorbance for different glucose concentration. According to the testing standard of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT, the dynamic changes, which the diffuse reflected absorbance from tissue is accompanied with the change of the glucose concentration, have been explored by taking a certain amount oral glucose solution. The results have presented that the sensing system proposed is already able to sense the glucose change from fingertip tissue though the overlapping spectra are encountered. Also, the temperature effect of the sample on the diffuse reflected absorbance of the glucose has been taken into consideration.

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  3. Multivariate analysis of phenol in freeze-dried and spray-dried insulin formulations by NIR and FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Hovgaard, Lars; Havelund, Svend; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2011-06-01

    Dehydration is a commonly used method to stabilise protein formulations. Upon dehydration, there is a significant risk the composition of the formulation will change especially if the protein formulation contains volatile compounds. Phenol is often used as excipient in insulin formulations, stabilising the insulin hexamer by changing the secondary structure. We have previously shown that it is possible to maintain this structural change after drying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual phenol content in spray-dried and freeze-dried insulin formulations by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy using multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) projections were used to analyse spectral data. After drying, there was a difference between the two drying methods in the phenol/insulin ratio and the water content of the dried samples. The spray-dried samples contained more water and less phenol compared with the freeze-dried samples. For the FTIR spectra, the best model used one PLS component to describe the phenol/insulin ratio in the powders, and was based on the second derivative pre-treated spectra in the 850-650 cm(-1) region. The best PLS model based on the NIR spectra utilised three PLS components to describe the phenol/insulin ratio and was based on the standard normal variate transformed spectra in the 6,200-5,800 cm(-1) region. The root mean square error of cross validation was 0.69% and 0.60% (w/w) for the models based on the FTIR and NIR spectra, respectively. In general, both methods were suitable for phenol quantification in dried phenol/insulin samples.

  4. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  5. Vis-NIR Spectroscopy of Mineral Mixtures with Montmorillonite and Silica: Implications for Detecting Alteration Products on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Introduction. A variety of secondary silicates have been identified on Mars using Vis-NIR spectroscopic data from the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l’Eau, les Glaces et l’Activite (OMEGA) on Mars Express and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, including smectite, chlorite, kaolinite, and illite clay minerals and hydrous amorphous silica [1-4]. The detection of these materials is significant because they provide important information about past aqueous environments on Mars. Vis-NIR spectra of specific secondary silicates can be distinguished by the positions and shapes of hydration features. Here, we investigate the detection of secondary silicates by vis-NIR spectroscopy of mixtures with basaltic igneous minerals and either hydrous amorphous silica or montmorillonite. Experimental Procedure. Minor amounts of clay (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 wt%) were physically mixed with augite, andesine, or olivine (75-106 μm). A portion of each mixture was compressed into a pellet. Vis-NIR spectra (0.32-2.55 μm) of particulate and pellet mixtures were measured at RELAB at Brown University, and each spectrum was visually inspected to determine detection limits of secondary silicates based on hydration features. Preliminary Results. Absorptions at 1.4 and 1.9 μm (OH stretch overtone and H2O bend and stretch, respectively) occur in almost all mixture spectra; however, the strength, shape, and position are dependent on the igneous mineral and secondary silicate abundance in the mixture. The morphology of absorptions at ~2.2 μm (from metal-OH bonds) differs between amorphous silica and montmorillonite [3,4], so we use these absorptions to determine the detection limits of amorphous silica and montmorillonite. The 2.2 μm absorption is present in all montmorillonite-mixture spectra, indicating the montmorillonite detection limit is 10 wt% silica. Conclusions. Vis-NIR spectra of our mineral mixtures show that

  6. Discrimination of mercury, cadmium and lead polluted rice leaves based on near infrared spectroscopy technology%基于近红外光谱的重金属汞、镉和铅污染水稻叶片鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 潘家荣; 朱诚

    2013-01-01

    There are hundreds of sources of heavy metal pollution,including the industries of coal,natural gas,paper,and mining.Toxic heavy metals,such as mercury,cadmium and lead,in air,soil,and water are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity.Rice is an important food crop in world,the rice polluted with heavy metal is seriously harmful to people's health.There are many methods to detect the heavy metal,such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES),inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES),atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),X ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF),atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and so on.Although there are many advantages in the above technologies respectively,they are time-consuming,high-cost and sometimes require considerable analytic skill.Nowadays,as near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) responds to molecular energy transitions associated with hydrogen bonds of organic,while inorganic salts are not expected to directly influence NIR spectra.To our interest,several studies have described useful NIR calibrations for minerals analysis.NIR spectra with supposed NIR-transparent minerals may be due to the association of cations with organic or hydrated inorganic molecules.Thus,in order to develop the fast detective technology on heavy metal polluted rice leaves,NIR was combined with pattern recognition to discriminate the mercury,cadmium and lead in polluted rice leaves. The rice was grown in paddy field polluted by mercury,cadmium and lead,the concentration of which was 1.5,1 and 500 mg/kg respectively.After 50 days growth,the absorbance of near infrared spectroscopy of back of flag leaf was detected with Nicolet Nexus 870 (Thermo Corporation USA) and the data was collected with the software of Omnic 7.0.The acquired spectra of leaves with different heavy metal treatments were firstly pretreated with wavelet transform and then input in

  7. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet......Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...

  8. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  9. The low-mass YSO CB230-A: investigating the protostar and its jet with NIR spectroscopy and Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; Brand, Jan; di Fabrizio, Luca; Wouterloot, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A jet from the low-mass YSO CB230-A had been discovered in NIR narrow-band images. We aim to investigate the physical properties of the region from where the jet is launched. Our analysis was carried out using low-resolution NIR spectra acquired with the camera NICS at the TNG telescope, with JH and HK grisms and a 1 arcsec-wide slit. These observational data were complemented with infrared photometric data from the Spitzer space telescope archive. The relevant physical properties of CB230-A were constrained by SED fitting of fluxes from the NIR to the mm. The YSO spectrum exhibits a significant number of atomic and molecular emission and absorption features. The characteristics of this spectrum suggest that we are observing a region in the close vicinity of CB230-A, i. e. its photosphere and/or an active accretion disk. The spectra of the knots in the jet contain a large number of emission lines, including a rich set of [FeII] lines. Emission due to H2 and [FeII] are not spatially correlated, confirming that...

  10. In-line monitoring of the thickness of printed layers by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy at a printing press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Savchuk, Olesya; Genest, Beatrix; Scherzer, Tom

    2012-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the coating weight of printed layers can be determined in-line in a running printing press by near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy assisted by chemometric methods. Three different unpigmented lacquer systems, i.e., a conventional oil-based printing lacquer, an ultraviolet (UV)-curable formulation, and a water-based dispersion varnish, were printed on paper with coating weights between about 0.5 and 7 g m(-2). NIR spectra for calibration were recorded with a special metal reflector simulating the mounting conditions of the probe head at the printing press. Calibration models were developed on the basis of the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and evaluated by independent test samples. The prediction performance of the developed models was examined at a sheet-fed offset printing press at line speeds between 90 and 180 m min(-1). Results show an excellent correlation of data predicted in-line from the NIR spectra with reference values obtained off-line by gravimetry. The prediction errors were found to be ≤ 0.2 g m(-2), which confirms the suitability of the developed spectroscopic method for process control in technical printing processes.

  11. Assessment of powder blend uniformity: Comparison of real-time NIR blend monitoring with stratified sampling in combination with HPLC and at-line NIR Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Barbara; Weimer, Marco; Hauck, Gerrit; Reich, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    Scope of the study was (1) to develop a lean quantitative calibration for real-time near-infrared (NIR) blend monitoring, which meets the requirements in early development of pharmaceutical products and (2) to compare the prediction performance of this approach with the results obtained from stratified sampling using a sample thief in combination with off-line high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and at-line near-infrared chemical imaging (NIRCI). Tablets were manufactured from powder blends and analyzed with NIRCI and HPLC to verify the real-time results. The model formulation contained 25% w/w naproxen as a cohesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium as cohesive excipients and free-flowing mannitol. Five in-line NIR calibration approaches, all using the spectra from the end of the blending process as reference for PLS modeling, were compared in terms of selectivity, precision, prediction accuracy and robustness. High selectivity could be achieved with a "reduced" approach i.e. API and time saving approach (35% reduction of API amount) based on six concentration levels of the API with three levels realized by three independent powder blends and the additional levels obtained by simply increasing the API concentration in these blends. Accuracy and robustness were further improved by combining this calibration set with a second independent data set comprising different excipient concentrations and reflecting different environmental conditions. The combined calibration model was used to monitor the blending process of independent batches. For this model formulation the target concentration of the API could be achieved within 3 min indicating a short blending time. The in-line NIR approach was verified by stratified sampling HPLC and NIRCI results. All three methods revealed comparable results regarding blend end point determination. Differences in both mean API concentration and RSD values could be

  12. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its

  13. [Using GA-dOSC method to eliminate interference of peel with prediction of apple firmness based on near infrared diffuse reflection spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bo-Lin; Qing, Zhao-Shen; Ji, Bao-Ping; Tu, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Da-Zhou; Yin, Jing-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, "Fuji" apples from Shandong Yantai were used to take the diffuse reflection spectra by FT-NIR PLS components (i.e., factors) were computed by nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) and the number of latent factors (LV) was optimized by a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure on the calibration set. On the basis of partial least square (PLS) regression, the models for apples' firmness before and after peeling were compared. In order to eliminate the effect of apple peel on prediction, spectral pretreatments such as multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), derivative, direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) and wavelengths selection based on genetic algorithms (GA) were used. Finally, the results of different spectral treatments were compared. In conclusion, the RSDp of models for apples before and after peeling was 16.71% and 12.36%, respectively, suggesting that the apple peel played a negative role in constructing good predictive models. Moreover, the traditional spectral pretreatments (such as MSC, derivative) can hardly resolve the problem. In this research, GA-DOSC played an important role in reducing the interference of apple peel. It not only reduced the wavelength variables from 1480 to 36, but also reduced the latent variables from 5 to 1. The correlation coefficient (r) was improved from 0.753 to 0.805, and the RMSECV and RMESP were reduced from 1.019 kgf x cm(-2) and 1.197 kgf x cm(-2) to 0.919 kgf x cm(-2) and 0.924 kgf x cm(-2), respectively. Especially, the RSDp was decreased remarkably from 16.71% to 12.89%. The performance of the model after GA-DOSC treatment was similar to the model using spectra of apple flesh (12.36%). It was concluded that the prediction precision based on GA-DOSC satisfied the requirement of NIR non-destruction determination of apples firmness.

  14. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Wei, Hui; Himmel, Michael E; Jameel, Hasan; Kelley, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms) are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis) and for building regression models (partial least square regression) between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated. This review

  15. NIR spectroscopic method for the in-line moisture assessment during drying in a six-segmented fluid bed dryer of a continuous tablet production line: Validation of quantifying abilities and uncertainty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Arruabarrena, Julen; de Beer, Jacques; Hellings, Mario; Van Den Kerkhof, Tom; Burggraeve, Anneleen; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the thorough validation of an in-line NIR based moisture quantification method in the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line (ConsiGma™ 25, GEA Pharma Systems nv, Wommelgem, Belgium). The moisture assessment ability of an FT-NIR spectrometer (Matrix™-F Duplex, Bruker Optics Ltd, UK) equipped with a fiber-optic Lighthouse Probe™ (LHP, GEA Pharma Systems nv, Wommelgem, Belgium) was investigated. Although NIR spectroscopy is a widely used technique for in-process moisture determination, a minority of NIR spectroscopy methods is thoroughly validated. A moisture quantification PLS model was developed. Twenty calibration experiments were conducted, during which spectra were collected at-line and then regressed versus the corresponding residual moisture values obtained via Karl Fischer measurements. The developed NIR moisture quantification model was then validated by calculating the accuracy profiles on the basis of the analysis results of independent in-line validation experiments. Furthermore, as the aim of the NIR method is to replace the destructive, time-consuming Karl Fischer titration, it was statistically demonstrated that the new NIR method performs at least as good as the Karl Fischer reference method.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of major components of milk and the development of analysis instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Ji, Zhongpeng; Tian, Mi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a new spectroscopy analysis instrument, along with applied research based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the major components of milk. Firstly, we analyzed and compared the characteristics of existing near-infrared spectrometers. Then, according to the major component spectra of milk, the spectral range, spectral resolution, and other parameters of the analysis instrument were determined, followed by the construction of a spectroscopy-analysis instrument based on acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Secondly, on the basis of application requirements, we obtained spectral information from a variety of test samples. Finally, qualitative and quantitative testing of the major components of the milk samples was carried out via typical analysis methods and a mathematical model of NIRS. Thus, this study provides a technical reference for the development of spectroscopy instruments and their applied research.

  17. SHARK-NIR system design analysis overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Vassallo, Daniele; Carolo, Elena; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Carlotti, Alexis; De Pascale, Marco; D'Orazi, Valentina; Fantinel, Daniela; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Mohr, Lars; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Verinaud, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the System Design Analysis carried on for SHARK-NIR, the coronagraphic camera designed to take advantage of the outstanding performance that can be obtained with the FLAO facility at the LBT, in the near infrared regime. Born as a fast-track project, the system now foresees both coronagraphic direct imaging and spectroscopic observing mode, together with a first order wavefront correction tool. The analysis we here report includes several trade-offs for the selection of the baseline design, in terms of optical and mechanical engineering, and the choice of the coronagraphic techniques to be implemented, to satisfy both the main scientific drivers and the technical requirements set at the level of the telescope. Further care has been taken on the possible exploitation of the synergy with other LBT instrumentation, like LBTI. A set of system specifications is then flown down from the upper level requirements to finally ensure the fulfillment of the science drivers. The preliminary performance budgets are presented, both in terms of the main optical planes stability and of the image quality, including the contributions of the main error sources in different observing modes.

  18. fNIRS measurements in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ata; Emir, Uzay E.; Bilensoy, Didem; Erdogan, Gulin; Candansyar, Selcuk; Bolay, Hayrunnisa

    2005-04-01

    Migraine is a complex chronic neurovascular disorder in which the interictal changes in neuronal excitability and vascular reactivity in the cerebral cortex were detected. The extent and direction of the changes in cerebral blood flow that affect cerebral hemodynamics during attacks, however, are still a matter of debate. This may have been due to the logistic and technical problems posed by the different techniques to determine cerebral blood flow during migraine attacks and the different definitions of patient populations. In this study, we have investigated hypercapnia challenges by breath holding task on subjects with and without migraine by using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Measurements of the relative changes in concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin [Hb] and oxy-hemoglobin [HbO2] are performed on four healthy subjects during three breath holdings of 30 seconds (s.) interleaved with 90 s. of normal breathing. We have observed [Hb]increase during breath holding interval in subject without migraine whereas in subject with migraine [Hb] decreases during breath holding interval. The result of our study suggest that hypercapnia effect on cerebral hemodynamic of subject with migraine and without migraine could be due to different vascular reactivity to PCO2 (carbon dioxide partial pressure) in arteries.

  19. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanuma, A. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-09-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods.

  20. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-03-11

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm(2). The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications.

  1. Identification of transgenic foods using NIR spectroscopy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, A.; Farahmand, H.; Prieto, N.; Cozzolino, D.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of chemometric methods in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of feeds, foods, medicine and so on has been accompanied with the great evolution in the progress and in the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hence, recently the application of NIR spectroscopy has extended on the context of genetics and transgenic products. The aim of this review was to investigate the application of NIR spectroscopy to identificate transgenic products and to compare it with the traditional methods. The results of copious researches showed that the application of NIRS technology was successful to distinguish transgenic foods and it has advantages such as fast, avoiding time-consuming, non-destructive and low cost in relation to the antecedent methods such as PCR and ELISA.

  2. Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Rosazza, Christelle; Winterhalder, Martin J; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-05-11

    Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.

  3. NIR emitting ytterbium chelates for colourless luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Alessandro; Monguzzi, Angelo; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Meinardi, Franco; Ronchi, Elisabetta; Moret, Massimo; Cosentino, Ugo; Moro, Giorgio; Simonutti, Roberto; Mauri, Michele; Tubino, Riccardo; Beverina, Luca

    2012-05-14

    A new oxyiminopyrazole-based ytterbium chelate enables NIR emission upon UV excitation in colorless single layer luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  4. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  5. Emission spectra of YAG:Er3+ under pulse laser-thermal excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, V. M.; Shakir, Yu. A.

    2016-12-01

    Spectra and kinetics of emission of YAG:0.5% Er3+ monocrystal in visible and NIR ranges were investigated under laser-thermal excitation by the pulses of CO2 laser of 100 ns duration at wavelength λ = 10,6 μμm. Kinetics of integral emission was interpreted.

  6. Interpreting the near-infrared spectra of the 'golden standard' Type Ia supernova 2005cf

    CERN Document Server

    Gall, E E E; Kromer, M; Sim, S A; Benetti, S; Blanc, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W

    2012-01-01

    We present nine near-infrared (NIR) spectra of supernova (SN) 2005cf at epochs from -10 d to +42 d with respect to B-band maximum, complementing the existing excellent data sets available for this prototypical Type Ia SN at other wavelengths. The spectra show a time evolution and spectral features characteristic of normal Type Ia SNe, as illustrated by a comparison with SNe 1999ee, 2002bo and 2003du. The broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) of SN 2005cf is studied in combined ultraviolet (UV), optical and NIR spectra at five epochs between ~ 8 d before and ~ 10 d after maximum light. We also present synthetic spectra of the hydrodynamic explosion model W7, which reproduce the key properties of SN 2005cf not only at UV-optical as previously reported, but also at NIR wavelengths. From the radiative-transfer calculations we infer that fluorescence is the driving mechanism that shapes the SED of SNe Ia. In particular, the NIR part of the spectrum is almost devoid of absorption features, and instead domin...

  7. Post-maximum near infrared spectra of SN 2014J: A search for interaction signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Banerjee, D P K; Marion, G H; Diamond, T R; Joshi, V; Parrent, J T; Phillips, M M; Stritzinger, M D; Venkataraman, V

    2016-01-01

    We present near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. The seventeen NIR spectra span epochs from +15.3 to +92.5 days after $B$-band maximum light, while the $JHK_s$ photometry include epochs from $-$10 to +71 days. This data is used to constrain the progenitor system of SN 2014J utilizing the Pa$\\beta$ line, following recent suggestions that this phase period and the NIR in particular are excellent for constraining the amount of swept up hydrogen-rich material associated with a non-degenerate companion star. We find no evidence for Pa$\\beta$ emission lines in our post-maximum spectra, with a rough hydrogen mass limit of $\\lesssim$0.1 $M_{\\odot}$, which is consistent with previous limits in SN 2014J from late-time optical spectra of the H$\\alpha$ line. Nonetheless, the growing dataset of high-quality NIR spectra holds the promise of very useful hydrogen constraints.

  8. NIR Electrofluorochromic Properties of Aza-Boron-dipyrromethene Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The photophysical properties of near-infrared (NIR) emissive aza-boron-dipyrromethene (aza-BDP) dyes incorporating nitrofluorene and alkoxy decorations were intensively investigated. Their highly reversible one-electron reduction process showed characteristic electrofluorochromic (EF) properties in the NIR range, depending on the substituents. The nitrofluorene ethynyl-substituted (Type I) dyes showed smaller EF effects than the alkoxy-containing (Type II) dyes because of the difference in th...

  9. Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG-NIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    oxygen- based ( near -infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), functional MRI (fMRI)) signals, and to use the results to help optimize BOLD fMRI analyses of brain...2. Keywords BOLD – blood oxygen level dependent EEG – electroencephalography NIRS – near -infrared spectroscopy fMRI – functional MRI MS...INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND NEAR -INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY NEUROIMAGING MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS P.40LO GlACO~lETTT 1. COURSE O VERVIEW T he

  10. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  11. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey; Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan; Floyd, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  12. Emerging Multifunctional NIR Photothermal Therapy Systems Based on Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered therapy platforms are now considered as a new and exciting possibility for clinical nanomedicine applications. As a promising photothermal agent, polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles have been extensively studied for the hyperthermia in cancer therapy due to their strong NIR light photothermal effect and excellent biocompatibility. However, the photothermal application of PPy based nanomaterials is still in its preliminary stage. Developing PPy based multifuncti...

  13. Measurement of sugar content in Fuji apples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕德; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy and the influence of the distance between the light source/detection probe and the fruit for measuring the sugar content (SC) of Fuji apples, diffuse reflectance spectra were measured in the spectral range from 12500 to 4000 cm-1 at 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm distances. Four calibration models at four distances were established between diffused reflectance spectra and sugar content by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation coefficients (R) of calibrations ranged from 0.982 to 0.997 with SEC values from 0.138 to 0.453 and the SECV values from 0.74 to 1.58. The best model of original spectra at 0 mm distance yielded high correlation determination of 0.918, a SEC of 0.092, and a SEP of 0.773. The results showed that different light/detection probe-fruit distances influence the apple reflective spectra and SC predictions.

  14. Measurement of sugar content in Fuji apples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕德; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy and the influence of the distance between the light source/detection probe and the fruit for measuring the sugar content (SC) of Fuji apples, diffuse reflectance spectra were measured in the spectral range from 12500 to 4000 cm(1 at 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm distances. Four calibration models at four distances were established between diffused reflectance spectra and sugar content by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The correlation coefficients (R) of calibrations ranged from 0.982 to 0.997 with SEC values from 0.138 to 0.453 and the SECV values from 0.74 to 1.58. The best model of original spectra at 0 mm distance yielded high correlation determination of 0.918, a SEC of 0.092, and a SEP of 0.773. The results showed that different light/detection probe-fruit distances influence the apple reflective spectra and SC predictions.

  15. Novel INHAT repressor (NIR) is required for early lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi A; Pusso, Antonia; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Yongge; Hoffmann, Victoria; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Fowlkes, B J; Jain, Ashish

    2014-09-23

    Novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase repressor (NIR) is a transcriptional corepressor with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase activity and is a potent suppressor of p53. Although NIR deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality, lymphoid-restricted deletion resulted in the absence of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, whereas bone-marrow-derived B cells were arrested at the B220(+)CD19(-) pro-B-cell stage. V(D)J recombination was preserved in NIR-deficient DN3 double-negative thymocytes, suggesting that NIR does not affect p53 function in response to physiologic DNA breaks. Nevertheless, the combined deficiency of NIR and p53 provided rescue of DN3L double-negative thymocytes and their further differentiation to double- and single-positive thymocytes, whereas B cells in the marrow further developed to the B220(+)CD19(+) pro-B-cell stage. Our results show that NIR cooperate with p53 to impose checkpoint for the generation of mature B and T lymphocytes.

  16. Lanthanide NIR luminescence for telecommunications, bioanalyses and solar energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Claude; G.; Bünzli; V.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day advanced technologies heavily rely on the exciting magnetic and spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions. In particular, their ability to generate well-characterized and intense near-infrared (NIR) luminescence is exploited in any modern fiber-optic telecommunication network. In this feature article, we first summarize the whereabouts underlying the design of highly luminescent NIR molecular edifices and materials. We then focus on describing the main trends in three applications related to this spectral range: telecommunications, biosciences, and solar energy conversion. In telecommunications, efforts concentrate presently on getting easily processable polymer-based waveguide amplifiers. Upconversion nanophosphors emitting in the visible after NIR excitation are now ubiquitous in many bioanalyses while their application to bio-imaging is still in its early stages; however, highly sensitive NIR-NIR systems start to be at hand for both in vitro and in vivo imaging, as well as dual probes combining magnetic resonance and optical imaging. Finally, both silicon-based and dye-sensitized solar cells benefit from the downconversion and upconversion capabilities of lanthanide ions to harvest UV and NIR solar light and to boost the overall quantum efficiency of these next-generation devices.

  17. A Clinical Tissue Oximeter Using NIR Time-Resolved Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaka, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kamada, Tsuyoshi; Kitazawa, Ken; Nishizawa, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    The tNIRS-1, a new clinical tissue oximeter using NIR time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), has been developed. The tNIRS-1 measures oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation in living tissues. Two-channel TRS measurements are obtained using pulsed laser diodes (LD) at three wavelengths, multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) for light detection, and time-to-digital converters (TDC) for time-of-flight photon measurements. Incorporating advanced semiconductor devices helped to make the design of this small-size, low-cost and low-power TRS instrument possible. In order to evaluate the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1, a study using blood phantoms and healthy volunteers was conducted to compare data obtained from a conventional SRS device and data from an earlier TRS system designed for research purposes. The results of the study confirmed the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1. Clinical evaluations conducted in several hospitals demonstrated a high level of usability in clinical situations and confirmed the efficacy of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1.

  18. Highly diverse nirK genes comprise two major clades that harbour ammonium-producing denitrifiers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Copper dependent nitrite reductase, NirK, catalyses the key step in denitrification, i.e. nitrite reduction to nitric oxide. Distinct structural NirK classes and phylogenetic clades of NirK-type denitrifiers have previously been observed based on a limited set of NirK sequences, however, their environmental distribution or ecological strategies are currently unknown. In addition, environmental nirK-type denitrifiers are currently underestimated in PCR-dependent surveys due to prime...

  19. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  20. A modified perpendicular drought index in NIR-Red reflectance space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Li; Debao, Tan

    2014-03-01

    Soil moisture and vegetation index provides valuable information for surface water content and drought assessment with remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new drought monitoring method (MPDI1) with soil moisture and vegetation index is constructed in NIR-Red reflectance space. The relationship between MPDI1 and soil moisture is explored using satellite image and field measure data, and a comparison among MPDI1, the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI), and the Modified Perpendicular Drought Index (MPDI) is also evaluated. Results indicate that the MPDI1 is highly accordant with the in-situ ground observation with the coefficient of determination (R2=0.4905) between MPDI1 and 5-20 cm mean soil moisture. Moreover, PDI, MPDI and MPDI1 provide quite similar spatial patterns for bare soil or lower vegetated surface, but MPDI1 demonstrates a better performance in measuring densely vegetated surface. This paper concludes that MPDI1 is a useful tool for surface drought estimation under complex underlying conditions.

  1. Spectra-structure correlations of saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids. Near-infrared and anharmonic DFT study of hexanoic acid and sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ishigaki, Mika; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-05

    Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids. Broad range of concentration levels from 5·10(-4)M in CCl4 to pure samples are investigated. The major role of cyclic dimers can be evidenced for the vast majority of these samples. A highly specific NIR feature of fatty acids, the elevation of spectral baseline around 6500-4000cm(-1), is being explained by the contributions of combination bands resulting from the vibrations of hydrogen-bonded OH groups in the cyclic dimers. Based on the high agreement between the calculated and experimental NIR spectra, a detailed NIR band assignments are proposed for hexanoic acid and sorbic acid. Subsequently, the correlations between the structure and NIR spectra are elucidated, emphasizing the regions in which clear and universal traces of specific bands corresponding to saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains can be established, thus demonstrating the wavenumber regions highly valuable for structural identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid assessment of bioactive phenolics and methylxanthines in spent coffee grounds by FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luís M; Machado, Sandia; Segundo, Marcela A; Lopes, João A; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J

    2016-01-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) are a great source of bioactive compounds with interest to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Phenolics and methylxanthines are the main health related compounds present in SCG samples. Content estimation of these compounds in SCGs is of upmost importance in what concerns their profitable use by waste recovery industries. In the present work, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was proposed as a rapid and non-destructive technique to assess the content of three main phenolics (caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and chlorogenic acid) and three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) in SCG samples obtained from different coffee brands and diverse coffee machines. The content of these compounds was determined for 61 SCG samples by HPLC coupled with diode-array detection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression based models were calibrated to correlate diffuse reflectance NIR spectra against the reference data for the six parameters obtained by HPLC. Spectral wavelength selection and number of latent variables were optimized by minimizing the cross-validation error. PLS models showed good linearity with a coefficient of determination for the prediction set (Rp(2)) of 0.95, 0.92, 0.88, 071 and 0.84 for caffeine, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline, respectively. The range error ratio (RER) was higher for caffeine (17.8) when compared to other compounds (12.0, 10.1, 7.6 and 9.2, respectively for caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid and theophylline). Moreover, the content of caffeine could be used to predict the antioxidant properties of SCG samples (R=0.808, n=61), despite not presenting this property itself. The results obtained confirmed that NIRS is a suitable technique to screen SCG samples unveiling those with high content of bioactive compounds, which are interesting for subsequent extraction procedures.

  3. NIRS-Derived Tissue Oxygen Saturation and Hydrogen Ion Concentration Following Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Everett, M. E.; Crowell, J. B.; Westby, C. M.; Soller, B. R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term bed rest (BR), a model of spaceflight, results in a decrease in aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. The strongest BR-induced effects on exercise appear to be centrally-mediated, but longer BR durations may result in peripheral adaptations (e.g., decreased mitochondrial and capillary density) which are likely to influence exercise responses. PURPOSE: To measure tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the vastus lateralis (VL) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycle ergometry before and after . 30 d of BR. METHODS: Eight subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional fatigue 7 d before (pre-BR) and at the end or 1 day after BR (post-BR). NIRS spectra were collected from a sensor adhered to the skin overlying the VL. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured by open circuit spirometry. Blood volume (BV) was measured before and after BR using the carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. Changes in pre- and post-BR SO2 and [H+] data were compared using mixed model analyses. BV and peak exercise data were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: BV (pre-BR: 4.3+/-0.3, post-BR: 3.7+/-0.2 L, mean+/-SE, p=.01) and peak VO2 (pre-BR: 1.98+/-0.24, post-BR: 1.48 +/-0.21 L/min, padaptations which contribute to cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning as measured by NIRS-derived SO2 and [H+] in the VL and may contribute to lower post-BR exercise tolerance. Supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58

  4. Data preprocessing methods of FT-NIR spectral data for the classification cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruah, Mas Ezatul Nadia Mohd; Rasaruddin, Nor Fazila; Fong, Sim Siong; Jaafar, Mohd Zuli

    2014-12-01

    This recent work describes the data pre-processing method of FT-NIR spectroscopy datasets of cooking oil and its quality parameters with chemometrics method. Pre-processing of near-infrared (NIR) spectral data has become an integral part of chemometrics modelling. Hence, this work is dedicated to investigate the utility and effectiveness of pre-processing algorithms namely row scaling, column scaling and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate (SNV). The combinations of these scaling methods have impact on exploratory analysis and classification via Principle Component Analysis plot (PCA). The samples were divided into palm oil and non-palm cooking oil. The classification model was build using FT-NIR cooking oil spectra datasets in absorbance mode at the range of 4000cm-1-14000cm-1. Savitzky Golay derivative was applied before developing the classification model. Then, the data was separated into two sets which were training set and test set by using Duplex method. The number of each class was kept equal to 2/3 of the class that has the minimum number of sample. Then, the sample was employed t-statistic as variable selection method in order to select which variable is significant towards the classification models. The evaluation of data pre-processing were looking at value of modified silhouette width (mSW), PCA and also Percentage Correctly Classified (%CC). The results show that different data processing strategies resulting to substantial amount of model performances quality. The effects of several data pre-processing i.e. row scaling, column standardisation and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate indicated by mSW and %CC. At two PCs model, all five classifier gave high %CC except Quadratic Distance Analysis.

  5. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative NIR Detector Characterization for NGST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew (Technical Monitor); Figer, Donald

    2004-01-01

    List of publications for final perfomance report are: Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, SPIE Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, AAS, 203, 124.07 Independent Testing of JWST Detector Prototypes Figer, D.F., Rauscher, B. J., Regan, M. W., Morse, E., Balleza, J., Bergeron, L., & Stockman, H. S. 2003 , SPIE, 5 167 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the NGST Detector Program Figer, D.F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,981 Intra-Pixel Sensitivity in NIR Detectors for NGST Sharma, U., Figer, D.F., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,1001 NIRCAM Image Simulations for NGST Wavefiont SensinglPS A. Sivaramakrishnan, D. Figer, H. Bushouse, H. S. Stockman (STScI),C. Ohara , D. Redding (JPL), M. Im (IPAC), & J. Offenberg (Raytheon) 2003, SPIE, 4850,388 Ultra-Low Background Operation of Near-Infrared Detectors for NGS Rauscher, B. J., Figer, D. F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,962 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program Figer, D.F. et a1.2003, AAS201, #131.05

  7. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  8. Hydration of human nails investigated by NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, S; Gniadecka, M; Jemec, G B; Wulf, H C

    1999-08-17

    The human nail, although it is usually stable against outer influences, becomes soft and flexible after soaking in water. Frequent washing increases brittleness of nails. Hydration of nails is thought to be the most important factor influencing the physical properties of nails and possibly acts through changes in keratin structure. Here NIR-FT-Raman has been used to examine molecular structural changes of intact moisten nails. Raman spectra were obtained both in vitro from nail samples and in vivo before and after soaking in water. The water uptake of normal nail samples during the first 15 min was reflected in the increasing intensity ratio of the nu(OH)/nu(CH(2)) bands. A saturating effect appeared soon after 10 min which is explained by a defined water holding capacity. R(nu) representation of the low frequency range of the Raman spectra showed that mainly bound water is found both in dry and in wet nails. This implies water-protein interaction. Protein backbone vibration at 932 cm(-1) indicating alpha-helical proteins increased in intensity in the wet nails. The nu(S-S) which is sensitive to changes in conformation of proteins showed a 4% higher intensity. Additional protein-water interactions could lead to a slight change of the dihedral angle of the C-S-S-C bonds and to geometric changes in coiling behavior of the alpha-helical protein. Suggesting a separation between matrix proteins and fiber proteins giving them a greater freedom of flexibility. The in vivo spectra detected from the distal part of the nail resembled spectra in vitro. Raman spectra of the proximal part of the nail showed that it was fully saturated with water. The proximal part of the nail did not show changes in water content and protein structure during nail moisturizing in the Raman spectra. Our results suggest that the softening of the nail following hydration may be due to changed matrix protein molecular structure induced by water.

  9. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    possible. The average of five gravimetric analyses from the homogenized overall sample was used to calibrate the instruments. Models were built using multi variable data analysis from the spectra together with these gravimetric reference measurements. The result was that we achieved a RMSEP (standard deviation between the instrument measurement and the reference measurement) of 2,2 % moisture for the RF-methods for all fuels (wood, root-branch-top, flakes, bark and reuse wood) except peat, and for the whole moisture range (30-72% moisture content). A separate calibration was performed on peat, which has a very different density than the other materials. RMSEP for peat was 3.1 % moisture. For a more limited moisture range and only separate fuel fractions the RMSEP could be < 2 %. For the NIR-method the FT-NIR achieved a RMSEP of 1.6 % moisture when all fuels except peat and reuse fuel were used for calibration, and for the whole moisture range (34-72%). For peat the RMSEP was 4.8 % moisture due to the inhomogeneous material. For the DA-NIR instrument the corresponding figures were RMSEP 2.1 and 3.5 %. When we include also sampling from the large volume the instrument measurements will normally be better than the manual sampling followed by the gravimetric analysis used today, with few samples. The gravimetric reference method has a standard deviation of 1,1- 3,6 % moisture depending on the fuel type. To this we have to add the uncertainty in the sampling with respect to the complete delivery of a large volume. As the inaccuracy of the reference method is included in the RMSEP, we can never achieve a better RMSEP than the standard deviation of the reference method. This is important to notice, and partly explains the apparently high values of the RMSEP. The conclusion is that both the RF and the NIR-methods can be used instead of the lab methods used today. These instruments are very fast and the price level should be acceptable compared to the cost of lab-measurements and

  10. Icephobicity of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Shirazi, Elika T.; Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh

    2016-11-01

    Ice adhesion and excessive accumulation on exposed structures and equipment are well known to cause serious problems in cold-climate regions; therefore, the development of coatings that can resist icing can solve many challenges in various areas of industry. This work was inspired by nature and ice-resistivity and superhydrophobicity of plants leaves. Kale is an example of a plant that can be harvested in winter. It shows superhydrophobic behavior, which is normally known as an advantage for cleaning the leaves, but we were able to show that its surface structure and high contact angle of water drops on kale leaves could delay the ice formation process making it a good candidate for an ice-repellent coating. We have performed in-depth experimental analyses on how different plants can prevent icing, and contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the leaves were taken to further mimic their surface morphology.

  11. In situ measurements of organic carbon in soil profiles using vis-NIR spectroscopy on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Shi, Zhou; Chen, Songchao; Ji, Wenjun; Zhou, Lianqing; Yu, Wu; Webster, Richard

    2015-04-21

    We wish to estimate the amount of carbon (C) stored in the soil at high altitudes, for which there is little information. Collecting and transporting large numbers of soil samples from such terrain are difficult, and we have therefore evaluated the feasibility of scanning with visible near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy in situ for the rapid measurement of the soil in the field. We took 28 cores (≈1 m depth and 5 cm diameter) of soil at altitudes from 2900 to 4500 m in the Sygera Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Spectra were acquired from fresh, vertical faces 5 × 5 cm in area from the centers of the cores to give 413 spectra in all. The raw spectra were pretreated by several methods to remove noise, and statistical models were built to predict of the organic C in the samples from the spectra by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). The bootstrap was used to assess the uncertainty of the predictions by the several combinations of pretreatment and models. The predictions by LS-SVM from the field spectra, for which R(2) = 0.81, the root-mean-square error RMSE = 8.40, and the ratio of the interquartile distance RPIQ = 2.66, were comparable to the PLSR predictions from the laboratory spectra (R(2) = 0.85, RMSE = 7.28, RPIQ = 3.09). We conclude that vis-NIR scanning in situ in the field is a sufficiently accurate rapid means of estimating the concentration of organic C in soil profiles in this high region and perhaps elsewhere.

  12. Standardization of near infrared spectra measured on multi-instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-11

    Calibration model transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. An approach for calibration transfer based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm is proposed in this work. From the three-way spectral matrix measured on different instruments, the relative intensity of concentration, spectrum and instrument is obtained using trilinear decomposition. Because the relative intensity of instrument is a reflection of the spectral difference between instruments, the spectra measured on different instruments can be standardized by a correction of the coefficients in the relative intensity. Two NIR datasets of corn and tobacco leaf samples measured with three instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra measured on one instrument can be correctly predicted using the partial least squares (PLS) models built with the spectra measured on the other instruments.

  13. Nondestructive Determination Method of Fruit Quantity Detection Based on Vis/NIR Spectroscopy Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyue; He, Yong; Garcla Pereira, Annia; Hernandez Gomez, Antihus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between Vis/NIR spectral and the major physiological properties of tomato-soluble solids content (SSC), acidity (pH) and fruit firmness. A total of 200 tomatoes were hand harvested and analyzed the spectra features using spectrophotometer. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to develop the prediction models. The models for SSC (r= 0.90) of standard error of prediction (SEP) 0.19 Brix with three factors; pH r= 0.83) of SEP 0.09 with four factors; compression force(r= 0.81) of SEP 16.017N with six factors, and puncture force (r= 0.83) of SEP 1.18N with three factors, showed the excellent prediction performance. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had significantly greater accuracy in determining SSC. It was concluded that it is possible to assess the quality characteristics of tomato.

  14. NIR spectroscopy as a tool for discriminating between lichens exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Monica; Bagnasco, Lucia; Giordani, Paolo; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Malaspina, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Lichens are used as biomonitors of air pollution because they are extremely sensitive to the presence of substances that alter atmospheric composition. Fifty-one thalli of two different varieties of Pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) were collected far from local sources of air pollution. Twenty-six of these thalli were then exposed to the air for one month in the industrial port of Genoa, which has high levels of environmental pollution. The possibility of using Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for generating a 'fingerprint' of lichens was investigated. Chemometric methods were successfully applied to discriminate between samples from polluted and non-polluted areas. In particular, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied as a multivariate display method on the NIR spectra to visualise the data structure. This showed that the difference between samples of different varieties was not significant in comparison to the difference between samples exposed to different levels of environmental pollution. Then Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was carried out to discriminate between lichens based on their exposure to pollutants. The distinction between control samples (not exposed) and samples exposed to the air in the industrial port of Genoa was evaluated. On average, 95.2% of samples were correctly classified, 93.0% of total internal prediction (5 cross-validation groups) and 100.0% of external prediction (on the test set) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Superhydrophobic, Self-cleaning NIR-reflective Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Reed, Ella Louise; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Venkatesan, Thirumalai Venky; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2016-11-01

    Multifunctional coatings offer many advantages towards protecting various surfaces. Here we apply aggregation induced segregation of perylene diimide (PDI) to control the surface morphology and properties of silica nanoparticles. Differentially functionalized PDI was incorporated on the surface of silica nanoparticles through Si-O-Si bonds. The absorption and emission spectra of the resultant functionalised nanoparticles showed monomeric or excimeric peaks based on the amounts of perylene molecules present on the surface of silica nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements on thin films prepared from nanoparticles showed that unfunctionalised nanoparticles were superhydrophilic with a contact angle (CA) of 0°, whereas perylene functionalised silica particles were hydrophobic (CA > 130°) and nanoparticles functionalised with PDI and trimethoxy(octadecyl)silane (TMODS) in an equimolar ratio were superhydrophobic with static CA > 150° and sliding angle (SA) PDI incorporated silica nanoparticles can be used to protect various heat sensitive substrates. The concept developed in this paper offers a unique combination of super hydrophobicity, interesting optical properties and NIR reflectance in nanosilica, which could be used for interesting applications such as surface coatings with self-cleaning and NIR reflection properties.

  16. Development of a Danish national vis—NIR soil spectral library for SOC determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Deng, Fan; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog;

    The development of a soil spectral library is a prerequisite for using vis-NIR spectroscopy for soil analysis. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to create a Danish national soil library with a main focus on building a model for SOC determination and (ii) to test the feasibility of using...... the library to predict SOC from new dry and moist samples, before and after spiking the library with additional local samples. Soils spectra were obtained using Labspec 5100 (350-2500 nm) vis-NIR sensor. The best validation model resulted in RMSEP value of 0.31, R2 value of 0.79 and RPD value of 2.......3. The prediction on independent data resulted in very similar results: RMSEP=0.29, R2 of 0.81 and RPD of 2.4. Before spiking the library moderate SOC predictions were obtained for the new dry soils. Prediction on moist samples however, required prior spiking the global library with moist samples from the new...

  17. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  18. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  19. Identifying plant species using mid-wave infrared (2.5-6µm) and thermal infrared (8-14µm) emissivity spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, S.; Schlerf, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hecker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species discrimination using remote sensing is generally limited by the similarity of their reflectance spectra in the visible, NIR and SWIR domains. Laboratory measured emissivity spectra in the mid infrared (MIR; 2.5µm-6µm) and the thermal infrared (TIR; 8µm-14µm) domain of different plant s

  20. [Duration of maternity leave and sick leave during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Sabroe, S

    1999-09-06

    The aim of the project was to describe the reasons for sick leave during pregnancy. This article presents data on a subgroup of women on sick leave. The purpose of this reanalysis was to examine whether women with short maternity leave had longer sick leave during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish County applying for sick leave in a year were consecutively included in the study. Data were obtained by questionnaires during 1991-1992. Women with rights to a longer maternity leave, obtained through collective bargaining, were mainly employed in occupational groups related to the public sector and were on sick leave significantly longer, than women with short maternity leave, obtained only through legislation. The diagnoses differed among the two groups. Data suggest unequal possibilities for obtaining pregnancy related sick leave, as women with longer predelivery leave and a more secure employment situation had significantly longer sick leave than other women.

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometric analysis of Malaysian and UK paracetamol tablets: a spectral database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mazlina M; Gibbons, Simon; Moffat, Anthony C; Zloh, Mire

    2011-08-30

    The influx of medicines from different sources into healthcare systems of developing countries presents a challenge to monitor their origin and quality. The absence of a repository of reference samples or spectra prevents the analysis of tablets by direct comparison. A set of paracetamol tablets purchased in Malaysian pharmacies were compared to a similar set of sample purchased in the UK using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Additional samples of products containing ibuprofen or paracetamol in combination with other actives were added to the study as negative controls. NIR spectra of the samples were acquired and compared by using multivariate modeling and classification algorithms (PCA/SIMCA) and stored in a spectral database. All analysed paracetamol samples contained the purported active ingredient with only 1 out of 20 batches excluded from the 95% confidence interval, while the negative controls were clearly classified as outliers of the set. Although the substandard products were not detected in the purchased sample set, our results indicated variability in the quality of the Malaysian tablets. A database of spectra was created and search methods were evaluated for correct identification of tablets. The approach presented here can be further developed as a method for identifying substandard pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary study on nitrite degradation by nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria%nirS基因重组工程菌降解亚硝酸盐的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴兴; 陈学萍; 刘冬秀; 沈洁; 陆永生

    2014-01-01

    通过基因工程手段增加厌氧氨氧化菌亚硝酸盐还原酶(nitrite reductase, nirS)的表达量,运用质粒载体pGEM-T克隆nirS基因。琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测显示, nirS基因重组工程菌在440 bp处有明显的目的条带; nirS基因重组工程菌扩大培养7~8h后即达到生长曲线稳定期,引入外加氮源后,菌体生长情况更优。通过不同菌液投加量以及处理不同初始浓度的亚硝酸钠溶液,检测nirS基因重组工程菌的性能。结果表明,当nirS基因重组工程菌投加30 mL(细菌数为2.3×107个∕mL),亚硝酸盐初始质量浓度为40 mg∕L时,亚硝酸盐去除率达到90%以上。nirS基因重组工程菌可适用于亚硝酸盐废水的处理。%In order to improve the expression quantity of nitrite reductase (nirS) in ANAMMOX bacteria through bioengineering means, nirS gene was cloned using the plasmid vector pGEM-T. A target band of 440 bp PCR products from the recombinant genetic engineering bacter was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria reached stationary phase after 7-8 hours incubation, the addition of nitrogen source was advantageous to the growth of bacteria significantly. The performance of nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria was tested by adding different dosages of bacteria and treating sodium nitrite solu‐tion with different initial concentrations. The results showed that, when 30 mL of nirS recombinant genetic engi‐neering bacteria(2.3 × 107 cells/mL) inoculates was added to the solution with 40 mg/L of initial mass concentra‐tion of nitrite, the removal rate of nitrite reached above 90%. It was indicated that nirS recombinant genetic en‐gineering bacteria could be applied for nitrite-containing wastewater treatment in the future.

  3. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  4. Activation detection in fNIRS by wavelet coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Niu, Haijing; Song, Yan; Fan, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical technique measuring hemoglobin oxygenation and deoxygenation concentrations of the brain cortex with higher temporal resolution than current alternative techniques. The high temporal resolution enables collecting abundant brain functional information. However, the information collected by fNIRS is correlated and mixed with a variety of physiological signals. Due to the mixture effect, activation detection is one of challenges in fNIRS based studies of the brain functional activities. To achieve a better detection of activated brain regions from the complicated information measures, we present a multi-scale analysis method based on a wavelet coherence measure. In particular, the paradigm of an experiment is used as the reference signal. The coherence of the signal with data measured by fNIRS at each channel is calculated and summed up to evaluate the activation level. Experiments on simulated and real data have demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient and effective to detect activated brain regions covered by the fNIRS probe.

  5. Multi-step Redox Systems with NIR-Fluorescence Based on 4H-Imidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matschke

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new class of 4H-imidazoles was synthesized starting from fused-ring aromatic dinitriles. Strong bathochromic shifts of the longest wavelength absorptions were observed in the corresponding UV/vis spectra due to a conversion of the merocyanine chromophores into cyanines/(azaoxonoles upon protonation/deprotonation of the 4H-imidazoles. Novel boratetraazapentalenes were synthesized via a cyclization reaction with boron trifluoride. These mesoionic species bearing a cyanine chromophore not only show NIR-fluorescence, they also participate as part of a quasi-reversible multi-step redox system. Large calculated semiquinone formation constants KSEM (3x1010 to 5x1011 indicate a high thermodynamic stability of the corresponding radical anions (SEM.

  6. Non-biased prediction of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with vis-NIR spectroscopy, as affected by soil moisture content and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Boyan Y.; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of moisture content (MC) and texture on the prediction of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) with visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy under laboratory and on-line measurement conditions. An AgroSpec spectrophotometer was used to develop calibration models of OC and TN using laboratory scanned spectra of fresh and processed soil samples collected from five fields on Silsoe Farm, UK. A previously developed on-line vis-...

  7. [Identification of transmission fluid based on NIR spectroscopy by combining sparse representation method with manifold learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-Lu; Luo, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xin-Jie; Kong, Wen-Wen; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An identification method based on sparse representation (SR) combined with autoencoder network (AN) manifold learning was proposed for discriminating the varieties of transmission fluid by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. NIR transmittance spectra from 600 to 1 800 nm were collected from 300 transmission fluid samples of five varieties (each variety consists of 60 samples). For each variety, 30 samples were randomly selected as training set (totally 150 samples), and the rest 30 ones as testing set (totally 150 samples). Autoencoder network manifold learning was applied to obtain the characteristic information in the 600-1800 nm spectra and the number of characteristics was reduced to 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract several relevant variables to represent the useful information of spectral variables. All of the training samples made up a data dictionary of the sparse representation (SR). Then the transmission fluid variety identification problem was reduced to the problem as how to represent the testing samples from the data dictionary (training samples data). The identification result thus could be achieved by solving the L-1 norm-based optimization problem. We compared the effectiveness of the proposed method with that of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and sparse representation (SR) using the relevant variables selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and AN. Experimental results demonstrated that the overall identification accuracy of the proposed method for the five transmission fluid varieties was 97.33% by AN-SR, which was significantly higher than that of LDA or LS-SVM. Therefore, the proposed method can provide a new effective method for identification of transmission fluid variety.

  8. [Fast catalogue of alien invasive weeds by Vis/NIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Jia; Zou, Wei; He, Yong; Xu, Zheng-Hao

    2009-11-01

    The feasibility of visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/WNIR) techniques as means for the nondestructive and fast detection of alien invasive weeds was evaluated. Selected sensitive bands were found validated. In the present study, 3 kinds of alien invasive weeds, Veronica persica, Veronica polita, and Veronica arvensis Linn, and one kind of local weed, Lamiaceae amplexicaule Linn, were employed. The results showed that visible and NIR (Vis/NIR) technology could be introduced in classification of the alien invasive weeds or local weed with the similar outline. Thirty x 4 weeds samples were randomly selected for the calibration set, while the remaining 20 x 4 samples for the prediction set. Smoothing methods of moving average and standard normal variate (SNV) were used to pretreat spectra data. Based on principal components analysis, soft independent models of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied to make the model. Four frontal principal components of each catalogues were applied as the input of SIMCA, and with a significance level of 0.05, recognition ratio of 78.75% was obtained. The average prediction result is 90% except for Veronica polita. According to the modeling power of each spectra data in SIMCA, some possible sensitive bands, 496-521, 589-626 and 789-926 nm, were founded. By using these possible sensitive bands as the inputs of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and setting the result of LS-SVM as the object function value of genetic algorithm (GA), mutational rate, crossover rate and population size were set up as 0.9, 0.5 and 50 respectively. Finally recognition ratio of 95.63% was obtained. The prediction results of 95.63% indicated that the selected wavelengths reflected the main characteristics of the four weeds, which proposed a new way to accelerate the research on cataloguing alien invasive weeds.

  9. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  10. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    in cerebral blood flow (CBF), the first study investigated a multi-source detector separation configuration and indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer to calculate a corrected blood flow index (BFI) value. The study showed no correlation between CBF changes measured by 133Xenon single photon emission computer......The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... tomography (133Xe-SPECT) and the corrected BFI value. It was concluded, that it was not possible to obtain reliable BFI data with the ICG CW-NIRS method. NIRS measurements of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) may be a reliable method to investigate vascular alterations in neurovascular diseases...

  11. NIR triggered observations of Sgr A* at 43 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, C.; Ros, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Eckart, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Lu, R.-S.; Shahzamanian, B.; Mužić, K.; Peißker, F.

    2017-01-01

    The compact radio and near-infrared (NIR) source Sagittarius A* has been observed in the context of two NIR triggered global VLT and VLBA campaigns at 43 GHz (7 mm) on May 16-18 2012 and October 4 2014. While on October 4 2014 Sgr A* remained in a quiescent state, a NIR flare on May 17 2012 is accompanied by an increase in flux density of 0.22 Jy at 7 mm delayed by 4.5+/-0.5 h. Additionally, Sgr A* seems to develop a weak secondary radio off-core component of 0.02 Jy at a position angle of 140° and an angular distance of 1.5 mas shortly before the peak of the flare. This spatial extension and the time delay are in the range of expected values for events casually connected by adiabatic expansion.

  12. Emerging Multifunctional NIR Photothermal Therapy Systems Based on Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhen Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR-light-triggered therapy platforms are now considered as a new and exciting possibility for clinical nanomedicine applications. As a promising photothermal agent, polypyrrole (PPy nanoparticles have been extensively studied for the hyperthermia in cancer therapy due to their strong NIR light photothermal effect and excellent biocompatibility. However, the photothermal application of PPy based nanomaterials is still in its preliminary stage. Developing PPy based multifunctional nanomaterials for cancer treatment in vivo should be the future trend and object for cancer therapy. In this review, the synthesis of PPy nanoparticles and their NIR photothermal conversion performance were first discussed, followed by a summary of the recent progress in the design and implementation on the mulitifunctionalization of PPy or PPy based therapeutic platforms, as well as the introduction of their exciting biomedical applications based on the synergy between the photothermal conversion effect and other stimulative responsibilities.

  13. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  14. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Noman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis (ICA), multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine (SVM), hidden Markov model (HMM), artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  15. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman eNaseer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis, multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine, hidden Markov model, artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  16. Deep NIR Photometry of HI Galaxies Behind the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Wendy L; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of the peculiar velocity flow field in the Local Universe are limited by the lack of detection of galaxies behind the Milky Way. The contribution of the largely unknown mass distribution in this "Zone of Avoidance" (ZoA) to the dynamics of the Local group remains contraversial. We have undertaken a near infrared (NIR) survey of HI detected galaxies in the ZoA. The photomety derived here will be used in the NIR Tully-Fisher (TF) relation to derive the peculiar velocities of this sample of galaxies in the ZoA.

  17. NIR brightening of the Quasar PKS0735+17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR brightening of the intermediate redshift quasar PKS0735+17 (z=0.424), also known as CGRaBSJ04738+1742, associated with the gamma-ray source 2FGL0738.0+1742. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that, on Jan 7th,2014 (JD2456664.848838), the object brightness corresponded to J = 13.39 +/- 0.04, H = 12.582 +/- 0.03 and Ks = 11.826 +/- 0.03. These values are about 0.5 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456306, for this field.

  18. NIR brightening of the Blazar BZBJ1059-1134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR brightening of the blazar BZBJ1059-1134, also known as PKSB1056-113 associated with the gamma-ray source 2FGL1059.3-1132. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that, on Jan 6th,2014 (JD2456663.9615), the object brightness corresponded to J = 13.804 +/- 0.04, H = 13.069 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 12.352 +/- 0.04. These values are about 1.1 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456464.6, for this field.

  19. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  20. The establishment and external validation of NIR qualitative analysis model for waste polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Wen-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Liang; Tang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    A series of 354 polyester-cotton blend fabrics were studied by the near-infrared spectra (NIRS) technology, and a NIR qualitative analysis model for different spectral characteristics was established by partial least squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. There were two types of spectrum for dying polyester-cotton blend fabrics: normal spectrum and slash spectrum. The slash spectrum loses its spectral characteristics, which are effected by the samples' dyes, pigments, matting agents and other chemical additives. It was in low recognition rate when the model was established by the total sample set, so the samples were divided into two types of sets: normal spectrum sample set and slash spectrum sample set, and two NIR qualitative analysis models were established respectively. After the of models were established the model's spectral region, pretreatment methods and factors were optimized based on the validation results, and the robustness and reliability of the model can be improved lately. The results showed that the model recognition rate was improved greatly when they were established respectively, the recognition rate reached up to 99% when the two models were verified by the internal validation. RC (relation coefficient of calibration) values of the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model were 0.991 and 0.991 respectively, RP (relation coefficient of prediction) values of them were 0.983 and 0.984 respectively, SEC (standard error of calibration) values of them were 0.887 and 0.453 respectively, SEP (standard error of prediction) values of them were 1.131 and 0.573 respectively. A series of 150 bounds samples reached used to verify the normal spectrum model and slash spectrum model and the recognition rate reached up to 91.33% and 88.00% respectively. It showed that the NIR qualitative analysis model can be used for identification in the recycle site for the polyester-cotton blend fabrics.

  1. NIR and Py-mbms coupled with multivariate data analysis as a high-throughput biomass characterization technique : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eXiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as the feedstock for renewable energy production is currently being developed globally. Biomass is a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, extractives, and proteins; as well as inorganic salts. Cell wall compositional analysis for biomass characterization is laborious and time consuming. In order to characterize biomass fast and efficiently, several high through-put technologies have been successfully developed. Among them, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (Py-mbms are complementary tools and capable of evaluating a large number of raw or modified biomass in a short period of time. NIR shows vibrations associated with specific chemical structures whereas Py-mbms depicts the full range of fragments from the decomposition of biomass. Both NIR vibrations and Py-mbms peaks are assigned to possible chemical functional groups and molecular structures. They provide complementary information of chemical insight of biomaterials. However, it is challenging to interpret the informative results because of the large amount of overlapping bands or decomposition fragments contained in the spectra. In order to improve the efficiency of data analysis, multivariate analysis tools have been adapted to define the significant correlations among data variables, so that the large number of bands/peaks could be replaced by a small number of reconstructed variables representing original variation. Reconstructed data variables are used for sample comparison (principal component analysis and for building regression models (partial least square regression between biomass chemical structures and properties of interests. In this review, the important biomass chemical structures measured by NIR and Py-mbms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of conventional data analysis methods and multivariate data analysis methods are introduced, compared and evaluated

  2. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  3. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  4. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  5. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  6. Orienterend onderzoek naar de bepaling van het gehalte aan glucosinolaten in raapzaad met behulp van NIRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankhuizen, R.; Munsteren, van A.J.; Veen, van der N.G.; Herstel, H.

    1987-01-01

    Met behulp van een research Nabij Infrarood Reflectie Spectrometer (NIRS) (Technicon Infra-Alyzer 500) is oriënterend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de bepaling van het gehalte aan glucosinolaten in raapzaad met behulp van NIRS.

  7. Potential of a newly developed high-speed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovision) in polymer industrial analyses: monitoring crystallinity and crystal evolution of polylactic acid (PLA) and concentration of PLA in PLA/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Nishii, Takashi; Mizuno, Fumiaki; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate a new high-speed hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) camera named Compovision. Quantitative analyses of the crystallinity and crystal evolution of biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), and its concentration in PLA/poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends were investigated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. This NIR camera can measure two-dimensional NIR spectral data in the 1000-2350 nm region obtaining images with wide field of view of 150 × 250 mm(2) (approximately 100  000 pixels) at high speeds (in less than 5 s). PLA with differing crystallinities between 0 and 50% blended samples with PHB in ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and pure films of 100% PLA and PHB were prepared. Compovision was used to collect respective NIR spectra in the 1000-2350 nm region and investigate the crystallinity of PLA and its concentration in the blends. The partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the crystallinity of PLA were developed using absorbance, second derivative, and standard normal variate (SNV) spectra from the most informative region of the spectra, between 1600 and 2000 nm. The predicted results of PLS models achieved using the absorbance and second derivative spectra were fairly good with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 6.1% and a determination of coefficient (R(2)) of more than 0.88 for PLS factor 1. The results obtained using the SNV spectra yielded the best prediction with the smallest RMSE of 2.93% and the highest R(2) of 0.976. Moreover, PLS models developed for estimating the concentration of PLA in the blend polymers using SNV spectra gave good predicted results where the RMSE was 4.94% and R(2) was 0.98. The SNV-based models provided the best-predicted results, since it can reduce the effects of the spectral changes induced by the inhomogeneity and the thickness of the samples. Wide area crystal evolution of PLA on a plate where a temperature slope of 70-105 °C had occurred was also

  8. Rare-Earth-Based Nanoparticles with Simultaneously Enhanced Near-Infrared (NIR)-Visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR Dual-Conversion Luminescence for Multimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dandan; Xu, Xiang; Hu, Min; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Jian; Meng, Lingjie

    2016-04-05

    Multifunctional NaGdF4 :Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @NaGdF4 :Nd(3+) core-shell nanoparticles (called Gd:Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @Gd:Nd(3+) NPs) with simultaneously enhanced near-infrared (NIR)-visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR dual-conversion (up and down) luminescence (UCL/DCL) properties were successfully synthesized. The resulting core-shell NPs simultaneously emitted enhanced UCL at 522, 540, and 660 nm and DCL at 980 and 1060 nm under the excitation of a 793 nm laser. The enhanced UCL and DCL can be explained by complex energy-transfer processes, Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) →Er(3+) and Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) , respectively. The effects of Nd(3+) concentration and shell thickness on the UCL/DCL properties were systematically investigated. The UCL and DCL properties of NPs were observed under the optimal conditions: a shell Nd(3+) content of 20 % and a shell thickness of approximately 5 nm. Moreover, the Gd:Yb(3+) ,Er(3+) ,Nd(3+) @Gd:20 % Nd(3+) NPs exhibited remarkable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties similar to that of a clinical agent, Omniscan. Thus, the core-shell NPs with excellent UCL/DCL/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties have great potential for both in vitro and in vivo multimodal bioimaging.

  9. Effect of nitrate and acetylene on nirS, cnorB, and nosZ expression and denitrification activity in Pseudomonas mandelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Shannon, Kelly E; Henderson, Sherri L; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Goyer, Claudia; Trevors, Jack T

    2009-08-01

    Nitrate acts as an electron acceptor in the denitrification process. The effect of nitrate in the range of 0 to 1,000 mg/liter on Pseudomonas mandelii nirS, cnorB, and nosZ gene expression was studied, using quantitative reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Denitrification activity was measured by using the acetylene blockage method and gas chromatography. The effect of acetylene on gene expression was assessed by comparing denitrification gene expression in P. mandelii culture grown in the presence or absence of acetylene. The higher the amount of NO(3)(-) present, the greater the induction and the longer the denitrification genes remained expressed. nirS gene expression reached a maximum at 2, 4, 4, and 6 h in cultures grown in the presence of 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of KNO(3)/liter, respectively, while induction of nirS gene ranged from 12- to 225-fold compared to time zero. cnorB gene expression also followed a similar trend. nosZ gene expression did not respond to NO(3)(-) treatment under the conditions tested. Acetylene decreased nosZ gene expression but did not affect nirS or cnorB gene expression. These results showed that nirS and cnorB responded to nitrate concentrations; however, significant denitrification activity was only observed in culture with 1,000 mg of KNO(3)/liter, indicating that there was no relationship between gene expression and denitrification activity under the conditions tested.

  10. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxiang; ZHAO; Gang; LIU; Weixing; LI; Xiaohua; Wang; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,citrus brown spot,huanglongbing,canker,fuliginous,Cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar,whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1 500- 700 cm- 1. The correlative analysis were evaluated,results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0. 918 between healthy leaves,and between the same diseased leaves. However,the values were all decreased between healthy and diseased leaves,and among different diseased leaves. The preprocessed original,first derivative and second derivative spectra in the range of 1 200- 700 cm- 1were chosen to evaluated principal component analysis( PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),respectively. The performance of the overall accuracy of PCA was 92.5%,which were better than original dataset and first derivative dataset. HCA by selecting second derivative dataset yield about 90% accuracy. This study proved that FTIR spectroscopy could be detected citrus diseases quickly and accurately.

  11. [Determination of soluble solids content in Nanfeng Mandarin by Vis/NIR spectroscopy and UVE-ICA-LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Xu, Wen-Li; Hu, Tian; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present research was to assess soluble solids content (SSC) of Nanfeng mandarin by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with new variable selection method, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin. A total of 300 Nanfeng mandarin samples were used, the numbers of Nanfeng mandarin samples in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 150, 75 and 75, respectively. Vis/NIR spectra of Nanfeng mandarin samples were acquired by a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1000 nm. Uninformative variables elimination (UVE) was used to eliminate wavelength variables that had few information of SSC, then independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract independent components (ICs) from spectra that eliminated uninformative wavelength variables. At last, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to develop calibration models for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin using extracted ICs, and 75 prediction samples that had not been used for model development were used to evaluate the performance of SSC model of Nanfeng mandarin. The results indicate t hat Vis/NIR spectroscopy combinedwith UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is suitable for assessing SSC o f Nanfeng mandarin, and t he precision o f prediction ishigh. UVE--ICA is an effective method to eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, extract important spectral information, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model. The SSC model developed by UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is superior to that developed by PLS, PCA-LS-SVM or ICA-LS-SVM, and the coefficient of determination and root mean square error in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 0.978, 0.230%, 0.965, 0.301% and 0.967, 0.292%, respectively.

  12. NIR Electrofluorochromic Properties of Aza-Boron-dipyrromethene Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hanwhuy; Seo, Seogjae; Pascal, Simon; Bellier, Quentin; Rigaut, Stéphane; Park, Chihyun; Shin, Haijin; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2016-01-06

    The photophysical properties of near-infrared (NIR) emissive aza-boron-dipyrromethene (aza-BDP) dyes incorporating nitrofluorene and alkoxy decorations were intensively investigated. Their highly reversible one-electron reduction process showed characteristic electrofluorochromic (EF) properties in the NIR range, depending on the substituents. The nitrofluorene ethynyl-substituted (Type I) dyes showed smaller EF effects than the alkoxy-containing (Type II) dyes because of the difference in their intrinsic fluorescence contrast between the neutral and reduced states (radical anion). In addition, the Type II chromophores showed a larger diffusion coefficient for ion transport, which enhanced the EF contrast and the response time for the fluorescence change at a given step potential. With an optimized condition, the NIR EF ON/OFF ratio reached a value of 6.1 and a long cyclability over 1000 EF cycles between -0.4 V and +0.4 V switching potentials, with approximately 20% loss of the initial ON/OFF switching ratio. The NIR EF switching was visually observed through a visible light cut-off filter, featuring high fluorescence contrast.

  13. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  14. Detection of flaws in hazelnuts using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of VIS/NIR spectroscopy for detection of flaws in hazelnut kernels was demonstrated. Feature datasets comprising raw absorbance values, raw absorbance Ratios (Abs['1] : Abs['2]) and Differences (Abs['1] – Abs['2]) for all possible pairs of wavelengths from 306.5 nm to 1710.9 nm were ...

  15. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  16. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  17. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  18. Extendable nickel complex tapes that reach NIR absorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Hassib; Chen, Zhongrui; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; D'Aléo, Anthony; Canard, Gabriel; Jacquemin, Denis; Siri, Olivier

    2014-12-14

    Stepwise synthesis of linear nickel complex oligomer tapes with no need for solid-phase support has been achieved. The control of the length in flat arrays allows a fine-tuning of the absorption properties from the UV to the NIR region.

  19. Concurrent EEG And NIRS Tomographic Imaging Based on Wearable Electro-Optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    simultaneous electroencephalogram ( EEG ) and functional NIR spectroscopic (fNIRS) acquisition for biological or cognitive neuroscience studies in operational...environments. The system features novel EEG /NIRS electrodes, known as electro-opodes, and miniaturized supporting hardware/software. In the past few...years, our team, composed of faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, has designed and developed dry EEG and fNIR sensors that allow non

  20. Prediction of long and short residue properties of crude oils from their infrared and near-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Singelenberg, F.; Salvatori, F.; Visser, T.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of chemometric modeling of infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra of crude oils to predict the long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of these samples. A novel method is described to predict short residue properties at di

  1. VIS-NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for compositional characterization of film biopolymers and correlation with their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, Douglas Fernandes; Valous, Nektarios A; Dias, Adriana Passos; Camisa, Jaqueline; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Yamashita, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of polysaccharides and proteins for the production of biodegradable films. Visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy is a reliable analytical tool for objective analyses of biological sample attributes. The objective is to investigate the potential of VIS-NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for compositional characterization of biodegradable materials and correlation to their mechanical properties. Biofilms were produced by single-screw extrusion with different combinations of polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate, whole oat flour, glycerol, magnesium stearate, and citric acid. Spectral data were recorded in the range of 400-2498nm at 2nm intervals. Partial least square regression was used to investigate the correlation between spectral information and mechanical properties. Results show that spectral information is influenced by the major constituent components, as they are clustered according to polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate content. Results for regression models using the spectral information as predictor of tensile properties achieved satisfactory results, with coefficients of prediction (R(2)C) of 0.83, 0.88 and 0.92 (calibration models) for elongation, tensile strength, and Young's modulus, respectively. Results corroborate the correlation of NIR spectra with tensile properties, showing that NIR spectroscopy has potential as a rapid analytical technology for non-destructive assessment of the mechanical properties of the films.

  2. High-throughput prediction of tablet weight and trimethoprim content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets for controlling the uniformity of dosage units by NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhong; Li, Juan; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Liya; Luo, Yang; Fan, Qi

    2016-04-15

    This paper establishes a novel method to simultaneously predict the tablet weight (TW) and trimethoprim (TMP) content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets (SMZCO) by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) regression for controlling the uniformity of dosage units (UODU). The NIR spectra for 257 samples were measured using the optimized parameter values and pretreated using the optimized chemometric techniques. After the outliers were ignored, two PLS models for predicting TW and TMP content were respectively established by using the selected spectral sub-ranges and the reference values. The TW model reaches the correlation coefficient of calibration (R(c)) 0.9543 and the TMP content model has the R(c) 0.9205. The experimental results indicate that this strategy expands the NIR application in controlling UODU, especially in the high-throughput and rapid analysis of TWs and contents of the compound pharmaceutical tablets, and may be an important complement to the common NIR on-line analytical method for pharmaceutical tablets.

  3. Comparison of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and ELISA for Detection of Adulteration of Goat Cheeses with Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Lukas; Mlcek, Jiri; Sustova, Kvetoslava

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of two methods to detect adulteration of goat cheeses via the addition of cow's milk, with a negligible effect on the raw materials. Cheeses were produced from a mixture of goat's and cow's milk and were then analyzed by Fourier transform near-IR (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and competitive ELISA. The cheese spectra were scanned in the spectroscope in reflectance mode on an integrating sphere at 80 scans and a resolution of 4 cm(-1). The spectra were evaluated via discriminant analysis, and a calibration was created via a partial least-squares algorithm to quantify the cow's milk admixture. A correlation coefficient of R = 0.999 was reached with a standard error of calibration of 0.0407. The results were statistically processed to a median value via a t-test. Adulteration detection by the ELISA method was performed using a commercial Milk Fraud/Bovine ELISA kit. It was found that the FT-NIR spectroscopy method is capable of detecting an admixture of cow's milk in goat cheese as small as 1%. The ELISA method did not return satisfactory results for the detection of adulteration with cow's milk.

  4. fNIRS exhibits weak tuning to hand movement direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldert, Stephan; Tüshaus, Laura; Kaller, Christoph P; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an established tool to investigate brain function and is, due to its portability and resistance to electromagnetic noise, an interesting modality for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs have been successfully realized using the decoding of movement kinematics from intra-cortical recordings in monkey and human. Recently, it has been shown that hemodynamic brain responses as measured by fMRI are modulated by the direction of hand movements. However, quantitative data on the decoding of movement direction from hemodynamic responses is still lacking and it remains unclear whether this can be achieved with fNIRS, which records signals at a lower spatial resolution but with the advantage of being portable. Here, we recorded brain activity with fNIRS above different cortical areas while subjects performed hand movements in two different directions. We found that hemodynamic signals in contralateral sensorimotor areas vary with the direction of movements, though only weakly. Using these signals, movement direction could be inferred on a single-trial basis with an accuracy of ∼65% on average across subjects. The temporal evolution of decoding accuracy resembled that of typical hemodynamic responses observed in motor experiments. Simultaneous recordings with a head tracking system showed that head movements, at least up to some extent, do not influence the decoding of fNIRS signals. Due to the low accuracy, fNIRS is not a viable alternative for BMIs utilizing decoding of movement direction. However, due to its relative resistance to head movements, it is promising for studies investigating brain activity during motor experiments.

  5. [Multiple dependent variables LS-SVM regression algorithm and its application in NIR spectral quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin; Xu, Shuo; Zhang, Lu-Da; Su, Shi-Guang

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, on the basis of LS-SVM algorithm, we built a multiple dependent variables LS-SVM (MLS-SVM) regression model whose weights can be optimized, and gave the corresponding algorithm. Furthermore, we theoretically explained the relationship between MLS-SVM and LS-SVM. Sixty four broomcorn samples were taken as experimental material, and the sample ratio of modeling set to predicting set was 51 : 13. We first selected randomly and uniformly five weight groups in the interval [0, 1], and then in the way of leave-one-out (LOO) rule determined one appropriate weight group and parameters including penalizing parameters and kernel parameters in the model according to the criterion of the minimum of average relative error. Then a multiple dependent variables quantitative analysis model was built with NIR spectrum and simultaneously analyzed three chemical constituents containing protein, lysine and starch. Finally, the average relative errors between actual values and predicted ones by the model of three components for the predicting set were 1.65%, 6.47% and 1.37%, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9940, 0.8392 and 0.8825, respectively. For comparison, LS-SVM was also utilized, for which the average relative errors were 1.68%, 6.25% and 1.47%, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9941, 0.8310 and 0.8800, respectively. It is obvious that MLS-SVM algorithm is comparable to LS-SVM algorithm in modeling analysis performance, and both of them can give satisfying results. The result shows that the model with MLS-SVM algorithm is capable of doing multi-components NIR quantitative analysis synchronously. Thus MLS-SVM algorithm offers a new multiple dependent variables quantitative analysis approach for chemometrics. In addition, the weights have certain effect on the prediction performance of the model with MLS-SVM, which is consistent with our intuition and is validated in this study. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize

  6. On the distance of the Magellanic Clouds using Cepheid NIR and optical-NIR Period Wesenheit Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Inno, L; Bono, G; Caputo, F; Buonanno, R; Genovali, K; Laney, C D; Marconi, M; Piersimoni, A M; Primas, F; Romaniello, M

    2012-01-01

    We present the largest near-infrared (NIR) data sets, $JHKs$, ever collected for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We selected fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) pulsators, and found 4150 (2571 FU, 1579 FO) Cepheids for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 3042 (1840 FU, 1202 FO) for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Current sample is 2--3 times larger than any sample used in previous investigations with NIR photometry. We also discuss optical $VI$ photometry from OGLE-III. NIR and optical--NIR Period-Wesenheit (PW) relations are linear over the entire period range ($0.0<\\log P_{\\rm FU} \\le1.65 $) and their slopes are, within the intrinsic dispersions, common between the MCs. These are consistent with recent results from pulsation models and observations suggesting that the PW relations are minimally affected by the metal content. The new FU and FO PW relations were calibrated using a sample of Galactic Cepheids with distances based on trigonometric parallaxes and Cepheid pulsation models. B...

  7. Clinical and angiographic results with the NIR stent: First International NIR Endovascular Stent Study (FINESS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsch, Wolfgang; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Colombo, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Guermonprez, Jean-Leon; Grip, Lars; Hamburger, Jaap; Umans, Victor; Gotsman, Mervyn; Almagor, Yaron; Morice, Marie-Claude; Garcia, Eulogio; Chevalier, Bernard; Erbel, Raimund; Cobaugh, Michael; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Serruys, Patrick W

    2000-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Although safety and efficacy of the NIR trade mark stent have been reported, the long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes have yet to be investigated. The FINESS-II study (First International NIR Endovascular Stent Study) was designed to assess the procedural safety of single 9 and 16 mm NIR stent implantation, the six-month restenosis rate and finally the six- and 12-month clinical outcome of patients treated with this novel coronary stent. METHODS: Patients with angina and a single de novo lesion in a native coronary artery of >3 and 50% diameter stenosis criterion at six month follow-up was 19% (26/136). At 12 months, the event-free survival rate was 83% (two deaths, one Q-wave and three non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions, four bypass surgery and 17 target lesion revascularizations), while 87% of the patients were free of angina pectoris. CONCLUSION: the outcome of the FINESS-II trial is comparable to those observed in previous stent trials (Benestent II), indicating that the coronary NIR stent is safe and effective as a primary device for the treatment of native coronary artery lesions in patients with (un)stable angina pectoris.

  8. Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Nettles, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Clark, R.N.; Pieters, C.M.; Staid, M.; Malaret, E.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.O.; Head, J.W.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 m band depths than M 3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementineand the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiana Y. Kramer,; Sebastian Besse,; Nettles, Jeff; Jean-Philippe Combe,; Clark, Roger N.; Pieters, Carle M.; Matthew Staid,; Joseph Boardman,; Robert Green,; McCord, Thomas B.; Malaret, Erik; Head, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 μm absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 μm band depths than M3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions.

  10. Experimental study on the influence of the contact pressure to transmittance and reflectance spectra by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Li, Si; Wang, Tianpei; Li, Lin; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology has been recognized as one of the most promising non-invasive blood glucose measurement methods due to its convenience, high efficiency, noninvasiveness, and real-time monitoring. We build a system to measure transmittance and reflectance within NIR range simultaneously. And contact measuring method has been performed in order to reduce the influence of specular reflectance of the measured skin tissue. However, in this way, the optical probe could press the skin tissue and make it distorted, which might make the internal structure and the constituent distribution of tissue changed and further the tissue optical parameter changed. This could eventually change the distribution of transmittance spectra and reflectance spectra. In this talk, we collect the transmittance spectra and the diffused reflectance spectra of human earlobe within the wavelength of 900-1700nm under the different contact pressures. The results show that the diffused reflectance spectra decrease and the diffused transmittance spectra increase with the increase of the contact pressure between the probe and the earlobe. In order to improve the precision and stability of NIRS, the contact position of the deformation of 0.75mm is determined to be an optimal contact state measurement position.

  11. Optical absorption of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films in UV-vis-NIR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A A M

    2006-11-01

    The optical absorption studies of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films (SCC), prepared by spray pyrolysis, in the UV-vis-NIR region was reported for the first time. Several new discrete transitions are observed in the UV-vis region of the spectra in addition to a strong continuum component in the IR region. The spectra of the infrared absorption allow characterization of vibration modes for the powder and thin films of SCC. The absorption spectrum recorded in the UV-vis region showed different absorption bands, namely the Soret (B) in the region 340-450 nm and Q-band in the region 600-700 nm and other band labeled N in the 240-320 region. Some important spectral parameters namely optical absorption coefficient (alpha), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(molar)), oscillator strength (f), electric dipole strength (q(2)) and absorption half bandwidth (Deltalambda) of the principle optical transitions were evaluated. The analysis of the absorption coefficient in the absorption region revealed direct transitions and the energy gap was estimated as 1.63 eV. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparison with the previous published data are also given.

  12. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  13. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  14. [In hospital and mid-term outcome of patients with NIR stent implantation: multicenter ESPORT-NIR registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, A; García, E; Seabra, R; Bordes, P; Bethencourt, A; Rigla, J

    2001-05-01

    Despite improvements in the results and techniques of catheter-based revascularization, few studies have evaluated the clinical results of the application of new stent designs. We describe the in-hospital and mid-term outcome of patients undergoing a stent NIR implantation. At least 1 Stent NIR was implanted in 1.004 patients (1.136 lesions) recruited from 50 centers in an international, multicenter, prospective, registry (Spain and Portugal NIR stent registry). Inclusion criteria were objective coronary ischemia related to a severe de novo lesion or first restenosis in native vessels with a reference diameter >= 2.75 mm. The primary end-point was the incidence of major adverse cardiac events within the first 7 months of follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 60 years and 82% were male. Angioplasty was indicated due to unstable angina in 61% of the cases. Stent implantation was successfully achieved in 99.6%. Clinical success (angiographic success without in-hospital major events) was achieved in 98.6% of patients. The rate of angiographic restenosis (> 50% stenosis narrowing) was 16% (CI 95%; 11.7-21.2). The accumulated major cardiac adverse event rate at seven months of follow-up was 8.7%: death (0.9%), acute myocardial infarction (1.2%) and target lesion revascularization (6.6%). In the wide setting of the population included in the ESPORT-NIR registry, stent NIR implantation was a highly effective therapy with a good mid-term clinical and angiographic outcome.

  15. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630.1117 Section 630.1117 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117 Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave...

  16. Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid quality assessment of Chinese medicine preparation Honghua Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Leung, Hei-Wun

    2008-02-13

    Honghua Oil (HHO), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) oil preparation, is a mixture of several plant essential oils. In this text, the extended ranges of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) and near infrared (FT-NIR) were recorded for 48 commercially available HHOs of different batches from nine manufacturers. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of three marker components, alpha-pinene, methyl salicylate and eugenol, in different HHO products were performed rapidly by the two vibrational spectroscopic methods, i.e. MIR with horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) accessory and NIR with direct sampling technique, followed by partial least squares (PLS) regression treatment of the set of spectra obtained. The results indicated that it was successful to identify alpha-pinene, methyl salicylate and eugenol in all of the samples by simple inspection of the MIR-HATR spectra. Both PLS models established with MIR-HATR and NIR spectral data using gas chromatography (GC) peak areas as calibration reference showed a good linear correlation for each of all three target substances in HHO samples. The above spectroscopic techniques may be the promising methods for the rapid quality assessment/quality control (QA/QC) of TCM oil preparations.

  17. High-speed monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) during photodegradation by using a newly developed wide area NIR imaging system (Compovision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Furukawa, Daiki; Wei, Tseng Tsai; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Motomura, Asako; Igarashi, Yoko; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to achieve wide area rapid monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during photodegradation caused by ultraviolet (UV) light by using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovison). Several kinds of PLA samples with different crystallinities and their blends with poly[(3)-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] were prepared. Their two-dimensional NIR spectra in the 1,000-2,350-nm region were measured by Compovision at a 5-min interval during photolysis. An intensity decrease of the band in the 1,900-1,925-nm region due to the second overtone of the C = O stretching vibration of PLA was observed during photolysis. This suggests that an anhydride carbonyl is produced during photolysis. The NIR image of the crystallinity change monitored by the band at 1,917 nm in the standard normal variate spectra clearly shows the inhomogeneity of crystal evolution. A logarithmic increase was observed for all identified areas in the PLA film; however, the time to reach the maximum crystallinity was slightly different according to the initial crystallinity of the sample. It is likely that the initial crystallinity of the sample influences the degradation speed more than the degradation amount. These imaging results have provided fundamental chemical insights into the photolytic process for PLA, and at the same time they have demonstrated that the two-dimensional spectral data obtained by Compovision are useful for process monitoring of polymers.

  18. NIR is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex proteasome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ho Myong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel INHAT Repressor (NIR is a histone acetylation inhibitor that can directly bind histone complexes and the tumor suppressors p53 and p63. Because NIR is mainly localized in the nucleolus and disappears from the nucleolus upon RNase treatment, it is thought to bind RNA or ribonucleoproteins. When NIR moves to the cytoplasm, it is immediately degraded; this degradation was blocked by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, the central domain of NIR specifically bound APC-CCdh1. These data show that the stability of NIR is governed by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.

  19. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis......-AES and NIR transmittance spectroscopy exhibit comparable precision and accuracy. The NIR method provides several advantages: no complicated sample preparation; easy to operate; fast and non-destructive. In conclusion, NIR transmittance spectroscopy can be an alternative analytical method for determining...

  20. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  1. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  2. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  3. Initial development of an NIR strain measurement technique in brittle geo-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Emily; Gibson, Andrew; Benson, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VIS-NIR) is a technique developed for the non-contact measurement of compositional characteristics of surfaces. The technique is rapid, sensitive to change in surface topology and has found applications ranging from planetary geology, soil science, pharmacy to materials testing. The technique has also been used in a limited fashion to measure strain changes in rocks and minerals (Ord and Hobbs 1986). However, there have been few quantitative studies linking such changes in material strains (and other rock physics parameters) to the resulting VIS-NIT signature. This research seeks to determine whether improvements in VIS-NIR equipment means that such a technique is a viable method to measure strains in rock via this remote (non-contact) method. We report new experiments carried out using 40 mm Brazilian Tensile discs of Carrera Marble and Darley Dale Sandstone using an Instron 600LX in the University of Portsmouth Rock Mechanics Laboratory. The tensile test was selected for this experiment as the sample shape and sensor arrangements allow access to a 'flat' surface area throughout the test, allowing surface measurements to be continuously taken whilst the discs are strained to failure. An ASD Labspec 5000 with 25 mm foreoptic was used to collect reflectance spectra in the range 350-2500 nm during each tensile test. Results from Carrera Marble experiments show that reflectance at 2050 nm negatively correlates (by polynomial regression) with axial strain between 0.05-0.5%, with r2 of 0.99. Results from Darley Dale Sandstone data show that reflectance at 1970 nm positively correlates with axial deformation between 0.05-0.5%, with r2 of 0.98. Initial analyses suggests that the VIS-NIR possesses an output that scales in a quantifiable manner with rock strain, and shows promise as a technique for strain measurement. The method has particular application for allowing our laboratory measurements to "ground truth" data taken from drone and

  4. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  6. Shed a light of wireless technology on portable mobile design of NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlong; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Mobile internet is growing rapidly driven by high-tech companies including the popular Apple and Google. The wireless mini-NIRS is believed to deserve a great spread future, while there is sparse report on wireless NIRS device and even for the reported wireless NIRS, its wireless design is scarcely presented. Here we focused on the wireless design of NIRS devices. The widely-used wireless communication standards and wireless communication typical solutions were employed into our NIRS design and then compared on communication efficiency, distance, error rate, low-cost, power consumption, and stabilities, based on the requirements of NIRS applications. The properly-performed wireless communication methods matched with the characteristics of NIRS are picked out. Finally, we realized one recommended wireless communication in our NIRS, developed a test platform on wireless NIRS and tested the full properties on wireless communication. This study elaborated the wireless communication methods specified for NIRS and suggested one implementation with one example fully illustrated, which support the future mobile design on NIRS devices.

  7. Sequential coating upconversion NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with SiO2 and ZnO layers for NIR-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Meijie; Luo, Zhenguo; Bai, Song; Liu, Fangying; Chai, Qunxia; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhengquan

    2017-01-01

    ZnO is one of the most promising materials for both photocatalytic and antibacterial applications, but its wide bandgap requires the excitation of UV light which limits their applications under visible and NIR bands. Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize core-shell-shell hybrid nanoparticles consisting of hexagonal NaYF4:Yb,Tm, amorphous SiO2 and wurtzite ZnO. The upconversion nanocrystals are used as the core seeds and sequentially coated with an insulting shell and a semiconductor layer. Such hybrid nanoparticles can efficiently utilize the NIR light through the upconverting process, and display notable photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity under NIR irradiation. The developed NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2@ZnO nanoparticles are characterized with TEM, XRD, EDS, XPS and PL spectra, and their working mechanism is also elucidated.

  8. Eliminating the interference pattern in near-infrared spectra used for identification of thin plastic foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Eva; Kocsányi, Lászlo; Richter, Péter

    2004-06-01

    A Fourier type filtering method is proposed for the pretreatment of near-infrared (NIR) spectra of thin (plastic foils before their identification by means of multivariate calibration methods. The interference of multiply reflected beams from the boundary surfaces of the foil causes a disturbing signal component in the spectrum and the identification becomes impossible. The purpose of the filtering is to eliminate the interference pattern from the spectrum. In the Fourier transformed NIR spectrum against the wavenumber there appears a discrete spectral component caused by the interference. This component can be recognized and cut off. After inverse Fourier transformation of such pretreated spectra, absorption peaks are free from interference modulation, so application of multivariate calibration methods is much more effective. With principal component analysis (PCA) on cluster plots, visual distinction between different plastics becomes possible. Correct class membership is provided by use of the Mahalanobis distance.

  9. Structural and time resolved emission spectra of Er 3+: Silver lead borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João; Hungerford, Graham; Hussain, N. Sooraj

    2011-08-01

    The structural properties of Er 3+: silver lead borate glass is assessed by means of SEM, X-ray mapping, EDS and Raman analysis. In order to verify the time dependency of emission spectra, steady-state luminescence spectroscopy (SSLS) and time-resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) studies have been performed. The stimulated emission cross-sections for the NIR emission transition 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 (1535 nm) at 970 nm excitation are reported. The decay times were obtained by fitting one ( τm = 0.301 ms) and two ( τm1 = 0.141 ms, τm2 = 0.368 ms) distributions for the NIR transition. Furthermore, by making use of TRES measurements the decay associated spectra were obtained allowing the time dependency for the different emission bands to be elucidated.

  10. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  11. Raman Spectra of Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-30

    17), Raman spectra, plus a , . theoretical treatment of the data, f complex fluorozirconate 14 I anions in ZBLAN glasses and melts (16), and...based ZBLAN glasses ) 17. ICORS (International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy) Proceedings, London, England. Conferencf 5-9 Sep 88. (Molten silica...RESEARCH FINAL REPORT DTIC CONTRACT N00014-81-K-0501 &JELECTE 1 MAY 81 -- 30 NOV 86 EJJAN041989 V "RAMAN SPECTRA OF GLASSES " 0 During the five years of the

  12. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  13. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eGálvez Sola

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last five years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the spectral reflectance values, obtained by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. This technique is rapid, non-destructive, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. Therefore, the estimation of macro and micronutrients in citrus leaves by this method would be beneficial in identifying the mineral status of the trees. However, to be used effectively NIRS must be evaluated against the standard techniques across different cultivars. In this study, NIRS spectral analysis, and subsequent nutrient estimations for N, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn content, were performed using 217 leaf samples from different citrus trees species. Partial least square regression and different pre-processing signal treatments were used to generate the best estimation against the current best practice techniques. It was verified a high proficiency in the estimation of N (r=0.99 and Ca (r=0.98 as well as achieving acceptable estimation for K, Mg, Fe and Zn. However, no successful calibrations were obtained for the estimation of B, Cu and Mn.

  14. The influence of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingqin; He, Fan; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yiding; Liu, Pengfei; Niu, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants regulated by the environment. To analyze the effect of light quality on the accumulation of flavonoids, we performed a rapid analysis of flavonoids in extracts of tobacco leaves using UHPLC-QTOF. A total of 12 flavonoids were detected and identified in tobacco leaves, which were classified into flavonoid methyl derivatives and flavonoid glycoside derivatives according to the groups linked to the flavonoid core. Correlation analysis was further conducted to investigate the effect of different wavelengths of light on their accumulation. The content of flavonoid methyl derivatives was positively correlated with the proportions of far-red light (FR; 716-810nm) and near-infrared light (NIR; 810-2200nm) in the sunlight spectrum and negatively correlated with the proportion of ultraviolet (UV-A; 350-400nm) and the red/far-red ratio (R/FR). By contrast, the content of flavonoid glycoside derivatives was positively correlated with the proportion of UV-A and the R/FR, and negatively correlated with FR and NIR. The results indicated that light quality with higher proportions of FR and NIR increases the activity of flavonoid methyltransferases but suppresses the activity of flavonoid glycoside transferases. While a high proportion of UV-A and a high R/FR can increase flavonoid glycoside transferase activity but suppress flavonoid methyltransferase activity.

  15. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  16. NIR FRET Fluorophores for Use as an Implantable Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  17. A NIR Flare of the Quasar PKS0446+112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR flare of the high redshift quasar PKS0446+112 (z=1.207), also known as CGRaBSJ0449+1121, associated with the gamma-ray source 1FGL0448.6+1118. The source has shown Gamma-ray flares in the past. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that on Jan 4th,2014 (JD2456661.773275), the object brightness corresponded to J = 15.43+/- 0.04, H = 14.210 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 13.455 +/- 0.06. These values are about 1 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456609, for this field.

  18. Assessment of Transition Element Speciation in Glasses Using a Portable Transmission Ultraviolet-Visible-Near-Infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, Myrtille; Lelong, Gérald; Gauthier, Michel; Gélébart, Frédéric; Ismael, Saindou; Galoisy, Laurence; Bauchau, Fanny; Loisel, Claudine; Calas, Georges

    2016-05-01

    A new low-cost experimental setup based on two compact dispersive optical spectrometers has been developed to measure optical absorption transmission spectra over the 350-2500 nm energy range. We demonstrate how near-infrared (NIR) data are essential to identify the coloring species in addition to ultraviolet visible data. After calibration with reference glasses, the use of an original sample stage that maintains the window panel in the vertical position enables the comparison of ancient and modern glasses embedded in a panel from the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris, without any sampling. The spectral resolution enables to observe fine resonances arising in the absorption bands of Cr(3+), and the complementary information obtained in the NIR enables to determine the contribution of Fe(2+), a key indicator of glassmaking conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Post-maximum Near-infrared Spectra of SN 2014J: A Search for Interaction Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, D. J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Marion, G. H.; Diamond, T. R.; Joshi, V.; Parrent, J. T.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. The 17 NIR spectra span epochs from +15.3 to +92.5 days after B-band maximum light, while the {{JHK}}s photometry include epochs from -10 to +71 days. These data are used to constrain the progenitor system of SN 2014J utilizing the Paβ line, following recent suggestions that this phase period and the NIR in particular are excellent for constraining the amount of swept-up hydrogen-rich material associated with a non-degenerate companion star. We find no evidence for Paβ emission lines in our post-maximum spectra, with a rough hydrogen mass limit of ≲ 0.1 M ⊙, which is consistent with previous limits in SN 2014J from late-time optical spectra of the Hα line. Nonetheless, the growing data set of high-quality NIR spectra holds the promise of very useful hydrogen constraints. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory under program GN-2014A-Q-8 (PI: Sand). Gemini is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  20. Interpreting the near-infrared spectra of the 'golden standard' Type Ia supernova 2005cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Benetti, S.; Blanc, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2012-12-01

    We present nine near-infrared (NIR) spectra of supernova (SN) 2005cf at epochs from -10 to +42 d with respect to B-band maximum, complementing the existing excellent data sets available for this prototypical Type Ia SN at other wavelengths. The spectra show a time evolution and spectral features characteristic of normal Type Ia SNe, as illustrated by a comparison with SNe 1999ee, 2002bo and 2003du. The broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) of SN 2005cf is studied in combined ultraviolet (UV), optical and NIR spectra at five epochs between ˜8 d before and ˜10 d after maximum light. We also present synthetic spectra of the hydrodynamic explosion model W7, which reproduce the key properties of SN 2005cf not only at UV-optical as previously reported, but also at NIR wavelengths. From the radiative-transfer calculations we infer that fluorescence is the driving mechanism that shapes the SED of SNe Ia. In particular, the NIR part of the spectrum is almost devoid of absorption features, and instead dominated by fluorescent emission of both iron-group material and intermediate-mass elements at pre-maximum epochs, and pure iron-group material after maximum light. A single P-Cygni feature of Mg II at early epochs and a series of relatively unblended Co II lines at late phases allow us to constrain the regions of the ejecta in which the respective elements are abundant. Based on observations collected at European Southern Observatory, Paranal. Program ID 075.D-0823(B).

  1. [EMD Time-Frequency Analysis of Raman Spectrum and NIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Fang, Yi-ming; Tan, Feng; Tong, Liang; Zhai, Zhe

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the Raman spectrum and Near Infrared Spectrum (NIR) with time-frequency method. The empirical mode decomposition spectrum becomes intrinsic mode functions, which the proportion calculation reveals the Raman spectral energy is uniform distributed in each component, while the NIR's low order intrinsic mode functions only undertakes fewer primary spectroscopic effective information. Both the real spectrum and numerical experiments show that the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) regard Raman spectrum as the amplitude-modulated signal, which possessed with high frequency adsorption property; and EMD regards NIR as the frequency-modulated signal, which could be preferably realized high frequency narrow-band demodulation during first-order intrinsic mode functions. The first-order intrinsic mode functions Hilbert transform reveals that during the period of empirical mode decomposes Raman spectrum, modal aliasing happened. Through further analysis of corn leaf's NIR in time-frequency domain, after EMD, the first and second orders components of low energy are cut off, and reconstruct spectral signal by using the remaining intrinsic mode functions, the root-mean-square error is 1.001 1, and the correlation coefficient is 0.981 3, both of these two indexes indicated higher accuracy in re-construction; the decomposition trend term indicates the absorbency is ascending along with the decreasing to wave length in the near-infrared light wave band; and the Hilbert transform of characteristic modal component displays, 657 cm⁻¹ is the specific frequency by the corn leaf stress spectrum, which could be regarded as characteristic frequency for identification.

  2. Temperature dependent NIR emitting lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Anna M; Esquivel, Dolores; Ouwehand, Judith; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J; Van Deun, Rik

    2017-06-28

    Two materials - a mesoporous silica (MS) and a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) functionalized with dipyridyl-pyridazine (dppz) units were grafted with near-infrared (NIR) emitting lanthanide (Nd(3+), Er(3+), Yb(3+)) complexes in an attempt to obtain hybrid NIR emitting materials. The parent materials: dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO were prepared by a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (dptz) and the double bonds of either ethenylene-bridged PMO (ePMO) or vinyl-silica (vSilica) and subsequent oxidation. The dppz-vSilica is reported here for the first time. The prepared lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials were studied in depth for their luminescence properties at room temperature and chosen Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) samples also at low temperature (as low as 10 K). We show that both the dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO materials can be used as "platforms" for obtaining porous materials showing NIR luminescence. To obtain NIR emission these materials can be excited either in the UV or Vis region (into the π→π* transitions of the ligands or directly into the f-f transitions of the Ln(3+) ions). More interestingly, when functionalized with Nd(3+) or Yb(3+)β-diketonate complexes these materials showed interesting luminescence properties over a wide temperature range (10-360 K). The Yb(3+) materials were investigated for their potential use as ratiometric temperature sensors.

  3. Relationship between muscle oxygenation by NIRS and blood lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guodong [School of Physical Education, Jianghan University, Hubei Wuhan 430056 (China); Mao Zongzhen; Ye Yanjie; Lv Kunru, E-mail: xguodong@wipe.edu.cn [School of Health Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, Hubei Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of muscle oxygenation in term of oxy-hemoglobin concentration change ({Delta}HbO{sub 2}) by NIRS and blood lactate (BLA) in local skeletal muscle and evaluate the capability of NIRS in the research of exercise physiology Twenty-three athlete in the national fin-swimming team took the increasing load training on the power bicycle while their {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA were simultaneously recorded. The initial powers used in the training were set as 100 w for males and 40 w for females. During the experiment, the power kept constant for 3 min before each abrupt increment of 30 w until the limit of the athlete's capability. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed. Following the increasing load training, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} step-likely increased in the phase of aerobic metabolism but linearly decreased in the phase of anaerobic metabolism. The variation tendency of BLA was the same as {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and the concurrency of crucial turning points between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA was revealed. This relationship between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA presented in the increasing load training suggested that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} might be capable for taking the place of the invasively measured parameter BLA. Considering that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} can be noninvasively measured by NIRS, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} has the potential in the evaluation of athletes' physiological function and training effect on the athletes and accordingly NIRS can be well used in this field.

  4. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Paul; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual...... and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale....

  5. Near-infrared (NIR) optogenetics using up-conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions for a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders have long been awaited. Recently, it has become possible to optically manipulate the neuronal activity using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called `imaging window'. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), which are composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Neuron-glioma-hybrid ND-7/23 cells were cultured with LNP(NaYF4:Sc/Yb/Er) particles (peak emission, 543 nm) and transfected to express C1V1 (peak absorbance, 539 nm), a chimera of ChR1 and VChR1. The photocurrents were generated in response to NIR laser light (976 nm) to a level comparable to that evoked by a filtered Hg lamp (530-550 nm). NIR light pulses also evoked action potentials in the cultured neurons that expressed C1V1. It is suggested that the green luminescent light emitted from LNPs effectively activated C1V1 to generate the photocurrent. With the optimization of LNPs, acceptor photo-reactive biomolecules and optics, this system could be applied to non-invasively actuate neurons deep in the brain.

  6. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  7. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  8. GSH-Activated NIR Fluorescent Prodrug for Podophyllotoxin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Shaojia; Gu, Kaizhi; Guo, Zhiqian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingwei; Amin, Hesham M; Zhu, Weihong; Shi, Ping

    2017-09-06

    Theranostic prodrug therapy enables the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with minimized adverse effects and real-time in situ monitoring of activation of the prodrugs. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological assessment of the near-infrared (NIR) prodrug DCM-S-PPT and its amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE)-encapsulated nanoparticles. DCM-S-PPT is composed of podophyllotoxin (PPT) as the anticancer moiety and a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative as the NIR fluorescent reporter, which are linked by a thiol-specific cleavable disulfide bond. In vitro experiments indicated that DCM-S-PPT has low cytotoxicity and that glutathione (GSH) can activate DCM-S-PPT resulting in PPT release and a concomitant significant enhancement in NIR fluorescence at 665 nm. After being intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, DCM-S-PPT exhibited excellent tumor-activated performance. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that mPEG-DSPE as a nanocarrier loaded with DCM-S-PPT (mPEG-DSPE/DCM-S-PPT) showed even greater tumor-targeting performance than DCM-S-PPT on account of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Its tumor-targeting ability and specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-PPT a promising prodrug that could provide a significant strategy for theranostic drug delivery systems.

  9. White Asparagus Harvest Date Discrimination Using Nirs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarén, C.; Arazuri, S.; García, M. J.; Arnal, P.; Arana, J. I.

    2006-03-01

    Asparagus is still an important resource for mid-size and small farms. It has been traditionally believed that factors such as the asparagus harvesting date have an influence on its quality. This research sought to identify the harvesting dates of different fruits by using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology as quality indicators and the best zone a long of the asparagus to acquire the spectrum. All the asparagus tested came from the same manufacturer but had been canned on three different dates, giving a total of nine lots. There were one hundred asparagus per lot and the experiment data were taken from three different parts (tip, middle, and base) of each spear. Reflectance spectrum in the near infrared between 800 1700 nm was determined. Differences NIRS among the asparagus harvested on different dates were found. NIRS technology was able to classify the asparagus correctly in terms of harvest dates (71% well classified). The base of the asparagus turned out to be the best part to use in order to establish the harvest date.

  10. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  11. UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy of heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheydt, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    This critical review article discusses the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy with special emphasis on transition metal ion containing catalysts. A review is given of the transitions, that can be observed in the UV-VIS-NIR region and the peculiarities of catalytic solids that have to be taken into account. This is followed by a short discussion of the techniques that have been developed over the years: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, UV-VIS microscopy, in situ or operando spectroscopy, the combination of UV-VIS spectroscopy with other spectroscopic techniques, with chemometrics and with quantum chemistry. In the third part of this paper four successes of UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy are discussed; (1) coordination of transition metal ions to surface oxygens; (2) quantitative determination of the oxidation states of transition metal ions; (3) characterization of active sites and (4) study of the distribution of transition metal ions and carbocations in catalytic bodies, particles and crystals (104 references).

  12. Near-infrared (NIR) up-conversion optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Yamashita, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions have been long-awaited for the comprehensive and quantitative understanding of neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders. Recently, it has become possible for the neuronal activity to be optically manipulated using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin (ChR)-2. However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light, which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light (650-1450 nm) penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called ‘imaging window’. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate ChRs since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Here, we created a new type of optogenetic system which consists of the donor LNPs and the acceptor ChRs. The NIR laser irradiation emitted visible light from LNPs, then induced the photo-reactive responses in the near-by cells that expressed ChRs. However, there remains room for large improvements in the energy efficiency of the LNP-ChR system.

  13. Evaluation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Degradation by Combining Mid- and Near-Infrared Spectra by the Outer Product and Selecting Discriminant Wavenumbers Using a Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Abbas; Perrin, Eric; Chabbert, Brigitte; Bertrand, Isabelle; Habrant, Anouck; Lecart, Brieuc; Vrabie, Valeriu

    2015-11-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provide useful information on the molecular composition of biological systems. Because they are sensitive to organic and mineral components, there is a growing interest in these techniques for the development of biomarkers that reflect intrinsic characteristics of plants and their mode of degradation. Due to their complexity and complementary nature, an important challenge is the combining of MIR and NIR information to identify discriminating wavenumbers in each wavenumber region, with the ultimate goal of assessing the biodegradation process of a lignocellulosic biomass at different time scales. This work investigates the potential of using the outer product to combine MIR and NIR spectra to highlight the connections between fundamental molecular vibrations and their combinations and bonds. Because this operation yields high-dimensional spectra, we propose to use a genetic algorithm to select the most discriminant wavenumbers within the degradation process. The results from two lignocellulosic biomasses with different biodegradation kinetics, miscanthus aerial parts and maize roots, confirm that the outer product combination of MIR and NIR spectral information allows a better discrimination of the biodegradation kinetic compared with the simple concatenation of MIR and NIR spectra or with the use of MIR or MIR spectral information separately. We show that the genetic algorithm selects wavenumbers that correspond to principal vibrations of chemical functional groups of compounds that undergo degradation/conversion during the biodegradation of the lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. NIR-to-NIR Two-Photon Scanning Laser Microscopy Imaging of Single Nanoparticles Doped by Yb(III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdolle, Adrien; D'Aléo, Anthony; Philippot, Cécile; Baldeck, Patrice L; Guyot, Yannick; Dubois, Fabien; Ibanez, Alain; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Maury, Olivier

    2016-01-04

    The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of water-soluble chromophore-functionalised tris-dipicolinate complexes [LnL3](3-) (Ln=Yb and Nd) are thoroughly studied, revealing that only the Yb(III) luminescence can be sensitized by a two-photon excitation process. The stability of the complex in water is strongly enhanced by embedding in dispersible organosilicate nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, the spectroscopic properties of [NBu4]3 [YbL3] are studied in solution and in the solid state. The high brightness of the NPs allows imaging them as single objects using a modified two-photon microscopy setup in a NIR-to-NIR configuration.

  15. Facile Peptides Functionalization of Lanthanide-Based Nanocrystals through Phosphorylation Tethering for Efficient in Vivo NIR-to-NIR Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chi; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Lei; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Lu, Yiqing; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-02

    Peptide modification of nanoparticles is a challenging task for bioapplications. Here, we show that noncovalent surface engineering based on ligand exchange of peptides for lanthanide based upconversion and downconversion near-infrared (NIR) luminescent nanoparticles can be efficiently realized by modifying the hydroxyl functional group of a side grafted serine of peptides into a phosphate group (phosphorylation). By using the phosphorylated peptide with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) targeting motifs as typical examples, the modification allows improving the selectivity, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio for the cancer targeting and bioimaging and reducing the toxicity derived from nonspecific interactions of nanoparticles with cells. The in vivo NIR bioimaging signal could even be detected at low injection amounts down to 20 μg per animal.

  16. Foss Italia. NIR spectroscopy for foods quality; Foss Italia. Qualita' negli alimenti con spettroscopia NIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianflone, F. [Foss Electric Italia SpA, Este, PD (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    The Italian subsidiary of the Danish Foss Electric distributes in Italy sophisticated equipment for humidity measurement in corn, in proteins, in milk glucides and lipids, and in many other foodstuffs. Analysis are reliable and very fast, workable also in other industrial sectors and in pharmaceutical labs. Measurement technique, non destructive, is NIR spectroscopy. [Italian] La filiale italiana di un'azienda internazionale, la danese Foss Electric, commercializza nel nostro Paese sofisticate apparecchiature per la determinazione dell'umidita' nei cereali, delle proteine, dei glucidi e dei lipidi nel latte, nelle graminacee e in molte altre derrate. Le analisi sono affidabili e molto rapide, eseguibili anche in altri comparti industriali e farmaceutici. La tecnica di misura, non distruttiva, e' quella della spettroscopia nel vicino infrarosso (NIR).

  17. nirS-Encoding denitrifier community composition, distribution, and abundance along the coastal wetlands of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juan; Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen; Sun, Xiuru

    2016-10-01

    For the past few decades, human activities have intensively increased the reactive nitrogen enrichment in China's coastal wetlands. Although denitrification is a critical pathway of nitrogen removal, the understanding of denitrifier community dynamics driving denitrification remains limited in the coastal wetlands. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and community composition of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were analyzed to reveal their variations in China's coastal wetlands. Diverse nirS sequences were obtained and more than 98 % of them shared considerable phylogenetic similarity with sequences obtained from aquatic systems (marine/estuarine/coastal sediments and hypoxia sea water). Clone library analysis revealed that the distribution and composition of nirS-harboring denitrifiers had a significant latitudinal differentiation, but without a seasonal shift. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the community structure of nirS-encoding denitrifiers was significantly related to temperature and ammonium concentration. The nirS gene abundance ranged from 4.3 × 10(5) to 3.7 × 10(7) copies g(-1) dry sediment, with a significant spatial heterogeneity. Among all detected environmental factors, temperature was a key factor affecting not only the nirS gene abundance but also the community structure of nirS-type denitrifiers. Overall, this study significantly enhances our understanding of the structure and dynamics of denitrifying communities in the coastal wetlands of China.

  18. Spectral modeling for the Chelyabinsk meteorite at UV-Vis-NIR wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Julia; Penttilä, Antti; Kohout, Tomas; Suhonen, Heikki; Huotari, Simo; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids provide us information on the evolution of the Solar System. Meteorites and asteroids can be linked by matching their respective reflectance spectra. However, this is difficult because the spectral features depend strongly on the surface properties. To better interpret the spectra, we need to gain more knowledge of the light-scattering physics involved.We develop a new light-scattering code based on SIRIS-code (Muinonen et al., JQSRT 110, 2009), which simulates light scattering by Gaussian-random-sphere particles that are large compared to the wavelength of the incident light. SIRIS is able to simulate ray optics, diffraction, and geometric ray optics, which utilizes ray optics that accounts for diffuse scattering. The diffuse scatterers can be uniformly distributed inside or cover the surface of the particle. The new code uses inhomogeneous waves to simulate light scattering by absorbing particles.The University of Helsinki integrating-sphere spectrometer has been utilized to measure the reflectance spectra of three lithologies of the Chelyabinsk meteorite (light-colored, dark-colored, and impact-melt) at UV-Vis-NIR wavelengths (0.25-3.2 microns). Microtomography images of the light-colored and the dark-colored lithologies have also been taken. The light-colored lithology has the highest reflectance and shows broad absorption bands of olivine and pyroxene near 1.0 and 2.0 microns. The dark-colored lithology has a flat spectrum with diminished intensity. The impact-melt lithology is somewhere between the light-colored and dark-colored lithologies in terms of its spectrum (Kohout et al., Icarus 228, 2013). The differences in the spectra are caused by different patterns of iron and iron sulfides in the samples that can be seen in the microtomography and scanning electron microscope images. We utilize the new light-scattering code to model the effects of iron and iron sulfides in the spectra of the three lithologies of the Chelyabinsk meteorite by entering

  19. VIS/NIR reflectance and fluorescence spectrometric studies of minerals, water, organics and biomarkers in MoonMars analogue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Heleen; Foing, Bernard; Kołodziejczyk, Agata; Vago, Jorge; Harasymczuk, Matt

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the detection and characterisation of elements, minerals, volatiles and organics using reflectance spectrometry. The goal is to create a calibration method to enable the use of spectrometers on analogue Moon/Mars missions and on a lander. For this study we use measurements that are done in the VIS and NIR spectrum, as well as fluorescence using different spectrometers. The first part of the study consists of measurements that are performed in a laboratory to create a calibration method. Different rock samples and soils are analysed and the reflectance and absorption of minerals, water, organics and biomarkers are measured. Also the influence of the grain size, light source and surroundings is being determined. An experiment on the reflectance spectra of plant growth in different soils is also done to determine the possibilities of detecting the presence of chlorophyll and other biomarkers, and to diagnose the growth and health of a plant. This analysis can result in a monitoring method for a Moon greenhouse, but also for general surface analysis. Using VIS and NIR spectrometry has a couple of advantages, one being the fact that measurements require no sample preparation, and also the small size of the spectrometer makes it an easy tool for different analyses on board space missions. However, VIS and NIR spectroscopy have detection limits which makes only certain characteristics detectable. Besides laboratory measurements, the different spectroscopy methods are tested during a field campaign in the Eifel, Germany. During this campaign we can determine the functionality of the spectrometer in the field and on a lander and the problems that can rise when a spectrometer is controlled from a distant or by a person who is not trained in using spectroscopy. These laboratory and field measurements can help in the scientific preparation for instruments on ExoMars rover, future MoonMars lander missions and for the MoonVillage.

  20. Time-to-Fatigue and Intramuscular pH measured via NIRS during Handgrip Exercise in Trained and Sedentary Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stroud, L.; Scott, P.; Hagan, R. D.; Soller, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    In exercising muscles force production and muscular endurance are impaired by a decrease in intramuscular pH. The effects of aerobic training (AT) on preventing acidosis and prolonging exercise time in muscles not specifically targeted by the training are unknown. Purpose: To compare interstitial pH, measured non-invasively with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) during rhythmic handgrip exercise in sedentary subjects and those who participate in AT activities that target the lower body. Methods: Maximal isometric force (MIF) was measured on three separate days in AT (n=5) and sedentary (n=8) subjects using a handgrip dynamometer (HGD). Isometric muscular endurance (IME) was measured during five trials, each separated by at least 48 hrs. For each IME trial subjects rhythmically squeezed (4 sec at 40% of MVC) and relaxed (2 sec) to fatigue or failure to reach the target force in three consecutive contractions or four non-consecutive contractions. Interstitial pH was derived from spectra collected using a NIRS sensor adhered to the skin over the FDP. The first four IME trials served to familiarize subjects with the protocol; the fifth trial was used for analysis. NIRS-derived pH was averaged in 30 sec increments. Between group differences in MIF and exercise time were tested using paired t-tests. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze effects of AT and exercise time on pH. Results: MIF was not different between groups (mean SD; aerobic=415.6 95.4 N vs. sedentary =505.1 107.4 N). Time to fatigue was greater in the AT than in the sedentary group (mean SD: 611 173 sec vs. 377 162 sec, pmuscular work, possibly due to psychological familiarization to muscular fatigue and/or systemic physiological benefits.

  1. Dual mode NIR long persistent phosphorescence and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence in La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}GeO{sub 14}: Cr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiling; Li, Yang, E-mail: msliyang@scut.edu.cn; Qin, Xixi; Chen, Ruchun; Wu, Dakun; Liu, Shijian; Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Recently, long persistent phosphors (LPPs) have been considered to be the most prominent candidates for biomedical applications. However, the LPPs suffer from a dramatic decrease in luminescence intensity after incorporation into the tissue. Therefore, it is very necessary to develop the more competitive LPPs and acquire the reproducible tissue imaging. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an effective bifunctional La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}GeO{sub 14}: Cr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} phosphor with the interesting characteristic of near-infrared long persistent phosphorescence and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence. Cr{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} ions are simultaneously selected as the emission centers in order to take advantage of the remarkable phosphorescence properties of Cr{sup 3+}, and the appropriate energy level characteristic of NIR-excitation band (808 nm) and NIR-emission (1064 nm), and the ability as the brilliant auxiliary to create more efficient defects of Nd{sup 3+}. The efficient dual-modal emission is, accordingly utilized to realize the convenient, high-resolution global detection and local imaging. - Highlights: • Dual mode phosphor with NIR long afterglow and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence. • Increasing the persistent duration due to the codoping of Nd. • Avoiding the noteworthy overheating effect due to the strong absorption at 980 nm.

  2. Automated Cart with VIS/NIR Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Lefcourt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to take high-resolution Visible/Near Infra-Red (VIS/NIR hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence images in outdoor fields using ambient lighting or a pulsed laser (355 nm, respectively, for illumination purposes was designed, built, and tested. Components of the system include a semi-autonomous cart, a gated-intensified camera, a spectral adapter, a frequency-triple Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet laser, and optics to convert the Gaussian laser beam into a line-illumination source. The front wheels of the cart are independently powered by stepper motors that support stepping or continuous motion. When stepping, a spreadsheet is used to program parameters of image sets to be acquired at each step. For example, the spreadsheet can be used to set delays before the start of image acquisitions, acquisition times, and laser attenuation. One possible use of this functionality would be to establish acquisition parameters to facilitate the measurement of fluorescence decay-curve characteristics. The laser and camera are mounted on an aluminum plate that allows the optics to be calibrated in a laboratory setting and then moved to the cart. The system was validated by acquiring images of fluorescence responses of spinach leaves and dairy manure.

  3. Spectra and strains

    CERN Document Server

    Golyshev, V

    2008-01-01

    This is a blend of two informal reports on the activities of the seminar on Galois representations and mirror symmetry given at the Conference on classification problems and mirror duality at the Steklov Institute, in March 2006, and at the Seminar on Algebra, Geometry and Physics at MPI, in November 2007. We assess where we are on the issue of the spectra of Fano varieties, and state problems. We introduce higher dimensional irreducible analogues of dessins, the low ramified sheaves, and hypothesize that Fano spectra relate to their geometric conductors. We give a recipe to a physicist.

  4. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  5. Classification of dry-cured hams according to the maturation time using near infrared spectra and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevolnik, M; Andronikov, D; Žlender, B; Font-i-Furnols, M; Novič, M; Škorjanc, D; Čandek-Potokar, M

    2014-01-01

    An attempt to classify dry-cured hams according to the maturation time on the basis of near infrared (NIR) spectra was studied. The study comprised 128 samples of biceps femoris (BF) muscle from dry-cured hams matured for 10 (n=32), 12 (n=32), 14 (n=32) or 16 months (n=32). Samples were minced and scanned in the wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm using spectrometer NIR System model 6500 (Silver Spring, MD, USA). Spectral data were used for i) splitting of samples into the training and test set using 2D Kohonen artificial neural networks (ANN) and for ii) construction of classification models using counter-propagation ANN (CP-ANN). Different models were tested, and the one selected was based on the lowest percentage of misclassified test samples (external validation). Overall correctness of the classification was 79.7%, which demonstrates practical relevance of using NIR spectroscopy and ANN for dry-cured ham processing control.

  6. Raman spectra of single cell from gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-Ling Yan; Rui-Xin Dong; Lei Zhang; Xue-Jun Zhang; Zong-Wang Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the difference between cancer cells and normal cells, we investigated the Raman spectra of singlecells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: All samples were obtained from 30 diagnosed as gastrointestinal cancer patients. The flesh tumor specimen is located in the center of tumor tissue, while the normal ones were 5 cm away from the outside tumor section. The imprint was put under the microscope and a single cell was chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (British Renishaw) with NIR 780 nm laser.RESULTS: We measured the Raman spectra of several cells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. The result shows that there exists the strong line at 1 002/cm with less half-width assigned to the phenylalanine in several cells. The Raman lines of white cell were lower and less, while those of red cell were not only higher in intensity and more abundant, but also had a parti cular C-N breathing stretching band of pyrrole ring at 1 620-1 540/cm. The line at 1 084/cm assigned to phosphate backbone of DNA became obviously weaker in cancer cell. The Raman spectra of stomach cancer cells were similar to those of normal cells, but the Raman intensity of cancer cells was much lower than that of normal cells, and even some lines disappear. The lines of enteric cancer cells became weaker than spectra above and many lines disappeared, and the cancer cells in different position had different fluorescence intensity.CONCLUSION: The Raman spectra of several cells from cancer patients show that the structural changes of cancer cells happen and many bonds rupture so that the biological function of cells are lost. The results indicate that Raman spectra can offer the experiment basis for the cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  8. Rapid monitoring of the fermentation process for Korean traditional rice wine 'Makgeolli' using FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2015-11-01

    The quality parameters of the Korean traditional rice wine "Makgeolli" were monitored using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) during fermentation. Alcohol, reducing sugar, and titratable acid were the parameters assessed to determine the quality index of fermentation substrates and products. The acquired spectra were analyzed with partial least squares regression (PLSR). The best prediction model for alcohol was obtained with maximum normalization, showing a coefficient of determination (Rp2) of 0.973 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.760%. In addition, the best prediction model for reducing sugar was obtained with no data preprocessing, with a Rp2 value of 0.945 and a SEP of 1.233%. The prediction of titratable acidity was best with mean normalization, showing a Rp2 value of 0.882 and a SEP of 0.045%. These results demonstrate that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used for rapid measurements of quality parameters during Makgeolli fermentation.

  9. Untargeted detection and quantitative analysis of poplar balata (PB) in Chinese propolis by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Yan, Si-Min; Cai, Chen-Bo; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid analysis of poplar balata (PB) in Chinese propolis. Because practical adulterations usually involve addition of certain known active components, together with commercial PB, the commonly targeted analysis methods are insufficient to identify PB-adulterated propolis. Untargeted analysis of PB was performed by developing class models of pure propolis using one-class partial least squares (OCPLS). Quantitative analysis of PB was performed using partial least squares regression (PLSR). For untargeted analysis, the most accurate OCPLS model was obtained with SNV spectra with sensitivity 0.960 and specificity 0.941. OCPLS could detect adulterations with 2% (w/w) or more PB. For quantitative analysis, the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) value of PB was 0.902 (w/w, %) with SNV-PLS. FT-NIR spectrometry and chemometrics demonstrate potential for rapid analysis of PB adulterations in Chinese propolis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of visible and NIR imaging equipment for small animals with smart pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Nyeon Sik; Han, Jung Hyun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong Ha; Park, Hee Joon

    2014-01-01

    The portable visible and near-infrared (NIR) imaging equipment for a pre-clinical test with small animals was designed and developed in this paper. The developed equipment is composed of a CCD camera, a focusing lens, an objective lens, a NIR band pass filter and a NIR filter driving motor. An NIR ray is mainly used for imaging equipment because it has high light penetration depth in biological tissue. Therefore, NIR fluorescent agents are available for chemical conjugation to targeting molecules in vivo. This equipment can provide a visible image, NIR image and merged image simultaneously. A communication system was specifically established to check obtained images through a smart pad in real time. It is less dependent on space and time than the conventional system.

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. NIR-LEDs lighting system for enhancing Brix distinction with saving energy to agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Ahn-Jin; Jang, Won-Geun; Park, Youngsik

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the sugar content prediction determination system in optical non-contact type based on the near infrared light emitting diode (NIR-LED) lamp is proposed. As the result NIR-LED lamp reduced 86% of the energy consumption compared to the case of Halogen lamp in the same process of sugar content determination. And the result of prediction of sugar content by NIR-LED lamp is shown to as near the same level of Halogen lamp system.

  13. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  14. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  15. NIR spectrometry for counterfeit drug detection - A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionova, O.Y.; Houmøller, Lars P.; Pomerantsev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Express-methods for detection of counterfeit drugs are of vital necessity. Visual control, dissociating tests or simple color reaction tests reveal only very rough forgeries. The feasibility of information-rich NIR-measurements as an analytical method together with multivariate calibration...... for mathematical data processing for false drugs detection is demonstrated. Also, multivariate hyperspectral image analysis is applied providing additional diagnostic information. Hyperspectral imaging is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for identifying non-homogeneous spatial regions of drug formulation. Two...... types of drugs are used to demonstrate the applicability of these approaches....

  16. New NIR Calibration Models Speed Biomass Composition and Reactivity Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate chemical composition and reactivity (measures of carbohydrate release and yield) information for biomass feedstocks in a timely manner is necessary for the commercialization of biofuels. This highlight describes NREL's work to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares multivariate analysis to develop calibration models to predict the feedstock composition and the release and yield of soluble carbohydrates generated by a bench-scale dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis assay. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  17. NIR light propagation in a digital head model for traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert; Khan, Bilal; Alexandrakis, George; Florence, James; MacFarlane, Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is capable of detecting and monitoring acute changes in cerebral blood volume and oxygenation associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Wavelength selection, source-detector separation, optode density, and detector sensitivity are key design parameters that determine the imaging depth, chromophore separability, and, ultimately, clinical usefulness of a NIRS instrument. We present simulation results of NIR light propagation in a digital head model as it relates to the ability to detect intracranial hematomas and monitor the peri-hematomal tissue viability. These results inform NIRS instrument design specific to TBI diagnosis and monitoring.

  18. Fundamental examination of nanoparticle heating kinetics upon near infrared (NIR) irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Stacy, Bradley M; Payne, Sarah; Dosser, Larry; Hussain, Saber M

    2011-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light, which spans wavelengths from ~700-1100 nm holds particular promise in bionanotechnology-enabled applications because both NIR light and nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential for remote activation leading to exquisite localization and targeting scenarios. In this study, aqueous solutions of carbon and metal-based NPs (carbon black, single-walled carbon nanotubes, silver nanoparticles and copper nanoparticles) were exposed to continuous NIR laser (λ = 1064 nm) irradiation at powers of 2.2W and 4.5W. The differential heating of bulk aqueous suspension of NPs with varying physicochemical properties revealed maximum temperatures of 67 °C with visible evidence of condensation and bubble formation. The basis of the NP heating is due to the strong intrinsic optical absorbance in the NIR spectral window and the transduction of this NIR photon energy into thermal energy. In this regard, UV-vis measurements can accurately predict NP heating kinetics prior to NIR irradiation. Further, a uniform thermodynamic heating model demonstrates close agreement with the experimental data for the low NIR-absorbing NPs. However, the uniform thermodynamic heating model used in this study does not accurately portray the energy release upon localized NP heating because of bubble formation for the highly absorbing NPs. Therefore, this study reveals the differential heating kinetics of NPs excited with NIR with implications in the development of novel NIR-NP-based systems.

  19. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator.

  20. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  1. Effects of slash-and-burn land management on soil spectral properties estimated with VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Vlasova, Olga Alexandra; Vlassova, Lidia; Rosero Tufiño, Pedro; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; Montorio Llovería, Raquel

    2017-04-01

    Slash-and-burn land management is typical for low-income tropical countries, such as Ecuador. It involves conversion of forest into areas used for agriculture. At first trees are cut and the wood debris is burnt. After initial clearing, biomass burning is performed after each production cycle. Usually, cultivation cycles are followed by the fallow period. In the medium and long term, these practices have negative effect on soil fertility and there is the need for clearing more forest for agricultural use. This is one of the reasons for continuing deforestation with the consequent loss of biodiversity. Changes in physico-chemical properties due to periodic burning are accompanied by changes in soil spectral properties and can be determined using VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy, which can be a cost-effective alternative for traditional methods of soil analysis. The purpose of the study is to assess the viability of VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy for characterization of soils from land areas under slash-and-burn management system. Eighteen samples from soil surface layer were collected from two corn fields in the province of Los Rios, Ecuador, in September 2015. One of the areas has experienced six slash-and-burn cycles, while in the other the samples were collected at the end of the first corn cultivation cycle. Spectral measurements of sieved and air-dried samples were performed in the laboratory of the University of Zaragoza using ASD Fieldspec®4 spectroradiometer (350-2500nm spectral range) and ASD Illuminator Lamp as a light source. Statistically significant differences were observed between soil spectra of the samples from two soil groups. Reflectance of repeatedly burnt soils was 20% higher (mean value for the entire spectrum) for 65% of the samples, being especially important in VIS (>45%) and NIR ( 35%), probably due to the lower organic matter (OM) content. OM models built using Partial least Squares Regression demonstrated high predictive capacity (R2>0.8). Thus, the

  2. NIR models for predicting total sugar in tobacco for samples with different physical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhua; Gong, Huili

    2016-07-01

    Due to the spectra variation of the inhomogeneous tobacco flakes results the inaccuracy and instability of the near infrared model. This paper presented the strategies of calibration transfer and hybrid modeling for determining total sugar content in tobacco based on the homogeneous powder model. The necessity judgments and acceptance criteria of the calibration transfer were also proposed. Calibration transfer methods include Slope/Bias Correction (S/B), Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS), double window piecewise direct standardization (DWPDS), and Shenk's were adopted, a transfer set of 15 samples were chosen for each methods, and the results showed that Shenk's is the adequate transfer method as only one indicator did not fulfill the acceptance criteria of the transfer. Other methods were all dissatisfied with the acceptance criteria and cannot be applied to the calibration transfer between the tobacco flake and powder. While the hybrid model of adding some flake samples to the powder model achieved preferred prediction ability. The study showed that adding around 10% variation samples caused the average prediction error of total sugar content (range 12.1-37.2%) in flake samples from 7.25% (predicted by a flake model) significantly dropping to 4.98%, even close to the prediction of the same powder samples (4.21%) by the powder model. It will valuable for the promotion of the NIR network and online analysis.

  3. Using vis-NIR to predict soil organic carbon and clay at national scale: validation of geographically closest resampling strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2016-01-01

    The Danish soil visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral library has proved capable of predicting soil properties in Denmark such as soil organic carbon (SOC) at field scale using the geographically closest resampling strategy. However, this strategy has only been tested on one Danish local field....../farm and for future application it is necessary to extend this approach to all types of Danish soils and evaluate the predictive capabilities of the library at national scale. In the present study, partial least squares regression was used to develop models and predict topsoil SOC (490 samples) and clay contents (442...... samples) for soils from each 7-km grid sampling point in the country. In the resampling and modelling process, each target sample was predicted by a specific model which was calibrated using geographically closest soil spectra. The geographically closest 20, 30, 40, and 50 sampling points (profiles) were...

  4. A data analysis workflow to enhance clay and organic carbon models using proximal Vis-NIR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabai, Salman; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Modelling proximal sensors data is becoming a norm in soil characterization and mapping. In many cases, these models still have low predictive capabilities and lack robustness due to the large amount of noise from several environmental factors. In this study we proposed a combination of extensive...... data preprocessing (preprocessing survey) and two variable selection methods to significantly increase visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) model performance and stability. Spectra of eight agricultural fields were measured in the range of 350-2200 nm using a mobile sensor platform (Veris....... Spectral data were preprocessed using several thousands of combinations of methods/settings including Savistky-Golay smoothing/derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate and generalized least squares weighting and the optimum Partial Least Squares (PLS) models for clay...

  5. [Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua

    2014-08-01

    To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring.

  6. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  7. IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED MELANOMA IN AN ANIMAL MODEL USING UV-VISIBLE AND NIR ELASTIC SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY: PRELIMINARY TESTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A' AMAR; R. LEY; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) has the potential to provide spectra that contain both morphological and chromophore information from tissue. We report on a preliminary study of this technique, with the hope of developing a method for diagnosis of highly-pigmented skin lesions, commonly associated with skin cancer. Four opossums were treated with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to induce both malignant melanoma and benign pigmented lesions. Skin lesions were examined in vivo using both UV-visible and near infrared (NIR) ESS, with wavelength ranges of 330-900 nm and 900-1700 nm, respectively. Both portable systems used identical fiber-optic probe geometry throughout all of the measurements. The core diameters for illuminating and collecting fibers were 400 and 200 {micro}m, respectively, with center-to-center separation of 350 {micro}m. The probe was placed in optical contact with the tissue under investigation. Biopsies from lesions were analyzed by two standard histopathological procedures. Taking into account only the biopsied lesions, UV-visible ESS showed distinct spectral correlation for 11/13 lesions. The NIR-ESS correlated well with 12/13 lesions correctly. The results of these experiments showed that UV-visible and NIR-ESS have the potential to classify benign and malignant skin lesions, with encouraging agreement to that provided by standard histopathological examination. These initial results show potential for ESS based diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, but further trials are required in order to substantiate the technique.

  8. A novel multivariate approach using science-based calibration for direct coating thickness determination in real-time NIR process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möltgen, C-V; Herdling, T; Reich, G

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates an approach, using science-based calibration (SBC), for direct coating thickness determination on heart-shaped tablets in real-time. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectra were collected during four full industrial pan coating operations. The tablets were coated with a thin hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film up to a film thickness of 28 μm. The application of SBC permits the calibration of the NIR spectral data without using costly determined reference values. This is due to the fact that SBC combines classical methods to estimate the coating signal and statistical methods for the noise estimation. The approach enabled the use of NIR for the measurement of the film thickness increase from around 8 to 28 μm of four independent batches in real-time. The developed model provided a spectroscopic limit of detection for the coating thickness of 0.64 ± 0.03 μm root-mean square (RMS). In the commonly used statistical methods for calibration, such as Partial Least Squares (PLS), sufficiently varying reference values are needed for calibration. For thin non-functional coatings this is a challenge because the quality of the model depends on the accuracy of the selected calibration standards. The obvious and simple approach of SBC eliminates many of the problems associated with the conventional statistical methods and offers an alternative for multivariate calibration.

  9. Optical-NIR spectroscopy of the puzzling gamma-ray source 3FGL 1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 with X-shooter

    CERN Document Server

    Goldoni, P; Boisson, C; Mueller, C; Dauser, T; Jung, I; Krauss, F; Lenain, J -P; Sol, H

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi/LAT instrument has detected about two thousands Extragalactic High Energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources. One of the brightest is 3FGL 1603.9-4903, associated to the radio source PMN J1603-4904. Its nature is not yet clear, it could be either a very peculiar BL Lac or a CSO (Compact Symmetric Object) radio source, considered as the early stage of a radio galaxy. The latter, if confirmed, would be the first detection in gamma-rays for this class of objects. Recently a redshift z=0.18 +/- 0.01 has been claimed on the basis of the detection of a single X-ray line at 5.44 +/- 0.05 keV interpreted as a 6.4 keV (rest frame) fluorescent line. We aim to investigate the nature of 3FGL 1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 using optical to NIR spectroscopy. We observed PMN J1603-4904 with the UV-NIR VLT/X-shooter spectrograph for two hours. We extracted spectra in the VIS and NIR range that we calibrated in flux and corrected for telluric absorption and we systematically searched for absorption and emission features. T...

  10. Determination of vis and NIR quantum yields of Nd{sup 3+}-activated garnets sensitized by Ce{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, S.; Hoffmann, A.; Knaut, D.; Flottmann, J.; Jüstel, T., E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2015-02-15

    One of the most important quantities to describe the efficiency of luminescent materials is the external photoluminescence quantum yield (ePLQY) which is defined as the ratio of emitted to absorbed photons and thus describes the conversion efficiency of a given phosphor. In optical spectroscopy two methods of determination are applied: The absolute measurement conducted in an integrating sphere and a relative measurement based on a reference material with a known quantum yield. So far both methods are only described for phosphors in the UV and visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By using Nd{sup 3+} sensitized and Ce{sup 3+} activated garnets with the general formula (Y,Lu){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+},Nd{sup 3+} ((Y,Lu)AG:Ce,Nd) we developed a method for the determination of the quantum yield in the near-infrared region. Therefore samples of different compositions have been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Starting point of the determination of the overall quantum yield is the determination of the quantum yield of the Ce{sup 3+} emission in the visible range by well-established methods. For using the proportionality of emission integral to the quantum yield it is necessary to scale and combine the measured spectra (460–1000 nm on the vis detector, and 900–1500 nm on the NIR detector). Furthermore, the accuracy of the method was evaluated not only by statistic calculations comprising the propagation of uncertainty but also by using branching ratio data of Nd{sup 3+} given in literature to check the generated overall emission spectra. - Highlights: • Method for determining the external quantum efficiency in the NIR range. • Sensitization and dopant ratio optimization of (Y,Lu)AG:Nd{sup 3+} by Ce{sup 3+}. • Application of branching ratios for evaluation of experimental ePLQY.

  11. NIR Tully-Fisher in the Zone of Avoidance - III. Deep NIR catalogue of the HIZOA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Khaled; Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Williams, Wendy L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a deep near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and Ks bands) photometric catalogue of sources from the Parkes H I Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey, which forms the basis for an investigation of the matter distribution in the Zone of Avoidance. Observations were conducted between 2006 and 2013 using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF), a 1.4-m telescope situated at the South African Astronomical Observatory site in Sutherland. The images cover all 1108 HIZOA detections and yield 915 galaxies. An additional 105 bright 2MASS galaxies in the southern ZOA were imaged with the IRSF, resulting in 129 galaxies. The average Ks-band seeing and sky background for the survey are 1.38 arcsec and 20.1 mag, respectively. The detection rate as a function of stellar density and dust extinction is found to depend mainly on the H I mass of the H I detected galaxies, which in principal correlates with the NIR brightness of the spiral galaxies. The measured isophotal magnitudes are of sufficient accuracy (errors ˜0.02 mag) to be used in a Tully-Fisher analysis. In the final NIR catalogue, 285 galaxies have both IRSF and 2MASS photometry (180 HIZOA plus 105 bright 2MASX galaxies). The Ks-band isophotal magnitudes presented in this paper agree, within the uncertainties, with those reported in the 2MASX catalogue. Another 30 galaxies, from the HIZOA northern extension, are also covered by UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) images, which are one magnitude deeper than our IRSF images. A modified version of our photometry pipeline was used to derive the photometric parameters of these UKIDSS galaxies. Good agreement was found between the respective Ks-band isophotal magnitudes. These comparisons confirm the robustness of the isophotal parameters and demonstrate that the IRSF images do not suffer from foreground contamination, after star removal, nor underestimate the isophotal fluxes of ZoA galaxies.

  12. Direct recovery of fluctuation spectra from tomographic shear spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Marino; Bonometto, Silvio A.; Casarini, Luciano; Murante, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Forthcoming experiments will enable us to determine high precision tomographic shear spectra. Matter density fluctuation spectra, at various z, should then be recovered from them, in order to constrain the model and determine the DE state equation. Available analytical expressions, however, do the opposite, enabling us to derive shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. Here we find the inverse expression, yielding density fluctuation spectra from observational tomographic shear spectra. The procedure involves SVD techniques for matrix inversion. We show in detail how the approach works and provide a few examples.

  13. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  14. Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Peloton, Julien; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of $\\sim 5\\sigma$ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting those could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However we found that the inclusion of ext...

  15. MEMS-based microspectrometer technologies for NIR and MIR wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Leo P; Milne, Jason S; Dell, John M; Faraone, Lorenzo, E-mail: schuler@ee.uwa.edu.a [Microelectronics Research Group, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-07

    Commercially manufactured near-infrared (NIR) instruments became available about 50 years ago. While they have been designed for laboratory use in a controlled environment and boast high performance, they are generally bulky, fragile and maintenance intensive, and therefore expensive to purchase and maintain. Micromachining is a powerful technique to fabricate micromechanical parts such as integrated circuits. It was perfected in the 1980s and led to the invention of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs). The three characteristic features of MEMS fabrication technologies are miniaturization, multiplicity and microelectronics. Combined, these features allow the batch production of compact and rugged devices with integrated intelligence. In order to build more compact, more rugged and less expensive NIR instruments, MEMS technology has been successfully integrated into a range of new devices. In the first part of this paper we discuss the UWA MEMS-based Fabry-Perot spectrometer, its design and issues to be solved. MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filters primarily isolate certain wavelengths by sweeping across an incident spectrum and the resulting monochromatic signal is detected by a broadband detector. In the second part, we discuss other microspectrometers including other Fabry-Perot spectrometer designs, time multiplexing devices and mixed time/space multiplexing devices. (topical review)

  16. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Inno, L; Romaniello, M; Bono, G; Monson, A; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Persson, E; Buonanno, R; Freedman, W; Gieren, W; Groenewegen, M A T; Ita, Y; Laney, C D; Lemasle, B; Madore, B F; Nagayama, T; Nakada, Y; Nonino, M; Pietrzynski, G; Primas, F; Scowcroft, V; Soszynski, I; Tanabe, T; Udalski, A

    2014-01-01

    We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, JHK) and first overtone (FO, J) Cepheids. The new templates together with PL and PW relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision only limited by the intrinsic accuracy of the method adopted. The templates rely on a very large set of Galactic and Magellanic Clouds (MCs) Cepheids (FU,~600; FO,~200) with well sampled NIR (IRSF data) and optical (V,I; OGLE data) light curves. To properly trace the change in the shape of the light curve as a function of period, we split the sample of calibrating Cepheids into 10 different period bins. The templates for the first time cover FO Cepheids and the FU short-period Cepheids (P<5 days). Moreover, the zero-point phase is anchored to the phase of the mean magnitude along the rising branch. The new approach has several advantages in sampling the light curve of bump Cepheids when compared with the phase of maximum light. We also provide new estimates of the ...

  17. RGB-NIR color image fusion: metric and psychophysical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alex E.; Finlayson, Graham D.; Montagna, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare four methods of fusing visible RGB and near-infrared (NIR) images to produce a color output image, using a psychophysical experiment and image fusion quality metrics. The results of the psychophysical experiment show that two methods are significantly preferred to the original RGB image, and therefore RGB-NIR image fusion may be useful for photographic enhancement in those cases. The Spectral Edge method is the most preferred method, followed by the dehazing method of Schaul et al. We then investigate image fusion metrics which give results correlated with the psychophysical experiment results. We extend several existing metrics from 2 to 1 to M to N channel image fusion, as well as introducing new metrics based on output image colorfulness and contrast, and test them on our experimental data. While none of the individual metrics gives a ranking of the algorithms which exactly matches that of the psychophysical experiment, through a combination of two metrics we accurately rank the two leading fusion methods.

  18. NIR hyperspectral imaging to evaluate degradation in captopril commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Leandro de Moura; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Simões, Simone da Silva; Grangeiro, Severino; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical quality control is important for improving the effectiveness, purity and safety of drugs, as well as for the prevention or control of drug degradation. In the present work, near infrared hyperspectral images (HSI-NIR) of tablets with different expiration dates were employed to evaluate the degradation of captopril into captopril disulfide in different layers, on the top and on the bottom surfaces of the tablets. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) models were used to extract the concentration distribution maps from the hyperspectral images. Afterward, multivariate image techniques were applied to the concentration distribution maps (CDMs), to extract features and build models relating the main characteristics of the images to their corresponding manufacturing dates. Resolution methods followed by extracting features were able to estimate the tablet manufacture date with a prediction error of 120days. The model developed could be useful to evaluate whether a sample shows a degradation pattern consistent with the date of manufacturing or to detect abnormal behaviors in the natural degradation process of the sample. The information provided by the HIS-NIR is important for the development of the process (QbD), looking inside the formulation, revealing the behavior of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) during the product's shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  20. Estimation of multivariate detection limits of four quality parameters in licorice using MEMS–NIR spectrometry coupled with two sampling accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisheng Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multivariate detection limits (MDL estimator was obtained based on the micro-electro-mechanical systems–near infrared (MEMS–NIR technology coupled with two sampling accessories to assess the detection capability of four quality parameters (glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritin in licorice from different geographical regions. 112 licorice samples were divided into two parts (calibration set and prediction set using Kennard–Stone (KS method. Four quality parameters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method according to Chinese pharmacopoeia and previous studies. The MEMS–NIR spectra were acquired from fiber optic probe (FOP and integrating sphere, then the partial least squares (PLS model was obtained using the optimum processing method. Chemometrics indicators have been utilized to assess the PLS model performance. Model assessment using chemometrics indicators is based on relative mean prediction error of all concentration levels, which indicated relatively low sensitivity for low-content analytes (below 1000 parts per million (ppm. Therefore, MDL estimator was introduced with alpha error and beta error based on good prediction characteristic of low concentration levels. The result suggested that MEMS–NIR technology coupled with fiber optic probe (FOP and integrating sphere was able to detect minor analytes. The result further demonstrated that integrating sphere mode (i.e., MDL0.05,0.05, 0.22% was more robust than FOP mode (i.e., MDL0.05,0.05, 0.48%. In conclusion, this research proposed that MDL method was helpful to determine the detection capabilities of low-content analytes using MEMS–NIR technology and successful to compare two sampling accessories.

  1. Development of a NIRS method to quantify cerebral perfusion and oxidative metabolism in preterm infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Peter; Kishimoto, Jessica; de Ribeaupierre, Sandrine; Lee, David S. C.; Diop, Mamadou; St Lawrence, Keith

    2017-02-01

    A complication of intraventricular hemorrhage among preterm neonates is post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD), which is associated with a greater risk of life-long neurological disability. Clinical evidence, including suppressed EEG patterns, suggests that cerebral perfusion and oxygenation is impaired in these patients, likely due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) can be quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced NIRS; however, PHVD poses a unique challenge to NIRS since the cerebral mantle can be compressed to 1 cm or less. The objectives of this work were to develop a finite-slab model for the analysis of NIRS spectra, incorporating depth measurements from ultrasound images, and to assess the magnitude of error when using the standard semi-infinite model. CBF, tissue saturation (StO2) and CMRO2 were measured in 9 patients receiving ventricle taps to reduce ICP. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that errors in StO2 could be greater than 20% if the cerebral mantle was reduced to 1 cm. Using the finite-slab model, basal CBF and CMRO2 in the PHVD patients were not significantly different from a control group of preterm infants (14.6 ± 4.2 ml/100 g/min and 1.0 ± 0.4 ml O2/100 g/min), but StO2 was significantly lower (PDA 70.5 ± 9%, PHVD 58.9 ± 12%). Additionally, ventricle tapping improved CBF by 15.6 ± 22%. This work indicates that applying NIRS to PHVD patients is prone to error; however, this issue can be overcome with the appropriate model and using readily available ultrasound images.

  2. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  3. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  4. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  5. NIR Tully-Fisher in the Zone of Avoidance. -- III. Deep NIR catalogue of the HIZOA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Said, Khaled; Jarrett, T H; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Williams, Wendy L

    2016-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared (NIR) photometric catalogue of sources from the Parkes HI Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey, which forms the basis for an investigation of the matter distribution in the Zone of Avoidance. Observations were conducted between 2006 and 2013 using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF), a 1.4-m telescope situated at the South African Astronomical Observatory site in Sutherland. The images cover all 1108 HIZOA detections and yield 915 galaxies. An additional 105 bright 2MASS galaxies in the southern ZOA were imaged with the IRSF, resulting in 129 galaxies. The average $K_s$-band seeing and sky background for the survey are 1.38 arcsec and 20.1 mag, respectively. The detection rate as a function of stellar density and dust extinction is found to depend mainly on the HI mass of the HI detected galaxies, which in principal correlates with the NIR brightness of the spiral galaxies. The measured isophotal magnitudes are of sufficient accuracy (errors $\\sim$ 0.02 mag) to be used in a Tully-F...

  6. 2D Layered Materials of Rare-Earth Er-Doped MoS2 with NIR-to-NIR Down- and Up-Conversion Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gongxun; Yuan, Shuoguo; Zhao, Yuda; Yang, Zhibin; Choi, Sin Yuk; Chai, Yang; Yu, Siu Fung; Lau, Shu Ping; Hao, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    A 2D system of Er-doped MoS2 layered nanosheets is developed. Structural studies indicate that the Er atoms can be substitutionally introduced into MoS2 to form stable doping. Density functional theory calculation implies that the system remains stable. Both NIR-to-NIR up-conversion and down-conversion light-emissions are observed in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, ascribed to the energy transition from Er(3+) dopants.

  7. NIR-Remote Selected Activation Gene Expression in Living Cells by Upconverting Microrods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Su, Lin; Pan, Huizhuo; Hou, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Fang; Wu, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-27

    An NIR-controlled gene expression system based on upconverting rods (UCRs) is demonstrated. The UCRs can harvest the "biocompatible" NIR light and convert it into local UV light, resulting in cleavage of the photosensitive molecule (4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-nitrobenzoic acid, ONA) and on-demand release of gene carriers, thus realizing target gene expression at high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  8. Single seed NIR as a fast method to predict germination ability in Pak Choi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær;

    2012-01-01

    Single seed NIR has further been tested to determine the applicability for prediction of seed viability in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds. The studies show the possibility of using NIR spectroscopy in a seed separating process in the future, provided...

  9. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2015-09-01

    The weak knowledge on the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological effects of NIR such as static magnetic field, infrasound frequency of mechanical vibration, extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields and microwave serves as a main barrier for adequate dosimetry from the point of Public Health. The difficulty lies in the fact that the biological effects of NIR depend not only on their thermodynamic characteristics but also on their frequency and intensity "windows", chemical and physical composition of the surrounding medium, as well as on the initial metabolic state of the organism. Therefore, only biomarker can be used for adequate estimation of biological effect of NIR on organisms. Because of the absence of such biomarker(s), organizations having the mission to monitor hazardous effects of NIR traditionally base their instruction on thermodynamic characteristics of NIR. Based on the high sensitivity to NIR of both aqua medium structure and cell hydration, it is suggested that cell bathing medium is one of the primary targets and cell hydration is a biomarker for NIR effects on cells and organisms. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of literature and our own experimental data on the effects of NIR on plants' seeds germination, microbe growth and development, snail neurons and heart muscle, rat's brain and heart tissues.

  10. Integrating Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) into the USDA-ARS sugarcane breeding program in Houma, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRs) is a relatively new technique that has the potential to benefit Louisiana’s sugarcane industry, and is being successfully used in other parts of the world (e.g., South Africa) and even Florida. Recently, the USDA-ARS in Houma, LA purchased a NIR Cane Presentation Sy...

  11. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    esters of fatty acids 0.2 ml dichloromethane was filled up, gently shaken several times within an hour and then obtained methyl esters extract was chromatographed. Injection of sample (2 μl in a chromatographic column was carried out splitless, which allowed introducing the sample without flow division and significantly (10-20 time increased sensitivity to chromatography analysis. Content of organic acids were determined on Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector 5973; chromatography column - INNOWAX, capillary diam. 0.25 mm and a length of 30m; the rate of carrier gas (helium: 1.2 ml/min; heater temperature - 250°C; thermostat temperature was programmed from 50 to 250 °C with a speed of 4 °C / min. For components identification, library of mass spectra NIST05 and WILEY 2007 with a total number of spectra more than 470,000 in conjunction with AMDIS and NIST programs were used. The statistical processing of results was carried out using package Statistica 6.0. The error does not exceed 5%. Results and discussion. 32 organic acids were established in almond leaves and their quantitative values were determined, using internal standard method. Overall, plant raw material contained 1.80% of the organic acids, including (% – 0.75 fatty; 0.95 di- and three carboxylic; 0.10 phenol carboxylic acids. Among the carboxylic acids, oxalic and malic acid were the largest with- 3616.41 (38.23% and 3343.03 (35.34% mg / kg, respectively. Palmitic and linoleic acids dominated among the fatty acids, their content was determined as (mg/kg 2343.49 and 1963.60 that were 30.98 % and 25.96% respectively of the total fatty acids. Among phenol carboxylic acids, the largest content was defined for benzoic acid. It was 488.43 mg / kg or 50.16% of the total amount of phenol carboxylic acids. Conclusion. Almond leaves were investigated by gas chromatography. 32 organic acids were established and their quantitative value were determined. It was found that almond

  12. Background correction in near-infrared spectra of plant extracts by orthogonal signal correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Hai-bin; OU Dan-lin; CHENG Yi-yu

    2005-01-01

    In near-infrared (NIR) analysis of plant extracts, excessive background often exists in near-infrared spectra. The detection of active constituents is difficult because of excessive background, and correction of this problem remains difficult. In this work, the orthogonal signal correction (OSC) method was used to correct excessive background. The method was also compared with several classical background correction methods, such as offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC),standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, de-trending (DT), first derivative, second derivative and wavelet methods. A simulated dataset and a real NIR spectral dataset were used to test the efficiency of different background correction methods. The results showed that OSC is the only effective method for correcting excessive background.

  13. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-Infrared High Resolution Spectra of Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Gagné, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Bottom, Michael; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Beichman, Charles; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John; Ciardi, David; Wallace, James; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Tanner, Angelle; Crawford, Timothy; Latham, David; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL's narrow wavelen...

  14. Data fusion of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra for identification of rhubarb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoyong; Zhu, Ruohua

    2017-01-01

    Rhubarb has different medicinal efficacy to official rhubarb and may affect the clinical medication safety. In order to guarantee the quality of rhubarb, we established a method to distinguish unofficial rhubarbs. 52 official and unofficial rhubarb samples were analyzed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for classification. The feature vectors, which were selected by wavelet compression (WC) and interval partial least squares (iPLS) from NIR, MIR spectra, were fused together for identifying rhubarb samples. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were compared for classifying rhubarb. The use of data fusion strategies improved the classification model and allowed correct classification of all the samples.

  15. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Enhanced (NIR-FE) Molecular Imaging of Live Cells on Gold Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Guosong; Welsher, Kevin; Chen, Zhuo; Robinson, Joshua T; Wang, Hailiang; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Low quantum yields of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores have limited their capabilities as imaging probes in a transparent, low background imaging window. Here for the first time we reported near-infrared fluorescence enhance (NIR-FE) cell imaging using nanostructured Au substrate, which was employed as a general platform for both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and organic fluorescent labels in the NIR region. Fluorescence intensity, as well as cell targeting specificity, was greatly improved by this novel imaging technique. With NIR-FE imaging, we were able to image SWNT-stained cells at short exposure time of 300ms, and push the detectable limit of SWNT staining of cells down to an ultralow concentration of ~50 pM. Further, different degrees of fluorescence enhancement for endocytosed, intracellular SWNTs vs. nanotubes on the cell membrane at the cell/gold interface were observed, suggesting the possibility of using this technique to track the transmembrane behavior of NIR fluorophores.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR spectra of 10 PNe in LMC and SMC (Mashburn+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.

    2017-02-01

    In Table 1, we provide an observing log and nebular and stellar parameters for our sample. Nine of the 10 PNe were observed with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph on the 6.5m Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in 2013 January 21, 22 and August 11, 12. We used a 0.75" slit width to provide a resolution R=4800 in echelle mode, covering the spectral range 0.83-2.45um. LMC SMP 62 and SMC SMP 20 were observed in the K band with the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) on the 8.1m Gemini South telescope (resolving power of R=4000 in the wavelength range 2.1-2.3um) in 2006 August 16. The data were taken in queue mode under observing program GS-2006B-Q-51. (2 data files).

  17. Control spectra for Quito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Roberto; Rivas-Medina, Alicia; Caiza, Pablo; Quizanga, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The Metropolitan District of Quito is located on or very close to segments of reverse blind faults, Puengasí, Ilumbisí-La Bota, Carcelen-El Inca, Bellavista-Catequilla and Tangahuilla, making it one of the most seismically dangerous cities in the world. The city is divided into five areas: south, south-central, central, north-central and north. For each of the urban areas, elastic response spectra are presented in this paper, which are determined by utilizing some of the new models of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) NGA-West2 program. These spectra are calculated considering the maximum magnitude that could be generated by the rupture of each fault segment, and taking into account the soil type that exists at different points of the city according to the Norma Ecuatoriana de la Construcción (2015). Subsequently, the recurrence period of earthquakes of high magnitude in each fault segment is determined from the physical parameters of the fault segments (size of the fault plane and slip rate) and the pattern of recurrence of type Gutenberg-Richter earthquakes with double truncation magnitude (Mmin and Mmax) is used.

  18. Meteors and meteorites spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.; Lenža, L.; Ferus, M.; Civiš, S.; Knížek, A.; Kubelík, P.; Kaiserová, T.; Váňa, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of our meteor spectroscopy project is to better understand the physical and chemical properties of meteoroids. Astrometric and spectral observations of real meteors are obtained via spectroscopic CCD video systems. Processed meteor data are inserted to the EDMOND database (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database) together with spectral information. The fully analyzed atmospheric trajectory, orbit and also spectra of a Leonid meteor/meteoroid captured in November 2015 are presented as an example. At the same time, our target is the systematization of spectroscopic emission lines for the comparative analysis of meteor spectra. Meteoroid plasma was simulated in a laboratory by laser ablation of meteorites samples using an (ArF) excimer laser and the LIDB (Laser Induced Dielectric Breakdown) in a low pressure atmosphere and various gases. The induced plasma emissions were simultaneously observed with the Echelle Spectrograph and the same CCD video spectral camera as used for real meteor registration. Measurements and analysis results for few selected meteorite samples are presented and discussed.

  19. The characterization of caffeine and nine individual catechins in the leaves of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jinwook; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins in tea leaves. A total of 665 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins. The calibration models for caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins had high r(2) (more than 0.90) and RSP (the ratio of standard deviation of reference data to SEP(C) in the external validation set) values (more than 4.1), indicating a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. In contrast, the calibration models of GC and EGCG-3Me had low r(2) and RSP values (below 0.8 and 2.0). Therefore, these results suggest that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins in tea leaves for breeding programs that develop high-quality tea plants.

  20. Combined pulse-oximeter-NIRS system for biotissue diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    2005-08-01

    Multi-wavelength (670, 805, 848 and 905 nm), multi-detector device for non-invasive measurement of biochemical components concentration in human or animal tissues, combining the methods of conventional pulse-oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy, is developed. The portable and clinically applicable system allows to measure heart pulse rate, oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin (pulse-oximetry method) and local absolute concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and oxidized cytochrome aa3 or other IR absorbed compounds (NIRS method). The system can be applied in monitoring of oxygen availability and utilization by the brain in neonatal and adults, neuro- traumatology, intensive care medicine, transplantation and plastic surgery, in sport, high-altitude and aviation medicine.

  1. Tetravalent chromium doped laser materials and NIR tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Petricevic, Vladimir (Inventor); Bykov, Alexey (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method is described to improve and produce purer Cr.sup.4+-doped laser materials and lasers with reduced co-incorporation of chromium in any other valence states, such as Cr.sup.3+, Cr.sup.2+, Cr.sup.5+, and Cr.sup.6+. The method includes: 1) certain crystals of olivine structure with large cation (Ca) in octahedral sites such as Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2GeO.sub.4, Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2SiO.sub.4, Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2Ge.sub.xSi.sub.1-xO.sub.4 (where 0NIR laser applications.

  2. NIRS-BASED CORTICAL ACTIVATION ANALYSIS BY TEMPORAL CROSS CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fernandez-Rojas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a method of signal processing to determine dominant channels in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. To compare measuring channels and identify delays between them, cross correlation is computed. Furthermore, to find out possible dominant channels, a visual inspection was performed. The outcomes demonstrated that the visual inspection exhibited evoked-related activations in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 after stimulation which is consistent with comparable studies and the cross correlation study discovered dominant channels on both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis also showed a relationship between dominant channels and adjacent channels. For that reason, our results present a new method to identify dominant regions in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. These findings have also implications in the decrease of channels by eliminating irrelevant channels for the experiment.

  3. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cayuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%.

  4. Segregated Optical-NIR colour distributions of MDS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreras, I; Martínez-González, E; Benítez, N

    1998-01-01

    We present a K survey of 29 fields covering approximately 90 arcmin^2 from the Medium Deep Survey (MDS) catalogue down to a completeness magnitude of K=18.0 (limiting magnitude K=19.0). The morphology obtained by the MDS team using high resolution images from HST/WFPC2 along with our NIR observations allow a Colour-Magnitude and Colour-Colour analysis that agrees in general with spectral evolution models (Bruzual & Charlot 1998) especially if a reasonable range of metallicities for the Simple Stellar Populations used (0.2 4.5, setting an upper limit to the number density of EROs at dn_{EROs}/dØmega < 0.011 arcmin^{-2} (K < 18.0).

  5. Unsupervised defect segmentation of patterned materials under NIR illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Maria S; Escofet, Jaume [Departament d' Optica y Optometria, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Terrassa. 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Rallo, Miquel, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departament de Matematica Aplicada III, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Terrassa. 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    An unsupervised detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in patterned materials (textile, non-woven, paper) that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. Printed materials having a pattern of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the background texture can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera with enough sensitivity to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the pattern in the NIR image facilitates material inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. For woven fabrics, with periodic structure, the algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. For non-woven and random textured materials, the algorithm combines the multiresolution Gabor analysis of the sample image with a statistical analysis of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to each detail. The information of all the channels is merged in a single binary output image where the defect appears segmented from the background. The method is applicable to random, non-periodic, and periodic textures. Since all the information to inspect a sample is obtained from the sample itself, the method is proof against heterogeneities between different samples of the material, in-plane positioning errors, scale variations and lack of homogeneous illumination. Experimental results are presented for a variety of materials and defects.

  6. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  7. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  8. Robust calibrations on reduced sample sets for API content prediction in tablets: definition of a cost-effective NIR model development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Sigrid; Saeys, Wouter; Van den Kerkhof, Tom; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Hellings, Mario; De Beer, Thomas; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2013-01-25

    Owing to spectral variations from other sources than the component of interest, large investments in the NIR model development may be required to obtain satisfactory and robust prediction performance. To make the NIR model development for routine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) prediction in tablets more cost-effective, alternative modelling strategies were proposed. They used a massive amount of prior spectral information on intra- and inter-batch variation and the pure component spectra to define a clutter, i.e., the detrimental spectral information. This was subsequently used for artificial data augmentation and/or orthogonal projections. The model performance improved statistically significantly, with a 34-40% reduction in RMSEP while needing fewer model latent variables, by applying the following procedure before PLS regression: (1) augmentation of the calibration spectra with the spectral shapes from the clutter, and (2) net analyte pre-processing (NAP). The improved prediction performance was not compromised when reducing the variability in the calibration set, making exhaustive calibration unnecessary. Strong water content variations in the tablets caused frequency shifts of the API absorption signals that could not be included in the clutter. Updating the model for this kind of variation demonstrated that the completeness of the clutter is critical for the performance of these models and that the model will only be more robust for spectral variation that is not co-linear with the one from the property of interest.

  9. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-03-15

    The present research is focused on the analysis of writing inks using destructive UV-Vis spectroscopy (dissolution of ink by the solvent) and non-destructive diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy along with Chemometrics. Fifty seven samples of blue ballpoint pen inks were analyzed under optimum conditions to determine the differences in spectral features of inks among same and different manufacturers. Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra. The discriminating power is calculated by qualitative analysis by the visual comparison of the spectra (absorbance peaks), produced by the destructive and non-destructive methods. In the latter two methods, the pairwise comparison is made by incorporating the clustering method. It is found that chemometric method provides better discriminating power (98.72% and 99.46%, in destructive and non-destructive, respectively) in comparison to the qualitative analysis (69.67%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel combined approach of diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for non-destructive examination of blue ballpoint pen inks in forensic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Vishal

    2017-03-01

    The present research is focused on the analysis of writing inks using destructive UV-Vis spectroscopy (dissolution of ink by the solvent) and non-destructive diffuse reflectance UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy along with Chemometrics. Fifty seven samples of blue ballpoint pen inks were analyzed under optimum conditions to determine the differences in spectral features of inks among same and different manufacturers. Normalization was performed on the spectroscopic data before chemometric analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and K-mean cluster analysis were used on the data to ascertain whether the blue ballpoint pen inks could be differentiated by their UV-Vis/UV-Vis NIR spectra. The discriminating power is calculated by qualitative analysis by the visual comparison of the spectra (absorbance peaks), produced by the destructive and non-destructive methods. In the latter two methods, the pairwise comparison is made by incorporating the clustering method. It is found that chemometric method provides better discriminating power (98.72% and 99.46%, in destructive and non-destructive, respectively) in comparison to the qualitative analysis (69.67%).

  11. A comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometric: Fine classification and untargeted authentication against multiple frauds for Chinese Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; Yin, Qiaobo; Xu, Lu; Wang, Weizheng; Chen, Feng; Yang, Tianming

    2017-07-01

    The origins and authenticity against frauds are two essential aspects of food quality. In this work, a comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics were suggested to address the geographical origins and authentication of Chinese Ganoderma lucidum (GL). Classification for 25 groups of GL samples (7 common species from 15 producing areas) was performed using near-infrared spectroscopy and interval-combination One-Versus-One least squares support vector machine (IC-OVO-LS-SVM). Untargeted analysis of 4 adulterants of cheaper mushrooms was performed by one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) modeling for each of the 7 GL species. After outlier diagnosis and comparing the influences of different preprocessing methods and spectral intervals on classification, IC-OVO-LS-SVM with standard normal variate (SNV) spectra obtained a total classification accuracy of 0.9317, an average sensitivity and specificity of 0.9306 and 0.9971, respectively. With SNV or second-order derivative (D2) spectra, OCPLS could detect at least 2% or more doping levels of adulterants for 5 of the 7 GL species and 5% or more doping levels for the other 2 GL species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using new chemometrics and NIR spectroscopy for fine classification of GL geographical origins and species as well as for untargeted analysis of multiple adulterants.

  12. Blend uniformity evaluation during continuous mixing in a twin screw granulator by in-line NIR using a moving F-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; De Leersnyder, Fien; Besseling, Rut; Gerich, Ad; Oostra, Wim; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-09-07

    This study focuses on the twin screw granulator of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line. Whereas powder dosing into the granulation unit is possible from a container of preblended material, a truly continuous process uses several feeders (each one dosing an individual ingredient) and relies on a continuous blending step prior to granulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-line blending capacity of this twin screw granulator, equipped with conveying elements only. The feasibility of in-line NIR (SentroPAT, Sentronic GmbH, Dresden, Germany) spectroscopy for evaluating the blend uniformity of powders after the granulator was tested. Anhydrous theophylline was used as a tracer molecule and was blended with lactose monohydrate. Theophylline and lactose were both fed from a different feeder into the twin screw granulator barrel. Both homogeneous mixtures and mixing experiments with induced errors were investigated. The in-line spectroscopic analyses showed that the twin screw granulator is a useful tool for in-line blending in different conditions. The blend homogeneity was evaluated by means of a novel statistical method being the moving F-test method in which the variance between two blocks of collected NIR spectra is evaluated. The α- and β-error of the moving F-test are controlled by using the appropriate block size of spectra. The moving F-test method showed to be an appropriate calibration and maintenance free method for blend homogeneity evaluation during continuous mixing.

  13. Sequencing BPS Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...

  14. Determinação de proteína em café cru por espectroscopia NIR e regressão PLS Determination of protein in raw coffee for NIR spectroscopy and regression PLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Morgano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A combinação da espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIR e calibração multivariada (método dos mínimos quadrados parciais - PLS para a determinação do teor de proteína total em amostras de café cru, foi investigada. Os teores de proteína total foram inicialmente determinados usando-se como método de referência o de Kjeldhal, e, posteriormente foram construídos modelos de regressão a partir dos espectros na região do infravermelho próximo das amostras de café cru. Foram coletados 159 espectros das amostras de café cru utilizando um acessório de reflectância difusa, na faixa espectral de 4500 a 10000cm-1. Os espectros originais no NIR sofreram diferentes transformações e pré-tratamento matemático, como a transformação Kubelka-Munk; correção multiplicativa de sinal (MSC; alisamento (SPLINE; derivada primeira; média móvel e o pré-tratamento dos dados escalados pela variância. O método analítico proposto possibilitou a determinação direta, sem destruição da amostra, com obtenção de resultados rápidos e sem o consumo de reagentes químicos de forma a preservar o meio ambiente. O método proposto forneceu resultados com boa capacidade de previsão do teor de proteína total, sendo que os erros médios foram inferiores a 6,7%.The combination of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR and multivariate calibration using the partial least square - PLS method for the determination of the total protein level in raw coffee samples was investigated. The total protein levels were initially determined using the Kjeldhal method as the reference method. Regression models were built from the spectra in the NIR region of the raw coffee samples. Spectra of 159 samples were recorded, using an accessory of diffuse reflectance, in the range of 4500 and 10000cm-1 with 4cm-1 resolution. To the raw spectral data, different transformations and mathematical pretreatment such as Kubelka-Munk transformation; multiplicative sign correction

  15. NIR fluorophore-hollow gold nanosphere complex for cancer enzyme-triggered detection and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Wheeler, Damon; Zhang, Jin Z; Achilefu, Samuel; Kang, Kyung A

    2013-01-01

    Hollow gold nanospheres (HGN) may be delicately tuned to absorb near infrared light (NIR) by tailoring the diameter-to-shell ratio. This unique property can be utilized for enhancing the contrast for the NIR and X-ray/CT imaging, and also noninvasive and local, photothermal hyperthermia by conjugatin